UC Berkeley Pre-Dental Society
The Pre-Dent Press Volume 9, Issue 2 In this Issue...
Letter from the Editors
Pg. # 1
Surprising Things That Harm 1-2 Your Teeth Berkeley Project
Utilizing Immune Resp...
Dental School Spotlight
Oral and Dental Health Decal 4-5 PDS Family Socials
Powered vs Manual Toothbrush 7 Challah for Hunger
What is PDS Thankful For?
Letter from the Editors
November 28th, 2013
Hello Cal PDS members and dental community! We would like to thank our fabulous publicity team for making the publication of this issue possible, as well as the members of PDS for serving as model representatives of the pre-dental community. Enjoy our Thanksgiving issue on how to fight dental disease, what Cal PDS is thankful for, surprising foods to avoid this fall, and much more. We hope you enjoy reading our second Pre-Dent Press of the school year! Sincerely, Amanda Israel & Stephanie Shimizu
Surprising Things That Harm Your Teeth By: Nerissa Ignacio
With hectic college schedules and midterms to study for, the last thing us college students want to worry about are our teeth. In fact, it’s claimed that there is a dramatic increase in dental cavities in college students. Our sugary coffee and drinks are probably huge contributors for our cavity “prone-ness”, but there are tons of food/habits that I found college students falling into. I call these the ‘silent drillers (pun-intended) ” because you would not expect these guys to harm your pearly whites. I’ve compiled a list of food/ habits of the best five “silent drillers” that are popular on our campus. 1. Dried fruit : Dried fruit may be considered a healthy snack, but they are not exactly teeth-friendly. Dried fruit contains a high level of sugar due to the lack of water that is hard on enamel. Addition-
ally, the sticky texture of dried fruit allows the fruit to stick onto and in between teeth, raising exposure time of the sugars on the teeth. 2. Nails: If I had a dollar for every student I see who bite their nails during lecture, I would have enough money to pay for dental school. Thie bad habit introduces bacteria to your teeth which Continued on pg. 2
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Volume 9, Issue 2
increases the risks of gum infection, erodes your incisors, and can cause uneven teeth. 3. Alcohol: Consumption of alcohol has a tendency to dry out your mouth and reduce saliva production. A decrease in saliva lowers your protection from protection since saliva control the bacteria in your mouth. 4. Pigmented food: Curry, pasta, berries, soy sauce, tea, and cola are examples of this. Tooth enamel is very susceptible to dark colors because it can easily absorb colors, leading to unsightly stains. 5. Bottled water: Luckily, in Berkeley, a lot of students are already on the tap water bandwagon. This is because tap water in Berkeley tastes amazing and is safe to drink. The water comes from an excellent source in the Sierras to various EBMUD treatment plants where it is further processed to ensure the water meets regulatory standards under the Safe Drinking Water Act. However, in other places in the nation, tap water may not be of the same caliber, so bottled water is more abundant. Dentists say that the main problem in bottled water is the absence of fluoride. Community water fluoridation delivers the fluoride to our tap water and it is the most effective public health movement for tooth decay prevention to date. As we all know, fluoride battles dental cavities by strengthening tooth enamel and re-mineralizing teeth damaged by acid. Moderation is key. After you consume these foods, its suggested that you should always brush your teeth or rinse your mouth with a mouth wash. Keep in mind that acid wears away enamel and brushing immediately after eating acidic foods may make it worse. Sources: http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/features/5-things-you-didnt-know-about-your-teeth http://www.prevention.com/health/health-concerns/25-foods-dentists-wont-eat; http://midlothiandentalarts.com/dental-repair/5-healthy-foods-that-are-bad-for-your-teeth/
PDS and the Berkeley Project By: Tiffany Ju
formance groups. We then set off to our assigned site, San Pablo Park, one of the largest parks in Berkeley. Our project for the day was to clear weeds around the baseball field, pick up litter, and clean the sandboxes and basketball courts. The work was tiring but very rewarding, as many community members thanked us as they passed by. Overall, it was a great experience giving back to our community while having fun and getting to know each other better!
Word Search: Dental Instruments! Arranged by: Harpreet Batther PDS members up bright and early for their shift at the Berkeley Project.
