UC Berkeley Pre-Dental Society
The Pre-Dent Press Volume 9, Issue 5
April 6th, 2014
Letter from the Editors
In this Issue... Periodontal Pathogen Byproducts and Herpresvirus Replication
Spring Berkeley Project with PDS
Osteoporosis and Oral Health
PDS’s Dental Health Awareness Week
What Happens During Dental Check-Ups?
Dental School Spotlight: Tufts
Medicine in Dentistry Crossword Puzzle
Interview with Michelle Khouri
Give Kids a Smile Day
Dear dental and pre-dental community, Happy Spring! We hope everyone is enjoying the sunshine and, for students, the finishing of midterm season. In this issue of the PDP, we will cover a wide variety of health topics, including bone health and the herpes virus. We also have a full recap of PDS’s Dental Health Awareness Week as well as other activities that PDS members have involved themselves in these past few months. We hope you enjoy reading! Sincerely, Stephanie Shimizu & Amanda Israel
New Study Reveals Possible Link Between Periodontal Pathogen Byproducts and Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpes Virus Replication By: Tanya Varimezova
A new study from the Case Western Re-
serve University reveals a stunning relationship between byproducts of bacteria-causing periodontal gum disease and Kaposi’s sarcoma lesion development. The study further illuminates these byproducts’ down-regulation of immune system responses, which puts people who suffer from autoimmune diseases, such as AIDS, at a higher risk of Kaposi’s Sarcoma.
Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) aggregating.
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2 The study was conducted on two groups of patients. One group consisted of 11 patients with an average age in the 50’s who suffered advanced periodontal disease. The second group consisted of 10 patients with average age of 26 who had relatively healthy gums, and suffered no bleeding or tooth loss due to periodontal disease. Saliva samples were collected from these two groups of patients and analyzed. The results showed elevated levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) in patients suffering gum disease. The metabolic byproducts of these bacteria are lipopolysaccharide fimbriae, proteinases and at least five types of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) - butyric acid, isobutryic acid, isovaleric acid, propionic acid and acetic acid.
Volume 9, Issue 5 were found to suppress host epigenetic regulatory mechanisms, and increase histone acetylation, which promotes viral chromatin transcription. Fengchun Ye, principal investigator of the study, states, “The most important thing to come out of this study is that we believe periodontal disease is a risk factor for Kaposi sarcoma tumor in HIV patients.” About 20% of HIV patients develop Kaposi’s Sarcoma lesions, and many more immuno-suppressed or immune-compromised patients are at risk for the disease. People who take medications to suppress transplant rejection, chemotherapy patients, and the elderly are all at risk.
Therefore, it is important to think about ways to inspect saliva of people suffering advanced periodontal disease early on in order to When the SCFA were isolated and used assess the contents and presence of these stimulato treat quiescent cells that were infected with tory byproducts and help prevent viral infection KSHV, the virus began to replicate, dose-de- that can lead to malignant tumors from lesions. Case Western Reserve University. “Byproducts of bacteria-causing gum disease incite oral pendently. The SCFA were found to stimulate Sources: cancer growth, study shows.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 25 February 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/02/140225122506.htm>. lytic gene expression of Kaposi’s sarcoma-asso- X. Yu, A.-M. Shahir, J. Sha, Z. Feng, B. Eapen, S. Nithianantham, B. Das, J. Karn, A. Weinberg, N. F. Bissada, F. Ye. Short Chain Fatty Acids From Periodontal Pathogens Suppress HDACs, EZH2, and SUV39H1 to ciated herpes virus (KSHV) and furthermore de- Promote Kaposi’s Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Replication. Journal of Virology, 2014; DOI: 10.1128/JVI.03326-13 crease immune response against the virus. SCFA’s Picture: http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/gnn_images/news_content/03_02/fusobacterium_seq/fuso1.jpg
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery By: Nerissa Ignacio Are you deciding betwen dentistry and medicine? Are you looking for what I call a dental-medical hybrid career? Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMS) may be a great option for you. OMS is a specialty in dentistry the concentrates on the diagnosis and surgical management of both oral and maxillofacial conditions. Noted by Forbes, a job as a maxillofacial surgeon is the 4th best paying job in America. OMS is the most lucrative dental specialty, yielding an annual pay of $217,380. Though the pay is handsome, certification to become an oral surgeon involves the longest program of all dental specialties. (Cont. on pg. 3)
