P O R T F O L I O
2018 URBAN DESIGN
CAIA YEUNG PROFILE
Highly responsible and versatile individual pursuing urban planning and design related roles for which will employ the technical skills developed through study and different experiences. I am keen to secure design with specialist in planning and creativity committed to bridging human happiness, equity, and social connectedness by working for a livability and as a creative problem solver. My educational background encounters arts and sciences which give me an understanding of the technical and the social aspects of urban design and planning. I am looking forward to the urbanity and collaborative design practices.
CONTACT 304 SPACE, WEST.ONE. 8 BROOMHALL STREET, SHEFFIELD S3 7SY YEUNGCHAKYAN@GMAIL.COM 07826186577
Him Design Company, Tsuen Wan, Hong Kong — Summer Job July 2014 - August 2014 Responsibilities include identity branding, logo, packaging and web design. Dealing with customers and clients via email and telephone Contributed to client work for Eye-Opener, Tokwawan Baptist Church and KeiYam Church Provided creative input in packaging and poster design Developed photo manipulation skills and photography skills applied Developed relationships with clients to ensure results accurately and represent individual and the brand itself
University of Sheﬃeld, United Kingdom — MPLAN Degree September 2016 - Present Bachelor of Social Science with Urban Design and Planning Relevant Modules The Planning Project: An analysis and regeneration project
OTHER EXPERIENCES Wizdom Learning Centre, Kowloon City, Hong Kong — Part-time native English Teacher July 2014 - Present Worked there seasonally for 3 summers Mainly taught grammar and writing to students that were 6-12 years old. Wrote reference letters for students and organized monthly reports and invoices to update the centre regarding the process of the students. Communicated closely with parents, students and staff members, demonstrating interpersonal skills
on Kelham Island
Urban Design and Place Making Project: The design report on mixed-use development
The Development Project: The urban design analysis portfolio on Sheffield City Centre
Renaissance College, Hong Kong — IB Diploma August 2005 - June 2016 Received an IB Diploma with a total of 35 Points including Art, Maths and Geography
Photoshop Illustrator InDesign Microsoft Office Google SketchUp Dream Weaver Photography Lightroom ArcGIS
TRP235 THE DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
The Design Report
1. Introduction 2. Site Analysis 3. Design Vision and Principles 4. Design Evolution
5. Site Proposal Plan 6. Section Plans 7. 3D Visualization 8. Design Poster 1
Site 3, West Bar Development
Word 2684 Word Count: Count: 2670
Student ID: 160195248
The aim for this design report is to propose a new redevelopment for Site 3 of West Bar, Sheffield. The report intends to improve the landuse, the character and the physical environment of West Bar to fit the regeneration vision of the Sheffield City Council.
West Bar is located to the North of Sheffield City Center and is adjacent to the Riverside on the East and North West to the Kelham Island in Sheffield.
This project will explore the strengths and weaknesses of the site with SWOT analysis and a design vision and design principles to enhance the development for future prospects. There are objectives for the proposal of Site 3. The objectives are as follow: 1. Increase land-use efficiency 2. Improve the accessibility of the site 3. Create a sustainable environment 4. Regenerate and redevelop abandoned buildings 5. Improve the overall landscape (the quality, appearance) of the area
The appraisal area (site 3) that this project will be focusing on is located in the South West area of the West Bar. Site 3 has a total of 7028m2 (West Bar Square, 2018) and it is close proximity to Law Courts, the Corporation and Love Street.
Castlegate Cathedral Quarter
The Context: City Centre, Town Hall
The West Bar is significant to Sheffieldâ€™s history and character since the industrial revolution along with the riverside and the Kelham Island. Therefore, the site has several abandoned and poor maintained buildings. Overall, site 3 has unprofitable land use issues with vacant buildings and temporary car parks. There are also redeveloped areas with modern buildings such as the Laws Court.
Figure 1: Map of Sheffield (Roam, 2017) Figure 2: Appraisal area of West Bar, Site 3 (Roam, 2017)
Water Street (Yeung, 2018)
The site is undergoing changes of development with mixed uses orientated purposes in other areas of West Bar. Therefore, the project will focus into the potential land use and design changes that could best fit into the site 3 development. Laws Court (left) and West Bar (Yeung, 2018)
2.0 Site Analysis and site Issues
The site is accessible by cars from the city centre and the Corporation Street. However, the site is not supported with public transportation other than two bus stops at the entrance of West Bar. Therefore, there are no routes that connects to the North of West Bar, the City Centre and to the Riverside. The accessibility of site 3 is not welcoming due to the small and narrow streets. The site is traffic dominated and it does not have a proper cycle lane for cyclists.
e) SWOT Analysis:
Figure 3: Narrow roads and traffic dominated streets (Yeung, 2018) Main Vehicles Pedestrian Route
Co r St porta ree t tion
a) Access and Movement:
two largest temporary car parks in site 3
Pedestrian walk path at West Bar (Yeung, 2018)
There is no landmark buildings except for the Laws Court to guide people’s direction. Besides that, there is no road signs which guide to the entrance of West Bar. The Laws Court is a barrier and the edge of the City Centre which reduces the legibility of the site.
c) Land Use and Activities: Site 3 does not have any existing use. The area is mostly vacant buildings including, EG Inton Bros.LTD, Woollen Signs Works and remaining site areas for temporary car parks.
