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Small window qHeating
When looking at the window openings, initial studies have been made on how the size of the window openings will affect the energy requirements for heating. The calculation has been done on a room with a big and a small window providing a daylight factor of 2% and 5%. This room has first been oriented South and North. When looking at the results, it is seen that by having big windows towards the south, passive solar radiation can be utilized in order to lower the energy consumption for heating. The results when having a window opening towards North have shown, as expected, that due to the lack of solar radiation on the façade, the openings have to be reduced in order to minimize energy loss through the windows. By placing the exhibition spaces, which only require little to none daylight, towards the North, and inversely the workshop spaces, that additionally can allow for bigger fluctuations in temperatures, towards the South, the overall energy requirement for heating the building will be reduced. The topography of the site facilitates the immersing of the Eastern façade into the ground, consequently having the biggest façade towards the West. By knowing how the climate has an influence on the
building, it is best to rotate the biggest façade more towards the South in order to utilize passive solar gain.
South (180 o)
Therefore a new series of calculation have been conducted, with a orientation closer to the final proposal. The new orientation is tested in Bsim with window openings on the South Eastern façade and the South western façade (see graph). When utilizing the passive solar radiation in the rooms, shading is not beneficial in the given climate. This can cause problems due to the low angle of the sun and can cause problematic glare. Hence, internal shading in form of light thin curtains has been introduced. These will let the solar radiation into the room and reduce the need for energy consumption through heating, but shade from the direct sun.
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Small window qHeating
South west (240o)
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Small SW qHeating
South east (150o)
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Fig. 105. BSim Study of Window Openings