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From Undergraduate to OM Surgeon: 4 year of undergraduate school 4 year of dental school 3-6 years of residency training (6 years for MD) 1-2 years of fellowship Total on Average: 12-14 years of academia The OMS field involves working with a great range of surgical expertise. From working with wisdom teeth to dental implants to bone grafts to trauma patients, OM surgeons are always busy and are in high demand. Just like general dentists, OM surgeons have the ability to direct their own practice and to be
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self-employed. Working as an oral and maxillofacial surgeon can be incredibly rewarding. They perform a wide variety of procedures that are essential for oral health. In addition, they also help people with major facial deformities, which can help to boost a personâ€™s self-esteem, healing patients both physically and psychologically. Working as an oral and maxillofacial surgeon is challenging, but the profession is stable, rewarding, and a great option for those who are interested in both dentistry and surgery. Sources: http://www.aaoms.org/ http://omsspecialists.com/
Spring Berkeley Project with PDS
By: Stephanie Shimizu On March 8th, PDS members woke up bright and early in the morning to continue the tradition of participating in the Berkeley Project. Every fall and spring, the city of Berkeley hosts a city-wide event dedicated to improving and beautifying Berkeley. Everyone assembled on Sproul, eager to start the day. After eating breakfast and gaining inspiration from the opening speeches, PDS members headed out to Cedar Rose Park and got to work. At the park, members put their gardening skills to work by beautifying the park and improving the health of the plants in the area. The work was fun and rewarding, and our members had a great time in the beautiful pre-Spring sunshine!
Right: Ivy Vuong, Emilie Hsu, Sierra Lee, and Hanna Kim Bottom right: Sierra Lee, Sean Sunyoto, and Emilie Hsu Left: PDS members are all smiles after a productive morning!
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Osteoporosis and Oral Health By: Tiffany Ju
Volume 9, Issue 5 consume around 1,500 mg a day. Along with calcium, it is crucial to get enough vitamin D because it helps your bones actually absorb the calcium. It is also important to do weight-bearing and muscle-strengthening exercises, not just cardio! Push-ups are sufficient if you do not know how to weight-lift. Cutting down on caffeine, alcohol, and smoking are also effective ways to improve bone health and overall health.
SOURCES: http://drperrone.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Marielaina-Perrone-DDS-Osteoporosis-480x335.jpg http://www.deltadentalins.com/oral_health/osteoporosis.html http://predds.net/hole-punches-practice-test-1/
Choose the corressponding key hole punches. The mouth is truly an indication of overall health. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes decreased bone density, which greatly increases risk of bone fracture. This is very dangerous because severe fractures can cause death. In the United States alone, it affects about 44 million people, and women over the age of 50 are at a greater risk. Most of the time, affected persons are not diagnosed with osteoporosis until their bone density has decreased to the level in which a major fracture can occur. However, your dentist may be able to recognize signs of osteoporosis from oral health problems. For instance, dental x-rays may show bone loss in the jaw and around teeth, which could indicate bone loss in the rest of the body. Another red flag is tooth loss, because of low bone mineral density. Additionally, bone loss can lead to loose or ill-fitting dentures, which in turn can lead to severe nutritional deficiencies. Gum disease can be another symptom of osteoporosis. This is just another reason for you to visit your dentist at least twice a year. There are also other things you can do to prevent osteoporosis, such as getting enough calcium through a healthy diet including dairy, broccoli and almonds, or supplements. Women should get about 1,200 mg, men should get about 800 mg, and anyone over 65 should
The Pre-Dent Press Volume 9, Issue 5 Dental Health Awareness Week
By: Amanda Israel and Tiffany Ju Every year, PDS puts on Dental Health Awareness Week to educate the Berkeley community on the importance of oral health. Here are the fun activities that took place this spring!
Day 1: Home Care
On the first day, PDS handed out a survey for anyone on campus to fill out. The survey asked people how many times they brush their teeth per day, whether they thought that brushing their tongue was important, how long they brushed for each time, and how often they flossed. In addition, the survey asked how many times they visit the dentist per year, and whether or not they have experienced tooth sensitivity, grinding, or toothaches. We also made a poster detailing common dental products and their uses, such as mouthwash, sugar-free gum, whitening strips, toothpaste, toothbrushes, floss, and tongue brushes.