Figure 7: Temporary Car Parks: The temporary car parks can be transformed into new developments for site 3. (Yeung, 2018)
Strengths: Figure 4: A physical barrier around Laws Court which reduces the permeability of the area (Yeung, 2018)
• Accessibility: • There are two bus stops next to Laws court and good parking space for drivers
Figure 5: Poor legibility and no road signs to indicate the entrance of the site (Yeung, offices
• Aesthetic: • The Laws Court creates sense of direction of the site
residential retails greeneries
The West Bar area is dominated by professional services or offices and residential uses on its East side. Overall, there is no mixed-use buildings in the surrounding area and is underdeveloped.
Weaknesses: • Lack of social interaction: • Little interaction between people, people only come to area for short period of time or to rent/ park cars. • No social activities held in the area that brings people together. • No shops are opened in the area and buildings are often abandoned.
d) Landscaping and Green Space: There is no green open space available in the area, only part of the entrance of Laws Court is developed through the Greater Green Project. There are unused grass for transition or boundaries at the carparks. On the other hand, the frontages of buildings are poorly maintained and dull. The location of West Bar including site 3, is not connected to any other recreational designated purposes which creates a sense of isolation.
Figure 6: Land Use Map (Roam, 2018)
• Safety: • No proper street lights in the area, this might cause safety hazards and antisocial behaviors to be seen in the site.
Temporary car park (left) and unused grass outside of Laws Court (right) (Yeung, 2018)
Opportunities: • Mixed Use: • Mix of uses on upper floors to increase more services and shops to entertain people to access and increase legibility of the place other than parking and car services only • A ratio of 50:50 for housing and offices with hotel for tourists or business workers. • Access and movement: • Can increase integrated transport links such as tram, buses and cycling lanes to connect to the area with a proper walking path for people to access. • Social activities: • Promote more social events for people to engage with great space to increase footfall. • Green Space: • More greeneries such as rooftop gardens or the extension of the Greater Green project to Site 3 to soften the dark colors with an open area for recreation for nearby residents and workers
3 . 0 D e s i g n Vi s i o n a n d D e s i g n P r i n c i p l e s v) Landscaping (Sunlight and Green Space):
a) Design Vision:
ii) Types of use:
The appraisal area is redesigned to create a lively and viable district which aims for a new urban identity near the City Centre of Sheffield. The site will establish varieties of professional services to attract workers and people to West Bar.
The proposal requires a mixed-use of premises or land which includes:
The design of the project will comprise mixed-use buildings of residential use, retail shops, offices and restaurants which generates a sustainable environment for all. There will also be a well-connection of all transport services and effective coordination for people and vehicles to move freely and efficiently.
• Green open space
• Residential • Offices
Besides that, the apartment buildings will also adopt a rooftop garden to enhance the use of space and create a focal point of the site for the community to invigorate by the refreshing atmosphere.
• Restaurants and Pubs • Bars and Cafes • Hotels
The Rooftop Garden is adopted in Brooklyn Grange to utilize rooftop space for gardening to increase green space and reduce the effect of urban heat island.
• Amenities and Leisure facilities eg. Cinema and Gym
iii) Amount: The proposal consists the requirement to provide an amount of floor space for housing and offices with a ratio of 50:50. The floor space for the appraisal area are approximately 4279m2. The total floor space and units of each types of use are as follows: • Housing: 6850m2 with 150 units of two bedroom flat • Offices: 7300m2 • Restaurants/Cafes and Pubs/Bars: 3350m2
b)Design Principles i) Policy Background: The report complies the planning policies and guidelines for the development of West Bar. This is significant because it influences the impact of the outcome on the final design proposal.
• West Bar Interim Planning Guidance (2006) is a general development strategy for West Bar and suggests the improvement of key pedestrian route to connect the City Centre, Cathedral Quarter and West Bar.
• Cathedral Quarter Action Plan (2008) sets out the need to provide more floor space and professional firms in West Bar.
• Sheffield City Centre Master Plan (2013) emphasizes on mixed-use and business development in West Bar.
The proposal comprises to maximize the reach for sufficient sun light. Therefore, the depth of the building will be halved to allow greater reach of light and to avoid over shadowing. This has taken the concept of ‘Step Down Design’ as a sustainable strategy.
Rooftop Garden in Brooklyn Grange (Croghan, 2014)
• Hotels: 800m2 • Retails: 1100m2 • Leisure Facilities/Recreation: 400m2
To Kelham Island
• Basement Parking: 1020m2 More privatized
iv) Layout: The vision of the project is to ensure varieties of functions with mix-use to accommodate different users.
