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STATUS STUDY OF WOMEN FISH VENDORS

TRIVANDRUM SOCIAL SERVICE SOCIETY THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors Jointly undertaken by

Trivandrum Social Service Society & Sakhi Women’s Resource Centre Supproted by

Calcutta Ondoan, Spain


STATUS STUDY OF WOMEN FISH VENDORS

(Random survey study of women fish vendors of Trivandrum District)

Trivandrum Social Service Society (TSSS) Samanwaya, P.B NO.828, Bishop’s House Compound, Vellayambalam, Thiruvananthapuram -3, Kerala, India. June, 2012 Email: tsss_tvm@yahoo.co.in Ph: 0471-2723498 www.tsss.in


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Contents PREFACE _________________________________________________________________ 6 INTRODUCTION ___________________________________________________________ 9 PART 1: SURVEY OF WOMEN FISH VENDORS __________________________________ 13 I Personal Information _____________________________________________________ 13 II Family Details __________________________________________________________ 14 III Occupational Pattern ____________________________________________________ 16 IV Savings/ Investment/ Indebt______________________________________________ 22 V Literacy status __________________________________________________________ 26 VI Marriage: _____________________________________________________________ 28 VII Health / Reproductive issues _____________________________________________ 29 VIII. Religion / Politics _____________________________________________________ 37 IX. Violence/Legal Mechanisms______________________________________________ 39 PART II: SURVEY OF FISHERMEN ____________________________________________ 42 I Personal Information _____________________________________________________ 42 II Living conditions ________________________________________________________ 43 III Occupation pattern _____________________________________________________ 43 IV Savings / Investment / Indebt ___________________________________________ 45 V Literacy status __________________________________________________________ 49 VI Marriage: _____________________________________________________________ 50 VII. Religion / Politics ______________________________________________________ 51 Summary________________________________________________________________ 59 Annexure 1: Brief note on the six regions: _____________________________________ 63 Annexure 2: Tables generated from the survey of women fish vendors ______________ 64 Annexure 3: Tables generated from the survey of fishermen ______________________ 85 Annexure 4: Questionnaire -Women fish vendors _______________________________ 97 Annexure 5: Questionnaire -Fishermen_______________________________________ 105

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

PREFACE Trivandrum Social Service Society encompasses vast coastal belt of Trivandrum revenue district and 90 percent of its target population belonging to Fishing Community. Most of the fisher people still live on with the traditional fishing methods and the women are engaged in selling of the catch. They being one of marginalized communities in Kerala are deprived of the fortune of the common people, which does not require further mentioning of the status of women folk of this community. The personal identity, struggles for livelihood, family situation etc of the fish vending women are more challenging. TSSS is empathetic and involving with them for their empowerment and sustainable development since its inception in 1960. With this end in view a Fish Vending Women’s Forum was formed in 1992 at Thoothoor region federating 8 villages. This was replicated in all the other five coastal regions in subsequent years. At present the Forum is functioning effectively in 42 fishing villages in Trivandrum and Kannyakumari Districts having the strength of 3600 members. Fish vending women, even today are forced to carry the stigma related to fish selling and are unable to enjoy the satisfaction of their work and happiness of social life. The result of this is low self- esteem, gender violence, lack of primary education, no role in decision making in the family as well as in the society etc. Generally they are considered as vulnerable section in the society. The situation is steadily changing by continuous interventions in this field. Women are becoming aware of their rights and they are bold enough to fight for it. Still they are in the path of fighting for their rights to live as human being and work as any other noble laborer. Things being so, even after a number of awareness classes, capacity building activities and resource mobilization over years, the community, especially the women have not reached to the expected development scenario. To understand the actual situation and its causes, the blockage, external factors, social systems, structures and practices which perpetuate the backwardness, a random survey was carried out during 2011-12 with the help of ‘Sakhi’ (Feminist Organization). 483 fisherwomen and 100 fishermen of different age group from all the six coastal regions were included in the survey. Sakhi /TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 The process of survey was tiresome and time consuming. But the result expected is very important and very useful for the future planning and implementation of all development activities among the Fish Vending Women. This will be a strong source for all those who are ardent in the development of this sector. At this juncture I do sincerely acknowledge the cooperation of members of Fish Vending Women Development Forum, regional coordinators of the forum Mrs. Jenat Dasan, Elizebath Jose, Lizy Benedict, Sola Carpet, Georgeena Ouseph, Lillykutty. Special word of thanks to Sr. Mary Panikkasery and Mrs. Toony, who coordinated the field survey. This survey wound not have been in this form without the continuous guidance of Mrs. Mercy Alexander the Coordinator of Sakhi and Mrs. Mariamma Sanu George (Nirmala), the Development Consultant who generated the report on the raw data. Above all I am grateful to CALCUTA ONDOAN, Spain, the development organization supporting us to take up this venture.

FR. SABBAS IGNATIIUS G.N. Secretary, TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 INTRODUCTION Gone are the days when women use to sit at home, managing home and looking after the children. Women, throughout the world have been playing important role in the development of the family and society. They have to venture out and work along with men in supplementing income for the family. But home was still managed exclusively by women as in the past, without any change. The invaluable role played by women mostly remains unrecognized. Women have long been involved in fisheries. The involvement of women in fish processing and marketing generates additional income to support their families. It is through economic, social development one can achieve economic progress. Fisherwomen are generally engaged in marketing and their social status remains poor. The modern technological facilities also go in favor of men who can easily access it and make use of. In India, women constitute around 50% of the total population and comprise one-third of the labor force. The socio-economic development of this vast population, therefore, presumes great importance in any developmental strategy. It is estimated that there are 54 lakhs (5.4 million) people fully engaged in fisheries activities, of which, 38 Lakh (3.8 million) are fishermen and 16 Lakh (1.6 million) are fisherwomen. However, there is a considerable difference in the income earned between males and females with the former receiving the higher benefits even in the lean season. The State of Kerala with a geographical area of 38,863 sq. km situated in the southwest corner of peninsular India has a surf beaten coastline of 590 km. Though the coastline of Kerala is one-tenth of the coastline of India, the state occupies the foremost position in the marine fish production of the country. Kerala holds the major share of exports in this sector from India. The marine fisheries sector provides employment to about 1,47,900 active fishermen as the main source of income, and an equal number of people are engaged in fishery allied activities. The estimated marine fishery potential of the State is 5.17 lakh tones. About 2 lakh (0.2 million) people depend on supplementary professions like processing and marketing of fish for their survival. The estimated fisher folk population of Kerala during 2009-10 is about 11.43 lakhs (1.143 million) (GoK,2010), which includes 8.8 lakhs (0.88 Million) in the marine sector and 2.63.lakh (0.26 Million) in the inland sector. Their settlements are spread over in 222 fishing villages in the state, sprawled over 9 coastal districts with 7 fishing harbours. Geographically the fishing activities are mainly spread over 200 Grama Panchayats, 1 Municipality and 4 Corporations. Sakhi /TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 The project for ‘Empowerment and development of women in India through democratic structures’ seeks to strengthen and enhance the empowerment of women fish vendors in 50 villages spread over 6 regions (see annexure 1) along the coast of Trivandrum and Tamilnadu within an area of 85kms. This will strengthen the existing Federation of TSSSi (Trivandrum Social Service Society) consisting of 3,700 women. Further it will reduce the social stigma, strengthen the food security and build up gender equality in domestic and political decision making. Anjengo, Valiathura, Puthukurichi, Kovalam, Pulluvila and Thottor are the six regions identified for the study. The project is granted to Calcutta Ondoan Gipuzkoa Caritas with TSSS as the local partner. As part of the project, TSSS in collaboration with Sakhi undertook a study on the status of fisherwomen. Initially, 483 fisherwomen were interviewed, followed by 100 fishermen. The study focuses on areas which have direct, link with the socio-economic-political life, family life and livelihood conditions of fisherwomen in Kerala. The response of fishermen are taken to validate the response of women. The objectives of the study are: 1. To examine the conditions and role of fisher women of six regions. 2. To study various problems of the fisherwomen such as sex ratio, age groups, professions, employment, marketing, income, indebtedness, education, residence, water supplies, health care, leadership, political empowerment, decision making.. etc. 3. To study socio- economic conditions fisher women The data was collected using questionnaire and discussions with the communities on the issues confronting women. 483 fisherwomen have been interviewed in the month of November 2011 using a questionnaire of 102 questions. The interview was conducted by six members of this region and the analysis is more gender based. 100 fishermen from the same regions were interviewed in the month of February 2012 using a questionnaire of 73 questions. The fishermen survey was undertaken by men. The study focuses the inquiry on the following aspects; I. Personal Information II. Family Details III. Occupational pattern of households IV. Income/Investment/Debt V. Education VI. Marriage VII. Health / Sexuality VIII. Religion / Politics IX. Violence/Legal Mechanisms

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 PART 1: SURVEY OF WOMEN FISH VENDORS The survey is carried out in six regions in Trivandrum district. A total of 483 women from the same number of households were selected for the survey. The details of the regions, place and number of households are given in Table 1.11. The survey covered a total of 39 place / units. 3 % has not mentioned their place/unit.

I Personal Information The survey collected the personal information of the fisherwomen with regard to their name, age and marital status. The data regarding their age and marital status is presented in Table 1.2. Age composition and marital status: The analysis by age indicates that fisherwomen between the age of 25 and 80 where interviewed. The details of the age group composition are presented in Table 1.2. The analysis of age groups indicates the human resources at different stages of productivity. It is seen from the table that the maximum proportion comes under the age group 46-50 years (22.8 %) followed by 51-55 (19 %) and 41-45 (16%). Fig 1.1: Age wise classification of respondents (%) 25

22.8

20

18.8 12

15

15.7

10

8.3

5 0

13.3

0.2

1

3.3

Age (%) 3.5

0.6 0.4

The marital status of the women shows that 79 % are married and 20 % are widows. Among the respondents, only one woman remains unmarried. 1.2 % is either deserted, divorced, living together or second marriage.

1

All the tables are given in Annexure.

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 1.2: Marital Status of the respondents (%) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

78.9

19.9

0.2

Marital Status (%) 0.2

0.2

0.2

0.4

II Family Details Information regarding the family size, schooling and ownership of houses was incurred2. The details regarding the family size and composition of the selected households are given in Table 1.3. The overall average family size is 6.4. Anjengo and Thothoor have the highest average family size of 6.7 and the lowest in Kovalam region with 5.9. Out of the 3,114 members, the percentage of girls is only 16.67%, 28.84 % are boys, 22.61 % women and 31.89 % men. Among children, the percentage of girls is lower in all the regions. Fig 1.3: Total Household members (%) 6.45

Anjengo

18.56 17.75

Kovalam Pulluvila

19.71

19.46

Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura

18.04

2

Women respondents reported all members staying in the house which includes children and their family. But the men respondents have limited the family size to just their own family.

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 1.4: 4: Sex composition of respondents (%) 16.67 Male

31.89

Female Boys

28.84

Girls 22.61

Sex ratio in any given society is an important indicator of the social position of women in that society. Kerala has a unique position in regard to sex ratio. Of all Indian States, only Kerala has a positive sex ratio io for women. According to 2011 Census, there are 1084 females per 1000 men i.e., an excess of females over males. But, in fishing villages, the number of women decreases sharply. The data of fish vending women shows the same pattern i.e.it is adverse to women in all the region regions. Table 1.4 4 shows the same trend in the sex ratio of adults as well as children. Surprisingly the se sex ratio for adults as well as children is in favor of males in all the 6 regions. s. Across the regions, the households in Thottoor have the highest number of adults (21.45%) and Pulluvila region has highest number of children (21.59 %). The overall sex ratio for adults is 709 and for children are 578. In other words, in all the regions there are more males than females. Kovalam region has the highest overall sex ratio in the case of both adults and children. Fig 1.5: Sex ratio of adults and children 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

877 772

771 685

667

685 530

412

578

658

709 584

578

453 Sex ratio (Adult) Sex ratio (Children)

Various studies have pointed out that the sharp decline in mortality and a steady decline in fertility has contributed to the process of population aging in India.Table 1.5 1. shows that out Sakhi /TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 of the 3,114 members 15 % are above 60 years. 43 % are men and 57 % are female. It is observed that 19 % of the women interviewed are above 60 years. In addition to it, 39 more women members above 60 years in the surveyed households. Among the region, Kovalam has the least number of members and Puthukurichi and Valiathura has 21 % each, members above 60 years. Table 1.6 shows the children going to school. Out of the 483 households, only children from 261 (54%) households attend school. Of these, only 32 (12 %) households have more than three school going children. 88 % of the households have children less than two. From these, Pulluvila region has lesser number of school going children and Puthukurichi has the largest number. Living conditions: Housing is one of the basic human needs of mankind. Yet many are devoid of this basic need. The details’ regarding the ownership of house is presented in Table 1.7. It is found that 71 % of the respondents live in their own houses and 20 % with their children. 3 % in rented houses and a negligible (0.8%) of the population live in leased houses or as tenants. Among the region, 50 % of the respondents from Puthukurichi have their own house and 43% live with children. 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Fig 1.6: Ownership of house 71.2

20.3

3.1

0.6

2.9

1

0.6

0.2

%

III Occupational Pattern Apart from the role of a housewife, women contribute substantially in many ways to the income of the family. The details of occupational pattern of the study area are presented in Table 1.8. It is observed that 99 % of the women are engaged in selling and preservation. Across the regions, in Anjengo region 50 % of the women are occupied in the preservation of fish whereas in all the other regions women are into selling of fish. The day of a women fish vendor starts very early. Do they get enough time to do domestic work? Table 1.9 shows Sakhi /TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 the time got for household work. Those who are involved in selling do not get as much time as others to do domestic work like cooking, washing aand nd looking after children. Fig 1.7: Occupation pattern 0.2

21.5

0.4 Selling Preservation

5

Selling and preservation Head load vendor Ice selling 72.9

When asked about the attitude of people towards them as “fish vendors’ while travelling, in the market and in other places, more than 90 % reported good behaviour from others (see Table 1.10). While respondents espondents from Anjengo region had only good experience to share, women from Valiathura had more bad experiences than others. Lack of space in bus, smell of fish, alcoholics, competition, and vulgar language are some of the issues they have to face. Table 1.11 and fig 1.8 shows the age at which the respondents started to go to market to sell fish. Around 7 % started at a very early age. 16 % started working between the age of 11-15. 11 38 % started between the age of 21 to 30. Interestingly, two wome women n started working at the age of 54. Fig 1.8: Age at which started to work (%) 25 20

15.72

15 10

16.77

18.03

20.13

12.37 6.5

5

%

7.13 2.94 0.42

0 5-10

11-15 16-20 21 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-50

54

Again it was enquired whether it w was before or after marriage (see Table 1.12). 1. The age of those women who started work as fisherwomen before marriage ranges between 5 to 26 whereas those after marriage ranges between 14 to 54. While 33 % started working before Sakhi /TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 marriage, 67 % of the respondents started only after marriage. While in Valiathura region 56 % started before marriage, it is less than 7 % in Anjengo and Thothoor regions. Fig 1.9: Before or after marriage started to work (%) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

94.5

92.6 71.3

63.3

67.5

56.5

55.6 44.4 32.5

43.5

36.7

28.7

7.4

Before marriage (%) After marriage (%)

5.5

The vending pattern and market timings vary. Some women sell in markets, some engage in house to house vending and some on road side markets created for themselves. Here in Table 1.13, it is observed that 73 % use the market, 37 % does door to door selling and only 9 % of the respondents use road side space for selling fish. The market timings vary from place to place but usually there is morning and evening markets. From Table 1.14 it is observed that 80 % of the respondents go only once for selling fish, 17 % twice and 3 % more than twice. The 3 % are from Kovalam, Pulluvila and Puthukurichi regions. In Thothoor region 29 % go twice for selling fish. Fig 1.10 Vending areas (%) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

66.7

90.1

82.6

73.3

74.4 53.3

47.8

43.3

Sakhi /TSSS

72.9

34.4 16.7

38.9

33.7 22

7.8

4.3

10

37.3

22.2 3.3

Market Houses

9.9

Road side

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 The women purchase fish from harbour, public market, their own village and from other places. They participate in the auction to buy fish and sell at retail markets or houses. Among the region, except for Valiathura all the others have given primary preference to purchase from their own village. Overall, 81% of the women buy from their own village, 45% from public market and 21% from nearby harbour. Women from Valiathura region prefer to purchase from the public market.(See Table 1.15 and fig 1.10) Fig 1.11: Purchase of fish for vending (%) 100

80.5

80 60

45.3

40

%

21.1

20

1.4

0 Public market

Own village

Harbour

From other places

The capital for their work is organised from different sources. Table 1.16, shows that 85 % of the respondents take loan to organise their capital. In Anjengo region women take from their own fund, from their saving or they take loan. In Kovalam and Puthukurichi region dependence on savings seems to be very negligible.

