CalContractor Asphalt 2017

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Above: Pavement Recycling Systems milling off more than 11,000 tons of asphalt on the Salton Sea Roadway Project to be hauled to nearby cold central plant for recycling and then placed back down as a base course.

Imperial County offers a rich agricultural heritage, producing half of our nation’s winter vegetables and is a leader in renewable energy sources, including geothermal, wind, and solar. Many Southern Californian off-road enthusiasts regularly visit this county’s Imperial Sand Dunes, and tourists and bird watchers find attractions like the Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge a favorite for family-oriented outings. Imperial County is home to around 180,000 residents who live and work within its seven cities (Brawley, Calexico, Calipatria, El Centro, Holtville, Imperial, and Westmorland) and eight unincorporated communities (Bombay Beach, Heber, Niland, Ocotillo, Palo


Verde, Salton City, Seeley, and Winterhaven). The county was the last to be established in California in 1907; however, it is the ninth largest county encompassing some 4,284 square miles. Imperial County is responsible for maintaining around 2,555 miles of County roads, along with 138 bridges. Around 1,349 roadway miles are paved with another 1,206 unpaved. Imperial County ranks seventh out of 58 counties in maintained mileage responsibility and 31st in total registered vehicles. Both of these factors are used to determine funding for each county, with 75 percent of the total calculation coming from population numbers through vehicle registrations and 25 percent being calculated


through state highway mileage. Since Imperial County does not garner the kind of road funding that other more populated metropolitan counties currently receive, it is imperative that they stretch those dollars as far as possible. The county of Imperial has long been committed to improving the overall quality of its road system in the most cost-effective, environmentally beneficial and safest manner. Their dedication and hard work were recently recognized by The County Engineers Association of California and the League of California Cities® Public Works Officers’ Institute. They were the overall statewide winner for the 2017 Outstanding Local Streets and Roads Project Awards at this year's annual spring conference in San Diego. Imperial County, along with one other county and three cities, was recognized for their extraordinary efforts to preserve and improve the overall quality of the local streets and roads systems. Sponsored by the League of California Cities, California State Association of Counties (CSAC) and County Engineers Association of California, (CEAC) the Outstanding Local Streets and Roads Project Awards Program recognizes best practices that reduce waste and costs and can be replicated by other jurisdictions. The awards are also an acknowledgment

Above Left: Pavement Recycling Systems cold central plant processing milled asphalt from Salton Sea Roadway Project. Above Right: Asphalt millings from Salton Sea Roadway Project being ground to specified size for cold central plant recycling.

of the cities and counties that promote sustainability in the local transportation system. The project that brought Imperial County such praise and recognition involved the reconstruction of 2.8-miles of roadways in Salton City. Referred to as, the Salton City Roadway Project, this particular job utilized a sustainable engineering approach that employed existing on-site recyclable materials. Generally speaking, the project made use of four different types of road rehabilitation methodology, including full depth reclamation of existing asphalt pavement and base, cement treatment of existing base, Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR) of existing pavement, followed by a hot mix asphalt concrete overlay. Additionally, a Type II slurry sealcoat was used and paint striping and markings were also installed. Granite Construction Company was selected as the general contractor on this approximately $2.8 million award-winning project. The exact length of all the improved road sections was 2.83 miles. This included a 0.9 mile section of Borrego Salton Sea Way from SR86 to Sunrise Drive, a 0.7 mile stretch of South Marina Drive

from SR86 to Shore Garden Street, a 0.3 mile section of North Marina Drive from SR86 to approximately 400 feet southwest of King Avenue, and a 0.9 mile segment of Harvard Avenue from Sunset Avenue to Haven Drive. Construction management on this project includes Martin Phillips, PE, QSP – Resident Engineer, Simon Wong Engineering and Mark Bautista – Lead Inspector, Dynamic Consulting Engineers. The Holt Group was the designer on this project and the county project staff included: William Brunet, PE, County of Imperial Public Works Department, John Gay, PE, County of Imperial Public Works Department, Veronica Atondo, PE, PLS, County of Imperial Public Works Department and Cesia Bautista, County of Imperial Public Works Department. Granite Construction Company was represented by Fausto Gonzalez (Project Manager) and Jeff Mercer (Construction Manager), while Pavement Recycling Systems management included: Craig Harrington (Estimator), Chris Rogers (Superintendent), and Chris Spross (ReNew Division Manager). The job began in early April 2016 and lasted 135 calendar days to the middle of August

2016. Pavement Recycling Systems was subcontracted by Granite Construction Company to mill off the existing asphalt to a depth of 5 to 9 inches, and then haul that material to a central plant located nearby for processing. The milled asphalt material was then crushed and sized to a 1-inch minus and then run through the Cold Central Plant (CCPR), where an engineered emulsion was added to the recycled mix for reuse as an asphalt base course. Meanwhile, already milled sections of roadway subgrade were being strengthened through the use of cement stabilization techniques also provided by Pavement Recycling Systems. Class 2 aggregate were added and mixed into to the 10 to 13-inch existing base, along with a cement treatment. This process provided a strong, stable base for Granite Construction Company to pave the newly recycled asphalt base course. After compaction of the base course and the application of a tack coat, Granite Construction Company followed up with a conventional hot mix asphalt (HMA) overlay cap course. So, when finally completed, the newly designed and constructed structural section was composed