The layout of the plan (Figure 8) has considered the balance between the level of exposure and privacy for each building. &B
The residential apartments will be allocated to the Northern area of the site for privacy with less public surroundings. Besides that, the hotel will be included in the design to accommodate tourists and business visitors to the Northern side of Sheffield. Therefore, hotels and offices will be allocated to the South West side with a higher exposure level to the public. The design has take into account to provide a new walk path which connects people from Plum Street towards the entrance of West Bar in order to enhance legibility and accessibility. 4
Lower level of exposure
To City Centre / Cathedral Quarter
Figure 8: A layout plan of the project in site 3 EEE EEI
3 . 0 D e s i g n Vi s i o n a n d P r i n c i p l e s
The average building height set in the proposal will be 5 floors including a ground level to conform with the requirement of the policy framework. The building height scale will be equivalent with the surrounding buildings such as the Laws Court with 4-5 floors high. The buildings have also taken a ‘step down design’ to create a visual friendly building massing with appropriate enclosure ratio for people to access the area.
The design accommodates all users such as pedestrians, cyclists and car user (see figure 11,12,13). The site introduces a new route to connect the main road, Plum street, Sprint street, Water street and Love street of the site. This porosity of the site with new routes will be more user friendly and safe for all users to use it with slower traffic. The wide walking path is also supported for disabled communities to access the site.
Figure 9: The ‘Step Down’ Design Concept
vii) Appearance (landmarks and sense of place): The proposal has taken the consideration to incorporate modern traditional red-brick building facade in order to blend in with the existing buildings in the site. The contemporary British architectural structure with consistent building lines will create a sense of place for residents and will able to reflect the professionalism and the services which will be accommodated in the site.
Figure 11: The Enclosure Ratio of Site
There will also be a plaza to create a landmark of the place as a central focus and guide direction in the site. &B
(A View on Cities, 2018) The design idea is taken from the example of Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain in Piccadilly Circus with consistent building lines and building facade for visual richness.
A landmark in site 3 and shows the direction of North EEE EEI
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Figure 10: Landmark location C
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Figure 12: Vehicles access and movement
Figure 13: Cyclist and Pedestrian access and movement
Financial Appraisal of the Design
4 . 0 D e s i g n E v o l u t i o n a n d F i n a n c i a l Vi a b i l i t y The final design for the proposal will be chosen from a preferred option out of three design options. The desired design is considered based on the design quality with an appropriate financial viability and the ability to change and adapt in the future of the schemes. In this proposal, the stages of the design has been developed into a final detailed design. cafes !" #$%
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On the other hand, option 3 is more feasible because it lies within the range of viability (16.40%), while option 1 and 2 have a lower percentage of profit (13.26%, 11.83%) and this means option 3 has a higher possibility to make the project viable through design changes.
Graph 1: Financial Appraisal
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Table 2: Reappraised Financial Appraisal
Option 3 has been reappraised to undergo changes. The changes that have been made to improve the financial viability are the cost of building specification by increasing 10% in order to construct a better quality scheme, the development density of offices and residential floor space are increased by 20% and the mix of use has been changed from offices to bars and pubs to make it less profitable.
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Option 3 incorporates the both option 1 and 2 designs with modern buildings and landscapes transformed from the high density uses. The design has also considered a central pedestrianized public realm with wider walking paths for greater accessibility and to encourage people walking and cycling. The design has also provided rooftop gardens to maximize green space. Option 3 has also adopted a hotel and more retail shops available for tourists and business workers to the area. Overall, Option 3 complies the desired design element in option 1 and 2.
Table 1: Financial Appraisal
Stage 4 The design option 2 has inherited a similar design as option 1 with high density use of buildings. However, option 2 has adopted more landscapes, rounded plazas and greeneries between buildings to create a friendly atmosphere for users. The design has also adopted a semienclosed courtyard to create privacy for residents with basement carparks to maximize the use of space.
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The first and second stage on the design are based on the concept of permeability with high density use for possible buildings to be developed in the site. The initial design considers optimal block sizes and walk paths in order to create a friendly environment and to connect main streets for transports. The design in the first two stages have caused the over division of space. Therefore, option 1 design is raised to improve the hidden turning corners which will raise safety issues in the Northern area of the site.
Based on Table 1, option 3 will be chosen to develop because it has the highest developer’s profit (£3,075,016) in absolute terms in comparison to option 1 (£2,489,553) and option 2 (£2,275,115).
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After the calculation, the developer’s profit of all three options have been increased. Option 3 has achieved a 19.28% of profit under design changes, which fits in the financially viable range. Therefore, option 3 is chosen to be the most preferred and desired design for the final proposal. Graph 2: Reappraised Financial Appraisal
5.0 Final Site Proposal Plan: 1:1000 Scale Scale 1:1000
A new route is introduced to connect the Plum Street with Love Street to allow more users and movements to the area.
A rounded plaza is designed for all users as a recreational location and as a direction to the North area of West Bar.
t Mix Use
The area provides a pedestrianized central public realm with wide walk path and a safe environment for all users including disabilities to access and users to promote active frontages and outdoor business activities such as cafes and local retail shops.
e St reet
Pedestrianized public realm
The pedestrian public realm holds slow traffic zone (20mph) to ensure safety for all users and it connects Corporation Street, Plum Street and Love street. This area will provide a convenient and efficient environment for people to drop off or pick up users.
A new bus station is also introduced in the site in order to increase accessibility and connectivity between the West Bar, City Centre and Cathedral Quarter of Sheffield. The increase of public transport and station also improves the sustainability of environment and private vehicles usage.