Fig 1.12 Purchase of fish for vending (%) 84.9

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

%

26.5 16.9

Own fund

Loan taken

Savings

Market Tax

Market tax is often a cause for conflicts between women and the tax collectors. Most of the markets are owned by local bodies, which auction the right to collect the taxes to Sakhi /TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 individuals3. Out of the 352 respondents who utilise the market for selling fish, 81 % of them pay market tax. In Puthukurichi region, 94 % of the vendors pay tax. 52 % of the fisherwomen pay Rs 3 to 10 and 25 % pay Rs 11 to 20. In Kovalam region 70 % of the women pay Rs 11 to 20 as market tax. Fig 1.13: Payment of market tax (%) 100

84.6

94

81.8

80

81.3

75.6

75

60 40 20

%

0

Facilities in the market: Drinking water, shed and toilet are considered to be the basic facilities essential in the market for the vendors. While 66 % said there are toilet facilities, 42 % said there is shed. In Puthukurichi 93 % of the respondents said there is toilet facilities and lowest was recorded by Anjengo and Pulluvila. Drinking water seems to be a major problem in the markets. Only 20% of the respondents pointed out the availability of drinking water. The situation seems bleak in markets in Thothoor region (3.8%). Fig 1.14: Facilities in the market (%) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

92.54 69.23

74.24

46.15 20

60.61 46.05

18.2

13.6

26.9 14.47

55.22 58.54

68.75 52.2

28.05 3.8

66.19 54.17 41.48 20.4

Drinking water (%) Toilet (%) Shed (%)

3

Aleyamma Vijayan, M Gracy, Mery Alexander and Nalini Nayak (1996), “Kerala�, Women first, Report of the women in fisheries programme of ICSF in India Vol 1, Dossier samudra, Women in fisheries series No. 2.

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 72 % said the toilets in the market are not useable. Relatively the situation seems to be better in Valiathura region. 96 % of the women from Kovalam region said the toilets in the market is not use able. Various reasons were given for the awful condition of the toilets in the market. The main reason was the untidiness of the toilets. This was followed by unavailability of water and in some places doors. But women from Pulluvila and Anjengo region have not said the toilets are not clean. For them it is only lack of doors and water.

Fig 1.15: Condition of toilets (%) 120

95.9

100 80

66.7

85.5

60

71.7

64.6

54.3

39.4

40

Not useable toilets (%)

20 0

Fig 1.16: Poor conditions of toilet -Reasons (%) 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

71.7 59.6

53.8

45.5

25.0 25.0

No water 8.5

15.1 5.3

3.8

16.1

9.7 7.77.7

12.0 2.4

No door Un clean

Trade Unions: 44 % of respondents using market are aware of the functioning of trade unions in their markets. But only 3 % out of 151 have membership in unions like communist matsya thozhilali union, employees union, INTUC and loading union. Puthukurichi and Valiathura Sakhi /TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 region women are more aware of the trade unions (Table 1.19). 85 % of the women from Puthukurichi and Valiathura are aware of the functioning of trade unions in their markets. Fig 1.17: Awarness of functioning of trade unions in the market (%) 100

85.1

85.1

80 60

43.9

40 20

26.1 7.7

4.4

8.5

Trade Union (%)

0

Environment in the market: In total the market environment was considered favorable for more than half of the respondents (54 %) (Table 1.20). Only 46 % of the respondents faced difficulty in the markets. Respondents from Thothoor (42.25%) and Kovalam (86.49%) have more difficulties in the market than others. Vendors from Anjengo had no problems at all. Table 1.21 gives the different kind of difficulties faced by them. Lack of water is biggest problem pointed out by all. This is followed by lack of toilet, shed, lack of space and completion for resting and selling. Respondents from Pulluvila and Valiathura have reported lesser number of difficulties than others.          

Lack of basic infrastructure like shed, water, toilet, space for resting & selling Insufficient space, when there is more fish and to dump the waste Competition for selling and space and no unity between sellers Harassment by the loading workers and heavy charge Unhygienic market conditions Exploitation and compulsory market tax (Kadakash) and heavy shop charge Alcoholism and other sexual practices are increasing in the market Different forms of sexual violence, bad behavior and problems from the customer Difficulties for travelling Male domination

IV Savings/ Investment/ Indebt Questions regarding their savings, expenditure, investment and indebtness were asked. 96 % of them were able to save. In Thothoor region there is 100 % savings. It is seen from Table 1.22 that the savings was used for different purposes. Daily expense occupied the major Sakhi /TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 share (97 %) followed by children’s education. Only 8 to 10% was saved on gold and house construction. The least was saved for purchasing land. 18% was saved for old age purposes. The details are given in Table 1.22. Fig 1.18: Savings Habit

102 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84

97.78

100

97.83

96.67 96.48

96.55 90

Savings habit (%)

Fig 1.19 Purpose of saving 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00

Education of children For marriage For old age Buy gold To buy land

20.00 0.00

Daily expense Build house

The respondents were asked about the contribution made by husbands for domestic expense. In Table 1.23 we find only 57 % of them received a share of their husbands income. Across Sakhi /TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 regions, it is Anjengo and Pulluvila region shows better status. For 17 % it was less than 25%, for 21% it was between 25 to 50%, 30 % got between 50 to 75% and husbands of 32% received the full income earned by them. Fig 1.20 Contribution of husband to household needs (%) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

84.78

76.67 56.67

57.14

48.35 46.67 42.22

Contribution from husband (%)

Fig 1.21 Range of contribution of husband to household needs (%) 90.00

82.61

80.00

73.68

70.00 60.00 50.00

Less than 25 %

40.00

26.92

30.00 20.00 10.00

7.84

23.81 11.36

25 to 50% 50-75% Full amount

0.00

Family Income and Expenditure: It is seen from Table 1.24 that in all the region the major part of the family income is used to meet for daily expense (93.37%). This s followed by repayment of debts (47%), for Sakhi /TSSS

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 treatment (45.55%) and 36% for children’s education. 19 % is spend on alcohol consumption. Across the regions, in Thothoor the consumption of alcohol is higher (36.26%) and least in Puthukurichi region (5.56%). Anjengo shows a balanced pattern of expenditure. Fig 1.22 Major household expenditure (%) 120 100 80

Daily expense

60

Repay debts

40

Treatment

20

Children's education

0

Alcohol consumption

Level of indebtedness: The fisher’s household availed loans from different sources to meet their needs. The details of the loans availed are given in Table 1.25. In seeking credit, 86 % of the women respondents had availed assistance from different sources. Among the different sources, 66 % depend mainly on private financiers, 65 % on SHGs and 26 % from Banks. Except for Thothoor and Valiathura, rest of the regions depend more on SHGs than private financiers. Fig 1.23 Source of loan availed (%) 100.00 90.00 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

Private financiers SHG Bank TSSS Chitty From relatives From siblings Gold Loan

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.26 shows the repayment of loan. 81 % women said it is the responsibility of women to repay the loans availed for the family. Across the regions, respondents from Anjengo (64.29%) and Pulluvila region (39.33 %), have lesser responsibility of repayment of loans than women from all the other regions. Around 93 to 96 % of the households from this region has availed loan. Fig 1.24: Loan availed and repayment pattern (%) 120

98.68

97.5

100 80 60 40

64.29

20

39.33

0

93.59

91.94

81.36 Repayment Yes, availed loan

V Literacy status Literacy is considered as an indicator of development. Government is taking concerted efforts to increase the literacy level of people especially the marginalised. The details of the literacy level of the respondents are presented in Table 1.27. It is seen from Table 1.27 that the literacy level in the selected regions of study was 62% only. This much lower than the female literacy rates4 both at the national level (65.46 %) and state level (92%). Across the regions Anjengo’s literacy level is highest (93.3%), followed by Puthukurichi and Valiathura. The lowest literacy rate is observed in Kovalam region (40 %). Regarding the levels of literacy, 76% of the respondents had only less than 8 years of formal education, 10 % received up to 10 years and only 1 % received up to 12 years. And one person from Anjengo region received more than 12 Years of education. Formal education was not taken by 38 % of the respondents due to poverty; looking after younger siblings, lack of parental interest, health problems, lack of self interest and too poor in studies (see Table 1.28). 58 % discontinued due to poverty and 36 % due to lack of interest. Among the region’s, Kovalam region sited poverty as the main reason.

4

According to provisional data of the 2011 census – National Total literacy rate is 74.04 %, female 65.46%. The figures for Kerala is 93.9 % and 92 % for females.

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 1.25: Literacy rate (%) 100.00 90.00 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

93.33 82.22

81.11

61.90

53.85 40.00

42.39 Literacy rate

Fig 1.26: Total years of education (%) 90.00 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

Less than 8 Yrs 8 Yrs 10 Yrs 12 Yrs More than 12yrs

Fig 1.27 Reasons for discontinuing education (%) 100.0 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

88.9

50.0

Poverty 56.6 58.8

58.2 28.6

37.5

To look after younger siblings Lack of parental interest Health problems Not Interested

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Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Sakhi /TSSS

28


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 VI Marriage: Among the 483 respondents, only one person is unmarried. 2 % of the respondents have not mentioned their age at marriage. The data points out that marriage have taken place between the age of 13 and 33. 19 % got married before 18 years, 51 % between the age of 18 to 20, 26 % between 21 and 25 and 2 % after 26 years. In Kovalam region 33 % of them got married before 18 years. If we look at the education level of the respondents in Kovalam region they stand behind others. Fig 1.28: Age of marriage (%) 80 67.03 70 63.33 52.22 50.93 60 48.91 41.11 41.11 50 33.33 40 27.17 30 19.46 14.44 15.56 15.38 20 10 3.33 0

13-17 18-20 21-25 26-33

91 % of the women were given dowry in the form of money, gold, house and fishing equipment. Respondents from Valiathura did not receive house or fishing equipments. 12 % of the respondents were harassed for money by husband’s family mainly when children were born, during house construction and for other requirements.

VII Health / Reproductive issues While looking at the health factors, availability of drinking water toilets was enquired. Drinking water was available to 89 % of the respondents from own pipe connections, through public pipes or from neighbours house. While in all the region’s there is more than 90 % coverage of drinking water facilities, but in Kovalam region it is only 61 %. 91 % of the respondents from Puthukurichi has own pipe. But in Thothoor and Valiathura their main source is public pipe for drinking water. 77 % of the houses have toilet facilities. Relatively Thothoor stands behind other regions. Only 58 % has toilet facilities.

Sakhi /TSSS

29


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Fig 1.29 Toilet and drinking water in the house (%) 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00

98.9 93.3 83.33

81.11 61.1

73.91

93.3

90.11

90.00

97.78 82.22

88.61 77.43

58.24

Toilet (%) Drinking water (%)

20.00 0.00

Fig 1.30: Source of water in the house (%) 120.0 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0

Own pipe Public pipe From neighbours house

0.0

Table 1.33 shows that, it is a common practice in all the regions to dispose household waste either into the sea or lake. Only the respondents from Valiathura region depend on Kudumbashree. The following are the list of solid waste disposal methods followed.  Throw into the sea/lake/ pond  Put in a pit /in he bushes  Burn  Dispose near the house/ private place  Throw in to public place  Give to Kudumbashree / Corporation / Panchayat

Sakhi /TSSS

30


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.34 shows the prevalence and distribution of existing diseases among the respondents. The widely seen problems are related to orthopaedic, breathing related, blood pressure, diabetics’, urinary infections and skin related. Table 1.35 shows the health seeking behaviour. 94 % depend on allopathy and 10% on ayurveda for treatment. Dependence on government hospital is much more than private hospital. A whelming 77 % avail government health care facilities treatment. Some of the health related problems to which treatment is taken are:  Orthopaedic  Diabetes  Blood Pressure  Breathing related / Asthma/ TB  Urinary infection  Skin  Heart related problems  Thyroid  Cholesterol  Uterus & breast related problems  Headache  Diarrohea  Cancer  Disease related to climate change  Gas problems  Jaundice  Sinusitis  Ulcer The diseases reported to be seen around the locality (see Table 1.36) is much more intense than diseases they themselves have (see Table 1.34). The major disease seen is cancer, followed by uterus related. Different kinds of fever are very common in the locality. Leprosy is reported in Anjengo, Kovalam and Thothoor regions. The diseases mentioned are:  Cancer  Uterus related  Diarrhoea  Fever /Chicken guinea /Dengue/ Malaria/ Rat fever  Heart related Problems  Breathing related problems / TB  Leprosy  Chicken pox  Jaundice  Sugar  Kidney problems  Skin problems Sakhi /TSSS

31


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Sexuality Women’s control over her body and fertility and sexual autonomy was an important determinant of the status of women. Sexuality is a tabooed topic and there are no discussions about it among most of the communities. Even adolescent children are not informed about menstruation. Some women had received sex education as part of their religious education but menstruation was commonly defined as impure and women were mostly isolated through practices of being isolated and notions of pollution. Men received information from the media but women had no sources of information. There was no discussion within families either. Table 1.37 shows the details of information on menstruation and the source of information. 24% respondents had information regarding menstruation before menarche. The information was passed to them mainly by their mother (47 %) followed by siblings and friends. Women from Kovalam region knew about menstruation before menarche. In Anjengo region, it is from their mother’s they got the first hand information. In Pulluvila region, information was gained from religious classes. In Thothoor region both mother and friends supported equally. Fig 1.31:

Information about menstruation before menarche (%)

80 70

67.78

60 50 40 30 20

9.78

22.22

18.89 10.99

24.43

Information about menstruation before menarche %

10 0

3.33

Sakhi /TSSS

32


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 1.32 Source of information on menarche 120.00 100.00 80.00

Mother

60.00

Siblings

40.00

Friends Books

20.00

Religious class

0.00

KCYM,Vanitha Vedi

Table 1.38 provides the details of what was used during menses among the respondents. Cloth is widely used during menses and only 8 % use sanitary pads. This may be due to lack of capacity to afford sanitary pads or due to lack of knowledge. Women from Anjengo is using pads more than other regions and less of cloth. 120.00 100.00

Fig 1.33: Material used during menstruation (%) 98.89 95.60 96.74 94.44 93.79 90.00

80.00 73.33 60.00

46.67

Cloth (%)

40.00 20.00

8.89

2.17

3.33

11.11 3.30

Pad (%) 8.28

Undergarments (%)

0.00

Knowledge about sex: 21 % got information regarding sexuality before marriage. Kovalam shows the highest rate of 49 % and Thothoor the lowest. The main source of information is received from religious classes, followed by pre marriage course and friends. When it comes to sex mothers hardly communicate to their children. The best example is Anjengo region. In Anjengo region Sakhi /TSSS

33


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 mothers took the lead to give information regarding menses but none of the mothers took the role to discuss on sex. Fig 1.34: Information about sex before marriage (%)

60 50

48.89

40 30 20

9.78

17.24

information about sexuality 20.54 before marriage (%)

18.89

20

10

6.59

0

Fig 1.35: Source of information about sex before marriage (%) 66.67

70 60

50.00

50 40

40.0

30 20

20.0

10 0

44.44 36.36

Mother (%) 33.33

27.27

4.55

22.22 16.67 11.11

29.41

33.33

Sister (%) Friends (%)

26.26

Religious class (%) 5.88 5.88

9.09

Health class (%) Lover (%) Pre-marriage course (%)

Of the 482 married respondents 34 % discuss sexual matters with their husbands. But very few talked about sexual problems (26 %) with their husbands. Among the regions, women from Thothoor discussed the least with their husbands and Puthukurichi the highest. At the same time, in Puthukurichi region only 2 % had sexual problems and the highest is seen in Sakhi /TSSS

34


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Kovalam region. The problems pointed are suspicious of each other, forceful sexual relation, husband’s lack of interest and disinterest to have relation when husband is drunken. Among this problems, the major issue was to engage in sexual relation when the women is not interested (41.27%) due to reasons like physical illnesses..etc. This is followed by suspicious nature of husband (30.16%). Fig 1.36: Sexual problems 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

Doubtful/suspicious about me (%) 48.89

Doubtful about husband (%) 29.67

28.89 26.14

25 13.79 2.22

Forced to engage in sexual relation (%) Husband's lack of interest (%) Don't like sex when the husband use alcohol (%)

