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RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BOOKLET ENDO LIGNA TIMBER RECLAIMING CENTRE AND BIODIVERSITY SITE

A reclaimed timber endoskeleton extension built upon the existing steel structure of the Sainsbury’s superstore in Craigleith Retail Park.

To reclaim, re-purpose, or re-use timber from demolition sites in and around Edinburgh. Breathing new life to the supposed end of its life cycle by processing them in the workshop to create furniture, bespoke items, or as its original function.

The extension consists of a vast library and cafe space made from timber shelves, a biodiversity walkway, and towers where Swifts, Pipistrelles, and Bumblebees nest. This project aims to raise awareness of using sustainable materials for construction and the importance of increasing biodiversity to achieve a greener future.


CONTENTS SITE ANALYSIS

HISTORY OF CRAIGLEITH QUARRY

1

SITE CONTEXT

2

SITE VISIT

3

BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH

4

TYPES OF SPECIES TO ATTRACT

5

DEMOGRAPHICS

6

COMPONENT + MATERIAL RESEARCH

TIMBER CLADDING AT INFORMATICS BUILDING, EDINBURGH

7

OTHER COMPONENTS RESEARCH

8-10

CONSTRUCTION TIMBER RESEARCH

GENERAL PROPERTIES

11

STRUCTURE, AGING

12

LIFE CYCLE

13

VISIT TO MOVE ON WOOD RECYCLING, LEITH

14

PROCESS OF RECLAIMING TIMBER

15

PROJECT PROGRAMME

FLOW OF MATERIAL IN THE TIMBER RECLAIMING CENTRE

16

USER ACTIVITIES

17

PHASING

18

ENVIRONMENTAL STRATEGIES

CONNECTING DRAINAGE TO REFLECTIVE POOLS

19

ADJUSTABLE TIMBER LOUVRES FOR OFFICES

20

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

USING THE EXISTING STRUCTURE AS A BASE GRID FOR THE TIMBER EXTENSION STRUCTURE

21

STEEL COLUMN TO TIMBER COLUMN DETAIL

22

BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY CONSIDERATION TO THE INFRASTRUCTURE OF CRAIGLEITH RETAIL PARK ‘ WALK ACROSS QUARRY’ BIBLIOGRAPHY

23-26 27 28 29


1

S I T E A N A LY S I S HISTORY OF CRAIGLEITH RETAIL PARK: CRAIGLEITH QUARRY Craigleith Retail Park in Edinburgh was built in 1995 on a site that was previously Craigleith Quarry. Located approximately 20 minutes by foot from the city centre. Historiclaly, stone was sourced from the quarry for the construction of prominent buildings such as Old College, Edinburgh Castle, as well as the New Town development (1760) by the architect James Craig. Stone wzvas highly desirable due to its strength, versatility, and appearance. The quarry was active from the 1600s to the early 1900s, when the material was exhausted from such high demands as well as concrete becoming a more popular material. During the second World War, the quarry functioned as a production site for TNT. Since then, the quarry has been used for landfill and covered in asphalt for the construction of the retail park.1 The retail park was consists of a Sainsbury’s supermarket, Homebase, a petrol station, and cafes, to name a few. The shops surround a vast central car park. The only visible remains of the quarry is located behind the Sainsbury’s where the loading bay is located, the Alphabet Wall at the entrance, and a fossil wall in the corner. RIGS

Craigleith Sandstone

Craigleith Quarry Leaflet

The stone is extracted from the Gullane formation which dates back from the Carboniferous period, approximately 358-298 million years ago. It has grey/off-white appearance with a maximum thickness of 107mm. The sand grains are Quartz which makes the stone very hard and siliceous, suitable for building material. There are two types of stone at the Craigleith Quarry; Liver Rock and Common/Feak Rock. Liver Rock is cream coloured and finegrained, suitable for facades. Meanwhile, Common Rock is greyish-white and silty, it is suitable for rubble and foundation. The stone from the quarry was delivered to London, the US, and around Europe as it was very high in demand for its appearance and properties. 2

Stone Extraction Process The process of stone extraction was manual labour. Workers used picks to cut and carve the stone. This was detrimental to the worker’s health and safety as they had breathed in so much dust from the stone, considering the very high demand of stone at the time. As time progressed since stone was collected from this quarry, it becomes deeper and reached a 26m depth in the 1890s. Rainwater would sometimes flood the gradually deepening quarry therefore, a pump was used to keep the quarry dry. 3

1 2 3

Andrew A. McMillan, Richard J. Gillanders, and John. A. Fairhurst, Building Stones of Edinburgh (Edinburgh: Edinburgh Geological Soceity, 1999), 3-122. McMillan, Gillanders, and Fairhurst, Building Stones of Edinburgh, 118. McMillan, Gillanders, and Fairhurst, Building Stones of Edinburgh, 121.

