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AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Mar del Plata, 15.10.2010

Prof. Dr. LEE, Tien-Rein, Vincent Sun, & Liu, Ren-Hau Institute of Information Communications, Chinese Culture University Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

 Introduction

 Method  Results

and Analysis

 Conclusions  Future

Development


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

This study on “Preferences for Dining Space Color and Its Imagery” is part of a bigger study on “Preferences for Living Space Colors”. Except dining rooms, other rooms have been surveyed (kitchen, living room, bath room etc.). By using the example of a dining room, findings on color preference in correlation with demographic characteristics and semantic scale are introduced.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Research showed that color causes positive or negative emotions towards living space:   

pleasure or distress (Miller, 1997), a wish to stay or to leave (Kwallek et. al. 1996), perception of intimacy in a big or small space (Nissen, Faulkner & Faulkner, 1994).

There can be a disposition for color preference living space by age, gender, personality, and education. (Manav, 2006; Cubukcu, Kahraman, 2007).


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

The color of living space may affect its use frequency and economical value. It may also be associated with individual well-being, especially in case of a dining room. Color preferences by color chips can confirm color preference for people’s direct living space on a limited scale.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Is there a color preference for dining space? 

Are color preferences correlated to demographic factors like age, gender and habitat? Are there correlations between demographic factors and color preferences for dining space?

Does data mining allow creating a color preference prediction model based on certain demographic characteristics?


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

An electronic survey was conducted to examine color preferences and color imageries of dining space: 

 

382 undergraduate students of the Chinese Culture University in Taipei chose from 11 pre-selected colors based on the Natural Color System (NCS).

Age

Quantity

Percentage

19~20

186

48.7%

There were 156 male and 226 female.

21~22

120

31.4%

23+

76

19.9%

253 of the participants had an educational background of color studies.

The majority’s habitat was northern Taiwan, though many of the students came from different home towns all over Taiwan.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

For generating color preference prediction models, eight characteristic basic demographic variables were applied:

gender, habitat, educational background of color studies, studies of environmental design (or not), personality, leisure time activities, blood type, and age.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

A color imageries study with semantic differential scale was conducted, using five bipolar word-pairs: 

   

beautiful-ugly, soft-hard, warm-cool, elegant-vulgar, and loud-discreet.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

11 colors were selected from the NCS color circle for finding color preferences for living space.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

11 colors were selected from the NCS color circle to cover the walls of living spaces for color preference surveys:


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

The selected NCS colors were picked up from the NCS palette 2.1 software application, and the RGB values of each color were found and then translated into CIE 1931 Yxy values with the EasyRGB-PC software. Images of a dining room were projected on a 120" wide metallic screen with a Mitsubishi XD200U DLP projector. All images had a standard 4:3 aspect ratio and a 1024x768 spatial resolution, with a viewing distance 2.5 meter, and the visual angles for the width of display was 50.6 degree.

The projector was calibrated to fit the sRGB standard with an X-rite XT colorimeter suite. All images were viewed in an experimental lab room which was totally dark.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Each of the 11 color chips was presented in full screen color for four seconds, and afterwards automatically switched to the next. In between there were one second intervals of black screen, to avoid the color carry-over and after-image effects. Colors were shown both on wall and PC. Subjects were asked to choose their most favorite and least favorite (most disliked) color (chip) and reply their feeling to a set of semantic scales.

In the next step, dining room models were shown one after another, according to the 11 colors as chosen from the color circle randomly.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Projection Model of Experimental Space


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

ď‚ž

ď‚ž

Subjects selected the most favorite and most disliked color for dining room walls. The same presentation modus was used for avoiding after-image effect. Finally, subjects indicated their feelings by responding their feeling towards most favorite and most disliked wall color according to semantic scale.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

White, blue and red are the most favorite colors for dining room.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

The first three most disliked colors for dining rooms colors are black, yellow, and yellow-green. Together with orange, green and purple, those colors are less popular for dining space. Blue-green was rated least among the most favorite colors.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Results: Color Preference Ranking


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

White, blue and red are the most favorite colors for dining room.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

The radar chart shows clear perception of beauty for red, orange, blue, purple, and green if chosen as most favorite colors.

Comparing overall choices, red has been perceived as very beautiful.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Yellow-green, purple and blue were sensed uglier than other colors among the least favorites.

Yellow, purple and leaf-green were chosen as most ugly when considered least favorite colors.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

The evaluation gap between most and least favorite colors can be explained with a tendency of giving higher rates to favorite colors. Yellow, orange, and red appeared generally softer than all other colors. There is consistency of the rates given to most / least favorite colors regarding their sensual perception as “soft” or “hard”.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Yellow, orange and red were clearly perceived softer than other colors.

The perception of yellow, orange and red as soft colors was confirmed.

.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Most favorite colors are generally given lower rates for their sensed temperature, while least favorite colors received higher rates, with blue-green and yellow-green reaching the highest grades.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Red was perceived warmer than other colors, while orange and purple appeared slightly cooler than yellow-green, green, blue-green and blue. Blue-green, green and yellow-green were found relatively warm, while yellow, orange, and purple were sensed slightly cool.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Favorite Colors were more perceived as vulgar than as elegant. There is consistency in the perception of red, purple, yellow-green, white, gray and black as relatively vulgar or elegant. For yellow, orange, blue and green, there is a discrepancy showing these colors perceived as more vulgar if rated as favorite colors. An exception is blue-green which was perceived slightly elegant both as a favorite or least favorite color.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Yellow, red, blue, and bluegreen are considered more vulgar than other colors if chosen as favorites.