Green space/ Landscape
Vehicles (purple line) and cycles movements (red line) are allowed to travel from Corporation Street to Love Street with 30 mph zone.
Cycle along Cyclelanes lanesand andracks racksare areintroduced introduced along the pedestrian paths. The site is designed forfor the pedestrian paths. The site is designed cyclists which is safe in the central public cyclists which is safe in the central public realm. There area also two cycle racks realm. There area also threeatcycle racks provided into site convenient the Northern provided into areas. site convenient at the Northern and Southern and Southern areas.
The landscape and water features located in the site act as landmarks to attract people and to increase the legibility of the site. The environment also serves as an open space for public uses and workers to relax from work.
The site increases the overall vehicle entrances for better efficiency and provide basement car parks for users to park their cars.
Total Building Floor Areas (sq. meters): A: 5 floors, 3,000m2 B: 5 floors, 6,000m2 C: 5 floors, 2,500m2 D: 4 floors, 1,600m2 E: 5 floors, 2,800m2 F: 5 floors, 3,750m2 G: 4 floors, 2,000m2
6.0 Final Site Section Plans: 1:500 Scale Scale 1:500
Section Plan A
The internal spaces within the buildings are ensured with sufficient reach of sun-light and air ventilation.
The pedestrianized public realm allows people to walk, sit and cycle.
6m Frontages & Buffering Zones
Section Plan B Plan B, Left Building: 1st floor: Retail Shops 2nd - 4th floors: Apartments Underground: Basement Carpark
The rooftops increase the frontage animation as well as to serve office workers as an alternative outdoor space.
er rv ob se he of t
6m Frontages & Buffering Zones
A rooftop garden is introduced to enhance the use of space and promote sustainability.
Plan B, Middle Building: 1st - 5th floors: Apartments Underground: Basement Carpark Plan B, Right Building: 1st floor: Restaurants and Cafes 2nd - 4th floors: Apartments Underground: Basement Carpark
the of rs w e vie serv ob
6m Frontages & Buffering Zones
2m Sitting Zone
Plan A, Right Building: 1st floor: Retail Shops 2nd floor: Leisure and Recreation Facilities 3rd - 4th floors: Hotel 5th floor: Restaurants and Cafes
Plan A, Left Building: 1st floor: Restaurants and Cafes 2nd - 4th floors: Offices
4m Sitting Zones
A green open space is designed for recreation and act as a landmark for the site.
3m Buffering Zones
There is a clear hierarchy of walk paths with walking/sitting zones, cycling and vehicles.
The active frontages are along the sides with appropriate enclosure ration for a lively atmosphere and a safe environment.
7 . 0 F i n a l D e s i g n 3 D Vi s u a l i z a t i o n Offices
Side View West Bar Site 3 Precedent Study:
Images taken from (Chapman Taylor, 2018)
Images taken from (Chapman Taylor, 2018)
The proposal is creating and thriving a mixed-use district while maintaining its historical heritage of the Laws Court. The redesign of the area with new streets and public squares and offices/ apartment spaces are inspired by the Altstadtquartier Buchel, Aachen in Germany.
The site is designated to deliver a pedestrian friendly environment for all users with a high connectivity of transports and roads to enhance a pleasant and an easy access environment.
The site also provides cycling racks and bus stations for people to access the site and connect the Cathedral Quarter, the Kelham Island and the City Centre of Sheffield.
South Buildings The South Park is located with a fountain to increase the legibility of the site. The ground floors of the offices also provide bars/pubs and restaurants which make it convenient for workers as well as amenity services and retail stores located in the centre of the site.
The Middle Section: The Central Public Realm The design of the buildings incorporated the â€˜Step Downâ€™ concept with rooftop balconies on the 3rd to 4th floor of the buildings to reduce public space and to create a green atmosphere.
North Buildings The North area of the site adopted a fountain with landscapes in the centre of the apartments. The ground floors of the buildings incorporated mix-use of retails and cafes to create an active frontages for residences.
8.0 Design Poster
West Bar Master Plan Site 3
A Place for Quality and Sustainable Lifestyle
The final design of West Bar Site 3 is designated to provide: • Quality mix-use scheme for multiple functions • Pedestrian friendly environment for all users • Well connectivity and accessibility to Sheffield areas with new transport routes • Designated spaces and landscapes that improves legibility and social interactions South Park The landmark of the entrance of Site 3 which acts as a direction for people and the legibility of West Bar.
North Park (Central Public Realm) Mix-use of retails and cafes to achieve active frontages with landscapes for direction and to provide an aesthetic view of the environment. 10
Rooftop Gardens Green public spaces on buildings to enhance the use of space and the quality of the environment as well as the view of the central public realm.