2017 Asphalt issue CALCONTRACTOR


Above Left: Granite Construction Company (General Contractor) paving 2-inch hotmix asphalt cap over 3.5-inches of CCPR. Above Right: Salton Sea Roadway Project finished CCPR roadway, striped and ready for traffic.

of 2 inches of HMA over 3.5 inches of CCPR, over 8 inches or 12 inches of cement stabilized base/subgrade soils. Additionally, road shoulders were paved with 2 inches of CCPR followed by the application of a slurry seal. The Salton City Roadway Project was recognized and awarded not only for its stability and unique cost saving methods, but also for its collective and impressive environmental benefits. In all, 11,043 tons of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), the County's existing asphalt assets, were recycled, compromising 67 percent of the finished paved surface on this project. Another 24,774 tons of non-renewable aggregate resources were also conserved. In addition, cement stabilization of the on-site soils/bases resulted in 13,594 cubic yards of subgrade soils being diverted from the landfill, while reducing construction related trucking by 4,701 heavily loaded trucks exporting and importing various materials. Not only does this alleviate the wear and tear on the roadway and traffic congestion, but it also conserves energy by not wasting precious fuel and oil reserves. The combined implementation of the CCPR and cement stabilization processes can result in reductions of energy


consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of over 80 percent. The Salton City Roadways project is an example of how the expertise of public works engineers helps solve the financial and environmental challenges agencies and owners face with asphalt pavement infrastructure. John Gay, PE is the Director of Public Works for Imperial County and he has been working for public agencies in one capacity or another for the past 20 years. "When this project was let out and in the design phase, I was working as the deputy director. I became the director of public works this past January, and the Salton City project is the first job where we have actually combined CCPR

with subgrade stabilization," says Gay. According to Gay, the County of Imperial has performed quite a bit of recycled pavement applications, utilizing both cold central plant recycling and cold-in-place recycling methods. They have also completed several soil stabilization jobs; one around three years ago on a highly traveled truck roadway. "I was very impressed with how the subgrade hardened up, almost like a concrete airport runway," says Gay. "Combining the subgrade stabilization with the asphalt recycling component really seems to be the way to go. This is something we will continue to rely on in the foreseeable future."

Above: Granite Construction Company (General Contractor) compacting recycled base course to specifications on Salton Sea Roadway Project.




Cold In-place Recycling (CIR) Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR) Full Depth Reclamation (FDR) Cement Stabilization Pavement Pulverization Cold Milling Diamond Grinding Lime Treated Subgrade Winterize Job Sites Micro-Milling Value Engineering With over 120 pieces of equipment, PRS is the largest milling, soil stabilization, and asphalt recycling subcontractor in the Western States.

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2017 Asphalt issue CALCONTRACTOR


Above: Before/After photos of roadway on Salton Sea Roadway Project after milling, cement stabilization, CCPR processing, tack coat, recycled base course, 2-inch HMA cap course and all compaction and striping.

Gay also points out that many agencies and owners are still paying contractors to haul away this valuable asset and then paying a lot more per ton to import more conventional asphalt. "I have advised my counterparts at other agencies and counties that they should consider using these methods whenever possible," says Gay. "I mean you have to do a thorough investigation into the location of public utilities for instance and do your best to limit your excavation and impact on existing underground services, but for us where the majority of our roads are located in a rural setting, it is a perfect fit. I can also think of a couple of urban streets that I would like to apply this particular recycling solution. Again, it is all about quality control and doing your proper due diligence." According to sources, a city, county or municipality’s asphalt resources are worth approximately $25 to $35 per ton. Utilizing recycling methods and holding onto these resources is one way that agencies can stretch their dollars and get more done with their limited budget. "We have to be smarter about the way we do things here in Imperial County. Unlike other agencies, we tend to look at things from an economic standpoint first, and


then recognize the other benefits in terms of the environment," says Gay. "It is a bit backward for us because the current Highway Users Tax Account (HUTA) fund that is currently in place really does not take into account all of the highway miles we have to deal with here in Imperial County. We will see if these calculations will ever change, but there needs to at least be recognition that there are winners and losers when it comes to how highway funding is currently being allocated." Imperial County is on a strict road maintenance budget like so many other agencies, however, Imperial County only has around $11.5 million available each year to pay for the entire public works department staff, all of the equipment and capital improvements. This is even before they pay for all of the road improvements on 2,500 plus miles of roads and more than 130 bridges. "We paid for this project with bonded money after raising $20 million a few years ago. If recycling is going to save us money, then we are going to look at that first every day until there is a better mousetrap and right now I don’t think there is one. So far our returns have been significant, and with savings of anywhere


from 30 to 50 percent and higher (compared to "Remove & Replace" methods), and based on our current budget, I don’t believe it would be prudent and may even be downright negligent to spend our tax payers money any other way in certain applications." It is clear that one of the most significant savings an agency and owner can realize when they have to reconstruct their asphalt roads, is to recapitalize on the initial investment and make use of all of the existing materials and assets already on-site. According to the 2016 Needs Assessment Report, "Save Our Streets," sponsored by CEAC, CSAC, League of Cities and other transportation agencies, use of these recycling and base treatment technologies has been conservatively estimated to enable savings of $823 million/year and increase the paving budget by 41 percent. This is is assuming only 50 percent of eligible streets are suitable for recycling. In these fiscally challenging and environmentally conscious times, the Salton City Roadways project is one example of how our engineering community can help solve the financial and environmental challenges agencies and owners are facing with respect to our asphalt pavement infrastructure needs. Cc