Out of the 126 persons, only 20 % has approached anyone to solve sexual problems. Kovalam region, with the highest number of persons with sexual problems has approached sought help to find solutions to their problems. Fig 1.37: Approach for help 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

36.4 26.1 19.8

0

0

3.7

7.7

Approached anyone to solve such problems (%)

Reproductive health: Fertility level in the state has reached below replacement level. Family planning methods are used by 76 % of the respondents. The method followed is mainly tubectomy (Postpartum Sterilisation (PPS)). 95 % of them underwent tubectomy. 78 % underwent tubectomy between the age of 21 to 30, less than 1 % before 21 years and 22 % after 30 years. In Sakhi /TSSS

35


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Anjengo region, all the respondents have done tubectomy as family planning method. Overall only 2 % men conducted vasectomy and that to from Pulluvila and Valiathura. Fig 1.38: Using family planning methods (%) 100 80 60 40 20 0

93.1

78.3

77.8

80 73.3

64.8

75.9

Family planning methods %

Fig 1.39: Methods of family planning 120 100

100.00

97.14

97.22

98.48

94.92

86.11

95.08

80

Pilles Copper T

60

Condom

40

Safe period

20

Vasectomy

0

Tubectomy Withdrawal

94% of the respondents had normal delivery. In Valiathura none of the respondents have reported caesarean even though only 94 % has reported normal delivery. Around 10 % have undergone hysterectomy. Fig 1.40: Type of delivery 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

93.1

3.45

Sakhi /TSSS

6.67

3.26

95.6

93.33

92.39

93.33

5.56

3.3

94.44

0

3.73

93.78

C Delivery (%) N Delivery (%)

36


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 VIII. Religion / Politics Access to and control over public spaces: Women’s access to public/social/political space is one of the crucial aspects of women’s status. Women are considered to belong to private space of home and surroundings. Men are supposed to control the public space and all decision-making. Norms following this thinking influences the socialisation process of boys and girls. Hence in all societies, we see majority of decision-making positions occupied by men and when women enter the social / public space, their role is seen as one of service5. 44 % have membership in religious organisation. Participation in activities remains above 80% in all the regions except Kovalam. The membership in Kovalam region is 39 % but participation is only 34 %. But 75 % of the respondents of Kovalam region take leadership role. In Pulluvila region 41 % have membership and all of them participate in the activities. But only 18 % of the respondents from this region have taken leadership role. In Thothoor region it is even much lower. As a whole participation remains high but the leadership role taken by them remains low. Fig 1.41: Membership, participation and leadership in religious organisation 120 100 80

88.9 75

100

20

84.3

75

83.8

50

60 40

93

32.3

34.3 18.4

80.8 Membership in religious organisation % 32.6

9.3

0

Work or participate in religious organisation % Leadership role in religious organisation (%)

Even though 44 % of them have membership in the trade unions (see Table 1.19), only 5% of the respondents have political affiliation. Among the regions the respondents from Kovalam region stands higher than the other regions.

5

Sakhi (2006) Gender and Panchayathi Raj- Status of women in Kerala

Sakhi /TSSS

37


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 1.42: Membership in political party (%) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

14.44

3.33

3.26

3.33 2.2

3.33

5.18

Membership in political party (%)

All the respondents are members in some organization. But all are members of TSSS fish wielding forum. Apart from it most of them are members of some SHG (53.62%). Only 1% has membership in political organization. Few are members of cooperative societies, SHGs, mahila samajams, labor forums and cultural forums. It is observed in Table 1.46 that 43.8 % are not members of SHGs. The achievements pointed out by those who have membership are mainly the savings habit developed (69%) and their dependence on money lenders is coming down (68%). (Table 1.25 shows that the dependency on private financers is 66 % and that of SHG is 65 %). The other positive factors are the opportunity of going out of the house and work, improve self esteem, repayment of loan and mutual support. Fig 1.43: Advantages of being part of an SHG (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

59.83

68.74

68.32

55.49 48.03 22.57

Could come out of the house and work

Sakhi /TSSS

Saving habit

From the Lead to self- Could repay clutches of growth debt private money lenders

%

As mutual support

38


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 It is perceived that the decentralised governance in the State has the potential and mandate to better the livelihood of marginalised communities like fisher flock. Half of the respondents participate in gram sabhas. The lowest participation is in Thothoor region and highest in Anjengo region.70 % of the respondents expressed their opinions in gram sabha and 66 % of them are of the view that their opinions reflect in the decision making. 48 % have not participated in gram sabhas. Various reasons were given for not participating. The main reason was lack of proper directions (35%). To 27%, grama sabhas are not useful. Respondents from Thothoor region with lowest participation feels gram sabha as not useful and unavailability of individual beneficiary.

IX. Violence/Legal Mechanisms 51% of the respondents knew about other women in their neighborhood who experienced domestic violence. They were mainly relatives (46 %) and neighbors (61%). The fisherwomen from Kovalam were aware of violence in the neighborhood more than other respondents.

Fig 1.44: Awareness of domestic violence in the neighborhood (%) 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

60.7 50.1

45.5 Total 6.6

Yes

Relatives Neighbors' Friends

1.2

0.4

Daughter

Mother

64 % of the respondents have experienced domestic violence. It is highest in Valiathura region (79%) and lowest in Puthukurichi region (33 %). Different types of violence like physical violence, burning, threaten to kill and abuse was reported. 96 % of the respondents has experienced physical violence. 6 % have faced burning and 10 % were threatened to be killed.

Sakhi /TSSS

39


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 1.45: Experience of domestic violence 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0

76.7 63.3

78.9

71.7

57.1

63.6

33.3 Yes

Fig 1.46: Type of domestic violence experienced (%) 120.0 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0

Physical violence Trying to burn Threaten to kill Abuse

15 % has experienced sexual violence in their life. Among the regions it is highest in Kovalam region (32 %) and lowest in Puthukurichi region (1%). The respondents mentioned different types of violence like rape, unnecessary touch and forcefully showing pornographic pictures. 40 % reported rape6, 60 % reported unnecessary touch and 16% were forced to watch pornographic films. 76 % of the respondents from Pulluvila have experienced rape. Respondents from Puthukurichi and Thothoor have not reported any rape.

6

When the issue was further probed with the survey team, it is understood that in many of the respondents have mentioned forceful sexual relation with their husband also as rape.

Sakhi /TSSS

40


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 1.47 Nature of sexual violence (%) 120.0 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0

Unncessary touch

Rape

Forced to see sexy pictures and pornographic films

Fig 1.48 Violence during pregnancy (%) 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

60.0

57.8 42.4

26.7

39.1

21.1 18.7

Yes

39 % have experienced violence during their pregnancy period. Highest was reported in Kovalam region, followed by Valiathura and the least in Thothoor region (19%). 38 % believe that husbands have the right to beat their wife. Again Thothoor region respondents were the least to support it. 62 % of the women from Puthukurichi believe that husbands have the right to beat their wife. Fig 1.49 Right of husbands to beat wife (%) 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

62.2 20.0

Sakhi /TSSS

18.9

60.0 38.3

27.2 12.1

Yes

41


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 PART II: SURVEY OF FISHERMEN The survey is carried out in the same six regions. A total of 100 fisher men from 100 households were selected for the survey. The details of the regions, place and number of households are given in Table 2.1. The survey covered a total of 31 place / units. Fig 2.1 Region wise coverage (%) Anjengo

14

15

Kovalam Pulluvila

14

Puthukurichi 29

Thothoor

15

Valiathura 13

I Personal Information The survey collected the personal information of the fishermen with regard to their name, age and marital status. The data regarding their age and marital status is presented in Table 2.2 Age composition and marital status: The age of the fisher men interviewed comes between 24 and 75. The details of the age group composition are presented in Table 2.2. The analysis of age groups indicates that the maximum proportion comes under the age group 36-40 years (22 %) followed by 31-35 and 46-50 (15 %). 97 % are married and 3 % are separated. 48% of the members in the 100 households are above years. Fig 2.2: Age wise classification of respondents (%) 25.00 22.00

20.00 15.00

15.00 12.00

10.00

13.00

11.00

% 6.00

5.00 0.00

15.00

1.00

4.00 0.00

1.00

24-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66-70 71-75

Sakhi /TSSS

42


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Fig 2.3: Marital Status of the fishermen (%)

Married Seperated

97

II Living conditions The details’ regarding the ownership of house is presented in Table 2.5. It is found that 77% of the respondents live in their own houses. 6 % in rented houses and a negligible (1.0.%) of the population live in leased houses or as tenants. Fig 2.4: Ownership of house 100 80 60 40 20 0

77 6

1

1

8

6

1

%

III Occupation pattern It is observed that 100 % of the men are engaged in fishing alone. But only 47% have their own equipment and only 44 % use it. The out board engine boat is owned by 47 % and boat by 30%. In Pulluvila region it is found that 85 % have their own equipments. But none of them own an out board engine. Their main equipment is boat. 71 % of the respondents from Thothoor region have either boat or out board engine. Shore seen is owned only by respondents of Puthukurichi region. Sakhi /TSSS

43


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 2.5: Ownership of equipments (%) 85

90 80

71

70 60 50 40 30

47

40

38

33

29

%

20 10 0

Fig 2.6: Type of equipments owned (%) 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

47

30

13

%

13 2

Boat

Hooker line

Out board engine boat

Kattamaram

Shoreseen

Domestic responsibilities: The respondents consider they have various responsibilities towards their family. Only 5 % said they do not or don’t have to take responsibilities at home. To them the main responsibility lies in the protection of wife and children (90 %). The other major responsibilities they take provide for the daily expense of the family (76 %) and children’s education (71%). In Anjengo region the fishermen take only education of children and protection of family as their responsibility.

Sakhi /TSSS

44


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 2.7: Responsibilities taken at home (%) 100.0

89.5

80.0

75.8

70.5

60.0 40.0

% 22.1

20.0 0.0 Education of children

Daily expense

Protection of wife Marriage of children and children

The fishermen also help in the day to day domestic work. They find time and help in the preparation of food, cleaning, washing cloths and taking children to hospital and school. Only 43 % men have to take children to school. In Puthukurichi, none of the respondents take children to school. In Pulluvila, all the respondents help in the preparation of food and in taking children to school.

Fig 2.8: Type of domestic work done at home (%) 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

61.00

54.00

63.00

61.00 43.00

%

Preparation of food

Cleaning Washing the Take the Take the dress children to children to the school the hospital

IV Savings / Investment / Indebt Questions regarding their savings, expenditure, investment and indebt were asked. 60 % of them were able to save. In Thothoor region, there is 100 % savings. 92 % of the fishermen from Pulluvila save from their earnings. It is seen from Table 2.9 that the savings was used for different purposes. Children’s education occupied the major share (80 %) followed by daily by daily expense (78 %). Around 20 to 17 % of the fisherwomen saved for old age, purchase of land, gold and house construction. The fishermen from Valiathura are able to Sakhi /TSSS

45


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Sakhi /TSSS

46


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 save only for daily expense, children’s education and construction of house. 52 % of the fishermen spend full amount of their earnings for the family. In 83 % of the fishermen’s family their son, wife or parents work. The details are given in Table 2.11. Fig 2.9: Savings habit 102 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84

97.78

100

97.83

96.67 96.48

96.55

Savings habit (%)

90

Fig 2.10: Range of contribution of husband to household needs (%) 90.00 80.00 70.00 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00

82.61

73.68

Less than 25 % 26.92 7.84

23.81 11.36

25 to 50% 50-75% Full amount

The income is spend for various purposes like daily expense, education, to go to gulf, maintence of house and for treatment. Only 2% of the respondents from Kovalam and Pulluvilla region have spend for jobs in gulf countries. Expect for respondents from Anjengo and Puthukurichi, 18% from all the other regions spend their earnings on alcohol. Family Income and Expenditure It is seen from Table 2.12 that in all the regions the major part of the family income is used to meet for daily expense (83%). This is followed by children’s education (63%), for Sakhi /TSSS

47


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 treatment (34%). 18% spend on alcohol consumption. Across the regions in Kovalam region shows higher consumption of alcohol (36.26%). Respondents from Puthukurichi and Anjengo do not spend on alcohol. Fig 2.11: Major household expenditure (%) 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

83.0 63.0 18.0

34.0 11.0

2.0

%

20.0

Level of indebtedness The fishermen availed loans from different sources to meet their needs. The details of the loans availed are given in Table 2.16. In the study area 70 % of the respondents had availed financial assistance from different sources; the highest is seen in Thothoor region and lowest in Pulluvila region. Among the different sources, 71 % depend mainly on private financiers, 36 % on SHGs and 40 % from Banks. The fishermen from Pulluvila have availed loan only from private financiers. Fig 2.12: Loan availed and sources of loan availed (%) 80.00

71.43

70.00

60.00

40.00

40.00

35.71 %

20.00 0.00 Yes

Bank

SHG

Private financiers

Table 2.17 shows the repayment of loan. 86 % of the fishermen said it is their responsibility to repay the loans availed for the family. Across the regions, all the respondents from Anjengo have the responsibility of repayment of loans. The fishermen from Kovalam and Puthukurihi get support from their wives and sons.

Sakhi /TSSS

48


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 2.13: Repayment of loan availed (%) 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00

91.67

100.00 73.91

83.33

87.50

90.00

85.71 yes

V Literacy status Literacy is considered as an indicator of development. Government is taking concerted efforts to increase the literacy level of people especially the marginalised. It is seen from Table 2.18 that the literacy level in the selected regions of study was 75 % only. Across the regions all the fishermen from Pulluvila are literate, followed by Valiathura (93%). The lowest literacy rate is observed in Kovalam region (66 %). Regarding the levels of literacy, 71% of the respondents had only less than 8 years of formal education, 29 % received upto 10years and only 4 % received upto 12 years. In Thothoor, Puthukurichi and Valiathura region none of the respondents have crossed 10 years of education. And none of them received more than 12 years of education.

Fig 2.14: Literacy rate and total years of education (%) 120.0 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0

Literates Below eight yrs Eight yrs 10 yrs 12yrs

Formal education was not taken by 25 % of the respondents due to poverty; to look after younger siblings, lack of parental interest, health problems, lack of self interest and too poor in studies (see Table 2.19). 60 % discontinued due to poverty and 36 % due to lack of Sakhi /TSSS

49


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 interest. Among the region’s, Thothoor region sited poverty as the main reason. Pulluvila region has not responded to the question. Fig 2.15: Reasons for discontinuing education (%) 120.0 100.0 80.0 60.0 40.0 20.0 0.0

Poverty Not interested Lack of parental ineterest Health problems Poor in studies

VI Marriage: Among the respondents, marriage has taken place between the age of 17 and 31. 4 % got married between the age of 17 and 20 years, 51 % between the age of 21 to 25, and 45 % after 26 years. In Pulluvila region 31 % and in Kovalam region 21 % got married before 21 years. In Thothoor 64 % got married after 26 years. Only in Kovalam and Thothoor region, the respondents married before the age of 21. Fig 2.16: Age of marriage (%) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

17-20 (%) 21-25 (%) 26-31 (%)

90 % of the men got dowry in the form of money, gold, house, land and fishing equipment. In Anjengo and Thothoor region, all the respondents got dowry. The least dowry received was by the respondents of Valiathura (67%). Dowry in various forms was received by the Sakhi /TSSS

50


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 respondents. 91 % received money, 74 % gold, 13 % house, 2 % fishing equipment and 4 % land. Respondents from Thothoor and Anjengo did not receive land, house or fishing equipments. In Pulluvila 50 % of the men got house. Fig 2.17: Dowry and its different forms (%) 120.0 100.0

100.0

93.1 92.3

86.7

100.0

80.0

90.0 yes

66.7

60.0

Money

40.0

Gold

20.0

House

0.0

Fishing equipment Land

VII. Religion / Politics Access to and control over public spaces 21% of the respondents have political affiliation. Among the regions the respondents from Kovalam region stands higher than the other regions. This followed by Thothoor and Valiathura. The entry into political arena started at the age of fifteen for a few respondents. Fig 2.18: Membership in political party 35.00 30.00 25.00 20.00 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00

32.14 21.43 21.21 14.29

15.38

13.33

20.00 Yes

Only 31 % participated in gram sabhas. The lowest participation is in Thothoor region and highest in Pulluvila region. 80 % of the respondents got opportunity to express their opinions Sakhi /TSSS

51


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 in gram sabha and 63 % of them are of the view that their opinions reflect in the decision making. Fig 2.19: Participation in gram sabhas (%) 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

69.2 33.3

42.9 24.1

31.0

20.0

Yes

7.1

Fig 2.20: Extend of participation (%) 120 100

100

100 86 83

83

80

78

75

71

60 40 20

33 20

80 63 Opporunity to express opinion Opinions reflected

0

69 % have not participated in gram sabhas. Various reasons were given for not participating. To 39 % gram sabhas are not useful and 36 % lack of time. Even though participation is less, 76 % are aware of the functioning of local bodies. 91 % are aware of the different services provided by local bodies. But with regard to planning and other activities of the local bodies, the knowledge level shows a decreasing trend.