On October 26, several PDS members participated in the Berkeley Project, a large scale community service day that sends over 2,000 volunteers to work on various service projects in Berkeley and Oakland. The day started off bright and early at 8 A.M., when we met on campus to enjoy some free food, coffee, and performances by various Cal per-
CARVER CLEOID CONDENSER EXCAVATOR EXPLORER FORCEPS MIRROR PLIERS PROBE SCALER SPATULA TWEEZER
The Pre-Dent Press
Utilizing Immune Responses to Fight Periodontal Disease
Volume 9, Issue 2
By: Tanya Varimezova
increased bacterial levels in the oral cavity. Typically, in a healthy mouth, there is a delicate balance between bacteria and the immune response, which regulates the levels in order to prevent infection. If, however, this balance is disrupted by a chronic increase in bacterial levels, as in the case of periodontal disease, the immune system responds with secretion of inflammatory factors, causing swollen gums, and eventual bone loss. The research team developed Healthy gums and teeth versus those affected by periodontal disease. a system of polymer microspheres ning. These findings show new ways to that release chemokine, CCL22, a sigcombat effects of periodontal disease. naling protein that attracts regulatory In the future, the team hopes to T-cells. The paste was administered test this finding in human clinical trials. to the teeth and inflamed gums of Academy of Periodontology . American Academy of Periodonanimals with the disease. The find- American tology, n.d. Web. 8 Nov. 2013. <http://www.perio.org/consumer/types-gumdisease.html>. ings were astonishing. Although the University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sci. â€œBringing needed cells to inflamed tissue to treat gum disease.â€? Medical News Today. levels of bacteria were not reduced, immune MediLexicon, Intl., 6 Nov. 2013. Web. Nov. 2013. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/268322 the adverse effects of inflammation 8Image Source: http://www.yurovskydental.com/pics/Periodontal-Disease.jpg were curbed, such as reduced pocket size, and less destruction of bone was observed through MicroCT-scanhealth officials have looked towards a more upstream Strengthening Teeth and Fighting approach to solve the problem before it even begins. They use fluoride varnish, a solution containing the Disease with Flouride Varnish mineral fluorine which can be painted on teeth to help By: Stephanie Shimizu strengthen the enamel of teeth to prevent tooth dcay. How exactly does fluoride varnish work? When painted on the teeth, fluoride varnish deposits minerals into the enamel of the tooth. Teeth constantly undergo demineralization and remineralization in the mouth, and fluoride varnish helps to boost remineralization. This remineralization makes teeth less vulnerable to tooth decay, since decaying of teeth involves demineralization of them. Currently, flouride varnish is FDA approved Today, tooth decay is the most common chronic and is being applied to the teeth of high risk indichildhood disease in the world, according to the World viduals wordwide. The application of this product is Health Organization. Currently, 60-90% children world- cost-effective and safe for use on patients when applied once to twice a year. Hopefully, fluoride varnish wide struggle to eat and live comfortably because the use will continue to combat tooth decay and disease in cavities in their mouth cause them severe pain. What can be done about such a problem? Of course, the pos- high-risk populations in both the US and abroad. Sources: http://tedxberkeley.org/portfolio-item/karen-sokal-gutierrez; http://www.kdheks.gov/ohi/downsibility of personally treating every single one of these load/Flvarnishpaper.pdf; http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/com-health/fluoride-varnish-consent-info-eng.pdf children is desired but also unrealistic. Instead, public Around 78 million people in the US suffer from periodontal disease. It is caused by build-up of plaque, a bacterial biofilm that forms from lack of proper oral hygiene, nutrition, genetic factors, and more. The disease develops from the milder cases of gingivitis, which cause the gums to become red, swollen, and to bleed often. Ways to treat periodontal disease exist, such as antibacterial medication, deep cleanings with scaling and root planing, and better oral hygiene with regular brushing and flossing. However, a new finding suggests a possible way of fighting periodontal disease through utilizing immune system responses to gum inflammation. Researchers from the University of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, have looked into signaling regulatory T-lymphocytes to inhibit inflammatory responses due to
The Pre-Dent Press Volume 9, Issue 2 Dental School Spotlight: University of California,
L o s A n g e l e s