Reference: A View on Cities. (2018). Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain, Piccadilly Circus. Retrieved from May 10, 2018, from http://www.aviewoncities.com/gallery/showpicture.htm?key=kveen1534 Castlemore Securities. (2005). West Bar: Proposal for the Development of West Bar Sheffield. Halesowen, UK: Castlemore Securities LTD. Chapman Taylor. (2018). Altstadtquartier Buchel Aachen, Germany. Retrieved from May 16, 2018, from http://www.chapmantaylor.com/projects/altstadtquartier-buechel Croghan, L. (2014). Summer Splendor at Brooklyn Grange, Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Retrieved from May 10, 2018, from http://www.brooklyneagle.com/articles/2015/7/22/summer-splendor-brooklyn-grange Roam. (2017). Digimap. Retrieved from March 16, from http://digimap.edina.ac.uk/rooam/historic Sheffield City Council. (2006). West Bar Interim Planning Guidance, Sheffield City Centre. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield City Council. Sheffield City Council. (2008a). Kelham Neepsend Action Plan: 2008-2018. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield City Council. Sheffield City Council. (2008b). Wicker Riverside Action Plan: 2007-2017. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield City Council. Sheffield City Council. (2013). Sheffield City Centre Master Plan 2013: Consultation Draft. Sheffield, UK: Sheffield City Council. West Bar Square. (2018). Flexible Future-Proofed Design, Plots and Areas. Retrieved from May 10, 2018, from http://www.westbarsquare.com/development/plots-and-areas.php Yeung, C. (2018). West Bar Photos. March 12, 2018, from file:///Users/caiayeung/Desktop/Sheffield/Year%202/Spring%202018/235%20-%20Development%20Process/West%20Bar%20Sections%20and%20Photo/IMG_1616.jpg
Urban Design and Place Making Analysis on Fitzalan Square, Sheffield Module:TRP 210 | Student ID:160195248 1. Introduction 2. Land Use and Activities 3. Morphological Dimensions Analysis 4. Social Study 4.1. Access and Movement 4.2. Sense of Place 5. SWOT Analysis 6. Design Recommendations and Conclusion
1.Introduction: Contextual Background and Brief History
Figure 1: The Appraisal and study area within the city centre of Sheffield
The aim for this individual project is to analyze and design the urban development in Fitzalan Square, Sheffield. Prior to this project, it will consist two separate parts to explore the use of the urban design of the Fitzalan Square area and to develop a design framework which delivers a creative environment for Sheffield citizens.
The project will explore the strengths and weaknesses using the SWOT analysis, Jan Gehl’s method and will identify potentials to improve the development with a framework of design recommendations.
High Street Fitzalan Square (the appraisal area)
The Area: The appraisal area that this project will focus on is the Fitzalan Square, which is a small scale area located in the South-East side of Sheffield City Centre. The aim of this project will discuss the quality of the site and the urban public realms surrounding the chosen area.
(Google Map, 2017)
Brief History: The Fitzalan Square is an important source of Sheffield’s history which located at the area of the city. The square was built in 1881 as a transformation of a market quarter during the medieval era. The Fitzalan Square took the name from the Fitzalan Market Hall which was taken off in 1930. The middle of the Fitzalan square holds a bronze statue of King Edward VII (see figure 3) to depict the idea of peacemaking and unity in Sheffield (Ball, 2016). The general post office in 1910
The square is surrounded by a Grade II listed Post Office building which is now sold before the development in 2006 (see figure 2) and a Grade II listed White Building which still stands today (British Listed Building, 2017). Therefore, the Fitzalan Square is the heart of commerce area and an important identity of Sheffield.
(Sheffield Hallam University, 2015)
Figure 2: Flat Street (Yeung, 2017)
Figure 3: Fitzalan Square (Yeung, 2017)
Figure 4; High Street (Yeung, 2017)
Figure 5: Haymarket (Yeung, 2017)
2.Analysis on the Land Use and Activities â€Š
Heritage: There are two listed buildings under the Grade II listed building in the surrounding area. These buildings create an architectural and historical value towards Sheffield and brings uniqueness and image to the area. However, the bronze statue requires better maintenance to bring design elegance to the site. Scale 1:2500
Figure 7: Flat Street (Yeung, 2017)
Figure 6: The White Building (Yeung, 2017)
Loose spaces: There is a wide platform for people to access the space of the square. However, the loose spaces in the square does not provide or carry out any activities that encourage people to interact.
The White Building (on the left) and the General Post Office replaced by the Sheffield Hallam University (on the right).
Figure 10: Fitzalan Square (Yeung, 2017)
Figure 8: Fitzalan Square (Yeung, 2017)
Figure 9: Fitzalan Square (Yeung, 2017)
The surrounding pavement and the platform inside the Fitzalan Square referred in Figure 8. The looseness of the environment provides flexibility to the space, however the square does not carry out any social activities for people to socialize.
Non-used or emptied building
Hotel Banks Education Car Park
(Yeung, 2017) (Yeung, 2017)
Restaurants and retail: There is a high proportion of land uses that are local retails and commercial retails which demonstrates the local characteristics of Sheffield. However, there is relatively low restaurants and cafes in the area.
Non-used building: There is a few non-use buildings in the area showing â€œTo
Services and Letâ€? signs and renovating on the side roads, amenities: There are several which cause inefficiency and an unpleasant services such a banks, hotels and education centers in the surrounding area and these services create vitality and efficiency to nearby users (Bentley et al., 1985).
feeling for users to walk pass. There are a few buildings are still waiting to be rented, therefore it reveals the optimal land use in the area is not achieved.
There are some land uses that do not fall any categories such as casinos, betting offices and loan shops which covers relatively high proportion of land. These land uses convey a negative feeling and creates an unsafe and unprotected atmosphere.