Sakhi /TSSS

52


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 2.21: Reasons for not participating (%) 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

39

36

19 % 6 Not useful

Distance

Lack of time

Individual benefits not available

Fig 2.22: Knowledge of services provided in local bodies (%) 100.0

90.8

80.0

76.0

60.0 40.0 14.5

20.0 0.0 Yes

Different kind of services

Planning

% 13.2 Other activities of Panchayat

VII Health / Sexuality The widely seen problems are related to orthopaedic, blood pressure, diabetics’, urinary infections and skin related. Table 2.27 shows the health seeking behaviour. Allopathy treatment is taken by 88 %, Ayurveda is taken by 10% and Homeo by 1 %. In Anjengo, all the respondents depend only on modern medicines. Dependence on government hospital is much more than private hospital. A whelming 68 % avail government health care facilities treatment. 93 % of the respondents from Valiathura and Anjengo depend on government hospital and very little on private hospital. And it is vice versa in Pulluvila, Puthukurichi and Thothoor region. Some of the health related problems to which treatment is taken are:     

Orthopaedic Diabetes Blood Pressure Urinary infection Skin

Sakhi /TSSS

53


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012     

Jaundice Ulcer Liver problems TB Appendicitis

Knowledge about sex 70 % got information regarding sexuality before marriage. Pulluvila shows the highest rate of 100 % and Puthukurichi the lowest (48 %). The main source of information is received from friends. This is followed by parents, films, pre-marriage courses, religious organisations and even from other women. Fig 2.23: Information about sex before marriage (%) 120.0

100.0

100.0 80.0 60.0

50.0 50.0

40.0

92.3

85.7

70.4

62.1 46.7

37.9

53.3 29.6 14.3

20.0

7.7

Yes no

0.0

Only 9 % had sexual problems. Expect for Pulluvila and Puthukurichi region, all respondents from the other regions have problems. All the respondents from Anjengo face problems associated from suspiciousness. This is the major problem pointed out. Only 52 % discuss sexual matters with their wives. Between regions the 85 % respondents from Valiathura region said that they discuss sexual matters with their partner. Fig 2.24: Discuss sexual matters with their wives (%) 90.0 80.0 70.0 60.0 50.0 40.0 30.0 20.0 10.0 0.0

Sakhi /TSSS

84.6 61.5 44.8 30.8

50.0

50.0

52.1 yes

54


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 2.25: Quarrel with their wives and the reasons (%) 60.00

53.54

50.00 40.00 30.00

26.42

20.00

33.96

32.08 18.87

24.53

10.00

%

5.66

0.00

54 % of the respondents quarrel with their wives. The main reasons highlighted are alcoholism (32 %) and problems related to children (34%). In Anjengo, 93 % of the respondents quarrel with their wives. The least is reported by Pulluvila and Thothoor regions. Fig 2.26: Beaten their wives (%) 60 50

57

53

48

53 41

40 30 20 10

8

14

Yes (%)

0

41 % have beaten their wives. Highest is seen in Anjengo and the least is reported in Thothoor and Pulluvila region. 83 % men consider they have no right to beat their wives. While only 71 % men from Anjengo agree to it, all the respondents from Pulluvila and Thothoor is of the opinion that men have no right to beat their wives.

Sakhi /TSSS

55


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Fig 2.27: Right to beat their wives (%) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

100 79

100

80

83 73

71

No (%)

99 % agrees that women have freedom to go out. But the survey, points out that it is limited to church and SHG meetings. But 18 % agrees women have the freedom to go for movies. 96 % agrees that women have the freedom and should be part of decision making. Women have freedom and involvement in decisions mainly with regard to the education of children, followed by construction of house, marriage higher education and purchase of fishing equipments. Fig 2.28: Involvement of decision making (%)

120 100

96

80 60

80

95 66

53

57

40 20 0

Sakhi /TSSS

% Total

56


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Sakhi /TSSS

57


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Sakhi /TSSS

58


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Summary The survey carried out in six region’s in Trivandrum district covering 583 households. First 483 fisherwomen were surveyed and then to validate the findings 100 fishermen was interviewed. The fisherwomen between the age of 25 and 80 were interviewed while the fisher men interviewed comes between 24 and 75. The following characteristics of the regions reported by women reveal the living conditions of fisher households.  The overall average family size is 6.4.  Sex ratio is in favour of males.  Only children from 54% households attend school.  71 % of the fisherwomen live in their own houses  33 % started working before marriage between the age 5 and 26.  73 % sell fish in the markets, 37 % does door to door selling and only 9 % of the respondents use road side space for selling fish.  20% of the respondents go more than once for selling fish  Only 20% pointed out the availability of drinking water in the market. 66 % said there is toilet facilities, 42 % said there is shed.72 % said the toilets in the market are not useable.  Only 3 % have membership in trade union.  Only 57 % of them received a share of their husbands income.  85 % of the respondents take loan to organise their capital. 66 % depend mainly on private financiers, 65 % on SHGs and 26 % from Banks.  81 % women said it is the responsibility of women to repay the loans availed for the family.  62 % are literates. 76% of the respondents had only less than 8 years of formal education,  Formal education was not taken by 38 % of the respondents due to poverty; looking after younger siblings, lack of parental interest, health problems, lack of self interest and too poor in studies.  Marriages have taken place between the age of 13 and 33. 19 % got married before 18 years,  91 % of the women were given dowry in the form of money, gold, house and fishing equipment.  12 % of the respondents were harassed for money by husband’s family  11 % do not get drinking water.  23 % of the houses do not have toilet facilities.  Household waste is either thrown into the sea or lake.  The medical problems faced by them are related to orthopaedic, breathing related, blood pressure, diabetics’, urinary infections and skin related. Sakhi /TSSS

59


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012                

  

       

94 % depend on allopathy. A whelming 77 % avail government health care facilities. The diseases seen around the locality are cancer, uterus related, different kinds of fever and leprosy. 76 % respondents did not have information regarding menstruation before menarche. Only 8 % use sanitary pads. Only 21 % got information regarding sexuality before marriage. 95 % of them underwent tubectomy. Of which 78 % underwent tubectomy between the age of 21 to 30. 94% of the respondents had normal delivery. Around 10 % have undergone hysterectomy. 44 % have membership in religious organisation but the leadership role taken by them remains low. Even though 44 % of them have membership in the trade unions, But only 5% of the respondents have political affiliation. Half of the women respondents participate in gram sabhas. 64 % of the respondents has experienced domestic violence. 15 % has experienced sexual violence in their life. 39 % have experienced violence during their pregnancy period. 38 % believe that husbands have the right to beat their wife. The major findings from fishermen survey: 48 % of the members in the 100 households are above 60 years. Only 47% have their own equipment and only 44 % use it.. The savings is used for different purposes. Children’s education (80 %) followed by daily by daily expense (78 %). Around 20 to 17 % of the fisherwomen saved for old age, purchase of land, gold and house construction. The income is spend for various purposes like daily expense, education, to go to gulf, maintence of house and for treatment. 18% spend their earnings on alcohol. . 70 % of the respondents had availed financial assistance from different sources. 71 % depend mainly on private financiers, 36 % on SHGs and 40 % from Banks. 86 % of the fishermen said it is their responsibility to repay the loans availed for the family. 75 % are literates. 71% of the respondents had only less than 8 years of formal education 60 % discontinued due to poverty and 36 % due to lack of interest. Marriage has taken place between the age of 17 and 31. 4 % got married between the age of 17 and 20 years,

Sakhi /TSSS

60


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012           

90 % of the men got dowry in the form of money, gold, house, land and fishing equipment. 21% of the respondents have political affiliation. Only 31 % participated in gram sabhas. 88 % take allopathy treatment. 70 % got information regarding sexuality before marriage. Only 9 % had sexual problems. Only 52 % discuss sexual matters with their wives. 54 % of the respondents quarrel with their wives. The main reasons highlighted are alcoholism (32 %) and problems related to children (34%). 41 % have beaten their wives. 83 % men consider they have no right to beat their wives. 99 % agrees that women have freedom to go out but limited to church and SHG meetings. 18 % agrees women have the freedom to go for movies.

The family size is big because in each house there is more than one family. Another major issue is the sex ratio which in favour of males. There are a large number of people above the age of sixty. Both the issues needs to be seriously dealt with. Intervention is necessary in the housing of the fishing community. 29 % still do not have their own home to stay. There are still houses with no water connections and toilet facilities. And in houses where there is toilet but are not useable. There are no facilities for the collection / disposal of household waste. Many diseases like cancer, orthopaedic, women related, breathing related, blood pressure, diabetics’, urinary infections and skin related are reported. In some areas there is leprosy also. Three fourth depend on government hospitals. Women are far behind men with regard to knowledge on sexuality and reproductive matters before marriage. Sanitary napkins are used by very few women. Only few women discuss sexual matters with their husbands. Family planning methods seems to be the responsibility of women. 95 % of the women underwent tubectomy. Three fourth had to do it before the age of 30. Education seems to be of less interest to the fishing community. Data shows that children start supporting the family from the age of five. Additional support and motivation is to be given to the parents and children. Since poverty is one of the reasons for discontinuing education, interventions need to be taken to ensure that children get enough nutrition. Additional coaching in difficult subjects need to be provided to the children after school. Women mainly use market for selling the catch. But the markets do not have the sufficient basic facilities needed for women vendors. Therefore, the facilities in the market need to be Sakhi /TSSS

61


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 improved. Some of the issues pointed out are the lack of space in bus, smell of fish, alcoholics, competition and vulgar language. Drinking water should be available in all the markets. Even though most of the markets have toilets but they are not useable. It should be ensured that it is kept clean, have doors and water. Less than 20 % of the men and women interviewed said that a part of the income is spend on alcohol. If necessary facilities for de addiction and awareness should be provided to stop the consumption of alcohol. Major part of the income is spend for repayment for loans taken for various matters. Early marriages are very common among the fishing community. Both men and women get married before 20 and some of them got married before the age of 18. Awareness has to be created about the legal issues, physical and mental issues related to early marriage. Around half the men agree that they beat their wives. But only 17 % of the men and 38 % of the women believe that husbands have right to beat wife. More than half the men agree that they quarrel with their wives due to consumption of alcohol and with matters related to children. Physical violence is very common followed by burning and threatening to kill. Even during pregnancy period women have experienced violence. Also 15 % has experienced sexual violence in their life. So intervention and awareness creation is necessary to curtail the violence which is prevalent in the community. Half of the women have membership in trade unions and religious organization but very few have taken leadership role. Half of the women participate in gram sabhas. While only few women have political affiliation, we find more men have political affiliation. Men prefer to restrict the mobility of women to surrounding areas like church and SHG. But a few men agree women can go for films. Women have to be empowered and encouraged to take leadership roles.

Sakhi /TSSS

62


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Annexure 1: Brief note on the six regions: Valiathura is a coastal area in Trivandrum Corporation. The main occupation is fishing and fish vending. Even though it is part of the city, the area remains underdeveloped. The people living in this area face the following problems. The major problems in this area are lack of basic facilities in the houses, most of the people have no own fishing equipment, loans are taken regularly to purchase fishing equipments leading to debt, alcoholism is very high and have problems related to this also. Education is not given much significance due to the workload and poverty. Some people have no own land and houses, lack of fisher men cooperative societies, no protection for the fishermen in the sea, lack of other job opportunities. The people have lifestyle diseases and lack of health club to resolve these problems. The toilets are not concrete. Puthukurichi region is a coastal area . In this forane, 10% of the women and men suffering from diseases related to old age. Some of the people have no proper houses. Thothoor region is a coastal area in Tamilnadu District. The region is divided into 7 panchayats. Two are town and the rest gram panchayats. 96 % of the people are engaged in fishing and fish vending. Most of the people are highly educated. The major problem is lack of land and high density of population. The Pulluvila region consists of 30 wards divided into 4 panchayats. The region is thickly populated. Therefore, more than two families live together in one house. In this area, the communicable diseases are common, shortage of water, lack of drainage facilities. The toilet facilities are in a very pathetic condition. There are no facilities for waste disposal. In Kovalam region the population density is high in Poonthura and Vizhinjam area. So the diseases like fever, chicken guinea, dengue fever, cough, TB and dysentery are common in these areas. In Vizhinjam area, there is no drinking water facility and drinking water is not available for purchase. There are no facilities for waste disposal. The toilet facilities are not proper. Anjengo region is situated in coastal area. It is thickly populated with fishing as the major occupation. The lack of land is a main problem. The lack of basic facilities like toilet, proper houses, lack of water and electricity. Most of the people are below poverty line. Cleanliness is very low. There are no facilities for waste disposal. Diseases like leprosy, TB, elephantiasis and cancer are common. Alcoholism and uses of drugs are very high.

Sakhi /TSSS

63


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Annexure 2: Tables generated from the survey of women fish vendors Region Anjengo

Kovalam

Pulluvila

Puthukurichi

Thothoor

Valiathura

Sakhi /TSSS

Table 1.1: Selected region, place/ unit and households Place, Unit Households Anjengo 11 Arayathuruthi 10 Ayiroor 8 Sub Total (3) 29 Kovalam 2 Vizhinjam 37 Poonthura 46 Punnamoodu 1 Sub Total (4) 86 Adimalathura 17 Karumkulam 4 Kochuthura 12 Kollamkodu 10 Pallam 5 Paruthiyoor 13 Poovar 7 Pulluvila 14 Sub Total (8) 82 Fathima Thumpa 1 Fathimapuram 13 Marianadu 10 Pallithura 8 Thumba 31 Puthenthoppu 10 Shanthipuram 6 St.Andrews 11 Sub Total (8) 90 Chinnathura 4 E.P.Thura 12 Irayimmanthura 9 Marthandanthura 17 Neerodi 19 Poothura 16 Thothoor 12 Vallavila 2 Sub Total (8) 91 Valiathura 9 Valiaveli 19 Thoppu 13 Vettukadu 12 Cheriathura 10 Kannamthura 9 Kochuthope 10 Kochuveli 8 Sub Total (8) 90 Not mentioned 15 Total 483

% 2.28 2.07 1.66 6.00 0.41 7.66 9.52 0.21 17.81 3.52 0.83 2.48 2.07 1.04 2.69 1.45 2.90 16.98 0.21 2.69 2.07 1.66 6.42 2.07 1.24 2.28 18.63 0.83 2.48 1.86 3.52 3.93 3.31 2.48 0.41 18.84 1.86 3.93 2.69 2.48 2.07 1.86 2.07 1.66 18.63 3.11 100.00

64


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Table 1.2: Age and marital status of the women Married

Age

Unmarried

Widow

Deserted

Divorced

Living together

Second marriage

Total

%

25

1

1

0.2

26-30

5

5

1.0

31-35

16

16

3.3

36-40

49

9

58

12.0

41-45

68

7

1

76

15.7

46-50

91

1

110

22.8

51-55

74

91

18.8

56-60

40

23

64

13.3

61-65

24

16

40

8.3

66-70

12

5

17

3.5

71-75

1

2

3

0.6

2

2

0.4 100.0

17 1

76-80 Total %

1

15

1 1

381

1

96

1

1

1

2

483

78.9

0.2

19.9

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.4

100.0

Table 1.3: Region wise family size and sex composition of households

Region

Male

Anjengo Ovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura

63 166 178 180 216 190

Total

993 (31.89)

Sakhi /TSSS

(31.34) (30.02) (29.37) (32.03) (35.18) (32.87)

Female 42 128 122 139 148 125

(20.90) (23.15) (20.13) (24.73) (24.10) (21.63)

704 (22.61)

Boy 68 138 200 154 172 166

(33.83) (24.95) (33.00) (27.40) (28.01) (28.72)

898 (28.84)

Girl 28 121 106 89 78 97

(13.93) (21.88) (17.49) (15.84) (12.70) (16.78)

519 (16.67)

Total members 201 553 606 562 614 578

Average family size

(100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) 3114 (100.0)

6.7 5.9 6.6 6.2 6.7 6.4 6.4

65


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.4: Sex ratio of adults and children Sex ratio