Just a thirty-minute drive away from Hollywood lies UCLA’s School of Dentistry, one of the nation’s most prestigious dental schools. The four year DDS program admits about 88 students per year. The curriculum is very simple and traditional; the first two years consists of intense science and preclinical classes, and the last two years involve clinical rotations at the Wilson-Jennings-Bloomfield Venice Dental Center and the Harbor/ UCLA Medical Center. The curriculum has undergone major revisions that were implemented in 2012. The program was revised to “integrate the basic science curriculum more closely with clinical dental practice through a systems approach, to reduce redundancy among courses, to provide independent learning time, and to employ more active learning protocols such as problem-solving, case-based teaching, and reflection”. The school offers a wide range of dental programs, as well as volunteer program opportunities and dental courses for pre-dental students. Other
than DDS and PhD programs, UCSF offers a wide range in field specializing. In fact, many dental students claim that one of the best features of UCLA is the range of specialties offered. These specializations include : General Dentistry, Dental Anesthesiology, Endodontics, Esthetic Dentistry, Geriatric Dentistry, Implant Dentistry, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Oral Biology, Orofacial Pain, Orthodontics, Pediatric Dentistry, Periodontics and Prosthodontics. UCLA recently implemented a pass/fail/honors grading system, in which students with honors are distinguished in the graduating class. UCLA also has a program that allows dental students to mentor pre-dental undergraduates. This is a huge plus for dental students who are passionate about teaching and helping out other students. UCLA also contributes to dental research with facilities dedicated to research involving cancer biology, bioengineering & biotechnology, molecular microbiology & infectious diseases and salivary diagnostics. With the SoCal sun, one beautiful campus, and a reputation as one of the finest dental programs in the nation, it is not surprising that UCLA School of Dentistry appeals to many dental students. Though the competition is indeed tough, admission into a school like this is indeed rewarding.
By: Nerissa Ignacio
2013 UCLA Dental Admissions Statistics
Number of Applicants- 1918 Class size- 88 First Year Tuition CA Resident – $43,524 / Out of State – $55,769 DAT: Academic Average: 22 / Perceptual Ability Average : 22 Overall GPA- 3.66 Science GPA- 3.60
SOURCES: http://www.dentistry.ucla.edu/ http://www.dentalpipeline.org/pipelineschools/ps_ucla.html
UC Berkeley’s Oral and Dental Health Decal by: Amanda Israel
Need a few extra units for next semester? Consider taking UCB’s Oral and Dental Health Decal! I am enrolled in the Oral and Dental Health Decal, which is a student-taught class on dentistry and all of the different specializations within the dental field. Corissa Chang, Raymond Lee, Amy Zhao, and Cari Yang, members of continued on pg. 5
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PDS, facilitate the class. Each week there is a new presentation from a guest speaker, and they come to talk to us about what their job entails and what made them interested in dentistry. Ever since the general dentist came to visit and talk to our class, I have been trying extra hard to floss well and have “squeaky” clean teeth. I found it very interesting that cavities depend more on how long you take to eat and how long the microbes in your mouth are excited opposed to how much of something you eat in a short period of time. Furthermore, from our presentation on orthodontics, I learned that TADs, or temporary anchorage devices, can be used along with braces to get better anchorage onto a patient’s jawbone. There is so much state-of-the-art technology being used every day in dental offices and it is completely revolutionizing the way dentists work. The class also covered topics in dental public health, and I enjoyed learning about dental disease in children and how to prevent it. The class is amazing because it covers a wide range of dental topics that are incredibly important for a future dentist to understand. As we are getting deeper into the semester, I am
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finding that this class has made me fall in love with dentistry more and more every day. Listening to our guest speakers talk about their occupations in public health, endodontics, general dentistry, and more has opened my eyes to how diverse the different sectors of dentistry actually are. It is nice to hear them speak about what initially got them interested in dentistry, what parts of this lifelong career have helped them to stay so dedicated to their jobs, and more importantly, what keeps them happy. Dentistry is amazing because it can give people a smile, and the confidence to go out and get a job or meet someone that they can potentially spend the rest of their life with. Smiling is a universal language, and once someone is comfortable in his or her own skin, that opens so many doors of opportunities for them. Overall, I have enjoyed everything that we have been learning in this decal and I am looking forward to what the rest of this class will have to offer. Thank you to Corissa Chang, Raymond Lee, Amy Zhao and Cari Yang for enriching all of our lives with all of the knowledge you have on dentistry, and sharing your passion for dentistry with us!