3.Morphological Dimensions Analysis Figure of height-to-width ratio. (Scottish Government, 2010: pg 24)
“The physical and the rhythm of the buildings are essential to create comfort and attract more pedestrian activities (Bentley et al., 1985).” Buildings Height: The height of building is a vital feature that relates to the sense of enclosure. It also creates comfort and openness to the general site. There is an appropriate design guidelines for the enclosure ration in relation to the function and the aesthetic between buildings to achieve a comfort and appropriate landscape (Haile, 2012).
The guidelines of Height-towidth ratios: • The optimum level of the level of enclosure is the range between 1:0.5 - 1:1.5 (Scottish Government, 2010: pg 24). • The Enclosure Ration (ENR) is calculated as follows: • Building Height : Width of Enclosed Space
Visual and Design Feature: The visual feature are essential to ensure good rhythm and richness of the public frontages. The public design feature will attract and encourage people to socialize and participate to social and pedestrian activities.
Adaptability: Adaptability is the ability of a place which can be changed easily. In order to promote adaptability, one place will go through a development to change different circumstances of conditions involving economic, social and technologically (Campbell and Cowan, 2000: pg 15).
Frontages: • The exterior of buildings has relation to the adaptability to variety use. • The square formed edges by the nearby abandoned apartments. The ground floor windows also produce dead and dull frontages. • The dead frontages minimized the visual contact of the area, therefore, pedestrians may find difficulty to connect and relate to the activities.
Microclimate: Level of Enclosure: • The height of building plays a substantial role to the sense of enclosure. • The height of Fitzalan Square and Flat street formed an enclosure ratio of 1:2.15 which falls out of the optimum ration (see figure 18,19). • However, the buildings, trees and the street in Fitzalan Square give an appropriate enclosure ration which encourage people to walk and bring people peace with great amount of space (Lawson, 2015). • The heigh-to-width ratio may be different in certain circumstances because the barriers and trees of the site create a physical barrier which makes it void (see figure 19).
Landscape Analysis: • The surrounding greenery is not compatible to the theme of the site, hence it does not add to the genius-loci to the area. • The plants are poorly maintained which creates an unsafe and insecure atmosphere. • There are no pavement on one side of the square meaning it is not user friendly and pedestrians often have to walk on the other side or into the square.
Siting Space Analysis: • The seating is arranged around the border of the square. The arrangement of the benches does not encourage people to interact or participate in any social activities. • The design of the benches are not comfortable to sit on and it is not wellmaintained, consequently, pedestrian refuse to use it. • There were only a few people that decided to sit on the benches and will only sit for a short period of time.
• The exposure to natural light is an important element to the adaptability of use for people. • Natural light and microclimate will improve the ventilation and the air of the environment. • The enclosure ration of the area is appropriate with a spacious environment and the buildings do not have a deep building depth, therefore, the area Figure 24: provides better ventilation and a ☀ The cooler environment. ☀ microclimate ☀ • The shadow overcast may cause of the site some people to be discomfort to (Google Images, walk on the pavement (see figure 2017) 24). • The microclimate will remain cold in winter due to the limited natural light and relatively low tall buildings, Most sunlight making less desirable place with Least area of the exposed area higher wind pressures. site
Sun paths: • In most of time, Fitzalan Square does have sufficient sunlight, however the Sheffield Hallam University building and the Mecca Bingo building have blocked the sunlight wave to the site (see figure 26). Figure 25: Sun path at 8:00 A.M.
Pavement Analysis: • The pavement of the surrounding site is broad and all users are able to access the use of space. • However, some pavements require better uniformity to ensure people can walk comfortably.
Visual and Design Analysis: • The building facades are repetitive in a vertical line which generates a monotonous environment. • Some design of the grid features would not be able to tell the purpose of the building. • Most buildings in the surrounding are lack of visual richness and there is a juxtaposition between the richness design of the Grade II listed buildings with modern apartment buildings. • The monotonous atmosphere and some blank facade also create a sense of claustrophobic to the area. • There are also some random graffiti which also creates a negative effect and impression to the environment.
Figure 26: Sun path at 10:00 A.M. to 2:00 P.M
Figure 25-27 are hand drawn sun paths of the site (Yeung, 2017).
Figure 27: Sun path at 4:00 P.M.
4.1.Social Study: Types of Movements and Accessibility Management “Accessibility pathways impact directly on the measures of human development and environmental sustainability (Floater and Rode, 2014).” A sustainable
Traffic management: • The area of the site has vary traffic channels to access to the area with the provision of public transport such as trams and buses. • Transports may cluster at the junction at peak hours of the day. • The traffic direction of Flat Street and Fitzalan Square are mostly one-way access which may weakened the legibility of the area by decreasing the traffic flow in the area. • The site does not offer any cycle lanes around the area, so cyclists will be dominated by the traffic and tram lanes which might cause hazards to happen.
•Traffic congestions: The site is obvious to show that the traffic is dominated with varies transports occupying the public spaces of streets and result in high traffic congestions. •Poor quality of crossing: There isn't a proper zebra or line crossing provided for pedestrians and this might cause safety hazards.
