Issuu on Google+

1


Housing

Residential Space Per Person*

HK 15m2 GREECE 22m2 ITALY 31m2 CHINA 33m2 UK 33m2 JAPAN 35m2 SPAIN 35m2 SWEDEN 40m2 FRANCE 43m2 GREECE 45m2 GERMANY 55m2 DENMARK 65m2 CANADA 72m2 USA 77m2 AUSTRALIA 89m2

Average New Home Size*

HONK KONG RUSSIA CHINA UK ITALY SWEDEN JAPAN SPAIN GERMANY FRANCE GREECE DENMARK CANADA USA AUSTRALIA

Housing, as a built realm and one of the main sources of consumption in the Self Sufficient Neighborhood, is a topic that varies around the world by its size, type and condition. As we started to discuss about housing layer of the neighborhood, we classified our research and strategy to two parts. First, the physical structure which refers to its size and number of bedrooms, and second, *Source:www.shrinkthatfootprint.com

45m2 57m2 60m2 76m2 81m2 83m2 95m2 97m2 109m2 112m2 126m2 112m2 181m2 201m2 214m2

the social structure, which brings up the question of household types and their relationship with their dwellings. The two diagrams above are references to physical aspect of our research. The first diagram shows the different amounts of residential space per person around the world. It is evident that, the countries that have higher density, have smaller 2


House Size Standards UK STANDARDS

37 m2

50 m2 1 BR

61 m27 270 m2 74 m2 2 BR

2 BR

3 BR

86 m2 95 m2 3 BR

3 BR

90 m2 99 m2 3 BR

3 BR

UN HEALTHY HOUSING GUIDE 1988;

51.6 m2 56.5 m2 60.5 m26269.2 m2 76.2 m28280.2 m2 86.7 m29293.7 m2 97.7 m2 2 BR

2 BR

3 BR

3 BR

3 BR

amount of residential space per person. For Example, Honk Kong and Italy have 15m2 and 31m2 residential space per person respectively, while Australia and Canada have 89m2 and 72m2 residential space per person respectively. A similar condition is also obvious when it comes to average new home sizes around the world. Average new house size in USA is 201m2, which is much higher than the average new house size in Europe, such as Italy (81m2) and Spain (97m2). One of the main reasons for this disproportion is the large detached single-family houses in the suburbs of American cities. As they have more have space to build, houses gets bigger and consumes more of natural resources. In contrast, as European cities get denser because of the high rate of urbanization, and the houses gets smaller, which becomes the main reason for the disproportion of sizes between different countries.

4 BR

4 BR

4 BR

4 BR

After the research of different averages for the house sizes around the world, it was crucial to find the global standards for norms for the housing units of the Self Sufficient Neighborhood Prototype. The two standards that we took into consideration were UK Standards and UN Healthy Housing Guide 1988. In terms of the requirements for the size of the apartments and the number of people who can live in those apartments, the standards of UN Healthy Housing Guide 1988 is at its minimum and very outdated. On the other hand, it was more appropriate to use the standards of UK since it is the most updated and optimized compared to older standards. However, in some cases, we also had to optimize some of the standards to manage the density of the people and quality of living in the units of Self Sufficient Neighborhood Prototype. 3


Housing

Apartment Size Analysis in Barcelona STUDIO

1 BEDROOM

33 m2 per person

14 m2 per person

Pg. Salvat Papasseit BARCELONETA

1 PERSON (STUDENT)

14 m2

Carrer Atlántida BARCELONETA

1 PERSON

25 m2

Carrer Sant Miquel BARCELONETA

2 PEOPLE (COUPLE)

30 m2

Gerard Piera SANTS-MONTJUIC

22.5 m2 per person

25 m2 per person

Carrer Sant Jacint EL BORN

1 PERSON

1 PERSON

27.5 m2 per person

2 PEOPLE

3 PEOPLE (COUPLE WITH KIDS)

Rossend Nobas EL CLOT

60 m2

Sagrera SANT MARTI

4 PEOPLE (2 COUPLES WITH KIDS)

65 m2

Calle Bordeus LES CORTS

3 PEOPLE

70 m2

17.5 m2 per person

16.3 m2 per person

Carrer de Roger de Flor L’EIXAMPLE

55 m2

23.3 m2 per person

55 m2

20 m2 per person

Bruniquer GRACIA

2 PEOPLE

3 BEDROOM

2 BEDROOM

Toc de Mar BARCELONETA

45 m2

27.5 m2 per person

30 m2 per person Carrer Espronceda PROVENÇALS DEL POBLENOU

33 m2

4 PEOPLE (COUPLE WITH 2 ADULTS)

70 m2

18 m2 per person

4

5 PEOPLE (COUPLE WITH 3 KIDS)

90 m2


Apartment Size Analysis in Barcelona 5+ B E D R O O M

4 BEDROOM

22.5 m2 per person

Carrer del Beat Simó BARRI GOTIC

4 PEOPLE

25 m2 per person

90 m2

Jonqueres EL BORN

100 m2

Gran Via Corts Catalanes L’EIXAMPLE

5 PEOPLE

(COUPLE, ADULT, 2 KIDS)