Total adult persons

Boy

Girl

Sex ratio

Total children

6.19

68

28

412

96

294

17.32

138

121

877

259

685

300

17.68

200

106

530

306

139

772

319

18.80

154

89

578

243

216

148

685

364

21.45

172

78

453

250

Valiathura

190

125

658

315

18.56

166

97

584

263

Total

993

704

709

1697

100.00

898

519

578

1417

Region

Male

Female

Anjengo

63

42

667

105

Kovalam

166

128

771

Pulluvila

178

122

Puthukurichi

180

Thothoor

%

% 6.77 18.2 8 21.5 9 17.1 5 17.6 4 18.5 6 100. 00

Table 1.5: Family members above 60 years Region

Male

Female

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total %

1 14 12 29 14 29 99 43.04

10 17 16 31 24 33 131 56.95

Total members 11 31 28 60 38 62 230

% 12.5 10.2 10.2 20.6 15.5 20.7 15.3

Table 1.6: School going children Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Total children 96 259 306 243 250 263 1417

Total school going children (<3) 34 78 59 112 63 83 429

% 35.42 30.12 19.28 46.09 25.20 31.56 30.28

66


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.7 Number and percentage of households by ownership of house

Own

With children

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila

27 (90.0) 65 (72.2) 78 (84.8)

2 (6.7) 12 (13.3) 11 (12.0)

1 (3.3) 8 (8.9)

Puthukurichi

45 (50.0)

39 (43.3)

2 (2.2)

Thothoor Valiathura

72 (79.1) 57 (63.3)

10 (11.0) 24 (26.7)

3 (3.3) 1 (1.1)

Total

344(71.2)

98 (20.3)

15 (3.1)

Region

Rent

Husban ds family house

Wife's family house

With sibling

Tenant

Leased

Total

2 (2.2) 2 (2.2)

1 (1.1)

1 (1.1)

1 (1.1)

30 90 92

1 (1.1)

2 (2.2)

1 (1.1)

90

2 (2.2)

2 (2.2) 7 (7.8)

1 (1.1) 1 (1.1)

1 (1.1)

91 90

3 (0.6)

14(2.9)

5 (1.0)

3 (0.6)

1 (1.1)

1 (0.2)

48

Table 1.8 Occupational pattern

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Selling

Preservation

11 (36.7) 89 (98.9) 75 (81.5) 39 (43.3) 80 (87.9) 58 (64.4) 352 (72.9)

15(50.0) 1(1.1) 8 (8.9)

24 (5.0)

Selling and preservation 2(6.7) 1(1.1) 15(16.3) 43 (47.8) 11 (12.1) 32 (35.6) 104 (21.5)

(% given in parenthesis) Head Ice load selling vendor 1(3.3) 1(3.3) 1(1.1)

1 (0.2)

2 (0.4)

Total 30 90 92 90 91 90 483

Table 1.9 Time to do domestic work (% given in parenthesis) Yes

No

Total

Selling Preservation Loading Ice selling selling and preservation

321 (91.19 24 (100) 1 (100) 2 (100) 95 (92.23)

31 (8.81)

8 (7.77)

352 24 1 2 103

Total

443 (91.91)

39 (8..09)

482

Sakhi /TSSS

67


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.10 Attitude of the society Travelling Market 30 (100.00) 30 (100.00) 80 (88.89) 87 (96.97) 86 (93.48) 90 (97.83) 89 (98.89) 87 (96.67) 86 (94.51) 87 (95.60) 75 (83.33) 72 (80.00) 446 (92.34) 453 (93.79)

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total %

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

5-10 1 11 8 4 7 31 6.50

11-15 17 26 6 3 23 75 15.72

16-20 5 14 7 21 8 25 80 16.77

Table 1.11 Age of work 21-25 26-30 31-35 7 9 6 16 8 14 14 13 10 17 23 8 16 34 15 16 9 6 86 96 59 18.03 20.13 12.37

Other places 30 (100.00) 88 (97.78) 90 (97.83) 89 (98.89) 91 (100.00) 74 (82.22) 462 (95.65)

36-40 0 8 9 4 10 3 34 7.13

41-50 0 1 5 3 4 1 14 2.94

Table 1.12 Started working before or after marriage Before marriage After marriage 2 (7.4) 25 (92.6) 33 (36.7) 57 (63.3) 40 (43.5) 52 (56.5) 25 (28.7) 62 (71.3) 5 (5.5) 86 (94.5) 50 (55.6) 40 (44.4) 155 (32.5) 322 (67.5)

Table 1.13 Vending areas Market Houses 13 (43.3) 20 (66.7) 66 (73.3) 31 (34.4) 76 (82.6) 31 (33.7) 67 (74.4) 43 (47.8) 82 (90.1) 20 (22.0) 48 (53.3) 35 (38.9) 352 (72.9) 180 (37.3)

Total 30 90 92 90 91 90 483

54

1 1 2 0.42

Total 28 89 92 87 91 90 477 100.00

Total 27 90 92 87 91 90 477

Road side 5 (16.7) 7 (7.8) 4 (4.3) 9 (10.0) 3 (3.3) 20 (22.2) 48 (9.9)

68


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Table 1.14 Vending number of times per day (% in brackets) One time Twice More than two times 24 (88.9) 3 (11.1) 68 (75.6) 14 (15.6) 8 (8.9) 81 (89.0) 9 (9.9) 1 (1.1) 66 (75.9) 16 (18.4) 5 (5.7) 65 (71.4) 26 (28.6) 77 (85.6) 13 (14.4) 381 (80.0) 81 (17.0) 14 (2.9)

Total 27 90 91 87 91 90 476

Table 1.15 Purchase of fish (% in brackets) Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Public market 4 37 54 45 13 66 219

(13.3) (41.1) (58.7) (50.0) (14.3) (73.3) (45.3)

Own village 23 71 84 79 85 47 389

(76.7) (78.9) (91.3) (87.8) (93.4) (52.2) (80.5)

Harbour

From other places

1 (3.3) 19 (21.1) 39 (42.4) 3 (3.3) 32 (35.2) 8 (8.9) 102 (21.1)

3 (10.0) 2 (2.2) 2 (2.2)

7 (1.4)

Table 1.16 Organizing the capital (% in brackets) Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Own fund 21 (70.0) 29 (32.2) 20 (21.7) 21 (23.3) 34 (37.4) 3 (3.3) 128 (26.5)

Loan taken 21 83 78 86 81 61 410

(70.0) (92.2) (84.8) (95.6) (89.0) (67.8) (84.9)

Savings 22 (73.3) 1 (1.1) 49 (53.3) 2 (2.2) 68 (74.7) 27 (30.0) 169 (35.0)

69


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.17 Market tax (% in brackets) Region

Total

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

13 66 76 67 82 48 352

11 54 57 63 62 39 286

Yes

Rs 3 to 10

Rs 11 to 20

Rs 21 to 50

(84.6) (81.8) (75.0) (94.0) (75.6) (81.3) (81.3)

11 (100) 13 (24.07) 21 (36.84) 52 (82.54) 34(54.84) 18 (46.15) 149 (52.10)

38 (70.37) 10 (17.54) 8 (12.70) 4 (6.45) 12 (30.77) 72 (25.17)

3 (5.56) 23 (40.35) 3 (4.76) 24 (38.71) 8 (20.51) 61 (21.33)

Rs 51 to 100

3 (5.26)

1 (2.56) 4 (1.40)

Table 1.18 Market Facilities (% in brackets) Facilities Region

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Drinking water 2 (20.0) 12 (18.2) 9 (13.6) 18 (26.9) 3

(3.8)

24 (52.2) 68 (20.4)

Are toilets useable?

If not, why?

Toilet

Shed

Yes

No

No water

No door

6 (46.15) 49 (74.24) 35 (46.05) 62 (92.54) 48 (58.54) 33 (68.75) 233 (66.19)

9 (69.23) 40 (60.61) 11 (14.47) 37 (55.22) 23 (28.05) 26 (54.17) 146 (41.48)

2 (33.3)

4 (66.7)

1

1

2 (4.1) 16 (45.7) 9 (14.5) 17 (35.4) 20 (60.6) 66 (28.3)

47 (95.9) 19 (54.3) 53 (85.5) 31 (64.6) 13 (39.4) 167 (71.7)

Un clean

4

28

1 8

2

38

5

3

1

1

7

20

4

76

Table 1.19 Functioning of trade unions in the markets Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Yes

No 1 (7.7) 28 (42.4) 18 (26.1) 57 (85.1) 7 (8.5) 40 (85.1) 151 (43.9)

Total 12 38 51 10 75 7 193

(92.3) (57.6) (73.9) (14.9) (91.5) (14.9) (56.1)

13 66 69 67 82 47 344

70


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.20 Difficulties experienced in the market

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

64 9 20 60 30 183

Yes

No

Total

(86.49) (11.25) (28.57) (68.18) (42.25) (46.21)

13 (100.00) 10 (13.51) 71 (88.75) 50 (71.43) 28 (31.82) 41 (57.75) 213 (53.79)

13 74 80 70 88 71 396

Table 1.21

Lack of water Lack of toilet Lack of shed Competition for selling and space Lack of space for resting & selling Nuisance by the loading workers and heavy charge Market is unclean Market tax (Kadakash) is compulsory Alcoholism and other sexual practices are increasing in the market No unity between sellers Unnecessary touch Bad behaviour from the muslim persons Difficulties for travelling Heavy shop charge Male domination No space to dump the waste Problems from the customer Insufficient space, when there is more fish

Sakhi /TSSS

Type of difficulties faced

Kovalam

Pulluvila

Puthukurichi

44 39 28 1

3 3 1

1 5 3

8

1

3

1

5

3

Thothoor

Valiathura

Total

38 7 6 26

11 7 9 2

97 61 47 29

6

1

16

5

1

11

2 2

7 1

3

2 1

2

1

2 2

2 1

1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1 1

1

1

1 1

71


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Table 1.22 Savings and Expenditure (% given in parenthesis)

Region

Saving from income

Purpose

Yes

Daily expense

Anjengo

29 (96.55)

28 (93.55)

Education of children 19 (65.52)

Kovalam

88 (97.78)

86 (97.73)

Pulluvila

90 (97.83)

Puthukurichi

For marriage

For old age

Build house

Buy gold

7 (24.14)

7 (24.14)

8 (27.59)

7 (24.14)

27 (30.68)

34 (38.64)

7 (7.95)

9 (10.23)

5 (5.68)

88 (97.78)

55 (61.11)

32 (35.56)

11 (12.22)

15 (16.67)

17 (18.89)

81 (90.00)

77 (95.06)

21 (25.93)

8 (9.88)

20 (24.89)

4 (4.94)

Thothoor

91 (100.00)

86 (94.51)

48 (52.75)

49 (53.85)

19 (20.88)

6 (6.59)

9 (9.89)

Valiathura

87 (96.67)

87 (100)

15 (17.24)

5 (5.75)

22 (25.29)

6 (6.90)

2 (2.30)

Total

466 (96.48)

452 (97.0)

185 (39.70)

135 (28.97)

86 (18.45)

48 (10.3)

40 (8.58)

Table 1.23

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

3 (3.33) 1 (1.23)

5 (1.07)

Share from husbandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s income for domestic expense (% given in parenthesis) Level of contribution

Yes 23 51 78 38 44 42 276

To buy land 1 (3.45)

(76.67) (56.67) (84.78) (42.22) (48.35) (46.67) (57.14)

Less than 25 % 1 17 4 6 15 5 47

(4.35) (33.33) (5.13) (15.79) (34.09) (11.90) (17.03)

25 to 50% 1 21 11 3 12 9 57

(4.35) (41.18) (14.10) (7.89) (27.27) (21.43) (20.65)

50-75% 2 (8.7) 9 (17.65) 42 (53.85) 1 (2.63) 12 (27.27) 18 (42.86) 84 (30.43)

Full amount 19 4 21 28 5 10 87

(82.61) (7.84) (26.92) (73.68) (11.36) (23.81) (31.52)

72


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.24 Household income and expenditure (% given in parenthesis) Daily expense Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

24 88 88 80 88 83 451

(80.00) (97.78) (95.65) (88.89) (96.70) (92.22) (93.37)

Repay debts 20 57 49 33 32 36 227

(66.67) (63.33) (53.26) (36.67) (35.16) (40.00) (47.00)

Treatment 23 36 16 46 56 43 220

(76.67) (40.00) (17.39) (51.11) (61.54) (47.78) (45.55)

Children's education 17 27 50 29 34 17 174

(56.67) (30.00) (54.35) (32.22) (37.36) (18.89) (36.02)

Alcohol consumption 3 (10.00) 16 (17.78) 27 (29.35) 5 (5.56) 33 (36.26) 9 (10.00) 93 (19.25)

Table 1.25

Level and sources of household indebtedness (% given in parenthesis) From From Private Chitt Gold SHG Bank TSSS relative siblin financiers y Loan s gs

Region

Yes, availed loan

Anjengo

28 (93.33)

9 (32.14)

26 (92.86)

16 (57.14)

Kovalam

80 (88.89)

61 (76.25)

62 (77.50)

15 (18.75)

Pulluvila

89 (96.74)

65 (73.03)

80 (89.89)

8 (8.99)

Puthukurichi

76 (84.44)

27 (35.53)

48 (63.16)

42 (55.26)

Thothoor

78 (85.71)

61 (78.21)

49 (62.82)

14 (17.95)

Valiathura

62 (68.89)

50 (80.65)

4 (6.45)

14 (22.56)

Total

413 (85.50)

273 (66.10)

269 (65.13)

109 (26.39)

1 (3.57) 1 (1.25) 1 (1.12) 1 (1.32)

2 (0.48)

1 (0.24)

1 (0.24)

1 (1.61)

1 (1.61)

1 (0.24)

1 (0.24)

Table 1.26 Repayment responsibility by women Regions Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Yes

%

18 78 35 75 73 57 336

64.29 97.50 39.33 98.68 93.59 91.94 81.36

73


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Table 1. 27 Literacy status of region wise respondents by number of years of education (% given in parenthesis) Literates & More than Literacy Less than 8 Yrs 8 Yrs 10 Yrs 12 Yrs 12yrs rate 28 (93.33) 14 (50.00) 4 (14.29) 8 (28.57) 1 (3.57) 1 (3.57) 36 (40.00) 30 (83.33) 3 (8.33) 3 (8.33) 39 (42.39) 29 (74.36) 8 (20.51) 2 (5.13) 73 (81.11) 53 (72.60) 8 (10.96) 9 (12.33) 3 (4.11) 49 (53.85) 42 (85.71) 3 (6.12) 4 (8.16) 74 (82.22) 61 (82.43) 9 (12.16) 4 (5.41) 299 (61.90) 229 (76.59) 35 (11.71) 30 (10.03) 4 (1.34) 1 (0.33)

Table 1.28 Factors for not studying (% given in parenthesis) Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Poverty 1 48 30 10 12 6 107

(50.0) (88.9) (56.6) (58.8) (28.6) (37.5) (58.2)

To look after younger siblings 9 (16.7) 2 (3.8) 13 (31.0) 3 (18.8) 27 (14.7)

Lack of parental interest 8 15 3 26 3 55

(14.8) (28.3) (17.6) (61.9) (18.8) (29.9)

Health problems 2 1 1 1

(3.7) (1.9) (5.9) (2.4)

5 (2.7)

Not Interested 8 36 2 19 2 67

Poor in studies

(14.8) (67.9) (11.8) (45.2) (12.5) (36.4)

2 (3.7)

3 (7.1) 5 (2.7)

Table 1.29 At what age did you get married? Regions Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

13-17 1 30 25 13 14 14 94

% 3.33 33.33 27.17 14.44 15.38 15.56 19.46

18-20 19 37 45 37 61 47 246

% 63.33 41.11 48.91 41.11 67.03 52.22 50.93

21-25 9 16 24 35 16 24 124

% 30.00 17.78 26.09 38.89 17.58 26.67 25.67

26-33

%

4

4.44

5

5.56

1 10

1.11 2.07

74


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.30 Dowry received Get dowry Yes 27 82 84 82 87 76 438 (90.87)

Regions Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Money

Gold

House

26 79 82 77 84 76 424

25 78 71 71 74 61 380

3 6 6 13

28

Fishing equipments 4 1 7 3 15

Table 1.31 Harassment for dowry and when Harassment Yes

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

When children are born

1 22 4 7 15 11 60

During house construction

For other needs

3

6 1 1 1 1 10

10 1 3 12 9 35

5 8

Table 1.32 Facilities in your house Toilet

Drinking water

Yes

Yes

Regions

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

25 (83.33) 73 (81.11) 68 (73.91) 81 (90.00) 53 (58.24) 74 (82.22) 374 (77.43)