Red, orange, yellow , green, and blue-green were seen more elegant than others among the least favorites.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Only red, purple and white differ from the otherwise consistent rating. Red and purple were found louder than other colors (when chosen as least favorite), while white was sensed most discreet.

Purple was felt neutral when chosen as favorite color.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Yellow, orange, and red are sensed louder than other colors among the most favorites.

Red and purple are perceived loud if rated as least favorite. The radar chart shows this very clearly.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

White was the most favorite dining space color, followed by blue. White was perceived beautiful and discreet, while partly vulgar.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Blue was felt elegant by many participants, but partly ugly, partly beautiful. It was sensed as relatively hard but of neutral temperature, and slightly loud. Red appeared quite soft, relatively cool, and slightly loud.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Yellow-green was generally perceived as of neutral consistence, and slightly noisy. Yellow is found relatively soft and loud but ratings differs in other aspects.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Purple was found neutral for elegance and consistency. Ratings are almost the same for being a favorite or disliked color. But orange greatly differs in ratings with one exception: It was found as being quite soft.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Like orange, green and gray differ along choices as a favorite or disliked colors. Green was sensed neutral in consistency and relatively loud. Gray was felt relatively discreet and slightly hard.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Blue-green was felt cool as a favorite color but warm if chosen as being disliked; otherwise, the ratings are almost consistent. Black is agreed to be of almost neutral sound but perception differs in all other categories.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Color Chip used for Experimental Space of the Survey.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

All participants were screened for color deficiencies by using the Ishihara Color Vision Test. Subjects first provided information about their demographic background. Subjects were shown screen projections of color chips first, for selecting their most favorite and most disliked color.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Color Imagery: Chip vs. Image It is assumed that preferred colors would also present the first choice if a decision on a colorful environment is made. Color Chip

Dining Room Image

Most favored

0.524

Most disliked

0.634

Regarding the most favorite colors, it is found that the coefficient between preferred dining room color and color chip is 0.524; while for the most disliked colors, the coefficient is 0.634.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

The survey confirmed that there are preferences of colors between certain people. Statistical analysis showed interconnections of demographic factors, for building up a color preference prediction model: 1. Male participants relatively preferred yellow for dining room color and female preferred yellow-green. 2. Both genders chose purple as their least favorite color for dining room.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

3. Northern residents relatively prefer purple or green colored dining rooms, while Eastern residents prefer blue or gray, and subjects with an international background like yellow-green or white. 4. About one third of the participants who were experienced in color studies chose white for their most favorite dining room color, and so did more than one third of the subjects in the age group of 19.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Demographic factors correlate with color preferences on a limited scale (Saito 1996). However, we are still wondering if our prediction model can really predict a real set-up: some methodological limitations should be taken into account for future studies:

1. Subjects were undergraduate 19-23+ years old students of the Chinese Culture University, a homogenous group of comparatively high educational background. 2. Multi-colored or partially colored rooms, as often found in daily life environment, may evoke different emotional response than single colored space.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

3. A computer-generated 3D-model might bring different results than a picture or a real setting, due to perception of spatial surroundings. 4. The size of the projected dining room, the illumination and color accuracy may influence subjects’ perception levels of intimacy and thereby color preference. 5. Additional features like table setting, food and decoration may influence color preference.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

 

Future research should take into account the need of a more realistic setting. Focus should be on a more diversified space due to individual perception of spatial surroundings. Cross-cultural comparison will be interesting instead of homogeneous groups.

More research needs to be done to further validate the present results, which can be valuable for designers, architects, or the gastronomic industry.

- Thank you for your attention! -


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

We express our special thanks to the National Science Council, Taiwan, for funding this research. (NSC 97-2410-H-034-024).


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Cubukcu, Ebru, Kahraman Ilker, 2008, Hue, Saturation, Lightness, and Building Exterior Preference: An Empirical Study in Turkey Comparing Architects’ and Nonarchitects’ Evaluative and Cognitive Judgments. Color Research and Application 2008; 33:395-405 Manav Banu, 2006, Color-Emotion Associations and Color Preferences: A Case Study for Residences. Color. Res. Appl. 32(2), 144-150.

Miller, Mary C., 1997, Color for Interior Architecture. U.S.A. NY, John Wiley & Sons Inc. Nissen, LuAnn, Faulkner, Ray, Faulkner, Sarah, 1994, CA, Inside Today’s Home. Wadsworth Pub. Co.

Saito M., 1996 Comparative studies on color preferences in Japan and other Asian regions with special emphasis on the preference for white. Color Res. Appl. 1996; 21:35–49.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Experiencing Darkness Welcome to the restaurant & bar “Unsicht-Bar” in Berlin! “Unsichtbar” in German means: “Invisible”. Guests will first choose their meals and drinks before darkness will set in.

www.unsicht-bar-berlin.de


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

Dining in Unsicht-Bar Guests may choose a drink in the lounge.

Blind waiters explain the placing of objects using a clock analogy, so that you can act in the dark. The spoons are found at twelve o'clock.


AIC 2010, International Color Association COLOR AND FOOD: FROM THE FARM TO THE TABLE

The Darkness

Two things are not allowed when experiencing darkness: - No lights at all; - No moving around by oneself.


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Tien-Rein Lee, Vincent Sun (Taiwan): Color preference for dining space and its imagery

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Tien-Rein Lee, Vincent Sun (Taiwan): Color preference for dining space and its imagery

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