Day 2: Proper Nutrition
For the second day of Dental Health Awareness Week, we had a sugar bag sorting game. We measured out how much sugar was in different popular foods and drinks, such as Gatorade, Red Bull, Apple Juice, Orange Juice, and Sour Patch Kids and placed each value in individual plastic baggies. The bags filled with sugar were then put out on the table and we had people try to match the bags of sugar to the drink or food that they thought it corresponded to. We also had posters exploring the advantages and disadvantages of healthy and unhealthy foods and we made a list of example foods for each. We decided to focus on foods and drinks that many college students eat since sometimes it can be hard to find healthy options when junk food is much more convenient when students are studying.
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Day 3: Dental Myth or Fact
On Wednesday, March 12, we focused our day on popular dental facts and myths.
There are many myths that people still believe to be true when it comes to dentistry, and we used a creative Jeopardy-style game in order to debunk the most popular myths. It was very exciting to be able to talk to people and educate the campus community as a whole on proper dental hygiene. One of the most popular dental myths that people believed in was that it is good to keep your toothbrush in a case rather than letting it air dry. This is a myth because when you leave your toothbrush in a container after you use it, it enables bacteria to grow on the head of your toothbrush, which would not be good! Everyone who participated in our activity and answered 3 fact or myth questions were eligible to spin our prize wheel and win a free toothbrush, toothpaste, mouthwash samples, floss, or a raffle ticket for the end of the week. It felt really great to give back to the Berkeley community by educating them on proper dental care and supplying them with dental hygiene supplies that they may have needed.
Day 4: Pie-A-Pre-Dent
On Thursday of Dental Health Awareness Week, we celebrated Pi-Day a day early and hosted our delicious event, Pie A Pre-Dent! Every person who paid $1 towards our club’s fundraiser was able to pie one of our pre-dental society members or officers in the face. It was really great seeing my fellow pre-dents being pied in the face for a good cause. In order to get even more publicity for this event, some of our members dressed up in a toothpaste costume and showed off their best moves. Even if they didn’t want to pie someone in the face, people got really excited about our life-sized dancing toothpaste. Along with Pie A Pre-Dent, we had a dental disease and treatment matching game at our table. Large flash cards with pictures of a dental disease or problem were on one side of the card while the symptoms, treatments, and official name of the disease was on the back of the card. Whoever played this game and was able to guess either what the disease was or how to treat it was able to spin our prize wheel to win something awesome! Thursday was the last day anyone could purchase a ticket for our electric toothbrush raffle. Whoever purchased a ticket was also given a pink plaque tablet in return. The pink plaque tablets were a big hit among our visitors because they show you specific areas of plaque build-up in your mouth. We made sure to tell our fellow students to dissolve the tablet at home so they didn’t have a pink smile for the rest of the day. Overall, Dental Health Awareness Week was a huge success and our publicity committee, members, and officers did a fantastic job enriching many Cal students’ lives with fun dental facts.
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What Happens During Your Dental Check-ups?
By: Nerissa Ignacio
For optimal oral health, biannual visits to the dentists are essential. Have you ever thought about what actually happens during those check-ups? What do dentists do to keep your pearly whites healthy? What tools are utilized in dentistry? How essential are these check-ups for us adults? Going to the dentist at least twice a year is very essential for your health. You have heard of cavities, but have you actually seen one? Unless you own high tech dental equipment in your home, it may be hard to see what a true cavity looks like in person. Dentists have the power to see hard-to-find cavities in which if not discovered, could lead to tooth decay. Depending on the condition of your teeth, a dentist may either use standard or deep cleaning methods during your checkup. Which areas can dentists clean that you cannot? Well, in a regular cleaning appointment, dentists clean above and below the gum line in order to remove food bits or bacteria that you missed while brushing or flossing. The first step in a dental cleaning procedure would be scaling. A periodontal scaler is a dental instrument that you often see hygienists and dentists using. It resembles a hook and it is used to remove food particles, debris, tartar and visible plaque from your teeth, which
Volume 9, Issue 5 house bacteria that release toxins in your gums. This eventually can cause inflammation to the gum tissue and surrounding bones. Depending on the severity of the plaque and tartar build up in your mouth, the hygienists can either use a hand instrument or an ultrasonic instrument. After scaling your teeth, the dentist or hygienist will polish your teeth. Tooth polishing is the act of smoothing the tooth surface. Polishing does not remove calculus, but it can remove plaque residue and stains, and should therefore only be done in conjunction with scaling. The purpose of polishing is to make it difficult for plaque to accumulate on the surface of the tooth. A prophy cup, a small motorized rubber cup, is used along with an abrasive polishing compound in the polishing process. Polishing paste, also know as prophylactic paste, contains fluoride and is used along with the rubber cups for polishing. Rubber cups should not be used over the cementum area of the tooth because it may remove a layer of cementum at the cervical area. Lastly, at the end of a dental cleaning, a patient has fluoride applied to their teeth. Fluoride treatment is essential to help strengthen the enamel teeth and it helps to prevent cavities. This procedure often involves a sizeable amount of fluoride gel that is put on a patientâ€™s teeth and is left to sit for about a minute. Suction is then utilized to remove excess fluoride gel and saliva during the procces and at the end, the fluoride gel is removed as well. Dentists often recommend patients to refrain from drinking or eating anything for about 30 minutes to ensure that the fluoride works to its fullest content. After a teeth cleaning, you will not be able to stop smiling and showing off your healthy and beautiful pearly whites!