28 55 91 84 82 88 428

(93.33) (61.11) (98.91) (93.33) (90.11) (97.78) (88.61)

Source of drinking water Own pipe 12 36 48 82 9 16 203

(40.00) (40.00) (52.17) (91.11) (9.89) (17.78) (42.03)

Public pipe 9 19 33 1 73 64 199

(30.00) (21.11) (35.87) (1.11) (80.22) (71.11) (41.20)

From neighbors house 7 () 13 (14.13) 1 (1.11) 6 (6.67) 27 (5.59)

75


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.33 Facilities for solid waste management Anjengo

Kovalam

Pulluvila

Puthukurichi

Thothoor

Valiathura

Total

%

9 4

66 4

70 30

4 72

75 10

19 14

243 134

50.31 27.74

15

6

6

28

20

19

94

19.46

2

9

25

3 1

32 24

71 25

14.70 5.18

12

2.48

1

4

0.83

3

3

0.62

2

0.41

Throw into the sea Put in a pit Dispose near the house/ private place Burn Kudumbashree Throw in to the lake/ pond Corporation / Panchayat Throw in to public place In the bushes

6

3

3

3

2

Table 1.34 Taking medication for health problems Medication taken for Orthopaedic Breathing related / Asthma Blood Pressure Diabetes Urinary infection Skin Heart related problems TB Thyroid Uterus related problems Cholesterol Headache Cancer Diarrohea Disease related to climate change Gas problems Jaundice Sinusitis Swelling in the breast Ulcer

Sakhi /TSSS

Anjengo

Kovalam

Pulluvila

Puthukurichi

Thothoor

Valiathura

Total

11

33

23

29

23

51

170

4

30

19

20

52

22

147

4 4 2 2 1

16 10 9 12 2 1

18 3 7 4 1 1 1

25 16 5 4 2 1 2 1 2

26 16 2 3

12 19 5

101 68 30 25 8 4 4 4 4 2 1 1

1

2 1 2

1

1 2 1

1 1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

76


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.35 Kinds of treatment and where Regions

Allopathy

Ayurveda

Homeo

Govt. Hospital

Pvt Hospital 3 70 50 18 84

1

Nursing home

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor

30 87 79 88 87

1 5 15 3 19

1

29 85 54 81 62

Valiathura

85

7

1

61

47

1

456 94.41

50 10.35

2 0.41

372 77.02

272 56.31

3 0.62

Total %

1

Table 1.36 Kinds of diseases seen in their locality Types Cancer Uterus related Diarrhoea Chicken guinea TB Dengue Malaria Rat fever Fever Leprosy Heart related Problems Chicken pox Breathing related problems Jaundice Kidney problems Skin problems Sugar

Sakhi /TSSS

Anjengo

Kovalam

Pulluvila

Puthukurichi

Thothoor

Valiathura

Total

27 21 2 8 14 2

61 12 19 45 4 1 7 1 3 10 1

5

5 1

79 74 75 28 50 53 52 54

24 20 1 3 1 5 1

201 128 98 86 71 65 60 58 57 23 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

9

1 1 2 2 3 35

1 2

17

2 4 1

1

1 1 1

1 1 1

77


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Table 1.37 Source and information about menstruation before menarche Regions

Information Yes

%

Anjengo

1

3.33

Kovalam

61

67.78

Pulluvila

9

9.78

Puthukurichi

20

22.22

Thothoor

10

10.99

Valiathura

17

18.89

118

24.43

Total

Mother

Siblings

1 (100.00) 30 (49.18) 1 (11.11) 11 (55.00) 5 (50.00) 7 (41.18) 55 (46.61)

15 (24.59) 1 (11.11) 4 (20.00) 1 (10.00) 4 (23.53) 25 (21.19)

Friends

1 (11.11) 2 (10.00) 5 (50.00) 4 (23.53) 21 (17.80)

Books

Religious class

3 (4.92) 1 (11.11)

KCYM, Vanitha Vedi

3 (4.92) 2 (22.22) 2 (10.00) 5 (10.00)

4 (3.39)

8 (6.78)

1 (5.88) 1 (0.85)

Table 1.38 Hygienic practices during menstruation Regions Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Cloth

Pad

22 85 89 89 87 81 453

14 8 2 3 3 10 40

Undergar ments

3

3

Cloth (%)

Pad (%)

73.33 94.44 96.74 98.89 95.60 90.00 93.79

46.67 8.89 2.17 3.33 3.30 11.11 8.28

Undergarments (%)

3.33

0.62

78


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Table 1.39 Information on sexuality and source

Anjengo

Information about sexuality before marriage Yes 5 (17.24)

Kovalam

44 (48.89)

10 (22.72)

6 (13.64)

Pulluvila

9 (9.78)

1 (11.11)

1 (11.11)

Puthukurichi

18 (20.0)

3 (16.66)

3 (16.67)

Thothoor

6 (6.59)

1 (16.67)

Valiathura

17 (18.89)

2 (11.76)

Total

99 (20.54)

17 (17.17)

Regions

Region

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Mother

Sister

Friends

Religious class

Health class

Lover

1 (20.0) 16 (36.364)

12 (27.27)

Premarriage course 2 (40.0)

3 (6.81)

2 (4.54)

4 (44.44)

2 (22.22)

3 (16.67)

12 (66.67)

2 (11.11)

2 (33.33)

3 (50.0)

3 (17.65)

5 (29.41)

1 (5.88)

13 (13.13)

26 (26.3)

33 (33.33)

3 (3.03)

4 (23.53)

1 (5.88)

4 (4.04)

9 (9.09)

Table 1.40 Discussion of sexual matters and sexual problems When Discuss Have not Doubtful/susp Doubtful Husband' sexual sexual interested icious about about s lack of matters problems comply in me husband interest (Yes) (Yes) sexual relation 5 4 2 (50.0) 3 (75.0) (17.24) (13.79) 44 18 10 18 11 (25.0) 7 (15.91) (20.0) (48.89) (40.91) (22.73) 3 6 19 23 2 (8.70) 10 (43.48) (13.04) (26.09) (20.65) (25.0) 63 2 (2.22) 1 (50.0) (70.0) 27 10 17 9 (33.3) 1 (3.70) 2 (7.41) (29.67) (10.99) (62.96) 47 26 5 (19.23) 1 (3.85) 8 (30.77) 2 (7.69) (52.22) (28.89) 52 16 126 12 162 38 (30.16) (26.14) (9.52) (41.27) (12.70) (33.61)

Not interested when alcohol is consumed

1 (3.85) 1 (.79)

79


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.41 Approached anyone to solve sexual problems Regions Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Yes

% 0.0 36.4 26.1 0.0 3.7 7.7 19.8

16 6 1 2 25

Table 42 Family planning and methods

Regions

Family planning

Anjengo

27 (93.1)

Kovalam

70 (77.8)

1 (1.43)

Pulluvila

72 (78.3)

4 (5.56)

Puthukurichi

66 (73.3)

1 (1.52)

Thothoor

59 (64.8)

1 (1.69)

Valiathura

72 (80.0)

Total

366 (75.9)

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Pills

Copper T

Cond om

Safe period

Vasectomy

Tubectomy

Withdrawal

27 (100)

2 (0.55)

3 (4.55)

1 (1.52)

68 (97.14) 2

(2.78)

5 (7.58)

1 (1.43)

70 (97.22) 65 (98.48) 56 (94.92)

3 (0.82)

1 (0.27)

6 (8.33)

62 (86.11)

8 (2.19)

348 (95.08)

Table 1.43 Type of deliveries and hysterectomy Hysterectomy Normal % Caesarian % Yes 1 27 93.10 1 3.45 6 84 93.33 6 6.67 8 85 92.39 3 3.26 12 84 93.33 5 5.56 5 87 95.60 3 3.30 16 85 94.44 0.00 48 452 93.78 18 3.73

2 (3.39)

3 (0.82)

% 3.33 6.67 8.70 13.33 5.49 17.78 9.94

80


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.44 Membership / participation/ leadership in religious organisation Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Yes

% 9 35 38 43 51 37 213

Yes 30.0 38.9 41.3 47.8 56.0 41.1 44.1

% 8 12 38 40 43 31 172

Yes

88.9 34.3 100.0 93.0 84.3 83.8 80.8

% 6 9 7 20 4 10 56

75.0 75.0 18.4 50.0 9.3 32.3 32.6

Table 1.45 Membership in political party Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Yes 1 13 3 3 2 3 25

% 3.33 14.44 3.26 3.33 2.20 3.33 5.18

Table 1.46 Membership in Organisation Membership

Region

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Organisation TSSS Fish Wieldi ng Forum

Yes

30 90 92 90 91 90 483

30 90 92 90 91 90 483

Politica l Organis ation

Cooperat ive societies

1 1

18 1

1 2 1 6

1 6 8 34

SHG

Mahila Samaja m

27 74 75 11 23 49 259

1 1 1 1 3 2 9

Labour forums

Cultu ral Foru ms

1 1

1

2 2 7 13

1

2

81


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.47 Achievements after becoming a member of SHG

Region

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total %

Could come out of the house and work 27 29 60 82 39 52 289 59.83

Saving habit

From the clutches of private money lenders

Lead to selfgrowth

Could repay debt

28 37 77 75 72 43 332 68.74

27 53 63 53 68 66 330 68.32

26 38 40 53 33 78 268 55.49

26 24 67 47 39 29 232 48.03

As support

10 17 11 44 27 109 22.57

Table 1.48 Constraints and challenges

Regions

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Experience difficulty working in SHGs (Yes)

No time after coming from market

4 29 8 7 29 11 88

8 4 6 21 3 42

Constra int by husban d

Questio n of leaders hip of Sangha

No money to give every month

1 2 1

1 3 3 1 1 2 11

16 3 6 1 26

1 5

No money to get regular income

Do not Involve in public problems 1

2 1

1

2

1

5

3

Table 1.49 Awareness of the welfare and development activities taking place in your Panchayat Activities Region Awareness

Different kind of activities

Planning

Other Panchayat activities

Anjengo

27 (90.0)

27 (100)

15 (55.56)

15 (55.56)

Kovalam

75 (83.3)

73 (97.33)

3 (4)

2

Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura

6 (6.5) 43 (47.8) 12 (13.2) 43 (47.8)

1 (16.67) 38 (88.4) 8 (66.67) 34 (79.07)

1 (16.67) 4 (9.30) 2 (16.67) 1 (2.32)

4

(66.67) 4 (9.30) 6 (50.0) 7 (16.28)

Total

206 (42.7)

(87.86)

26 (12.62)

38 (18.45)

Sakhi /TSSS

181

(2.67)

82


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.50 Gram Sabha participation

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Participation in gram sabha Yes 30 49 69 67 3 32 250

Chance of expressing opinion in gram sabha

% 100.0 54.4 75.0 74.4 3.3 35.6 51.8

Yes 15 36 34 62 3 24 174

Opinions reflected in decision making

% 50.0 73.5 49.3 92.5 100.0 75.0 69.6

Yes 7 23 20 48 2 14 114

% 46.7 63.9 58.8 77.4 66.7 58.3 65.5

Table 1.51 Reasons for not participating in gram sabha Region

Individual beneficiary not available

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

5 (21.74) 11 (47.83) 50 (56.82) 4 (6.90) 70 (30.04)

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Table 1.52 Yes 4 (13) 83 (92) 60 (65) 21 (23) 10 (11) 64 (71) 242 (50)

Not useful

Opinions are not considered

3 (7.32) 4 (17.39) 3 (13.04) 34 (38.64) 19 (32.76) 63 (27.04)

4 (9.76) 2 (8.70) 11 (12.5) 1 (1.72) 18 (7.73)

Direction not received

Distance

29 (70.73) 2 (8.70) 5 (21.74) 8 (9.09) 37 (63.80) 81 (34.76)

Information on Domestic violence in their locality Friends Daughter Relatives Neighboursâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 1 (25) 1 (25) 1 (25) 34 (41) 41 (49) 14 (16.9) 29 (48) 51 (85) 12 (57) 3 (14) 3 (14.3) 8 (80) 4 (40) 26 (40.6) 47 (73) 1 (1.6) 110 (45.5) 147 (60.7) 16 (6.6) 3 (1.2)

2 (4.89) 2 (8.70) 2 (8.70) 1 (1.14) 1 (1.72) 8 (3.43)

Mother

1 (4.8)

1 (0.4)

Table 1.53 Occurrence of physical violence Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Yes

Physical violence

Trying to burn

19 (63) 69 (76.7) 66 (71.7) 30 (33) 52 (57) 71 (78.9) 307 (63.6)

18 (94.7) 66 (95.7) 64 (97) 26 (86.7) 51 (98) 69 (97) 294 (95.8)

2 (10.5) 3 (4) 6 (9) 3 (10) 2 (3.8) 1 (1.4) 17 (5.5)

Threaten to kill 1 (5) 12 (17) 11 (16.7) 3 (10) 2 (3.8) 3 (4) 32 (10)

Abuse 1 (1.4)

1 (.3)

83


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 1.54: Incidents of sexual violence Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Yes

Unnecessary touch

2 (6.7) 29 (32) 21 (22.8) 1 (1.1) 4 (4.4) 16 (17.8) 73 (15)

19 (65.5) 8 (38) 1 (100) 3 (75) 13 (81) 44 (60)

Rape 1 (50) 10 (34.5) 16 (76)

Forced to see sexy pictures and pornographic films 2 (100) 4 (13.8) 4 (19) 2 (50)

2 (12.5) 29 (39.7)

12 (16.4)

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Table 1.55: Incident of violence during pregnancy Yes 8 54 39 19 17 52 189

% 26.7 60.0 42.4 21.1 18.7 57.8 39.1

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Table 1.56: Opinion on right of husbands to beat Yes 6 73 66 34 80 35 294

% 20.0 18.9 27.2 62.2 12.1 60.0 38.3

Sakhi /TSSS

84


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Annexure 3: Tables generated from the survey of fishermen

Anjengo

Table 2.1 Sl. No. 1. 2.

Kovalam

3. 4.