William Kidd (1790-1863)


2

S I T E A N A LY S I S TOPOGRAPHY SURROUNDING BUILDINGS SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ROUTES GROUND MATERIALS FACADE MATERIALS VEGETATION THE OUROBOROS

OUROBOROS SNAKE The ouroboros snake is a symbol of eternity and of endless return; everything put into the system eventually returns. The main goal of science was once to understand the existential meaning of surroundings, however the goal is now to predict and control. This therefore results in a greater divide and a view of the world as purely a machine without life or spirit. The ouroboros therefore represents a state of a more complicated cyclical system based on nature as the machine of production

VEGETATION

Combretaceae

Pinus Cembroides

Sycamore

Goat Willow

Pond Pine

REMNANTS

8 aspects of the site were analysed to gain a deeper understanding of the

Remnants of the quarry are identified as a geological heritage site. Although concealed among a retail park, tribute to the site is placed around the site to educate the general public about the history of it.

Agave

Late Goldenrod

MATERIALS

site in relation to the surrounding environment and to develop a concept

Smooth Render

for the material library.

Aluminium Panels

Ashlar Stone

ROADS|PAVEMENTS Asphalt

The Ouroboros is a serpent that eats its own tail. This is a representation of a cycle that repeats; the idea of building materials being used after

Concrete The majority of the site is of asphalt road material, whilst pedestrian pathways lay concrete slabs and surround the site to create routes for walking.

their life cycle supposedly ends.

Aluminium Panels

Aluminium Panels

Brick

Ashlar Stone

Glass

ROUTE Vehicle Bicylce Pedestrian

The materials may come from demolition sites or things that people dis-

The main source of access to this site is through the use of private vehicles, or buses. The main source of transporting within the site is walking, whilst cycling is also an option. The oldest form of (material) transportation to and from the site is train, and remains of an existing railway track is evident on site.

pose of, it is taken to the site to be repurposed to be redistributed and used, extending its life cycle.

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION Private Semi-public Public The distribution of space creates a gradual exposure to public space within the site. With a majority of residential buildings surrounding the craighleith retail park. The car park was found to be the most public space, where people come tgether.

SITE A general overview of the existing roads, buildings, routes, pavements, and structures, with a focus on the surrounding site based on demography.

TOPOGRAPHY The depth of the craigleith quarry has been measured to be 110m below ground level. 7 layers of rock have been identified to have existed within the quarry: craigleith sandstone, fossil trees and suncracks, river channels and cross-bedding, fossil burrows and plant material, shelly marine limestone, large scale soft sedimentary deformation and oil shale. This emphasises any previous signs of life and nature. a representation of the circle of life.

Zain Alsharaf, Laila Nabulsi, author.


3

S I T E A N A LY S I S SITE VISIT 1

4

2

5

3

6

Upon the site visit to Ravelston Park and Craigleith Retail Park, several observations were made. Both sites used to be a quarry, however the contrast between the two sites is stark. Stone and greenery are the main elements of Ravelston Park. Meanwhile, Craigleith Retail Park is very modern, with aluminium, glass, and steel being the main elements of the construction. There aren’t many indications of the history of the quarry on site, apart from a sign outside the Sainsbury’s that includes text about the quarry as a geological site, and a few other remnants.

I thought that the history of the quarry is an important aspect of the site that hasn’t been given much recognition. Visitors wouldn’t be aware of the quarry wall behind Sainsbury’s if they hadn’t read the sign outside Sainsbury’s or have heard about it elsewhere. The project programme will involve the quarry as one of the main attractions.

Furthermore, seeing how natural Ravelston Park was provided inspiration as to how the retail park can be more connected to nature. It is also a biodiversity site for bumblebees, bluebells, and butterflies to name a few. This is a very interesting observation as the retail park also lacks greenery and biodiversity due to the lack of green space. I intend to incorporate nature and biodiversity into the project programme to turn the retail park into a greener space, align with the Edinburgh 2030 vision.

Another observation of the site is that the location within Edinburgh is 20 minutes away from the city centre, in the middle of a residential area with bus and bicycle links. During the site visit, it is apparent that the demographics of the visitors are either families or people aged >25. This brought the idea of engaging the wider community to the project in some way. Perhaps making them involved in the phasing stages of the project or to provide jobs for people in Craigleith.

1

stone at Ravelston Park

2

Ravelston Park

3

Craighleith Quarry remnant behind Sainsbury’s

4

example of facade at the retail park

5

Sainsbury’s facade

6

Alphabet Wall at the entrance of the retail park (remnant of the quarry)


4

S I T E A N A LY S I S EDINBURGH BIODIVERSITY ACTION PLAN + BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH AT RAVELSTON PARK Further research into biodiversity provides information about endangered species in Edinburgh and what would attract them. The aim of the research is to be aware of the biodiversity status in Edinburgh and to decide what species to attract to the site. The Edinburgh Biodiversity Action Plan for 2019-2021 contains information about the current biodiversity situation in Edinburgh and their short-term and long-term plan for increasing biodiversity.

The Edinburgh Biodiversity Action Plan puts emphasis on the importance of these:4

-

private gardens, allotments, and community growing areas as places for wildlife.

-

engaging the community with biodiversity.

-

vision for 2050: Edinburgh. The Natural Capital of Scotland.

-

raise awareness of the rich biodiversity in Edinburgh, encourage partners and other to take positive action to protect and

enhance our natural environment, influence other plans, policies, and strategies relating to Edinburgh.