100 m2

Via Laietana BARRI GOTIC

6 PEOPLE (2 COUPLES 2 ADULTS)

7 PEOPLE (2 COUPLES 3 ADULTS)

170 m2 (6 BR)

20,9 m2 per person

16.6 m2 per person

Carrer de Sicilia L’EIXAMPLE

150 m2 (5 BR)

24.2 m2 per person

20 m2 per person

Granada del Penedes VILA DE GRACIA

6 PEOPLE (2 COUPLES 2 ADULTS)

11 PEOPLE (3 COUPLES 5 ADULTS)

230 m2 (9 BR)

The three different apartments that we picked for 1 bedroom apartment, ranges between 33m2 to 55m2. In this case, it was important to understand the different numbers for the residential space per person. A one bedroom apartment can be habitable by either a person or couple. But it is obvious that, the space needs for a person and couple would be different in a one bedroom apartment while having a sufficient amount residential space per person.

As the research became more defined, we decided to become even more specific and look at our surrounding and understand the reality of housing units in Barcelona by its size and number of habitation. We picked 6 different apartment types; Studio, 1 Bedroom, 2 Bedroom, 3 Bedroom, 4 Bedroom and 5 Bedroom or more. These apartments are selected randomly within urban boundaries of the city. For each apartment type, we also picked 3 different sizes, small, medium, and large, to understand relationship between different apartment sizes with same number of bedroom. This was also important to comprehend to make a relationship between our built physical environment and the Self Sufficient Neighborhood Prototype.

The other important aspect of this particular research is to understand the nature of shared housing in Barcelona. That’ why, we also looked for apartments that have five bedroom or more and also shared service spaces, such as bathroom, kitchen or laundry room. The three apartments that we picked, are 5 bedroom(150m2), 6 bedroom(170m2) and 9 bedroom(230m2) apartment in dense locations of Barcelona. Consequently, the residential space per person decreases as the number of people in the house increases. It is evident that the residential space per person should remain same even if the number people and bedrooms increase.

For instance, a studio apartment ranges from a student residence of 14m2 in Barceloneta to a 30m2 studio apartment in Del Poblenou. To see this kind of range is important to think about the efficiency of small studios and apartments, and also It brings up the question of shared housing in dense urban conditions. Is it more efficient to live in a small apartment or shared house? 5


Housing

Household Structure Around the World

% 3.6 Five Adults and more % 3.2 % 3.5 Four Adults Two Adults(35+) and two 16-34

%2 Non-Relative

% 8.8 A Women 16-64

% 16.6 One Person

% 8.6 A Man 16-64

% 17.07 Couple

% 7.8 Three Adults % 1.9 Two Adults(35+) with one 16-34 and less % 6.1 Two Adults(35+) with one 16-34

% 10.4 A Woman 65+

BARCELONA HOUSEHOLD STRUCTURE

% 0.9 Two Adults three or more children

HONK KONG

% 14.15 Relatives

HOUSEHOLD STRUCTURE

%3 A Man 65+

% 4.9 Two Adults two children

%2 A Woman(16+) with one or more lower

% 5.7 Two Adults one child % 14.7 Two Adults one at least 65+

% 4.4 Lone Parent with one adult children %4 Lone Parent with two children

% 18.5 Married Couple Family

% 23.6 Non-Family with on or more 65+

% 38.4 Couple with children

% 11.6 Alone parent with children

% 12.9 Two Adults 16-64

% 3.2 Extended Family

% 2.8 Other % 17.4 Single Person under 65

%4 Couple with two adult children %5 Couple with one adult child

NEW YORK HOUSEHOLD STRUCTURE

% 18.7 Married Couple with children

% 15,08 Non-Family % 2.3 A Male with children

% 2.8 A Male

% 12.5 A Female with children

% 13 Single Person under 65+

EU-27

% 8.4 Couple with three children

HOUSEHOLD STRUCTURE

% 8.4 Couple with two children

% 10.4 Couple with one child

% 6.6 A Female

A similar research that was done for the physical aspect of the housing layer for the Self Sufficient Neighborhood Prototype, another research that we have done, is the social aspect of our neighborhood. The second part of the housing research is about the type and distribution household structures around the world. The research has started with the selection of different metropolis around the world, which represents differentiation of social behaviors in terms of household structures. The cities that were picked are Barcelona(Europe), New York City(America), and Honk Kong(Asia). We also researched the European Union(27) average household structure to understand the common household concepts in Europe and the relationship within each other.