Region

Pulluvila

Puthukurichi

Thothoor

Valiathura

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

Sakhi /TSSS

: Selected region, place/ unit and households Place, Unit Anjengo Poothura Sub Total Vizhinjam Poonthura Sub Total Adimalathura Karumkulam Kochuthura Kollamkodu Puthiyath Paruthiyoor Poovar Pulluvila Sub Total Vettuthura Fathimapuram Marianadu Pallithura Thumba Puthenthoppu Puthukurichi St.Dominic vettucadu Sub Total Susaipuram Colony Marthandanthura Neerodi Sub Total Valiathura Valiaveli Thoppu Vettukadu Cheriathura Kannamthura

No. 9 5 14 9 20 29 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 13 3 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 15 1 3 10 14 2 2 1 2 2 2

% 1.86 1.04 2.90 1.86 4.14 6.00 0.21 0.41 0.21 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.41 0.21 2.69 0.62 0.41 0.62 0.62 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21 3.11 0.21 0.62 2.07 2.90 0.41 0.41 0.21 0.41 0.41 0.41

Kochuthope

2

0.41

Kochuveli

2

0.41

Sub Total Total

15 100

3.11 20.70

85


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 2.2 Age and marital status of the Fishermen Married

Age

Separated

Total

%

24-25

1

1

1.00

26-30

12

12

12.00

31-35

15

15

15.00

36-40

21

22

22.00

41-45

11

11

11.00

46-50

13

15

15.00

51-55

6

6

6.00

56-60

13

13

13.00

61-65

4

4

4.00

66-70

0

0

0.00

1 2

71-75

1

1

1.00

Total

97

3

100

100.00

97.00

3.00

100.00

%

Table 2.3 Members above 60 years -Fishermen survey Region

Female

Male

Anjengo

4

2

6

12.50

Kovalam

2

1

3

6.25

Pulluvila

5

5

10

20.83

Puthukurichi

3

4

7

14.58

Thothoor

5

8

13

27.08

Valiathura

3

6

9

18.75

22

26

48

100.00

45.83

54.17

Total %

Total members

Table 2.4 Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

%

School going children

96 259 306 243

Total school going children (>3) 8 23 11 8

8.33 8.88 3.59 3.29

250 263 1417

11 10 71

4.40 3.80 5.01

Total children

%

86


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 2.5 Number and percentage of households by ownership of house

Region

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Own 13 (92.86) 19 (65.52) 13 (100.0) 12 (80.0) 9 (64.29) 11 (73.33) 77 (77.0)

Rented

Yes

Lease

Husbands family house

Wife's family house

With siblings

1 (3.45)

3 (10.34)

1 (3.45)

1 (3.45)

2 (13.33) 2 (14.29) 1 (6.67) 6 (6.0)

1 (1.0)

1 (7.14) 4 (13.79)

1

(6.67) 3 (21.43)

2 (13.33) 6 (6.0)

Table 2.6 Region

Tenancy

Boat

1 1 (1.0)

(6.67)

1 (1.0)

8 (8.0)

Equipments used for fishing Hooker line

Out board engine boat

Kattamaram

3 (75)

1 (25)

Anjengo

4

Kovalam

11

1 (9)

3 (27)

Pulluvila

11

9 (82)

1 (9)

6

1 (17)

2 (33)

Thothoor

10

2 (20)

9

(90)

Valiathura

5

1 (20)

1

(20)

3

(60)

47

14 (30)

22

(47)

6

(13)

Puthukurichi

Total

Sakhi /TSSS

6 (13)

Shoreseen

8 (73) 2

(18)

1 (17)

1 (17)

1 (2)

87


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012

Table 2.7 Region

Yes

Anjengo

14

Kovalam

24

Pulluvila

13

Puthukurichi

15

Thothoor

14

Valiathura

15

Total

95

Education of children 2

Responsibilities taken at home Daily expense

(14.03) 22 (91.7) 12 (92.3) 7 (46.7) 12 (85.7) 12 (80.0) 67 (70.5)

21 (87.5) 8 (61.5) 15 (100.0) 14 (100.0) 14 (93.3) 72 (75.8)

Protection of wife and children 14 (100.0) 22 (91.7) 11 (84.6) 10 (66.7) 13 (92.9) 15 (100.0) 85 (89.5)

Marriage of children

6 (25.0) 4 (30.8) 4 (26.7) 4 (28.6) 3 (20.0) 21 (22.1)

Table 2.8 Domestic work undertaken at home

Region

Preparation of food 7 (50.0) 13 (44.8)

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila

13

(100.0)

Puthukurichi

8

(53.3)

Thothoor

8

(57.1)

Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

12 (80.0) 61 (61.0)

Cleaning

Washing the dress

4 (28.6) 10 (34.5) 11 (84.6) 7 (46.7) 8 (57.1) 14 (93.33) 54 (54.0)

5 (35.7) 14 (48.3) 11 (84.6) 9 (46.7) 11 (57.1) 11 (93.3) 61 (54.0)

Take the children to the school 4 (28.6) 8 (27.6) 13 (100.0)

12 (85.7) 6 (40.0) 43 (43.0)

Take the children to the hospital 2

(14.29)

22

(75.86)

12

(92.31)

5

(33.33)

12

(85.71) 10 63

(66.67) (63.0)

88


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 2.9: Savings and Expenditure (% given in parenthesis) Saving habit

Purpose

Region Yes

Anjengo Kovalam

8 (57.1) 16 (57.1)

Education of children

Daily expense

For marriage

3 (37.5)

3 (37.5)

1 (12.5)

(93.8)

13 (81.3)

4 (25.0)

6 (37.5)

4 (25.0)

12 (100.0)

10 (83.3)

(33.3)

4 (33.3)

4 (33.3)

2 (25.0)

1 (12.5)

1 (12.5)

(9.1)

1 (9.1)

1 (9.1)

15

Pulluvila

12 (92.3)

Puthukurichi

8 (53.3)

3

(37.5)

8 (100.0)

Thothoor

11 (78.6)

11

(100)

10 (90.9)

Valiathura

4 (26.7)

3

(75.0)

2 (50.0)

Total

59 (59.6)

47 (79.7)

46 (78.0)

Table 2.10:

Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Yes 14 29 13 15 14 14 99

1

To buy gold

To build house 2 (25.0)

8 (50.0)

8 (50.0)

4 (50.0)

1 (12.5) 1 (9.1) 1 (25.0)

12 (20.3)

12 (20.3)

(13.8)

25 to 50% 6 (20.7)

2 (14.3) 6

To buy land

10 (16.9)

12 (20.3)

13 (22.0)

Income given for domestic expense (% given in parenthesis) Level of contribution

Less than 25 % 4

4

For old age

(6.1)

2 (13.3) 8 (8.1)

50-75% 2 11 7 7 1 6 34

(14.3) (37.9) (53.8) (46.7) (7.1) (42.9) (34.3)

Full amount 12 8 6 8 11 6 51

(85.7) (27.6) (46.2) (53.3) (78.6) (42.9) (51.5)

89


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 2.11 Employed members in the family Region

Other members working

Members working in the family

Yes

Son

Wife

Mother

Anjengo

14 (100.0)

Kovalam

27 (93.1)

4 (14.8)

Pulluvila

13 (100.0)

2 (15.4)

1 (7.7)

9 (60.0)

3 (33.3)

4 (44.4)

14 (100.0)

2 (14.3)

1 (7.1)

6 (40.0)

3 (50.0)

1 (16.7)

2 (33.3)

83 (83.3)

19 (22.9)

11 (13.3)

2 (2.4)

Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

5

Father

(35.7) 7 (25.9)

5 (6.0)

2 (22.2)

Table 2.12 Distribution of household income (% given in parenthesis) For alcoholism

Other maintenan ce

To go gulf

23 (79.3)

9 (31.0)

4 (13.8)

1 93.4)

13 (100.0)

10 (76.9)

3 (23.1)

12 (80.0)

5 (33.3)

13 (92.9)

11 (78.6)

3 (21.4)

2 (14.3)

Valiathura

14 (93.3)

7 (46.7)

3 (20.0)

4 (26.7)

Total

83 (83.0)

63 (63.0)

18 (18.0)

11 (11.0)

Region

Daily expense

Education of children

Anjengo

9 (64.3)

7 (50.0)

Kovalam

22 (75.9)

Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor

Sakhi /TSSS

1 (7.7) 1 (6.7)

2 (2.0)

For treatme nt 2 (14.3) 13 (44.8) 2 (15.4) 6 (40.0) 8 (57.1) 3 (20.0) 34 (34.0)

House mainte nance

6 (20.7) 5 (38.5)

2 (14.3) 7 (46.7) 20 (34.0)

90


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 2.16: Level and sources of household indebtedness (% given in parenthesis) Indebtedness

Sources

Region Yes

Bank

SHG

Private financiers

Anjengo Kovalam

11 (78.57) 23 (79.31)

9 (81.82) 15 (65.22)

3 (27.27) 9 (39.13)

3 (27.27) 19 (82.61)

Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

6 (46.15) 8 (53.33) 12 (85.71) 10 (66.67) 70 (70.0)

1 (12.50) 3 (30.0) 28 (40.0)

Table 2.17:

Region Anjengo

11 (100.0)

Kovalam

17 (70.83)

Pulluvila

5 (100.0)

Puthukurichi

7 (87.5)

Thothoor Valiathura Total

No

Total

If no, then whose? Wife

Son

5 (71.43)

2 (28.57)

11 (78.57) 7 (29.17)

24 (82.76) 5 (38.46)

1 (12.50)

8 (53.33)

11 (100.0)

11 (78.57)

9 (100.0)

9 (60.00)

60 (88.24)

25 (35.71)

Responsibility of loan repayment (% given in parenthesis)

Personal responsibility to repay the loan Yes

5 (62.50) 8 (66.67)

1 (16.67) 8 (100.0) 11 (91.67) 8 (80.0) 50 (71.43)

8 (11.76)

68 (68.0)

1 (100.0)

5 (62.50)

3 (37.50)

Table 2.18: Literacy status of region wise respondents by number of years of education (% given in parenthesis) Literates & Literacy Less than 8 Yrs 8 Yrs 10 Yrs 12 Yrs Region rate Anjengo 8 (71.4) 4 (40.0) 2 (20.0) 3 (30.0) 1 (10.0) Kovalam 19 (65.5) 10 (52.6) 4 (21.1) 4 (21.1) 1 (5.3) Pulluvila 13 (100.0) 4 (30.8) 5 (38.5) 3 (23.1) 1 (7.7) Puthukurichi 11 (73.3) 5 (45.5) 1 (9.1) 5 (45.5) Thothoor 10 (78.6) 6 (54.5) 2 (18.2) 3 (27.3) Valiathura 14 (93.3) 8 (57.1) 2 (14.3) 4 (28.6) Total 75 (75.0) 37 (49.3) 16 (21.3) 22 (29.3) 3 (4.0)

Sakhi /TSSS

91


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 2.19: Factors for not studying (% given in parenthesis) Region

Poverty

Not interested

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

2 (50.0) 7 (70.0)

2 (50.0) 4 (40.0)

3 (75.0) 3 (100.0) 15 (60.0)

Lack of parental interest 1 (25.0) 7 (70.0)

Health problems

Poor in studies

1 (10.0)

1 (25.0) 3 (30.0)

1 (4.0)

4 (16.0)

3 (75.0) 2 (66.7)

2 (66.7) 1 (100.0) 9 (36.0)

1 (52.0)

Table 2.20 Age of marriage Regions Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

17-20

%

3

10.3

1

7.1

4

4.0

21-25

%

26-31

%

7 13 11 9 4 7 51

50.0 44.8 84.6 60.0 28.6 46.7 51.0

7 13 2 6 9 8 45

50.0 44.8 15.4 40.0 64.3 53.3 45.0

Fishing equipme nts

Land

Table 2.21 Dowry received Regions

Get dowry Yes

Money

Gold

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

14 (100.0) 27 (93.1) 12 (92.3) 13 (86.7) 14 (100.0) 10 (66.7) 90 (90.0)

12 (85.7) 25 (92.6) 11 (91.7) 10 (76.9) 14 (100.0) 10 (100.0) 82 (91.1)

13 (92.9) 25 (92.6) 6 (50.0) 8 (61.5) 13 (92.9) 2 (20.0) 67 (74.4)

Sakhi /TSSS

House

3 (11.1) 6 (50.0) 2 (15.4) 1 (10.0) 12 (13.3)

2 (7.4) 1 (8.3) 2 (15.4) 1 (10.0) 4 (4.4)

92


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 2.22 Demand for dowry Did you ask dowry? If you ask dowry, is it correct or not

Region yes

%

No

%

wrong

%

Anjengo

5

35.7

9

64.3

3

21.4

Kovalam

20

69.0

9

31.0

17

60.7

Pulluvila

8

61.5

5

38.5

13

100.0

Puthukurichi

7

46.7

8

53.3

6

40.0

Thothoor

5

35.7

9

64.3

9

64.3

Valiathura

5

33.3

10

66.7

8

61.5

50

50.0

50

50.0

56

57.7

Total

Table 2.23 Membership in political party Region Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Yes 2 9 2 2 3 3 21

%

14.29 32.14 15.38 13.33 21.43 20.00 21.21

Table 2.24 Participation in Gram Sabha

Anjengo

Participation in gram sabha 6 (42.9)

Kovalam

7 (24)

6 (86)

5 (83)

Pulluvila

9 (69)

7 (78)

5 (71)

Puthukurichi

3 (20)

3 (100)

1 (33)

Region

Opportunity to express opinion

Opinions reflected

5 (83)

1 (20)

Thothoor

1 (7)

Valiathura

5 (33)

3 (75)

3 (100)

31 (31)

24 (80)

15 (63)

Total

Sakhi /TSSS

93


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 2.25

Awareness of the welfare and development activities taking place in your Panchayat

Region

Awareness

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Activities

Yes

Different kind of activities

8 (57) 17 (58.6) 13 (100) 13 (86.7) 14 (100) 11(73.3) 76 (76)

4 (50) 17 (100) 13 (100) 12 (92) 14 (100) 9 (82) 69 (90.8)

Other Panchayat activities

Planning

3 (37.5) 1 (5.9) 1 (7.7)

1 (12.5) 3 (17.6) 1 (7.7) 1 (7.7)

6 (54.5) 11 (14.5)

4 (36.4) 10 (13.2)

Table 2.26: Reasons for not participating in gram sabha Individual beneficiary not available

Not useful

Lack of time

Distance

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila

1 (13) 7 (32)

4 (50) 9 (41)

1 (13) 16 (73) 2 (50)

3 (14)

Puthukurichi

4 (33)

6 (50)

2 (17)

1 (8)

1 (8)

3 (23) 5 (50) 27 (39)

3 (23) 1 (10) 25 (36)

4 (6)

Region

Thothoor Valiathura Total

13 (19)

Table 2.27: Kinds of treatment and where Regions

Allopathy

Ayurveda

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor

14 (100) 24 (82.7) 7 (53.8) 15 (100) 13 (92.8) 15 (100) 88 (88)

5 (17) 8 (61.5) 8 (53) 1 (7) 4 (26.6) 26 (26)

Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

Homeo

1 (7.7)

1 (1)

Govt. Hospital

Pvt Hospital

13 (92.8) 17 (58.6) 11 (84.6) 9 (60) 4 (28.5) 14 (93) 68 (68)

1 (7) 17 (58.6) 12 (92) 14 (93) 12 (85.7) 3 (20) 59 (59)

94


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 2.28: Information on sexuality, discussion of sexual matters and sexual problems

Regions

Anjengo Kovalam Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Region

Information about sexuality before marriage Yes 7 (50) 18 (62) 13 (100) 7 (46.7) 12 (85.7) 12 (80) 69 (69)

Yes

Pulluvila

13 (92.8) 20 (68.9) 1 (7.6)

Puthukurichi

12 (80)

Anjengo Kovalam

Have sexual problems (Yes)

Discuss sexual matters (Yes) 4 13 8 7 7 11 50

(28.6) (44.8) (61.5) (46.7) (50) (73) (50)

1 (7) 4 (13.8)

1 3 9

(7) (20) (9)

Doubtful about wife

When not interested comply in sexual relation

1 (100)

1 2

(33) (22)

2

(50)

2

(50)

2

(22)

4

(44)

Quarrel with wife and the reasons

Indebtedness

Alcoholism

Work load

Mental problems

2 (15)

2 (15)

1 (7.6)

4 (30.7)

7 (35)

11 (55)

3 (15)

2 (10)

Sexual problems

Problems related to children 2 (15)

3 (15)

11 (55) 1 (100)

5 (41.6)

1 (8)

1 (7)

1 (100)

Valiathura

6 (40)

2 (33)

53 (53)

Doubtful/s uspicious about me

Table 2.29:

Thothoor Total

Problems

14 (26)

17 (32)

6 (50)

3 (25)

4 (33)

4 (66.6) 10 (18.8)

13 (24.5)

3 (5.6)

18 (33.9)

Table 2.30: Beaten your wife? Region

Yes

(%)

Anjengo

8

57

Kovalam

14 1 8 2 8 41

48

Pulluvila Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura Total

Sakhi /TSSS

8 53 14 53 41

95


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Table 2.31: Right of husbands to beat wives Region

Yes

%

No

%

Anjengo

4

28.6

10

71.4

Kovalam

6

20.7

Pulluvila Puthukurichi

3

20.0

Thothoor Valiathura Total

23

79.3

13

100.0

12

80.0

14

100.0

4

26.7

11

73.3

17

17.0

83

83.0

Table 2.32: Mobility of women Region

Yes

Go to church

Go to SHG

Anjengo

13 (92.9)

11 (84.6)

10 (76.9)

Kovalam

29 (100)

29 (100)

27 (93)

Pulluvila

13 (100)

13 (100)

13 (100)

Puthukurichi

15 (100)

15 (100)

15 (100)

Thothoor

14 (100)

14 (100)

14 (100)

Valiathura

15 (100)

15 (100)

14 (93)

4 (26.7)

99 (99)

97 (98)

93 (93.9)

18 (18)

Total

Go to watch film 1 (7.7) 13 (100)

Table 2.33: Role of women in decision making

4 (28.6)

Higher education related 1 (7)

Fishing equipment purchase 1 (7)

27 (96)

16 (57)

23 (82)

20 (71)

11 (100)

11 (100)

10 (90.9)

10 (90.9)

10 (90.9)

14 (93.3)

12 (85.7)

13 (92.9)

12 (85.7)

3 (21)

1 (7)

14 (100)

14 (100)

14 (100)

9 (64.3)

12 (85.7)

13 (92.9)

15 (100)

13 (86.7)

15 (100)

12 (80)

2 (13)

10 (66.7)

96 (96)

77 (80)

91 (94.8)

63 (65.6)

51 (53)

55 (57.3)

Yes

To build house

Children related

Marriage related

Anjengo

14 (100)

5 (35.7)

11 (78.6)

Kovalam

28 (96.6)

22 (78.6)

Pulluvila

11 (84.6)

Puthukurichi Thothoor Valiathura

Region

Total

Sakhi /TSSS

96


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Annexure 4: Questionnaire -Women fish vendors Status Study of Women Fish Vendors Ferona: Place /Unit: I Personal Information 1. Name : 2. Age : 3. Marital Status 1) Married 2) Unmarried 5) Separated

3) Widow

6) Divorced

4) Deserted

7) Living together

8) Second marriage II Family Details 4. Number of family members 5. No. of children in the family 6. No. of children studying in the family 7. No. of members in the family above 60 years 8. House 1) Own

2) Rented

3) Tenancy

5) Husbands family house

6) Wife's family house

7) With siblings

8) with children

4) Lease

III Occupational details 9. Your occupation 1)Fish selling 2) Preservation 3)Fish loading 4) Ice selling 10. Do you get time to do domestic work along with your occupation? 1) Yes 2) No 11. What is the attitude of people towards you as women fish vendor? 12. At what age did you first go to market? 13. Is it before or after marriage you started fish vending?