Wirtgen Recycler 3800 CR:

100 miles – day and night

Above: The milling and mixing rotor of the Wirtgen 3800 CR granulates the damaged asphalt layers to a depth of 18 cm. At the same time, cement is mixed in and water and bitumen emulsion or foamed bitumen are injected into the mixing chamber via injection bars. The final mix is transferred via the discharge conveyor directly to the material hopper of the Vögele paver which then paves true to line and level. Afterwards, Hamm asphalt rollers compact the pavement.

In San José/USA, insitu cold recycling with a Wirtgen 3800 CR recycler proves to be the most economical solution.

Time is money, especially in road construction. When it comes to cost efficiency, being able to put all equipment to maximum use is a critical factor. Consequently, it is a major


advantage when a machine can be used flexibly, like the 3800 CR recycler from Wirtgen, which can use the up-cut and downcut cold recycling processes or operate as a high-output milling machine. Thanks to its diverse application options, the recycler fulfills unique construction specifications as required by an application or invitation to tender.


In California, the Golden State, the 950-hp powerhouse is resurfacing 100 miles of San José’s main traffic arteries in situ (on the spot), together with a Vögele VISION 5200-2i tracked paver in a rear-load process. With this method, the 3800 CR travels in reverse, removing the damaged asphalt layers in a down-cut process and

Below: One special challenge was that the job sites were spread over the entire downtown area of this highly-populated city. No problem: the Wirtgen Cold Recycler 3800 CR can easily be transported by flat bed trailer.

transferring the recycled material to the paver.

Down-cut method increases paving quality

The contractor, MCK Services Inc., elected to use the process for this job to achieve a particularly high level of paving quality. In the down-cut process developed by Wirtgen, the milling drum rotates in the direction of travel, not against it as in the up-cut process. As a result, particle size can be precisely controlled when processing the material, especially on very brittle, thin, old asphalt roads.

New load-bearing capacity for the streets of San José One illustrative example is W. Campbell Avenue, a main road in San José in the heart of Silicon Valley. The Wirtgen cold recycler, with its usual

reliability, first milled off a 4-in. layer of damaged asphalt across a width of 12 ft. 6 in., granulated it, and mixed in the 1% prespread cement. Two tank trucks supplied the recycler with hot bitumen and water via connected hose lines. Added pressurized air generates foamed bitumen. Microprocessor-controlled injection bars ensure precision injection of the foamed bitumen – in this case 2.5% – into the mixing chamber, where it is optimally processed with the granulated material. Ejectors positioned on the rotor then transfer the mix to the 3800 CR’s conveyor belt. Meanwhile, traffic in front of the Starbright Theater, at the corner of Fulton Street, continued to flow by the recycling train apparently undisturbed, thanks to the fact

that pavement rehabilitation is completed in a single pass, without the trucks having to weave in and out of the lane. This increases safety and is a tremendous relief to the traffic system. The Wirtgen 3800 CR machine concept is geared to maximum output so that rehabilitation projects can be completed quickly. With this in mind, the conveyor system also has an extremely high conveying capacity. The slewing and height-adjustable conveyor rapidly transfers material to the material hopper on the tracked paver, which then places a 4-in. layer and pre-compacts the surface. The HD+ 110 VVHF tandem roller and GRW 280i pneumatic tire roller from Hamm perform final compaction, giving the road a closed, smooth surface texture.

2017 Asphalt issue CALCONTRACTOR


In the end, the results speak for themselves: Some 9,600 fewer truck hours significantly reduced CO2 emissions, fuel consumption and construction traffic on streets that receive between 12,000 and 35,000 vehicles daily. In total, the city saved some US$1.5 million. Frank Farshidi, Project Manager for the City of San José, also arrives at a positive conclusion: "Cold recycling in-situ fulfills exacting quality requirements, is extremely economical, environmentally-friendly, and has the least impact on the public." Cc

Job site details

Rehabilitation of main and secondary downtown roads in San José, California Above: Wirtgen up-cut process: The milling and mixing rotor runs against the direction of travel, ensuring high productivity.

Below: Wirtgen down-cut process: The milling and mixing rotor rotates in the direction of travel. This prevents large chunks of pavement from breaking off.

• Costs: US$ 13.7 million • Area of section: 2.4 million sq ft.

Working parameters

• Width of section: 12.5–16 ft. • Layer thickness: 4 in.