-

green and blue networks, geodiversity, involvement in the built environment

It is also important to note that pollution and land use intensification could cause biodiversity loss. Increasing public transport, providing bicycle and pedestrian lanes to the site could be a way to reduce pollution hence reducing biodiversity loss.

Looking into the type of species at Ravelston Park provided more site specific information as it is located 5 minutes by foot from Craigleith Retail Park to know. By knowing what species the park attracts, it would allow for choosing species that have yet to be attracted to the site.

Based on the information gathered, I have decided to attract Swifts, Bumblebees, and Bats. The swift population has decreased by 38% since 1995 due to building renovations as they usually find shelter under eaves. 5 Bumblebees are pollinators and the are crucial for many healthy ecosystems. They are good indicators to the state of the environment as they reflect habitat fragmentation and loss, climate change, pesticide use, and diseases. 6 Bats (Pipistrelle) act as pollinators, pest controllers, and seed dispersers for plants. They are good indicators for the health of wildlife as they face pressures such as landscape change, agricultural intensification, and habitat fragmentation. 7

Plants are also crucial for attracting the species mentioned above. Sunflowers, Bluebells, Honeysuckle are examples of plants that attract bees and bats, to name just a few. Ravelston Park Biodiversity 4 5

The City of Edinburgh Council, Edinburgh Biodiversity Action Plan 2019-2021, 2-8. “Help reverse the decline as swifts return to Britain,” Bird Guides, accessed May 12, 2020, https://www.birdguides.com/news/help-reverse-the-decline-as-swifts-return-to-britain/.

6 7

The City of Edinburgh Council, Edinburgh Biodiversity Action Plan 2019-2021, 6. “Bats as Indicators of Biodiversity,” Bat Conservation Trust, accessed May 12, 2020, https://www.bats.org.uk/about-bats/why-bats-matter/bats-as-indicators-of-biodiversity.


5

SWIFTS

BUMBLEBEES

BATS

-

nest in holes, eaves

-

fly in colonies of 200

-

attracted to trees, grassy areas, water

-

fly at church spire level (20m)

-

come out in February until August

-

appear at dusk

-

they come around April-August from Africa

-

need sun (south facing)

-

fly at tree level (3m above ground level)

-

young swifts remain the nest for 7-56 days

-

nest in tubes

-

life span of 4-5 years

-

can live up to 21 years

-

fly at around 9m above ground level

-

feed on midges, moths, and flying insects using

-

mature and breed when they are 4

echolocation

-

have few predators

-

come out in the summer/hibernate during Winter.

-

they eat insects that fly at 50-100m above ground level

-

attract them by using a calling kit which plays their

calling sound

plants that attract bees:

sunflowers

phacelia

bluebells

daffodils

plants that attract bats:

carrots

honeysuckle

white jasmine


6

S I T E A N A LY S I S RESPONSE: DEMOGRAPHIC OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITY

AGES 0-15

AGES > 65

AGES 35-64

AGES 16-34

<10%

<10%

10-20%

<10%

10-20%

10-20%

30-40%

10-20%

20-30%

20-30%

40-50%

20-30%

30-40%

30-40% 60-70% 70-80%

Research into the demographic in Craigleith brought to light that the a large part of the popHouses built in the 1930s

ulation is over the age of 35 and a considerable amount of people aged >35 are unemployed (in-

Robin

Oak

Tawny Owl

Butterfly

Houses built in the 1800s Wren

Ash

Bumblebee

Woodpecker

Visitor routes on foot Blackbird

Holly

The project will work towards engaging the community by providing jobs for the community.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ordnance Survey,â&#x20AC;? Digimap, accessed May 9, 2020,

https://digimap.edina.ac.uk/os.

Extension of Craigleith Retail Park 2006 Craigleith Retail Park built in 1993

cluding those who have long-term illnesses).8

8

Houses built in the 1990s

demographic analysis and age of buildings

Bluebell

Badger

Visitor routes by private transportation


7

C O M P O N E N T + M AT E R I A L R E S E A R C H

Upon completing the site analysis, studying different objects and the components that make up an object provided a better understanding of materials in general; how elements are joined and the properties of different materials. This research would then provide insight into what material I would like to choose as the main element of the project.

Amongst all the objects that were studied, I have chosen timber cladding from the Informatics Building (construction timber) as it is a very sustainable material that is also durable. It also has a very interesting appearance as it ages. This material would tie in well with building the biodiversity zone (e.g. houses for birds). Through observation, it was found that timber construction in Edinburgh is not very popular (many new buildings use steel as the structure and timber as part of the facade). Therefore, I would like to incorporate a timber structure in the project that mainly uses reclaimed timber from buildings that have been demolished, or parts that have been discarded, to emphasise the strong qualities of timber as well as its aesthetics.