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7 The transportation 9 :flow in Fitzalan Square +
Traffic congestion increases at night and are occupying most of the spaces on the streets.
Direction of transportation Vehicles Bus lane
(Yeung, 2017) Study Area
Pedestrian pavement: • Some have low quality of maintenance and street frontages. • Some places were under renovations, which limits the spacing on the pavement for people to walk through especially where High Street is renovating which may cause i n e f fi c i e n c y a n d u s e r unfriendly. • Some pedestrian paths are not connected and does not have zebra crossing for safety.
accessibility design will provide an effective coordination for people and vehicles to move around freely, safely and efficiently.
Possible Problems and Challenges of Movements:
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Pedestrians are less well-behaved and are dangerously crossing the road.
Refer to Figure 11-13, majority of people walk through the square as a shortcut to the tram station or to the city centre.
The accessibility of Fitzalan Square Access to Tram station To city centre
Figure 11: (Yeung, 2017)
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Figure 12: (Yeung, 2017)
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Entrance to Sheffield Hallam University and Bus station
The highlighted red lines demonstrate the disordered patterns and the movement of pedestrian crossing the square.
Figure 13: (Yeung, 2017)
4.2.Sense of Place Is there a presence of sense of place? The site facilitates Grade II listed buildings and a King Edward VII statue. Both represents a historical value of Sheffield and these are an identity for majority of users living in Sheffield. The Grade II listed buildings and the Fitzalan s q u a re h a v e b e c a m e t h e genius-loci for the community, where it promotes the identity of a steel city and providing a social platform for all.
Figure 28: The presence of the Fitzalan Square with King Edward VII statue. (Yeung, 2017)
Mixture of the old and new: There is a mixture of old and new architecture and it creates a discord atmosphere overall. Flat Street holds the Grade II listed buildings with flat modern department buildings (see figure 29). The listed building represents the community of Sheffield in the 20th century in relation to the industrial revolution movement. However, the department buildings are undergoing demolition for mixed-use buildings resulting from the Sheffield City Council planning decision. The close down of the Post Office (taken by the position of the Sheffield Hallam University, see figure 30) led to a reduction of local citizens to access the area. However, the architecture provokes a nostalgia atmosphere by the community over the past.
Graph 4: Types of activities in Fitzalan Square
• There are three types of activities that may occur in a public space; necessary, optional and social activities (Gehl 2010). Urban spaces should provide and invite more stationary activities such as siting, people watching or other social activities. • In Graph 5, there is a low number of stationary activities compared to the number of moving activities such as people walking pass. • The public space does not encourage social activities in the area especially where people are less likely to use the seating to socialize (see graph 4). • Some shops were even closed or emptied during the day which makes the overall area inactive (see figure 31). • Although, the site caters for all users, the square is mainly used by adults around the age of 16-60 because the area is close to the site of Sheffield Hallam University or users who likes to gamble (refer to graph 3).
Graph 5: The pedestrian count of moving and stationary activities
Figure 29: The juxtaposition of the White Building (grade II listed building) and the flat modern department building on the left (Yeung, 2017).
List of Activities: • Sitting on benches • Taking pictures and surveying the area • Cycling • Talking on the phone • Buying food from the food stall • Walking as a shortcut • Waiting for buses or trams
Figure 31: Most of the shops are closed or are emptied (Yeung, 2017)
Graph 3: Age of users accessing the Fitzalan Square 0-15
The social study and the data collected are referenced to Jan Gehl’s method as an observation to analyze the urban space.
0 Figure 30: The Sheffield Hallam University Building (grade II listed building). (Yeung, 2017)
All data collection are recorded for over 10 minutes on a normal weekday at the Fitzalan Sqaure.
The huge difference of moving and stationary activities in Fitzalan indicates that the area requires more aesthetic and social activities to invite people.
5.SWOT Analysis Weaknesses ————— Strengths ————— Mixed Use: • Varies of services and shops to entertain people to access. Accessibility: • Well integrated transport links such as tram, buses and cars. Historical Significance: • Sense of belonging and identity from the King Edward VII statue and the listed buildings which improves the overall legibility and create a sense of place. Aesthetic: • The landmarks and tram stops create a sense of direction of the site. • There is a large space of pedestrianized area for people to walk and other physical activities. • A landmark of Sheffield city centre, making it easy for navigating. • An open space to take a break from, or waiting for trams/buses to come.
Mixed-use buildings which provide various services. (Yeung, 2017)
Fitzalan Square Station (Yeung, 2017)
Traffic dominated at the junction (Yeung, 2017)
The use of space can provide better social environment for people (Yeung, 2017)
Benches at the edge for people to sit while waiting for tram or buses. (Yeung, 2017).
The historical significance of the White Building (Yeung, 2017)
Opportunties ————— Social activities: • Increase day time social events for people to engage to increase more pedestrians to access the area by installing food stalls or social activities such as art installations and street music introducing in the area to encourage start ups, local economy and provide entertainment to nearby users to use the area as a space for relaxation or comfort, as nearby shops are mostly chain stores, business and commercial retails, in comparatively low restaurants and cafes (refer to page 3). Public and street furnitures: • Redesign the seating area with greenery sceneries to promote a diverse and a relaxed environment to sit and observe the surrounding environment with food and entertainment • Increase more green space to soften the dark colors and create a pleasant environment which connects to the theme of peacemaking and unity in Sheffield (Gehl, 2010).