• Quantity of mix: 55,599.5 US t asphalt • Percentage of foamed bitumen: 2.5% • Percentage of cement: 1% • Optimum moisture content: 5–7%


Cost-efficient and eco-friendly

After 100 miles and – thanks to in-situ cold recycling – a short construction time, Bob Garrigan, Superintendent at MCK Services, is pleased: "Thanks to the Wirtgen 3800 CR, we were able to fully comply with the traffic and budget requirements stipulated by the City of San José."



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CITY OF LA USES RUTMETER FOR ACCELERATED METHOD TO TEST FIELD PERFORMANCE OF HMA SUPERPAVE MIX DESIGN Its Standards Division Developed Fast, Simple, Repeatable Rutmeter Test to Predict Permanent Deformation and Moisture Susceptibility

Above: City of LA senior technician Jorge Esparza places a preconditioned specimen in one of the Pine Rutmeters used in the laboratory.

The sprawling City of Los Angeles must maintain approximately 6,500 centerline miles of roads and 800 centerline miles of alleys—a daunting responsibility by any measure. Add to that 1,205 miles of bus lanes, and the challenge to keep the roads up to standard is enormous. The city’s Standards Division testing laboratory provides full testing support (QC/QA) for the Bureau of Street Services operations, resulting in more than 130,000 tests annually for the Pavement Preservation Program alone. According to Richard Villacorta, Roads and Highways Section Head, "Proper design and research have been fundamental pillars as the City of LA faces the mounting challenges presented by the overwhelming traffic loads prevalent today."


Accelerated street deterioration has become problematic with the increased volume and weight of vehicles, particularly when heavy

articulated buses were entered into service. "Rear axles in those buses represent 7 ESALS per rear single axle/pass or a total of 9 to 10 ESALS per bus. This has caused the accelerated rutting of bus lanes, which leads to a huge deterioration of the pavement structure and the reduction of pavement life," Villacorta said. The established empirical laboratory design procedures were not enough to keep pace with the new types of vehicles on the road. Asphalt binder testing was limited. New performance based asphalt materials characterizations were needed. The Superpave system, of which the City of LA was an early adopter in 1996, offered new tools to fight permanent pavement deformation

Above: A battery of Superpave Gyratory compactors are used daily in the evaluation ofasphalt concrete mixes for the Los Angeles Pavement Preservation Program.


(rutting), fatigue cracking and low temperature cracking. To counter these problems, high rutting resistant HMA mixes using high viscosity engineered modified binders had to be designed and evaluated. As a result of intensive research conducted by the city’s Standards Division, Grove City, PA-based Pine Instrument’s AFW1A Rotary Asphalt Wheel Tester (Pine Rutmeter) was employed to evaluate samples, which were prepared in accordance with Superpave specifications as to their resistance to permanent deformation and moisture susceptibility. Basically, the asphalt concrete cylindrical specimens are prepared and compacted in a Superpave Gyratory Compactor, and then after cooling, the specimen is preconditioned at 60o C for two hours and placed in the Rutmeter to be confined between three metal wheels in continuous synchronized rotation. Each wheel applies a fixed load around the periphery of the specimen while it’s immersed in water at 60o C. This intense pressure allows us to evaluate rutting resistance and moisture susceptibility." One of the most valuable advantages the Superpave system provided, Villacorta pointed out, was the opportunity to predict and deal with permanent deformation or rutting, which is the number one cause of pavement distress nationwide. "While Superpave gives us a set of valuable tools, agencies must perform their own research to ensure the new tools are applicable to their weather, local materials and topography," he added. By 2003, the City of LA’s testing laboratory already

Above: The Marshall compactor is still animportant part of the QC/ QA of the City of LA Pavement Preservation Program.

had extensive experience in evaluating permanent deformation in several thousand HMA mixes using a unidirectional CPN Rutmeter. That year the Standards Division was offered the opportunity to evaluate Pine’s Rutmeter test and its effect on HMA mixes. "We spent the next couple years correlating data from both machines and on April 12, 2006 released a report detailing our findings," Villacorta said. "What we liked most about the Pine system was that it’s fast, easy to use and accurately predicts field performance

of the HMA. In addition, it correlates with two other tests we use to evaluate HMA, the Modified Marshall Stability and Indirect Tensile Strength Tests." Today, the city’s lab uses the system for both design and QC/QA testing. According to Villacorta it has helped them learn about the rutting values of failed mixtures and the values of the new mixes that will perform much better under heavy loads. "Now we are able to evaluate engineered binders, structured or polymer modified, and correlate their field and laboratory performance accurately," he added. In 2012 the city’s Bureau of Street Services (BSS and the Department of General Services (GSD), earned MVP awards for their accomplishments, a record-breaking 747 miles of successful pavement preservation work. In a 2013 – 2014 project, the city’s Standards Division also successfully used its Rutmeter test to complete the Wilshire Blvd. Middle Lane Federal Project, which helped the lab monitor the performance of the components of the mixtures on a continuing basis, especially in a heavily traversed boulevard. The City of LA’s Standards Division has performed more than 11,000 tests with the Pine Rutmeter and has established its own design and QC specifications, "We use the system daily in our Pavement Preservation Program, which has been instrumental in predicting pavement performance," Villacorta said. "This simple and accurate test can represent millions of dollars in savings to any resurfacing program at the state or municipal government level," he added. Cc