PDS Families at the Pasta Bene fundraiser!
Members of Sheila and Amy’s family enjoy a trip to Purple Kow.
Arranged by: Harpreet Batther The cubes are painted except for the bottom face of all the cubes. 1. How many 2. How many 3. How many cubes have 2 sides cubes have 4 sides cubes have 5 sides painted? painted? painted? A. 5 A. 3 A. 0 B. 6 B. 4 B. 1 C. 7 C. 5 C. 2 D. 8 D. 6 D. 3 E. 9 E. 7 E. 4 Source: http://predds.net/cube-counting-practice-test-1/
6 Microbial Fingerprint in Oral Bacteria can Point to Different Ethnicities By: Tanya Varimezova
Enlarged image of common bacterial colonies in the mouth.
New research from The Ohio State University has come forth, showing a potential link between certain oral bacterial communities and ethnicities. This new finding further suggests a possible correlation between specific ethnicities’ susceptibility to certain diseases based on the types of bacteria found. Purnima Kumar, associate professor of periodontology at OSU and senior author of the study says, “This is the first time it has been shown that ethnicity is a huge component in determining what you carry in your mouth. We know that our food and oral hygiene habits determine what bacteria can survive and thrive in our mouths, which is why your dentist stresses brushing and flossing.
The Pre-Dent Press Can your genetic makeup play a similar role? The answer seems to be yes, it can.” Using DNA deep sequencing, she has taken a look at the microbial communities present in the mouth of several ethnic groups, by sampling saliva, tooth surfaces, and under gums of study patients. Of the 100 patients whose samples were taken and studied, over 400 different species of microbes were identified. The patients belonged to four ethnic groups, non-Hispanic black, Caucasian, Chinese, and Latinos. Surprisingly, only 2% of the bacteria were common to all four groups, but in different prevalence in the four groups. 8% were detected in 90% of the patients. The rest of the microbes constituted specific “signatures” in the different ethnic groups, so much to the point where a machine could correctly predict a patient’s ethnicity based on the bacterial sample provided from under the gums (subgingival microbes). The classifying machine could correctly predict a sample from a Latino patient 67% of the time and Caucasian patient 50% of the time, but in 91% of the time, the machine correctly predicted if a sample was not from a Caucasian patient. Further expansion of the study led to looking at bac-
Volume 9, Issue2 terial communities present in at least 80% of the patients of each ethnic group. The prediction likelihoods obtained were 65% for African Americans, 45% for Caucasians, 33% for Chinese, and 47% for Latinos. “Nature appears to win over nurture in shaping these communities,” Kumar states. She noted that in comparing similar lifestyles and hygiene methods of African Americans and Caucasians, there was still a difference in the microbial signature. Even in healthy mouth samples, biofilms for people of different ethnicities were not the same. What factors then affected these microbial signatures. Was it age, gender, certain genetic make-up? Further research can illuminate more on the subject. This new microbial signature or footprint can lead to better chair-side decisions about treatment plans for diseases caused by bacteria in the oral cavity, as well as a more personalized approach to oral care. It can also lead to understanding why certain groups, such as African Americans and Latinos, are more susceptible to gum disease. Sources: Ohio State University. "Microbial 'signature' discovered in oral bacteria that can discriminate between ethnicities." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 25 Oct. 2013. Web. 8 Nov. 2013. <http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/267845> "Oral Bacteria Create a "Fingerprint" in Your Mouth." The Ohio State University Research and Innovation Communications . American Academy of Periodontology, 23 Oct. 2013. Web. 8 Nov. 2013. <http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/ oralbac.htm>.