Poor street furniture maintenance (Yeung, 2017).
The historical significance of Sheffield Hallam University Building (Yeung, 2017)
Lack of zebra crossings which cause a high risk of collision (Yeung, 2017)
The seating arrangement does not support people to interact and it is not comfortable to sit on (Yeung, 2017).
Lack of public maintenance (Yeung, 2017)
Lack of social interaction: • There is a little interaction between people, people only come to the square for a short period of time to wait for trams. • There is not much social activities that brings people together and there is not anything to keep people for long-period of time. • Shops were often closed and or were abandoned, which decrease the footfall of the area. • The area has relatively high land-uses for casinos or betting shops, therefore it might limit some users to access the area (refer to page 3). Seating: • The seating places are placed at the edge of the square, and the design of the benches are not comfortable to support people to engage (Gehl, 2010). Lack of green space: • There is no green space available but trees around the boundary of the square, this creates a sense of isolation. Lack of social features: • The area is not well protected, so it does not support people to use the area from the weather (Gehl, 2010). Poor maintenance: • The street furnitures such as benches, walls and the bronze statue are poorly maintain which makes the area unpleasant. Traffic: • The area of the site is traffic dominated and there are congestion between junctions at night which occupies public space. Safety: • No proper zebra crossing or cycle lanes and these might cause safety hazards
Threats ————— Clustering: • The increased footfall may increase clustering problems in the area with social events, food stalls etc.. and this may cause the risk of losing a large space for people to walk through and cause inefficiency to the nearby tram and bus stops. Decline in business: • The development of chain stores, restaurants in the City Centre and Meadowhall of Sheffield may result the lack of business and decline in footfall in the surrounding area of Fitzalan Square. Public maintenance: • Existing public and street furnitures such as benches and greeneries are worsen from the lack of maintenance and conservation by the public and community.
6.Design Recommendation Design Vision: After all the analysis of the site, the aim of the design is to improve the site of Fitzalan Square with connections between people and the public urban space. As the site is part of the heart of the city centre in Sheffield, it requires more of a competition to other areas as an attraction for locals to leisure.
The design provides diversity and comfort by inserting leisure and social activities into the site for all type of users. Moreover, people will revive their memories through the area and import the site as a meeting point which brings peace and happiness.
The mixed-use buildings with famous branding will attract more people which makes the area more a vibrant area just like the example in Figure 34. Also, it will provide more natural surveillance by attracting more people to the area to create a safer environment.
Design Principles: 1. Modernism: integrating mixed-use buildings as an attraction 2. More greeneries 3. Walkability: quality sidewalk, and paths 4. Increase social furnitures: with activities to bring a diverse and a belonging atmosphere
A Green space for comfort and relaxation. Mix of greenery will also soften the visual effect.
Figure 32: A cycle path added to Fitzalan Square (Yeung, 2017)
Cycle lane around the Fitzalan Square and High Street for easy access around the area and to ensure safety for cyclists (see figure 32). Extended pedestrian and frontage area because a suitable footpath and human scale to ensure comfort to people with a quality sidewalk to decrease clutters, and provide more space for frontage inspired in the example in Figure 36.
The use of trees will replace the concrete walls to form a facade and a border of the site for easy access and to create a positive environment. Open space for special events or musical performances. The area can also facilitate other social activities and flexible seating.
The bronze statue can sometimes be substituted with set-up installation to allow a unique aesthetic result and can create a functional elegance environment (Lin,2013) like the example in Figure 35..
Local stores will be placed in four corners to increase attractions and boost economy for nearby users.
Greeneries enhance the aesthetic quality and vibrancy of the extended area from shops and cafes.
Pedestrian crossing for people to access the square more safely and efficiently. The crossings will create an user friendly area (see figure 33).
Figure 33: A zebra crossing added to Fitzalan Square (Yeung, 2017)
Some shops can provide extended outdoor tables and cafes for people to relax from University or from work with trees and greenery around to balance the overall environment.
6.Design Recommendation, Conclusion and Reference Reference:
The concrete borders can be removed and overtake by natural designed borders to make it more accessible and to create a friendly and ecoatmosphere.
Frontage and Pedestrian area
Increase shelters to users in bad weathers. Traffic Zone
The use of greeneries, set-up installations will soften the edges and create a vibrant atmosphere. Also, it will increase the legibility of the site.
Frontage and Pedestrian area
The increase of social activities in the area will make the area more attractive and enjoyable with nearby restaurants and other social services.
Outdoor activities enhance special social events or activities to bring people together among different cultures and age groups, just like the example in Figure 38.
“If you plan cities for cars and traffic, you get cars and traffic. If you plan for people and places, you get people and places.” - Fred Kent.
Conclusion: To conclude, the project designates a positive future prospect for Fitzalan Square. The studied area allows a more comprehensive improvement to create a better public environment. The study provides evidence to analyze and transform the public spaces in Sheffield into a more vibrant city. The recommended design maintains a strong relationship between the buildings whilst creating a lively and an energetic atmosphere that ensures and supports the public space is properly used.
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