2017 Asphalt issue CALCONTRACTOR



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Can Innovative Geosynthetic Technologies Help Save California’s Roads? By Brian Hoover, CMS, Senior Editor

Geosynthetics Nicolon BV (TenCate) into the serve many geosynthetics business with their functions, including TenCate Geosynthetics Americas the use as division in the early 1970s. geomembranes that Originally formed in 1704, TenCate provide containment began as a company specializing in services, geogrids the trade of textile products. They that offer reached the designation of "Royal" reinforcement and in 1852 when they began utilizing geotextiles that revolutionary concepts such as provide everything British steam technology. Today from filtration, the company consists of eight drainage, separation, divisions across the globe with protection and four main areas of application: reinforcement. safety and protection, space and Geosynthetics were aerospace, infrastructure and utilized worldwide, the environment and sport and Above: TenCate Mirafi® RS580i is utilized for a Caltrans project on Highway 12 from Rio Vista to Terminous. even before terms recreation. Today, TenCate’s like "geotextile" were Geosynthetics division constructs In 2013, the California originally coined. more than 1,000 woven and Geological Survey (CGS) They were used to combat the non-woven geotextiles, geogrids, released information forecasting North Sea Flood in the Netherlands geotextile tubes, prefabricated a continuing shortage of in 1953, and by the Dutch, as a vertical drains and composite permitted aggregate resources flood protection device for the geotextiles and represents the in California. This includes Delta Works in the early 1960s. corporation as the largest single sand, gravel, and crushed These events helped to launch division. They generate more than stone, and according to CGS’s report, California currently has permitted resources to meet approximately one-third of aggregate demand over the next 50 years. Aggregate is an essential and often primary ingredient in a variety of construction infrastructure projects, and they are the building blocks for structures like our homes, businesses, roads, and bridges. Commodities such as asphalt, concrete, plaster, and stucco would not be viable without its inclusion. Conserving our aggregate resources and finding ways to use less, or what Above: TenCate Mirafi® RSi-Series Woven Geosynthetics are used for varying we have more wisely, is certainly applications including base course reinforcements and subgrade stabilization a hot topic of discussion for road, runway and railway construction. here in California.



Above: The integration of TenCate MirafiÂŽ RSi roadways have proven to be more durable and longer lasting.

100 billion square yards of material per year, including their awardwinning line of MirafiÂŽ brand products, manufactured in nine plants across the globe. Todd Anderson is the VP of Sales and Marketing for TenCate Geosynthetics Americas and he has been with TenCate since 1996 when he served as a regional sales manager responsible for promoting the MirafiÂŽ product line. "We believe that our products offer real value where road building is concerned," says Anderson. "You can build a great road by dumping a vast amount of stone into the base, and it will no doubt last a very long time. However, if you are looking at building the most efficient structure possible, with good sound building practices and environmental conservation, then that is where our product comes into play. State agencies have limited budgets, and if we can get the budget side of the equation talking with the technical side, then we feel that we can deliver a message that resonates." State departments of transportation (DOTs) have long used geogrids and geotextiles for subgrade stabilization purposes. The material is primarily used on top of a weak subgrade to help stabilize the earthen surface before putting down a gravel platform.

Geosynthetics work by increasing the loadcarrying capacity of the system and maintaining separation between the soft subgrade and subbase materials. The process requires less aggregate and less time when constructing everything from roads, railways, and airfields to a variety of earthwork structures. It is often used in areas where groundwater is an issue as it contains ideal strength characteristics combined with high water flow capabilities. The successful and effective use of geotextiles has been proven on many different job applications over the past 50 years. Eli Cuelho, P.E. is a geotechnical engineering consultant and engineer at Western Transportation Institute at Montana State University. He has been with the university since 1998 and currently serves as the program manager for the Infrastructure Maintenance and Materials program. He has 18 years of experience testing geosynthetic materials and developing new test procedures for geosynthetics where pavement and subgrade reinforcement is concerned. "A few years back, I conducted a study where we tested geosynthetics from several companies in a side-by-side comparison," says Cuelho. "We constructed,

monitored and analyzed fullscale field test sections with funds provided by nine state department of transportation entities." According to Cuelho, 17 test sections were constructed to evaluate the performance of several geosynthetic products from a variety of companies. Each test section was 50 feet in length, and the subgrade soil was prepared and installed into a 16 feet wide, 3 feet deep trench that stretched 860 feet. "We used and tested 12 separate products from different manufacturers. Most of them were geogrid products with two being geotextiles, one of which was from TenCate," says Cuelho. "We also set up multiple control test sections where conventional aggregate sources were used to compare the results from reinforced test sections back to a "do nothing" situation." Cuelho points out that the next step was to drive a fully-loaded, three-axle dump truck at 5 mph to traffic the test sections. Measurements of the longitudinal rut, transverserut, geosynthetic displacement, geosynthetic strain, and subgrade pore-water pressure were taken during trafficking. 740 passes were taken from mid-September to early November and testing continued until rut levels reached approximately 3 inches, at which time they were filled in so as to allow the remaining sections to be trafficked until failure. Forensic investigations were conducted after trafficking to assess damage and evaluate tensile properties and to facilitate strength, stiffness and moisture measurements of the base and subgrade. As might be expected, the "do nothing" sections without any geosynthetics additives were the first to fail. Damage to the geosynthetics was minimal, and rib damage was