Sources: http://www.dentalfearcentral.org/faq/check-up/ http://www.sharecare.com/health/healthy-oral-hygiene/what-happens-at-a-dental-cleaning http://www.wisegeek.com/what-should-i-expect-from-a-dental-cleaning.htm Image: http://dev.sevenoaksdental.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/dental-chair.jpg
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Dental School Spotlight: Tufts University School of Dental Medicine By: Nerissa Ignacio Itching to leave the bay? Looking somewhere east? Let’s say Boston! Located in the “Chinatown” neighborhood of Boston, Massachussetts lies Tufts University School of Dental Medicine - one of the oldest dental schools in the the nation. Popular amongst dental students, Tufts is the second largest dental school in the US as of 2013, accepting around 200 applicants per cycle. TUSDM offers degrees for both pre-doctoral and post-doctoral students. Most incoming students pursue DMD degree. In addition, Tufts also offers DMD/MS (Master of Science in Dental Research) and DMD/MPH (Master of Public Health) degrees. There are many specialization degrees, including oral surgery, endodontics, periodontics, orthodontics, and prosthodontics implant surgery. Many research programs and fellowships are also available. With its 4 year curriculum, beautiful location, and wide variety of post-doc programs, there is no denying that Tufts is a great out-of-state option.
Tufts Dental Admission Requirements 2 semesters (8 credits) Biology *1 semester ( 3 credits) Upper level Biology 2 semesters (8 credits) Inorganic Chemistry 2 semesters (8 credits) Physics 1 semester (4 credits ) Organic Chemistry 1 semester (3 credits ) Biochemistry 1 semester writing-intensive Humanities or Social Science course (may include History, En2012-2013 Tufts Dental Admissions Statistics glish, Comparative Literature, Philosophy, GovNumber of Applicants- 4294 ernment or Women’s Studies) Class size- 194 Additional Requirements: First Year Tuition - $63, 392 40 hours of shadowing experience DAT: Academic Average =20, PAT=20, Reading Comprehen- Three recommendation letters sion=21; Total Science=20 Sources: http://dental.tufts.edu// Overall GPA- 3.43 Science GPA- 3.33
Medicine in Dentistry Crossword By: Harpreet Batther Across 1. Relieves discomfort and redness of the mouth and gum 4. Reduce plaque and gingivitis Down 2. Reduce patient’s stress levels and teeth grinding 3. Treat oral thrush 4. Relieve pain or irritation 5. Reduce patient anxiety http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/CrissCrossSetupForm.asp http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/medications-used-dentistry
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Interview with Michelle Khouri: The Dental School Application Experience By: Keistrel Baron Our very own PDS president, Michelle Khouri, recently accepted her admission to the Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry at UOP. In this interview, she tells us why she applied straight to dental school, a bit of how the application process went, and why she decided to attend UOP. Q: Why did you decide to apply straight to dental school? A: I decided to apply straight because I’m in the school and learning mindset already, and I was afraid that taking a year off would make it harder to get back into it. I was confident in my test scores, grades, and resume, so I figured there was no harm in trying to go in straight and see what happens. Q: What dental schools did you apply to, and what made you choose these schools? A: Preferably I wanted to stay in California, so I applied to almost every school here, plus a couple others on the west coast. I figured that if I had to leave the state, might as well stay as close as possible. I also applied to other schools whose names were familiar to me and who have a good reputation in dentistry all over the country. In total, that was 10 schools. Q: How were the dental admissions interviews? A: The interview day is really fun and chill. You’re at the school for 4-5 hours, and you talk to the dean of admissions, financial aid person, tour the school, meet some dental students and potential fellow classmates, eat lunch, etc. They’re pretty good at putting you at ease, because remember, they’re trying to impress you as much as you want to impress them. The interview itself is with a faculty member (most likely a dentist), sometimes two, and sometimes they’ll have a student interview you. How that goes depends on the school and the interviewer. Some schools are super intense and have a set format for their interviews. Q: How much did it cost to take apply to dental schools, including DAT costs, etc.? A: A lot. I don’t remember the exact costs, but DAT was around $250 I think (and then there’s the cost of books and study materials on top of that). The fees to send the application were over $1000 for 10 schools. I think you can fill out a form to get that waivered though. Then most