Environment

Growth

Human Contact

Water Damage

Oxidisation


8

SPRING 2020

SUB-COMPONENTS

AD TECTONICS (ARCH10003)

Kiosk No. 6 Telephone Box

COMPONENT 5-01

6th

The Red Telephone Box shown is the model made and was designed by Giles Gilbert Scot who was commissioned by the General Post Office in 1935 to commemorate the Silver Jubilee of King George V. The design is inspired by the mausoleum designed by John Soanes for his wife. PRESENT LOCATION: Hunter Square, South Bridge YEAR + PLACE OF ORIGIN: 1936 - 1968, K6 Model MANUFACTURER:

Scottish Foundry

No. of COMPONENTS:

Approximately 60,000 – 10,000 remaining

CONDITION & ATTACHMENT:

Worn down due to bad maintenance, chipped paint and broken glass. Main frame is cast iron with other components attached with screws and bolts. Minimal signs of rust.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION: DECONSTRUCTION/DISASSEMBLY: Weight (kg): Ease: Method:

Cast Iron (Fe3O4 ), Teak Wood, Carbon, Red Paint

Steps: REUSE: Steps for reconditioning/repair: Reuse/recycling/upcycling options: MATERIALS: Homogeneous materials:

90 kg Medium Un screwing hinges to detach teak door, detach from concrete foundation plate (original attachment unknown) Remove sealant and broken glass, interior accessories, screws.

1:50

Ease of separation from component:

Quantity:

- Main Frame

- Very difficult, this is the main body of the componentt and is cast iron. Able to cut thorugh and create smaller components. Can be separated from most other sub compoenets but will remain as a full unit.

- 60,000

- Side Panel

- Very difficult, welded onto main frame therefore must be sawn off.

-

120,000

-

- Easy, remove bolts that attach the hinge to the door and the ceiling of cast iron frame.

-

60,000

Secondary Frame

- Easy, remove screws.

-

Unknown

-Door

-Easy, remove hinges

-

60,000

- Foundation Plate

- Unknown, attachment of main frame to plate is not known.

-

Unknown

(5-01-B)

Value(s):full component £2559 +

-

(this was a component)

later

addition

to

1:50 Elevation

TITLE: Door MATERIAL: Teak

(5-01-D)

TITLE: Foundation Plate MATERIAL: Concrete

(5-01-E)

the

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: The K6 model of the telephone boot was produced between 1936 and 1968, the most circulated model. As they are no longer in use they are now being reclaimed or sold for collectors. Some efforts have been made to keep them “alive” but most have not been successful. This component is an iconic feature of British culture.

Unit 3: EDINBURGH MATERIAL LIBRARY

TITLE: Hinge MATERIAL: Iron

TITLE: Secondary Frame (Addition) (5-01-C) MATERIAL: Cast- Iron

K6 Red Telephone Booth

- Hinge

(5-01-A)

Axonometric and Exploded Isometric

Sand off weathered teak. Prep and repaint main frame. Window frames, room dividers, concrete foundations could be used as steps. Larger components could be sawn into smaller parts.

Type:,00

TITLE: Main Frame & Side Panel MATERIAL: Cast- Iron

STUDENT NAMES, Zain AlSharaf, Calista Utomo, Laila Nabulsi

1:50 Section

1:50 Plan

Environment

Growth

Human Contact

Water Damage

Oxidisation

other materials studied as part of the component research

Environment

Growth

Human Contact

Water Damage

Oxidisation

Environment

Growth

Human Contact

Water Damage

Oxidisation

Zain Alsharaf, Laila Nabulsi, author.


9

AD TECTONICS (ARCH10003)

SPRING 2020

COMPONENT 5-02

SCOTSMAN STEPS

140mm

The Edinburgh Scotsman Steps are considered to be a touristic landmark. The artwork was designed by artist Martin Creed. Marble was imported from various regions around the world, and acted to metaphorically represent the international nature of Edinburgh as a global city. PRESENT LOCATION:

Scotsman Steps, Edinburgh EH1 1BU

YEAR + PLACE OF ORIGIN:

Originally built between 1899-1902, but Marble installations in 2011, Edinburgh

MANUFACTURER:

A.B. Mearns

No. of COMPONENTS:

104 steps in total

CONDITION & ATTACHMENT:

Attached using lime-based levelling screed onto the original and existing sandstone

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION:

Mineral calcite (CaCO3) for the marble, and Carmyllie Sandston

DECONSTRUCTION/DISASSEMBLY: Weight (kg): Ease: Method: disassemble Steps:

30mm thickness, 2.711 gram per cubic meter May be easily removed by scraping grout and basic marble maintenance Removal of screed first between marble slabs and sandstone base of step to marble pieces Marble imported from Italy, Belgium, Brazil, India, Egypt whilst being organised and maintained for in Edinburgh

2320mm

300mm Scotsman Steps Axonometric

REUSE: Steps for reconditioning/repair: Designed to work with the existing stone steps, but to be reversible and to allow for easy repair or maintenance, could be done by levelling the sandstone, and replacing the screed. Reuse/recycling/upcycling options: Marble could be continuously reused for internal and external floor and wall paneling. Was designed to be easily reversible, removed, maintained and repaired to last long-term. MATERIALS: Type: Ease of separation from component: Value(s): Quantity: Homogeneous materials: - Marble tread