2017 Asphalt issue CALCONTRACTOR


Above: TenCate’s award-winning Mirafi® H2Ri product is utilized for a Caltrans project on Highway 12 to wick moisture from the subgrade.

greatest in the woven geogrid products. These products also showed the greatest loss in tensile strength. The accumulation of rut as a function of truck passes revealed that the woven geotextile (Mirafi® RS580i) performed the best. The results of the traffic benefit ratio (TBR) analysis indicated that the greatest benefit was achieved by using the TenCate Mirafi® RS580i geotextile, resulting in an improvement of almost 11 times the traffic level when compared to the unreinforced control test section. The full report can be seen by visiting http://www. geotech/subgrade.shtml In Montana, where Eli Cuelho lives and works, gravel resources are dwindling, particularly in the eastern portion of the state. There is rising interest in this state to see if using smaller particle sized gradation in the base course is viable. "I recently completed a study for the Montana Department of Transportation to determine if utilizing smaller sized aggregate would result in similar performance to aggregates with larger particle sizes. The results of this effort have made easier for quarries to allow for smaller nominal gravel sizes in the


future," says Cuelho. "It is projects like these that are helping us make the most of our limited resources, and utilizing technologies like geosynthetics whenever possible to help make that achievable." Cuelho goes on to explain that when you are building a road with poor soils, one of the things you want to do is to keep that inferior soil from migrating up into the gravel layer. "You want to keep your engineered aggregate material separated from the soils underneath. Over time, traffic loads and water inundation will push those smaller porous materials up into the base course, effectively reducing their structural capacity," continues Cuelho. "Geotextiles like Mirafi® RS580i work as a barrier to keep the soils separated, as a reinforcement to increase the structural capacity of the gravel layer, and as a filter, allowing moisture to percolate through to the water table below. This is why we feel the Mirafi® product performed so well in our study." Todd Anderson, VP of Sales for TenCate Geosynthetics wants to make it clear that the geosynthetic industry’s message


is that, "Geosynthetics work and they serve as a positive partner to the aggregate and construction industry alike," says Anderson. "The use of geosynthetics will result in the construction of a better roadway that in general will be more cost effective downrange. This material conserves resources, allows for faster construction, and it lasts longer. Geosynthetics have a real intrinsic value component, and this is why as an industry, we are so interested in conveying our message to the marketplace." It is no secret that road construction budgets are tight in California and as demands grow and resources fade, it is important that the industry continues to search for solutions to ease the financial stress," says Anderson. "If we can help California build a better road for less money, and conserve resources at the same time, then I think the use of geosynthetics is a worthwhile solution deserving of continued discussion," concludes Anderson. TenCate Geosynthetics are manufactured primarily in Georgia, and they sell their products through a network of civil engineering focused distributors. Since debuting in 1973, Mirafi® products have provided solutions for reinforcement projects across the United States. Mirafi® products are widely accepted and used in nearly every country in the world and are primarily used in the construction of roads, retaining walls and slopes. TenCate Mirafi® has won numerous awards, and you can learn more about these products by visiting or calling Todd Anderson at (706) 693-1835. Cc

Caltrans Assesses Long Road Ahead For Cleaning Up and Rebuilding Highway 1 in Southern Big Sur Area After Massive Mud Creek Landslide By Brian Hoover, CMS, Senior Editor

Above: Massive May 20, 2017 Mud Creek Landslide covers Hwy 1 near Big Sur.

The construction of Highway 1 began in 1919 with an original estimate of $1.5 million to construct. Federal funds were used to start building and in 1921 California voters approved additional state funds with total construction costs amounted to $10 million by 1938. Highway 1 runs approximately 650 miles from Capistrano Beach in Orange County to Leggett in Northern Mendocino. The most scenic views can be found in the central coast area with arguably the most beautiful stretch running 100 miles from San Simeon to Carmel. During construction, this rugged terrain required that much of the equipment and supplies be brought in by boat, and steampowered donkey engines were used to lift material up to the


cliffs above where the roadway was being constructed. Much of the labor was provided by prisoners from nearby San Quinton, who were paid 35 cents per day and a promise of reduced sentences for their hard work. Highway 1 is known by several names and depending on the location you may hear it referred to as Pacific Coast Highway (PCH), Cabrillo Highway, Shoreline Highway or Coast Highway. The long stretch of scenic highway also contains 33 bridges; the most photographed and publicized being the Bixby Rainbow Bridge, located 18 miles south of Carmel. It is also one of the tallest, single-span bridges in the world standing at a height of 260 feet and a length of 700 feet. The architectural


