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Mid 19 Century Warfare: The American Civil War th

8801, Lesson 6


Educational Objectives  To

understand the character of the Civil War  To comprehend  its

linkage to past wars and  its preview of future wars.


Fundamental Questions about War     

How are armies formed? Why do wars occur? Why do armies fight? How do armies fight? What is the relationship between the armed forces?

    

Who directs their employment? How are armies sustained? How are wars ended? How is their period distinctive? What non-military factors affected the outcome?


Characteristics Bloodiest war  A national war  Improved technology  Leadership slow to adapt  Large, unwieldy armies 

Shift to maneuver warfare  More total in conduct  A transitional conflict  Three theaters 


Theaters

Western Trans-Mississippi

Eastern


Causes of the War  The

extension of slavery into new lands  The rise of the abolition movement  The Kansas-Nebraska Act  The Dred Scott Decision  The Election of 1860


Politics and Policy 

For the Union  

Complete suppression Extinction of the CSA

Political Considerations  

North divided Quick victory needed

For the Confederacy  

Independence Preservation of Old South

Political Considerations   

Territorial integrity Foreign recognition Hold the West


Military Tasks 

Union   

Reassert authority Create an army Offensive operations 

Not war

CSA 

 

Create a country, a government, an army Defend territory Win a victory in North


Military theories  Dennis

Hart Mahan  Henry Halleck  P.G.T. Beauregard  Jomini


Strategies Winfield Scott  Irwin McDowell  George McClellan  Abraham Lincoln  Ulysses S. Grant 

Jefferson Davis  Robert E. Lee 


Strategy and Tactics ď‚Ž Changed

conditions ď‚Ž Battlefield tactics


Military Affairs  Preparedness  Command

Arrangements  Political generals  Rank Structure  Battlefield conditions


Technology  The

rifled musket  The telegraph  The railroad


Generalship  Grant A

fortunate accident  Working at task  Concerted coordinated plan


Interpretations  Williams

and Donald  Archer Jones  Joseph L. Harsh


Issues for consideration  Causes

of the Civil War  Character of the war  Theater(s) of war  Clausewitz and the Length of the War  Technology


Causes of the Civil War  Why

do wars occur?  Why do armies fight?


Character of the war  Limited

or unlimited war?

 Did

its character change?  Why and how?  Reflection

of 19th Century military institutions?  Reflection of the American War of War?


Theaters of war  Eastern  Western  Trans-Mississippi


Clausewitz and the Civil War  Why

did it take so long

 For

the North to win?  For the South to lose?  Military  The

problems and

trinity?  Policy and politics?


Role of Technology  The

war?  In enhancing the North’s ability?  In increasing the North’s vulnerability?  Grant’s vulnerability at Vicksburg?  Effect of the rifled musket?


Issues for consideration  Causes

of the Civil War  Character of the war  Theater(s) of war  Clausewitz and the Length of the War  Technology


Next Week: Later 19th Century Warfare: Prussia


Points to remember  The

Civil War

 Union

Strategy  Living off the land 

Sheridan & Sherman

 As

view of future wars


Remember: Tracers work both ways

Civil War  

this is a test

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