Image Source: http://myteeth.co.za/blog/?attachment_id=1738
The Pre-Dent Press
Volume 9, Issue 2
by: Corissa Chang & Chloe Tsang
Our Dental Education Outreach Program (DEOP) made tremendous impacts this year! In just a semester, we reached out to over 11 schools and more than 220 students in our community! We also started our first extended program over a period of 4 weeks at LeConte Elementary, teaching K-5th graders the importance of maintaining good oral and overall health. The interactive curriculum proved a success! Our pre and post-evaluations show that from our first lesson on oral hygiene, the 24% of the students learned more than they had known before the lesson. For the second tooth decay lesson, 10% of the students learned more, while 12% gained more knowledge from the third lesson on nutrition. From our last lesson on physical activity, 21% more students learned that good oral hygiene can lead to a healthy heart.* Overall, it was a great experience for our DEOP team as well. Members said that they loved the energy of the kids, were amazed at how much the kids learned, and even wanted to take the kids home! So thank you for supporting our program! Definitely look out for updates next semester and feel free to contact us at any time. We are always looking for more volunteers and supplies! *For more information, feel free to contact us at cal.pds.deop@ gmail.com
Powered or Manual Toothbrush? by Tiffany Ju
It has been widely debated whether powered or manual toothbrushes are better for your teeth. Here are some facts to help you decide! Powered toothbrushes are currently recommended by the American Dental Association. Studies published in the American Journal of Dentistry and the British Dental Journal show that powered toothbrushes are generally more effective at removing plaque and reducing gingivitis. Their bristles move much faster than a manual toothbrush could achieve, and are able
Corissa Chang and Chloe Tsang posing with their happy students.
Amanda Israel and Corissa Chang instructing a class on the importance of dental hygiene.
to remove plaque better in places that are difficult to reach. Powered toothbrushes are also easier to hold, require less effort, and most have a timer to let you know how long you should brush. However, they are more expensive ($50-$75) and can wear out enamel on teeth if too much force is applied. There are two types of powered toothbrushes, electric and sonic. Sonic toothbrushes make about 30-40 thousand strokes per minute, and electric toothbrushes make about 3-7 thousand brushing motions per minute. Manual toothbrushes can also be a good choice. They cost just a few dollars and are easily portable. They also apply less stress on your teeth and gums when used properly. Studies show that when used correctly, both kinds of toothbrushes can be equally effective. No matter what toothbrush you prefer, it is crucial to brush at least twice a day for about two minutes. The ADA suggests using fluoride toothpaste, brushing at a 45 degree angle, and flossing daily. Proper oral health will help prevent periodontal disease and bone and gum loss. Sources:: http://goaskalice.columbia.edu/electric-vs-manual-toothbrushes http://www.webmd.com/oral-health/features/ordinary-vs-powered-toothbrushes
The Pre-Dent Press
Challah for Hunger by: Amanda Israel
Volume 9, Issue2
On November 7th and 21st, many of our PDS members and officers came together to participate in Challah for Hunger, a community service event that is held at Berkeley Hillel every Thursday night from 7-9 pm. At Challah for Hunger, volunteers get together to make challah, a traditional Jewish bread that is braided, and then infused with many modern flavors such as chocolate chips, cinnamon, and sundried tomatoes and pesto, (for all of those who prefer savory to sweet). After all of the bread was braided and baked, we were able to buy back the loaves we had just made. All of the proceeds from this event were split evenly to help fight hunger in Sudan, help Berkeleyâ€™s Camp Kesem support kids with parents affected by cancer, and help with several other organizations. This was a great event for our club to attend because we were able to reach out and help our fellow Berkeley students and the community we live in, while also having fun and putting our baking skills to the test! The Pre-Dental Society will definitely be participating in this sweet event again!
PDS members baking, smiling, and having a blast at Challah for Hunger.
Answers for Dental Word Search:
The Pre-Dent Press Cal Pre-Dental Society University of California, Berkeley ASUC Office of Student Affairs 112 Hearst Gym, MC 4520 Berkeley, CA 94720-4500 Contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org visit us online at http://pds.berkeley.edu/. Publicity Committee: Amanda Israel, Stephanie Shimizu, Keistrel Baron, Harpreet Batther, Nerissa Ignacio, Tiffany Ju, and Tanya Varimezova.
Answers for DAT Corner: 1. E 2. D 3. B
The Pre-Dent Press is an ASUC sponsored publication. Cal Pre-Dental Society General Meetings are ASUC sponsored and wheelchair accessible. For information on publications, please contact Stephanie and Amanda at email@example.com For information on advertising with Cal PDS, please contact Sheila and Alina at firstname.lastname@example.org
What is PDS Thankful For?