wonder required 825 trucks to bring in 6,600 cubic yards of concrete and 600,000 pounds of reinforced steel. The famous rainbow arch was originally formed using 300,00 board feet of Douglas fir, and more than 4,700 cubic yards of earth and rock needed to be excavated. Maintenance on this highway’s roads and bridges is perpetual with much of the damage coming from landslides caused by winter storms that create erosion. Prior to this year, the last massive landslide occurred in 1983, when earth and rock covering Highway 1 north of Julia Pfeiffer Burns State Park took 14 months to clear. Landslide conditions became ripe this year after California suffered through a five-year drought only to receive a seemingly constant heavy rainfall since January 2017. According to reports, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) estimates that damage to our highway system as a direct result of these rains is estimated to exceed $1 billion. The path of destruction on Highway 1, in particular, can be easily seen from the landslides that have occurred recently. Caltrans has listed at least 10 landslide sites in need of repair on State Route 1 in Monterey County with estimates reaching $55 million, not counting the most recent Mud Creek event. Landslides have damaged more than just roadways this year. The Pfeiffer Canyon Bridge was heavily damaged when

Above: Map showing location of Mud Creek Slide and Pfeiffer Canyon Bridge.

heavy rains caused a landslide this past February, damaging its main support columns. Crews recently demolished the structure, making room for a new $26.5 million steel plate girder bridge scheduled to be open sometime this fall. The latest landslide located near Big Sur and referred to as the Mud Creek slide, dropped more than a million tons of rock and dirt onto Highway 1, Saturday, May 20, in four separate slides. This particular slide is said to be the largest in recent history after it covered Highway 1 in a 40-foot-plus layer of dirt, covering around 1,500 feet or more than a quarter mile of roadway. Caltrans officials have stated that they believe that whatever roadway was there before the slide occurred is most likely gone due to the tremendous weight of the earth and rock. Because the area is

completely covered from the shore all the way up the hill, it is, however, impossible to confirm exact damage until the excavation process is complete. Officials have said that they believe it will take crews approximately one year and millions of dollars to repair and reopen Highway 1 at Mud Creek. Debris stretches around 1,000 feet from the road deck to the top of the slide area and another 250 feet beyond the shoreline. Workers will undoubtedly focus on the damaged road area before moving on to the shoreline below. There is a lot of work to be done even before excavators, dump trucks, and crews descend upon the job site. The big question is where does Caltrans go from here? We can start from what we know and then cautiously speculate from there. We know that

Caltrans crews were recently on-site doing exploratory drilling in order to conduct soil assessments and they have said that it will take several weeks to compile the data from geologists and other experts. One of the thoughts from geologists is that the land could continue to move causing more land to slide into the sea. They reportedly have already placed markers to monitor the site with lasers and radar scanners in order to access movement and deem if conditions are safe to bring in equipment and crews. Once it is determined to be safe, heavy construction equipment will be brought in to clear the rock and dirt and whatever roadway still exists. Once a new roadway is constructed, the focus will more than likely move to preventative engineering to keep the slide from happening again. Infrastructure can be built that could help drain the surrounding landmass, possibly making it less susceptible to future landslides. It has been suggested that a wall could also be constructed; one that is anchored a few hundred feet down to stable bedrock, but this would be very expensive. Another option would be to do what was done at Alder Creek and that is to install rock netting to help hold back the rock and dirt. It would also stand to reason that the state might want to clean up the new 16-acre land mass that is currently protruding from the Big Sur coast. This would appear to require barges and other specialized equipment. Caltrans officials have said that this is the biggest slide they have seen in a long time and it is probably the largest on Big Sur coast. Cc

2017 Asphalt issue CALCONTRACTOR


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60 YEARS OF BOMAG: THE SUCCESS STORY CONTINUES BOMAG GmbH, the specialist in road construction and asphalt and soil compaction, is celebrating its 60th anniversary this year. The company’s focus on innovation, quality, userfriendly products and the highest level of service has transformed a small business into a successful global manufacturer of construction machinery. BOMAG – founded in the town center of Boppard/ Rhine in Germany in October 1957 – now employs approximately 2,200 employees and generates annual revenue of about € 700 million. The company has production plants in Germany, Italy, Brazil, the United States and China. "We are proud of what BOMAG has achieved up to now and the many innovations which have been accepted by customers all over the world, which have made BOMAG the global market leader in our core business of asphalt and soil compaction", says Jörg Unger, President – FAYAT Road Equipment Division. "Above all, this has been made possible by the commitment of our highly qualified employees, who give us their best every day and are never simply satisfied with what has already been achieved." Focused on the Customer One of the most important


pillars of this 60-year success story is customer orientation and placing the customer first. Since its founding, BOMAG has placed great importance on developing close partnerships on an equal footing. "No matter where we are in the world, BOMAG always maintains its focus on the customers’ needs. This close market proximity together with the highest level of local service for the machines is one of our greatest strengths, and this will not change in the future", says Unger. The results of these developmental partnerships with customers are products that meet not only market requirements but also especially those of the


user. Machines with a long service life and low servicing requirements and control systems that are easy to operate make construction and compaction work more productive. The high compaction power plus BOMAG’s world leading measurement technology save contractors significant fuel costs and time. Continuous Product Innovation To lead the way in road construction and soil compaction in the coming decades, BOMAG continues to invest strongly in research, development, education and training and launches an average of 15 new products onto the market each year.