- Removal from screed first, and then separated

- 88

- £36 - £300

- Marble rise

- Removal from screed first, and then separated

-104

- £36 - £300

- Sandstone internal

- Not easy to separate, would need to be broken apart

-104

- N/A

- Screed

- Used to level sandstone base of steps, and attach marble to it

-104

- £500

Scotsman Steps, located by North Bridge

Scotsman Steps Section 1:5

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: “Marble types were then selected that are of sufficient strength to cope with the required loading and were tested in order to satisfy requirements for their use as paving, including flexural strength, slip resistance and salt crystallisation tests, permeability and durability tests. Particular attention was paid to aspects of water penetration and the use of de-icing salts in winter.” https://worldarchitecture.org/architecture-

projects/neec/the-scotsman-steps-project-pages.html

Unit 3: EDINBURGH MATERIAL LIBRARY Zain Alsharaf, Laila Nabulsi, Calista Utomo

Scotsman Steps in context 1:250

Scotsman Steps Exploded Isometric

Environment

Growth

Human Contact

Water Damage

Oxidisation

Environment

Growth

Human Contact

Water Damage

Oxidisation

Environment

Growth

Human Contact

Water Damage

Oxidisation

Zain Alsharaf, Laila Nabulsi, author.


10

Environment

Environment

AD TECTONICS (ARCH10003)

Growth

Growth

Human Contact

Human Contact

Water Damage

Water Damage

Oxidisation

Oxidisation

SPRING 2020

BRICK

COMPONENT 5-09

Bricks used for external walls at Chrystal Macmillan Building, Edinburgh University. PRESENT LOCATION:

Back of Chrystal Macmillan Building.

YEAR + PLACE OF ORIGIN:

2008, George Square.

MANUFACTURER:

Scottish Brick History.

No. of COMPONENTS:

640++

CONDITION & ATTACHMENT:

Good condition, moss growth was found on some areas. They are joined with mortar.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION:

Silica (55%), Alumina (30%), Iron Oxide (8%), Magnesia (5%), Lime (1%), organic matter 1%

DECONSTRUCTION/DISASSEMBLY: Weight (kg): Ease: Method: Steps:

REUSE: Steps for reconditioning/repair: Reuse/recycling/upcycling options:

Approximately 2.27kg Easy Manual labour, hand tools. Set up scaffolding or a sturdy ladder, start at the top of the wall and insert the tip of an air chisel into the mortar joint between the top row of bricks and the second row of bricks. Chisel between the bricks to break the bond and pop the top brick loose. Work the way of the full row before going to the row below. Mortar can be scraped off from the brick.

Axonometric of brick wall 1:30

Vacuum any dust and dirt, wet the brick before using cleaning products, scrub brick with mixture of dish soap and table salt, use sealant (siloxane), and sun-dry. Bench, brick path, edge of garden beds, waterfall, retaining wall.

MATERIALS: Homogeneous materials:

Image of the brick wall on site; different colours

Type:

Ease of separation from component:

Quantity:

Value(s):

Mortar

Easy

-

£4-£8 per 5kg

Type:

Ease of separation from component:

Quantity:

Value(s):

Brick

Easy

640++

£250-£450 (per thousand)

Hybrid materials:

Zain Alsharaf, Laila Nabulsi, author.

Unit 3: EDINBURGH MATERIAL LIBRARY Zain Alsharaf, Laila Nabulsi, Calista Utomo

Elevation 1:50

Plan 1:20

Environment

Growth

Human Contact

Water Damage

Oxidisation


11

VISIT TO MOVE ON WOOD RECYCLING, LEITH

1

2

3

8 An observation from this visit was that the wood dust was collected however they are sent to a chipping plant to be turned into chipboard. I would like the project program to have an innovation lab to experiment with the wood dust to turn it into material for the biodiversity site (e.g. bird nests, infill for timber pieces that are deformed).

4

5

6

7 Another observation was that a few volunteers were present at the time of the visit and I thought that engaging the local community to volunteer in the project program (workshop) could be beneficial to help with employment.

To gain further understanding of the processes involved in timber reclaiming, I visited Move On Wood Recycling centre in Edinburgh to gain first hand information about how they operate as well as the layout and equipments that are needed. The centre is quite small, they receive 2 batches of timber deliveries in a day, but this differs from day to day. The workshop space was approximately 5x7m. In the wokrshop there were equipments such as bandsaws, jigsaws, a few benches. One thing I noticed was that the storage seemed quite cramped so a larger area for storage would be sufficient for the

1

workshop and storage combined

2

table saw, workbench

3

timber pallets outside the workshop

4

handtools and shelves

5

tool storage

6

shop storage

original function which they sell at their shop which is open to public. They also receive orders for clients that require

7

shop storage

bespoke items to be made.

8

wood dust and de-nailing station

project. The type of ventilation they use is an LEV (Local Exhaust Ventilation) to extract wood dust and fumes.

The process would involve the delivery of timber straight into the workshop, they would remove all metal joinery from the timber (de-nailing) and the timber is usually sanded (to rid of paint if desired), then it is either repurposed as its


12

CONSTRUCTION TIMBER RESEARCH KEY FACTS ABOUT CONSTRUCTION TIMBER

Sourcing of Trees in Scotland Scottish production: 4.49 million m3 wood raw material equivalent; 0.58 paper products, 2.41 (sawnwood), 1.32 (wood panels), 0.18 (miscellaneous).