schools ask you to send money to them individually, and this can range from $50-$100. There are also the miscellaneous costs, like the $10 to send your transcripts and the $20 to set up an account with Letter Services for letters of rec, and then send out letters. It costs a lot, but I’m pretty sure they have exceptions for people who need it. Q: What made you ultimately decide on UOP? A: It was a tough choice because I was choosing between two schools I really liked. One of the biggest reasons was that I could picture myself at UOP. I liked the vibe there and the way the students and faculty interacted with each other. They all seemed really happy, despite the fact that they were probably running on 3 hours of sleep and were super stressed. And there’s no question they love their school, which is always a good sign. Also, I could tell that UOP was really focused on not only giving you the information you need to know to be a good dentist but molding you into one through the dress code and extra classes they offer (like how to start your own clinic). They’re also known for being heavily invested in developing their students’ clinical skills since you start clinical training from the first year, which appeals to me because the reason I want to be a dentist in the first place is because of the handiwork, so it’s nice to be able to get into it early on. Finally, they’re moving to a new campus for this upcoming year, and it is literally so beautiful. The facilities and sim labs are brand new and they have the latest tech. It’s awesome. And it’s in the bay area (SF) and I love the bay area. There are a bunch of other little reasons, but those are the big ones. But I’m super happy with my choice and can’t wait to start!
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Give Kids a Smile Day at UCSF School of Dentistry
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By: Tanya Varimezova
The wind and rain could not keep away the lovely smiles of kids and their families coming to the UCSF School of Dentistry on February 8th, 2014. The annual event, Give Kids a Smile, is organized by the California Public Health Association – North UCSF Dentistry chapter, and is the collaborative effort of students, residents, faculty, and staff volunteers. Additionally, members of the UC Berkeley Pre-Dental Society, SFSU and CSUEB post-baccalaureate programs took part in volunteering at the playroom and registration. The services provided by student dentists, faculty, and residents included free dental screenings for children between the ages of 4 and 17, oral hygiene and health education, dental sealants, fluoride treatments, and toothbrush, toothpaste and floss giveaways. This year’s Jungle theme brought smiles to the kids’ faces coming by for treatment. The all-day event featured fun activities, including interactive games, drawings, and presentations around good oral hygiene and health .
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Cal Pre-Dental Society University of California, Berkeley c/o ASUC Office of Student Affairs 102 Hearst Gym Berkeley, CA 94720-4500
Across 1. anti-inflammatory 4. antiseptics Down 2. muscle relaxants 3. anti-fungal 4. anesthetics 5. sedations
DAT PRACTICE CAECD
Contact us at email@example.com visit us online at http://pds.berkeley.edu/. Publicity Committee: Amanda Israel, Stephanie Shimizu, Keistrel Baron, Harpreet Batther, Nerissa Ignacio, Tiffany Ju, and Tanya Varimezova. The Pre-Dent Press is an ASUC sponsored publication. Cal Pre-Dental Society General Meetings are ASUC sponsored and wheelchair accessible. For information on publications, please contact Stephanie and Amanda at firstname.lastname@example.org For information on advertising with Cal PDS, please contact Sheila and Alina at email@example.com