By: Keistrel Baron & Amanda Israel
This time of year, it is very important for us to reflect back upon our lives and acknowledge what we are thankful for. Sometimes it is the simple things that are so dear to us that we take for granted. I interviewed some of my fellow predental students, and this is what they are thankful for this holiday season.
“I am thankful for the opportunity to study at Cal. “I’m thankful for a great family and sweet potatoes.” Although studying here is difficult and challenging, all - Alina Miller “I am thankful for having a loving supportive family, who the hard work will open more opportunities and help me achieve my dream in the future.” is always within reach, even when they are physically - Brian Kim 6,000 miles away.” - Amy Zhao “I’m thankful for finally getting a 5 day break from “I am grateful for being-- being here, being present, being school!” -Vincent Lin a breath of life.” - Chloe Tsang “I am thankful for seeing my friend whom I grew up “I’m thankful for having parents that love me no matter with ever since kindergarten this Thanksgiving. I am how smart or successful I am, a brother and sister I can also excited to be away from here and fly alone.” call my best friends, and an annual excuse to have an epic - Sierra Lee food coma from all the delicious food. It’s all worth it.” “I am thankful for the shared experiences and memories - Amy Min that everyone in PDS has together!” - Raymond Lee “I am thankful for where i am and the people who supported me to get here. I’m thankful that I have a support “I am thankful for roommates who help me survive midsystem of family and friends who are here for me no matter term season, for my sisters who help me laugh at myself, what challenge I choose to take on.” for my parents who continually pray for my well-being, - Sheila Aryana and for my dog who cuddles with me when I go home. “I am thankful for my wonderful, supportive family, my Lastly, I am thankful that I get to call Colorado, the friends who keep me laughing and sane in the tough mo- most beautiful place in the world, home.” ments of life. I am thankful for the opportunity for educa- - Conni Kim “I am thankful for my family and the friends I have tion, a stable life, and ability to do what I love - music.” - Tanya Varimezova made at Berkeley. I am also thankful for the opportuni“I am thankful for my family, friends, and the new friends ties (such as PDS) that Berkeley has offered me.” that I met this semester! You guys are totally making col- - Harpreet Batther lege semester really fun!” “I’m thankful for having a very colorful first semester here at Cal, - Nerissa Ignacio and for having the opportunity to attend this amazing institution. “I am truly thankful for my family and friends.” - Keistrel Baron - Corissa Chang “I am thankful for my family who tells me that they love me everyday and the support they give me so that I can follow my “This Thanksgiving, I am thankful for good heart to be whoever I want to be. I am thankful for my health health and for having my family and friends and that I have a roof over my head. Finally, I am thankful for there for me during rough times.” Berkeley and all of the wonderful people that have made my life - Nina Wani sweet and rich with happiness.” “I’m thankful for my health, my fam- Amanda Israel ily and friends, and the fact that I am “As with everyday and every Thanksgiving, there is much to be thankful for. This lucky enough to go to the best public Thanksgiving specifically, i have plenty of blessings to count. This is my last year at university in the world.” UC Berkeley and i am still in awe on how fast it flew by! I am so thankful for all - Tiffany Ju of the opportunities that Berkeley has offered-- one being a part of Cal PDS. When “I’m thankful that I can spend I first moved to Berkeley, it was a huge culture shock and so different from home, another Thanksgiving with my but I am thankful for my community of friends from all avenues that helped make beautiful family! I’m also thank- Berkeley home to me for the past fours years. I am thankful for the opportunity to ful for all the people in my life have gone to volunteer in Vietnam alongside a passionate group of individuals on and those that I’ve become closer global poverty alleviation and oral health hygiene. It was also a blessing to be able to, making this year so much to spend time with my grandma and also getting a glimpse of where my parents better!” grew up. Lastly, I am thankful for my family and friends where love is always - Christy Tran unconditional.” - Ivy Vuong “I am thankful for I am thankful for my loving family and friends, for my opportunity EVERYTHING!” to study at UC Berkeley, and for every learning experience and diffi - Ki Park cult time that I’ve gone through to become who I am today! -