9

Considering the amount of timber produced for construction used, the statistics for the UK show that 10 million tonnes of wood is dis-

posed of and only 1 million tonne is recycled, the rest goes to landfill. This is an ongoing issue thus there should be emphasis on reclaiming and repurposing as much waste wood as possible. Timber cladding, columns, rafters, pallets, would fall under the category of construction timber.

Carbon footprint for Transportation 10

pallets

Truck: 32 tons, 0.085 kg CO2eq/ton/kg Ship: 0.012 kg CO2eq/ton/km Rail: 0.059 kg CO2eq/ton/km Air: 1.13 kg CO2eq/ton/km

The carbon footprint of timber is small compared to concrete, metal/plastic, making it a very sustainable material and could help in reducing pollution levels to avoid biodiversity loss - in line with the aims of the Biodiversity Action Plan.

9

David Henderson Howat, “Scotland’s Forest Industries,” 5.

10

“The Timber Transport CO2 Calculator,” Accoya, accessed May 9, 2020, https://www.accoya.com/sustainability/the-timber-transport-co2-calculator/.

rafters

columns


13

CONSTRUCTION TIMBER: STRUCTURE AND WEATHERING PROCESS STRUCTURE

WEATHERING PROCESS11

1

Bark

1

irregular layer composed of dead cells

that protect inner layers.

2

Cambium

where new cells are generated that

increase trunk diameter each year.

Exposure to weather

Discolouration is caused by exposure to rain which bleeds out the extractives, including the natural pigments (quinones). This lightens the colour of wood.

2 Staining due to natural or introduced causes. Biological staining: 1. sapstain/bluestain moulds are usually an issue

3

Sapwood

when the timber is freshly cut. They thrive on the extractives and

young, clearer and growing wood,

high moisture content of green timber. They tend to be a dark blue/

with high water content and little lignin.

grey/black. 2. Wood rot changes colour, especially brown rot.

4

Heartwood

3 Introduced causes

adult, dark wood, more rigid and

Iron staining, this happens when wood is sprayed with welding spatter

hard because of high lignin content.

5

Pith

central part of trunk, very rigid and

or grinding metal. The iron then rusts when exposed to water leaving small black blotches over time.

cohesive, without humidity. 11

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Why Timber Changes Colour,â&#x20AC;? Preschem, accessed May 9, 2020, https://preschem.com/

why-timber-changes-colour/.

colour gradient due to sun exposure


14

LIFE CYCLE OF CONSTRUCTION TIMBER12

1

Felling

Cutting individual trees by a harvesting machine (feller buncher). Trees can range from 40-150 years old before they stop growing vigorously and are ready to be cut down. Usually carried out in winter because they have less moisture content in them compared to in the summer (50% water content). Felled trees should be replaced with saplings so that the forest has a chance to grow again (sustainability).

2

Storing/Transporting

the logs are stored in a clearing or in the forest until they are needed at the sawmill. This stage allows some of the free water content to evaporate, reducing the weight of the tree/log, lower the cost of transporting and handling. The trees are cut into smaller lengths on site and picked up by a timber lorry to the sawmill.

3

On site/Sawmill

the logs are debarked and bucked, cut to the required length. Then they are cut into boards, using equipment such as circular saws and bandsaws (conversion). The first stage of conversion is rough sawing (breaking down). The second stage is precise cutting and finishing such as planning (re-sawing). The ends of each log is trimmed to ensure they are straight and cut into boards. Large circular saws are then used to further-process the boards, removing the curved edges.

4

Seasoning/Drying

removing excess water/moisture content. Tree loses its free water (held in the vessels and cells to distribute nutrients inside tree) and a high proportion of its cell water (essential part of the tree’s cell walls) so it’s less likely to warp and deform. Wood that hasn’t been seasoned is called green wood, has tendency to change shape and difficult to work with. Air drying and kiln drying. Kiln drying inside an open sided storage shed, giant vacuum collects sawdust from machining the timber.

12

“Timber Life Cycle,” The Headwaters, accessed May 9, 2020, https://www.theheadwaters.co.nz/sustainability/materials/timber-life-cycle/.


15

PROCESS OF RECLAIMING TIMBER

From the visit to Move on Wood Recycling and further research into timber in general, this is a summary of the process of reclaiming timber.

The process of re-using timber is through collecting them from demolition sites and/or scrapyards. The timber that have been collected are then sorted into; timber that contain toxins (e.g. painted and contains lead, glue, or have been treated with chemicals), timber that have connectors (e.g. nails, screws), and timber that is safe of toxins and connections. If the timber contains toxins as it has been chemically treated, it needs to be used as it comes, with little to no processing as the sawdust from sanding/buffing is hazardous. If the timber has been painted, the paint can be scraped off by using a gel stripper or a heat gun to loosen the paint. For timber thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s been contaminated with connectors, whenever possible, the connectors should be extracted from it. After sorting, it needs to be cleaned with a pressure washer that removes dust. Furthermore, it may be sanded manually to remove layers of dirt. This process is hazardous as exposure sawdust over a long time and may cause long-term health concerns. Finally, the wood can be finished to restore its appearance and function e.g. wax/polyurethane. The timber can then be used for furnitures, interior wood work, and wood chip briquette, etc.13

examples of furniture made from reclaimed timber

13

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Understanding Reclaimed Wood: How the Salvaging Process Works,â&#x20AC;? Buildipedia, accessed May 9, 2020, http://buildipedia.com/aec-pros/construction-materials-and-methods/understanding-re-

claimed-wood-how-the-salvaging-process-works.