Above: New Bomag BW 28 RH pneumatic tired roller with newly designed cab allowing for more precise work on asphalt edges.

Premiered in 2017, the new BOMAG BW 28 RH pneumatic tired roller features a cab design modeled on the head

of a hammerhead shark, providing the driver, for the first time, with a clear view of the top of the wheels and allowing for more precise work on asphalt edges and joints. Weight options for the new BW 28 RH are also new. The roller is available with a range of precise operating weights from 18,960 to 61,730 lb (8.6 to 28 t). In addition, a newly developed brake pedal, which spans the entire width of the driver’s stand, offers more comfort and safety and can be safely and directly accessed at all times.

Above: Bomag introduces it's most powerful 2200/75 cold milling machine.

At CONEXPO-CON/AGG in March, BOMAG introduced its most powerful cold milling machine, the BM 2200/75, to the North American market. Boasting a powerful 760.3hp (567-kW) diesel engine, the new BM 2200/75 delivers high-performance milling of half-lane widths reaching 86.6 in (2,200 mm) at precise milling depths reaching 13.8 in (350 mm). A range of quick-change milling drum options are available, featuring BOMAG’s unique BMS15 tooth holder system that lowers wear to extend service life by up to 30%

over other cutting systems. Due to the holder’s quickchange deign, a full set of teeth can be changed in about 25% of the time as conventional systems to increase machine uptime availability. The new BOMAG RS 500 Recycler/Stabilizer advances operating safety and improves material gradation in road recycling applications. Its exclusive offsetting rotor design allows the rotor housing to be shifted to either side of the RS 500, reaching beyond the wheel’s edge, so the machine can safely stabilize BOMAG 60 Years: 1957-2017 1957: Foundation of Bopparder Maschinenbaugesellschaft MbH in Boppard am Rhein Launch of the world’s first double vibratory roller featuring all drum drive - the BW 60 1961: First overseas branch in Austria 1962: First self-propelled double vibratory roller: model BW 200 1968: First international subsidiaries – BOMAG Nippon and Canada 1969: Moved to current headquarters in the Hellerwald industrial park 1973: First research and development center 1983: Development of the first compaction control system - the Terrameter BTM 01 1986: First contract in China

soil on slopes and recycle asphalt up to the road’s edge without requiring the wheels to drive in marginal ground conditions. The machine’s exclusive FLEXMIX technology features an adjustable door just above the rear discharge door that moves at the operator’s command to provide flexible mixing of material inside the rotor chamber, giving the operator precise control over material gradation. Cc

1998: Sales of DM 500 million exceeded for the first time 2001: Introduction of the Asphalt manager – the first control system with automatic compaction control 2003: New powder coating and paint shop with first driverless transport system 2005: Acquisition by Fayat 2006: Assumes responsibility for the paver and milling machine business 2008: Selected as one of the "Top 100" most innovative German mediumsized companies 2014: "Top Job" award as one of the best employers amongst German mediumsized companies 2017: New customer and training center in Boppard (due to open in September)

2017 Asphalt issue CALCONTRACTOR




Clairemont Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Pine Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Coastline Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Quinn CAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Coastline Equipment Crane Div. . . . . . 18

RDO Equipment Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

FMG, Grinding & CIR / Graniterock . . . 22

Scott Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Hawthorne CAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Sonsray Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Heavy Equipment Rentals . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Trench Shoring Company . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Johnson CAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

UB Equipment Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Nixon-Egli Equipment Co . . . back Cover

Valero Marketing & Supply. . . . . . . . . . 19

Pavement Recycling Systems . . . . . . . . 9

Volvo Construction Equip. & Svcs. . . . 11



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NIXON-EGLI EQUIPMENT CO., LEEBOY AND T. MAUS GRADING AND PAVING INC. Left: T. Maus Grading and Paving, Inc. utilizing their new LeeBoy 8515C paver at The Barn retail center zzin Wildomar. Below: Tim Maus, President and Owner of T. Maus Grading and Paving, Inc.

T. Maus Grading and Paving is located in Lake Elsinore and currently serves the counties of San Diego, San Bernardino, Riverside, Imperial, Orange, Los Angeles, Kern, Ventura, and Santa Barbara, and are rapidly expanding to surrounding areas. Tim Maus established his paving company in 2014 with 12 employees in order to specialize in commercial projects like parking lots and shopping centers. T. Maus Grading and Paving recently purchased a new LeeBoy 8515C paver from Nixon-Egli Equipment Co. “This is our third LeeBoy paver and we just can’t say enough about this machine. One of the best features on this unit is the heavy-duty Legend screed system,” says Tim Maus. “We are also very impressed with Nixon-Egli; from sales and parts availability to service and financing, they have always been there for us. Allen Hahn has been calling on us since we first started out in business. He’s truly a book of knowledge and Allen knows his product line backwards and forwards. It is like he is a part of our team, always looking out for our best interests.” Tim is also very impressed with Nixon-Egli’s parts and service department. “John Novy has been a great resource for our parts and service needs. It only takes a phone call and he has up back up and running with little or no downtime.”

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