Sakhi /TSSS

97


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 14. In a day how many times do you do for fish selling? 15. How do you sell fish? 16. From where do you buy fish for selling? 17. From where do you organize the capital? 1) Own Fund 2) loan taken 3) Savings 18. If you are selling fish in the market, do you get the basic facilities (shed)? 19. Do you give market tax? 20. If yes, how many times 21. Are there toilet facilities in the market? 22. If yes, is it useable? 23. If not why? 1) No water 2) No door 3) Unclean 24. Is drinking water available in your market 25. Does any trade union function in your market? 26. If yes are you a member in it 27. If yes in which one 28. Have you experienced any kind of difficulty in your market 29. If yes, what kind IV Income/Investment/Debt 30. Are you able to save from your income? 1) Yes 2) No 31. If yes, for what do you save? 1) Education of children 2) Buy gold 3) House construction Marriage needs 5) To buy land 6) Old age 7) daily expense 32. Do you get any share from your husbandsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; income for domestic expense? 33. If yes, how much? . 34. For what do you spend the major portion of the family income? 1) Daily expense 2) Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s education 3) Treatment 4) Repay debts 5) Alcohol consumption Sakhi /TSSS

4)

98


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 35. Are you indebted? 1) Yes 2) No 36. From where did you take loan? 1) Bank 2) SHG.s 3) Private financiers

4) others

37. Is it your personal responsibility to repay? 1) Yes

V

2) No

Education 38. Are you educated? 2) No 1) Yes 39. If yes, how many years did you study? 1) Below 8 years 2) 8 years 3) 10 years 4) 12 years 5) Above 12 years 40. If no, what are the reasons for not studying? 1) Poverty 2) Lack of interest 3) To look after younger siblings 4) Lack of parental interest

VI

5) Health problems

6) Poor in studies

Marriage 41. At what age did you get married? 42. Did you get dowry when you got married? 1) Yes 43. If yes what did you get ? 1) Money 2) Gold

3) House

2) No

4)Fishing equipment

44. Did the husbandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s family ask dowry? 1) Yes 2) No 45. If no, did the husbandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s family harass you for dowry after the marriage? 1) Yes 2) No 46. If yes, when? 1) When children are born

2) During house construction

3) Other reasons

VII Health / Sexuality 47. Is drinking water available in your house? 1) Yes 2) No 48. If yes, from where (source) 1) Own pipe 2) Public pipe Sakhi /TSSS

3) Neighbors house 99


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 49. Do you have toilet facilities in your house? 1) Yes 2) No 50. Do you have facilities for solid waste management? 1) Yes 2) No 51. If yes, how? 1) Kudumbashree

2) Corporation/ panchayat

52. If no, what do you do with the waste? 1) Throw into the sea 2) Put in a pit

3) Others

3) Dispose near the house

53. Are you taking medication for any health problems? 1) Yes 2) No 54. If yes for which illness 1) Blood Pressure 2) Diabetes 3) Breathing related Problems 5) Urinary infection 6) Skin 55. What kind of treatment do you depend? 1) Allopathy 2) Homeo 3) Ayurveda 56. Where are you treated? 1) Govt. Hospital 2) Private Hospital

3) Nursing home

57. What kinds of diseases are now seen in your locality? 1) Malaria 2) Rat fever 3) Dengue 4) Cancer 6) Diarrhoea

7) TB

4) Orthopaedic 7) others

8) Leprosy

5) Uterus related

9) Chicken guinea

10) others

58. Did anyone inform you about menstruation before your menarche? 1) Yes 2) No 59. If yes, from whom? 1) Mother 2) Sister Others

3) Friends

4) Books

5) Religious class

6)

60. What do you use during menstruation? 1) Clothes 2) Pad/Napkin 61. Did you get information about sexuality before marriage? 1) Yes 2) No 62. From whom? 1) Mother 2) Sister Sakhi /TSSS

3) Friends

4) Religious class

5) Others 100


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 63. Do you discuss sexual matters with your husband? 1) Yes 2) No 64. Do you have any sexual problems with your husband? 1) Yes 2) No 65. If yes, what are the problems? 1) Doubtful/suspicious about me 2) Doubtful about husband not interested forced to engage in sexual relationship 4) Husbandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lack of interest

3) When I am

5) others

66. Have you approached anyone to solve such problems? 1) Yes 2) No 67. Do you use any family planning methods? 1) Yes 2) No 68. If yes, what methods? 1) Pills 2) Copper. T 5) Vasectomy

3) Condom

6) Tubectomy

4) Safe period

7) Withdrawal

69. At what age, did you undergo tubectomy? 70. How was your deliveries? 1) Normal 2) Caesarian 71. Have you undergone hysterectomy? 1) Yes 2) No

IX. Religion / Politics 72. Do you have membership in religious organization? 1) Yes 2) No 73. Do you work / participate in the activities of religious organization? 1) Yes 2) No 74. If yes, do you take any leadership role in religious organization? 1) Yes 2) No 75. Are you a member of any political party? 1) Yes 2) No Sakhi /TSSS

101


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 76. Are you a member of any organization? 1) Yes 2) No 77. If yes, in which organization? 1) TSSS –Fish Wielding Forum 3) Cooperative Societies 6) Labor forums 78. If not, why? 1) Lack of time

2) Political Organization

4) SHG

5) Mahila Samajam

7) Cultural Forums

2) Family doesn’t permit

4) Lack of opportunities

3) Lack of interest

5) Opportunities are not given

6) Only men can be organizers 79. Do you participate in gram sabha? 1) Yes 2) No 80. Have you had chance of expressing your opinion in gram sabha? 1) Yes 2) No 81. If yes, have your opinions reflected in decision making? 1) Yes 2) No 82. If you have not participated, why? 1) Individual beneficiary not available 3) Opinions are not considered

2) Not useful

Direction not received

5) Distance

83. What are the achievements after becoming a member of SHGs? 1) Could come out of the house and work 2) Saving habit 3) Saved from high rate of interest of private money lenders 4) Lead to self-growth

5) could repay debt

6) as support

84. If yes, have you experienced any difficulty while working in SHGs? 1) Yes 2) No 85. If yes, what difficulties? 1) No time after coming from market 2) Constraint by husband 3) Constraint by husband’s relatives Sakhi /TSSS

4) Question of leadership of Sangha 102


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 5) No money to give every month

6) No money to get regular income

7) Do not Involve in public problems 8) others 86. Are you aware of the welfare and development activities taking place in your Panchayat? 1) Yes 2) No 87. If yes, which activities? 1) Different kind of activities

2) Planning

3) Other activities of Panchayat

XI. Violence/Legal Mechanisms 88. Do you know any women in your neighborhood who experiences domestic violence? 1) Yes 2) No 89. If you know, who are they? 1) Relatives 2) Neighborsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 3) Friends 4) Colleagues 90. Have you experienced physical violence any time in your life? 1) Yes 2) No 91. If yes, what type? 1) Physical violence( beating, kicking,) 3) Threaten to kill

2) Trying to burn

4) others

92. From whom did you experience violence? 1) Husband 2) Father-in-law

3) Mother-in-law

4) Other relatives 93. Have you ever experienced mental torture any time in your life? 1) Yes 2) No 94. If yes, what type? 1) Insulted in front of family members/others 3) Children made to stay apart from me

2) Always suspicious 4) others

95. Have you ever experienced financial torture in your life? 1) Yes 2) No 96. If yes, what type? 1) Extravagant use of money 4) No money for domestic needs Sakhi /TSSS

2) Create debts

3) Constant alcoholism

5) did not give money for personal needs 103


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 97. In your life have you experienced sexual violence? 1) Yes 2) No

98. What is the nature of sexual violence? 1) Unnecessary touch 2) Rape

3) Forced to have see sexy pictures

4) Forcefully showed pornographic picture 99. Who is responsible for this? 1) Husband 2) Friends 3) Father

4) Brother

5) Other relatives

100. Did you seek anyoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s help while experiencing violence? 1) Spoke to family members 2) Spoke to relatives 3) Spoke to neighbors 101. gf? 1) Yes

102.

4) Spoke to elders

5) Spoke to womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s groups

2) No

Do you think husbands have right to beat wives? 1) Yes

Sakhi /TSSS

2) No

104


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Annexure 5: Questionnaire -Fishermen Ferona: Place /Unit: I Personal Information 1. Name: 2. Age: 3. Head of the house: Yes / No 4. Marital Status 1) Married 2) Divorced

3) second marriage

4) Living together

II Family Details 5. Number of family members --- Female / Male 6. No. of children in the family --- Boy / Girl 7. No. of children studying in the family -- 1, 2, 3, more 8. No. of members in the family above 60 years --- Female / Male 9. House 1) Own 5) Wife’s family house

2) Rented

3) Tenancy

6) with siblings

III Occupational details 10. Your occupation 1) Fishing 2) Fish selling

4) Lease

7) with children

3) Preservation 4) Fish loading

5) Ice selling

11. Do you have your own fishing equipments? 1) Yes 2) No 12. If Yes, which? Boat Kattamarm

Chuda

13. Do you rent or use your own equipments?

Kampavala Own

14. Do you take responsibilities at home? 1) Yes 15. If yes, what type? Children’s education Household expense Children’s marriage others, specify 16. How many hours do you spend with your family? 17. Do you support your wife in domestic work? Sakhi /TSSS

Out board engine boat Rented 2) No

Security of wife and children

105


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 Preparation of food children to school

cleaning of surroundings Take children to hospital

Cloth washing

Take

IV Income/Investment/Debt 18. Are you able to save from your income? 1) Yes 2) No 19. If yes, for what do you save? 1) Education of children 4) Old age 5) To buy land

2) daily expense 3) Marriage needs 6) To buy Gold 7) House construction

20. What percentage share of your income you give to your family? Below 25% 25-50% 50-75 % full 21. Does any one else in the family go for work? 22. For what do you spend the major portion of the family income? 1) Daily expense 2) Childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s education 3) Repay debts taken for treatment 4) Alcohol consumption 5) Renovation of house 6) Maintenance of house 7) to go to Gulf 23. Are you indebted? 1) Yes 2) No 24. From where did you take loan? 2) Bank 2) SHG.s

3) Private financiers

25. Is it your personal responsibility to repay? 1) Yes 26. If not, whose? Wife Daughter Son V

4) others 2) No

Education 27. Are you educated? 2) Yes 2) No 28. If yes, how many years did you study? 1) Below 8 years 2) 8 years 3) 10 years 4) 12 years years 29. If no, what are the reasons for not studying? 1) Poverty 2) Lack of interest 3) Lack of parental interest problems 5) Poor in studies

5) above 12

4) Health

VI Marriage 30. At what age did you get married? Sakhi /TSSS

106


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 31. Did you get dowry when you got married? 1) Yes 32. If yes what did you get? 2) Money 2) Gold

3) House

2) No

4)Fishing equipment

33. Did the wifeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s family ask dowry? 1) Yes 2) No 34. If yes, did they ask later? 1) Yes 2) No 35. If yes, when? 1) When children are born 2) Soon after marriage 3) During house construction 4) Other reasons 36. Is it correct to take dowry? Yes No.

VII. Religion / Politics 37. Do you have membership in religious organization? 1) Yes 2) No 38. Do you work / participate in the activities of religious organization? 1) Yes 2) No 39. If yes, do you take any leadership role in religious organization? 1) Yes 2) No 40. Are you a member of any political party? 1) Yes 2) No 41. If yes, from which age? 42. Do you participate in political activities? 1) Yes 2) No 43.a Are you a member of any organization? ) Yes 2) No 43 b. If yes, in which organization? 1) Political Organization 4) Labor forums

2) Cooperative Societies 5) Cultural Forums

3) SHG

6) Fisher forums 44. If not, why? 1) Lack of time Sakhi /TSSS

2) Family doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t permit

3) Lack of interest 107


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 4) Lack of opportunities 45. Do you participate in gram sabha? 1) Yes 2) No 46. If yes, have you had chance of expressing your opinion in gram sabha? 1) Yes 2) No 47. If yes, have your opinions reflected in decision making? 1) Yes 2) No 48. If you have not participated in gram sabha, why? 1) Not useful 2) Direction not received 3) Distance 4) Timing of gram sabha 5) Individual beneficiary not available 49. Are you aware of the welfare and development activities taking place in your Panchayat? 1) Yes 2) No 50. If yes, which activities? 1) Different kind of activities

2) Planning

3) Other activities of Panchayat

VIII Health / Sexuality 51. Are you taking medication for any health problems? 1) Yes 2) No 52. If yes for which illness 1) Blood Pressure 2) Diabetes 6) Urinary infection 7) Others 53. What kind of treatment do you depend? 1) Allopathy 2) Ayurveda 54. Where are you treated? 2) Govt. Hospital

3) Breathing related 4) Skin 5) Orthopedic

3) Homeo

2) Private Hospital

3) Nursing home

55. Did you get information about sexuality before marriage? 1) Yes 2) No 56. a From whom? 1) Mother

2) Sister

3) Friends

4) Religious class

5) Others

56 b. At what age? Sakhi /TSSS

108


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 57. Do you discuss sexual matters with your wife? 1) Yes 2) No 58. Do you have any sexual problems with your wife? 1) Yes 2) No 59. If yes, what are the problems? 1) Doubtful/suspicious about me 2) Doubtful about wife interested forced to engage in sexual relationship 4) Others 60. Have you approached anyone to solve such problems? 1) Yes 2) No

3) When I am not

61. Have you quarreled with your wife? 1) Yes 2) No

62. If yes, for what are the reasons? 1) Due to debt 2) Alcohol consumption 3) Lot of workload 4) Mental problem 5) Sexual problems 6) Issues concerned with children 63. Have you beaten your wife? 1) Yes 2) No 64. If yes, why? 1) Due to alcohol

65.

2) Because wife scolded

3) Financial crisis 4) Behaving badly Have you ever experienced mental torture any time in your life? 1) Yes 2) No

66. If yes from whom? Wife 67. If yes, what type? 1) Financial crisis

Children

Siblings

2) Insufficient income to meet daily expense

3) When no catch / money from work

4) others

68 a. Have you ever experienced financial torture in your life? 1) Yes 2) No 68 b. If yes, what type? 1) Extravagant use of money 3) No money for domestic needs Sakhi /TSSS

2) Constant alcoholism 4) Did not give money for personal needs 109


Status Study of Women Fish Vendors 2012 69. Do husbands have the right to beat wife? 70. Do women have the freedom to move around independently? 1) Yes 2) No 71. If yes, to go where? 1. To)go to church 2)To go to SHG 3) To go to theatre 4) Others, specify 72. Do women have the freedom in decision making? 1) Yes 2) No 73. If yes, at what level? 1) To build house 2)) Matters related to children 3) Decisions related to marriage 4) Higher education 5) Fishing equip equipments i

Since 1990 TSSS is working for women in fishing villages. In 1996 a Forum for these women was formed, with the aim of strengthening and developing the business of fish selling carried out by them. The objectives of the Forum are the following: t families; 1. Design and implement programmes for the development of women fish vendors and their 2. Provide guidelines for marketing ; 3. Provide mobile freezers, refrigerators and ice boxes to prevent the decay of fish ; 4. Enable the proper transport for women fish vendors; 5. Pressure on councils to provide adequate facilities in the market and to ensure that sales transactions are conducted fairly; 6. Participation in the implementation of insurance schemes for the safety of the life of the fish vendors;

Sakhi /TSSS

110

STATUS STUDY OF WOMENFISH VENDORS  

STATUS STUDY OF WOMENFISH VENDORS

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