16

PROJECT VISION Reclaim and reuse timber from demolition sites in and around Edinburgh to encourage the use of timber in future construction as it is a sustainable material.

Develop a biodiversity area which attracts Swifts, Bumbleebees, and Pipistrelle Bats, to increase green space on the site. This will incorporate an elevated timber walkway for visitors to experience this area and also as a connection to the quarry.

Engaging the local community by providing jobs such as volunteering at the timber workshop and cafe.

PROJECT PROGRAMME Reclaiming and repurposing construction timber

Reclaimed Timber Shop

Timber Library and Cafe

Biodiversity Walkway

Biodiversity zone


16

FLOW OF RECLAIMED CONSTRUCTION TIMBER IN THE TIMBER RECLAIM CENTRE, CRAIGLEITH





                                     



    

                                      

     

                            

              

   

    

                                      

                    

                 

     

 



 




17

USER ACTIVITIES: VISITORS, THE LOCAL COMMUNITY, STAFF

exploded axonometric of the workshop, innovation lab, and H&S classroom

H&S classroom

VISITORS

LOCAL COMMUNITY

STAFF

The general public can visit the reclaimed timber shop, the

From the age analysis of the local community, a significant

Staff would supervise the workshop, provide health and

timber library and cafe on the upper level, and experience

amount of people aged >35 in the area are unemployed.

safety seminars for handling machineries in the workshop,

the biodiversity site from the elevated walkway.

Thus, one of the project program is to provide jobs for the

work in the innovation labs and the management offices.

locals. Endo Ligna has a timber workshop, shop, and a cafe therefore would provide jobs for locals who would like to volunteer.


18

PHASING 2020-2030 PHASE 1 - 2020-2023

PHASE 3

-

deconstruction of Sainsburyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

-

keeping the columns, trusses, beams, and the west facade (glazing)

-

construction of the timber workshop + storage, and first floor reclaimed timber management

offices

-

planting for biodiversity (green network)

-

building a blue network, reflecting pools that feed into the plants

PHASE 2 - 2022-2024 -

construction of the Reclaimed Timber Shop

-

shop is open to public

-

green network grows

-

start to collect construction timber from demolition sites

-

construction of the biodiversity towers

PHASE 3 - 2024-2028 PHASE 2

PHASE 1

blue network and green network

-

construction of the first floor extension starts (vast timber structure for library, cafe, and roof

terrace)

-

construction of the biodiversity walkway

-

upon completion of the construction, the whole building is open to public

2028 - future -

biodiversity keeps increasing

-

other functions keep operating


19

E N V I R O N M E N TA L S T R AT E G I E S CONNECTING THE DRAINAGE TO THE BIODIVERSITY AREA

The exisiting and new roof slope towards a single gutter that stretches out a little bit towards the edge of the biodiversity area. Rainwater flows to a large water collecting pond that streams to numerous wells dedicated for swifts to drink from. The gutter itself is pronounced and is a key attraction for visitors when they walk around the walkway.

blue network of reflecting pool connect to one another

gutter and rainwater falling onto the well


20

ADJUSTABLE TIMBER LOUVRE/PANELS Adjustable timber louvres are used as screens on the south elevation where the office and meeting rooms are located to avoid glare from direct sunlight. Large timber panels that rotate are installed on the ground floor where the storage is to allow fresh air to flow inside for drying timber.

South Elevation

Ground Floor Plan

1:400

Timber Louvre Detail

Adjustable Timber Panels (1.5 m wide)


21

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS USING THE EXISTING STEEL BEAMS AND COLUMNS AS A BASELINE GRID FOR THE TIMBER EXTENSION

grid for the timber extension structure

Ground Floor Plan 1:500 existing structure meets timber structure above


22

EXISTING STEEL TO TIMBER COLUMN CONNECTION 6

1 2 3 4 5 6

steel column 320(w)x356(l)x375(h)mm SHS 316x710mm capping plate screws 320x356mm base capping plate with fin plates welded 280x315mm timber column

5

4

2 3

steel comes out at 75mm above the floor level before connecting to the timber column

Sainsburyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Dartmouth, Devon Steel to Timber connection precedent

1


23

B I O D I V E R S I T Y S T R AT E G Y BIODIVERSITY TOWER EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC 1:200

solar panel

The biodiversity tower stands at 20m high for the highest flying species which is Swifts. The towers are positioned so that they are south facing to colelct maximum sunlight as the solar panels are installed on the roofs to provide energy for the building. 20

The roof also collects rainwater which goes down through a gutter which runs along the side of the tree-like glulam stucture and onto a rain chain for aesthetic purposes, then onto a reflective pool that the towers are embedded in. swift boxes

The reflective pool stores water to be distributed to the green network and also for the birds, bats, and bees.

tree-like glulam structure timber ladder construction

Precedents 9

bee hotels

bat boxes

3 Swift Architecture by Menthol Architects, Poland (2011)

gutter - rain chain

reflective pool

0m

0

5

10

20

Refective pool for the species


24

SWIFT NEST EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC 1 TO 10

1 nest=1 bird

350 20mm thick untreated timber

20x65 opening

220mm

350mm

140


25

B AT B O X EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC 1 TO 10

1 box=1/2 bats

1mm deep cuts spaced 10mm apart. This groove is to help bats clamber up from underneath the box to get inside. 15mm gap between this board and the

25mm untreated timber for texture

base for the entrance. 150

22 degree tapered edge

200

150


26

BEE HOTEL EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC 1 TO 10

2-6mm holes from dead stems of hollow plants and reeds

15mm thick untreated timber

300

130

150

approximately 400 bees (2 colonies)


27

C O N S I D E R AT I O N T O C R A I G L E I T H R E TA I L PA R K â&#x20AC;&#x2122; S INFRASTRUCTURE

tram line

The rest of the Craigleith Retail Park would still exist as their respective shops.

Access to the retail park would change from the original entrance to what used to be the goods entrance due to its proximity to the tram station. Delivery of timber will be from the previous main entrance.

previous main entrance for cars new main entrance bicycle and pedestrian lane

Site Plan 1:1000 0m

10

20

50

100


28

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC; WA L K A C R O S S T H E Q UA R R Y â&#x20AC;&#x2122; An interpretation of the ground underneath the retail park - layers of history, layers of stone formation, landfill, remnants of the quarry that has been buried. A sharp contrast to the abundance of retail shop, asphalt ground, modern steel construction.

Zain Alsharaf, Laila Nabulsi, author.


29

BIBLIOGRAPHY

-

Accoya. “The Timber Transport CO2 Calculator.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.accoya.com/sustainability/the-timber-transport-co2-calculator/.

-

Bat Conservation Trust. “ Bats as Indicators of Biodiversity.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.bats.org.uk/about-bats/why-bats-matter/bats-as-indicators-of-biodiversity.

-

Bird Guides. “Help reverse the decline as swifts return to Britain.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.birdguides.com/news/help-reverse-the-decline-as-swifts-return-to-britain/.

-

Buildipedia. “Understanding Reclaimed Wood: How the Salvaging Process Works.” Accessed May 9, 2020. http://buildipedia.com/aec-pros/construction-materials-and-methods/understanding-reclaimed-wood-how-the-salvaging-process-works.

-

Bumblebee Conservation Trust. “Bumblebee nests.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.bumblebeeconservation.org/bumblebee-nests/.

-

Britannica. “Wood as a material.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.britannica.com/science/wood-plant-tissue/Wood-as-a-material.

-

Community Wood Recycling. “Waste wood in the UK.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.communitywoodrecycling.org.uk/learn-more/waste-wood/.

-

Digimap. “Ordnance Survey.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://digimap.edina.ac.uk/os.

-

Discover Wildlife. “How you can help swifts.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.discoverwildlife.com/animal-facts/birds/how-you-can-help-swifts/.

-

Howat, H. David. Scotland’s Forest Industries. https://scotland.forestry.gov.uk/images/corporate/pdf/Hbook03.pdf.

-

Inhabitat. “Menthol Architects: Tower for Swifts provides a safe nesting place for birds in Warsaw, Poland.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://inhabitat.com/menthol-architects-tower-for-swifts-provides-a-safe-nesting-place-for-birds-in-warsaw-poland/.

-

McMillan, Andrew A., Richard J. Gillanders, and John A. Fairhurst. Building Stones of Edinburgh. 2. ed. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Geological Society, 1999.

-

Preschem. “Why Timber Changes Colour.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://preschem.com/why-timber-changes-colour/.

-

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. “Bumblebees.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.rspb.org.uk/birds-and-wildlife/wildlife-guides/other-garden-wildlife/insects-and-other-invertebrates/bees-wasps-ants/bumblebee/.

-

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. “Create a high home for swifts.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.rspb.org.uk/get-involved/activities/give-nature-a-home-in-your-garden/garden-activities/createahighhomeforswifts/.

-

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. “Swifts – priority species.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://ww2.rspb.org.uk/about-the-rspb/at-home-and-abroad/scotland/edinburgh/wildlife.aspx.

-

The Headwaters. “Timber Life Cycle.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.theheadwaters.co.nz/sustainability/materials/timber-life-cycle/.

-

The City of Edinburgh Council. Edinburgh Biodiversity Action Plan 2019-2021. The City of Edinburgh Council. 2019.

-

The Wildlife Trusts. “ Common pipistrelle.” Accessed May 9, 2020. https://www.wildlifetrusts.org/wildlife-explorer/mammals/common-pipistrelle.

Profile for Calista Utomo

Endo Ligna: Timber Reclaiming Centre  

This booklet contains research and development towards the final design of Endo Ligna; a timber reclaiming centre in Craigleith, Edinburgh.

Endo Ligna: Timber Reclaiming Centre  

This booklet contains research and development towards the final design of Endo Ligna; a timber reclaiming centre in Craigleith, Edinburgh.

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