% 13.1 Couple under 65 % 11 Couple at least one 65+

When we look at the household structure of Barcelona, we can see that majority of the households consist of single person households and couples, which are differentiated by their age and sex. There are also important amount of household structures of couples with children and single parents. On the other hand, %67 of households in Honk Kong are couple are couples and family with children. That’s why in Honk Kong, there almost no single person households. In New York City, it is interesting to see that almost the quarter of the households are non-family households with one person above 65 years old. In EU-27 household structure, %30 of households are single person households above and below 65 years old. 6


Household Structure of Self Sufficient Neighborhood % 3.1 Single Parent %1 with two children % 4.1 Single Parent with three children Single Parent with one child % 12.9 % 0.6 Five Adults (65+) Couple with three children % 7.2 Couple with two children

% 13.3 Couple with one

SELF SUFFICIENT NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSEHOLD STRUCTURE

% 17.8 Five Adults (16-64)

% 3.6 Couple (Airbnb) % 10.7 Students

% 25.7 Couple

The household structure of the Self-Sufficient Neighborhood consists of 11 different types of household structures, which are couples, couples who does Airbnb, couple with one child, couple with two children, couple with three children, single parent with one child, single parent with two children, single parent with three children, students, five adults that are between 16 and 64 years old, and five adults that are 65 years old or more. As you can see on the graph above, which shows the distribution of different households structures in the Self Sufficient Neighborhood Prototype, there is no single person household. This conditions brings one of our main housing

strategies, which is shared housing. So no one is living alone, but sharing apartments in our neighborhood to optimize the energy consumption, manage the density of the housing and to generate different levels of social interaction. Same strategy is also applied for student housing. Students, which represents %10.7 of our households structure, are share apartments with other students. Another important part of our household structure are the couples who rent a bedroom in their apartments with Airbnb, which is a trending tourist accommodation method in a contemporary city of today and future that offers a more domestic experience for tourist accommodation. 7


Housing

Households and Apartment Types

1 BR 50 M2

COUPLE

2 BR 70 M2

SINGLE PARENT WITH ONE CHILD

5 BR 125 M2

SHARED HOUSING AGES 16-64

2 BR 70 M2

COUPLE WITH ONE CHILD

3 BR 86 M2

SINGLE PARENT WITH TWO CHILDREN

5 BR 125 M2

SHARED HOUSING AGES 65+

3 BR 86 M2

COUPLE WITH TWO CHILDREN

4 BR 99 M2

SINGLE PARENT WITH THREE CHILDREN

7 BR 175 M2

SHARED HOUSING STUDENTS

SHARED HOUSING 4 BR 99 M2

COUPLE WITH THREE CHILDREN

HOTEL ROOM 29 M2

FAMILY HOUSING Different household structures have different housing needs and requirements in a relation with their social and physical structure. The housing units of the Self Sufficient Neighborhood is categorized in three parts; Family Housing, Shared Housing and Tourist Accommodation. Each of them consists of different apartment types with different household structures. Family Housing units contain couple with children, single parent with children and couple. Shared Housing units consists of people, who could normally live alone but share apartments in the Self Sufficient Neighborhood. These people are between 16 and 64 years old, 65 years old or older, and students. They live in 5 bedroom and 7 bedroom shared apartments. Half of the need for tourist accommodation is achieved by hotel rooms, and the other half is by couples in 2 bedroom apartments, who rent the extra bedroom in their apartment.

2 BR 70 M2

TOURIST

TOURIST AND COUPLE(Airbnb)

TOURIST ACCOMMODATION

8

As you can see the diagram on the left, the distribution strategy is different for each housing category. Family Housing units are located closer to green spaces and more pedestrian areas. On the other hand, Shared Housing and Tourist Accommodation units are located around the perimeter which is more urban and closer to public transportation. Only exception in shared housing is the apartments for 65+, which exists closer to central green spaces and more pedestrian areas.


Distribution of Apartment Types in the Self Sufficient Neighborhood

COUPLE 1 BR

HOTEL ROOM COUPLE + 3 CHILDREN 4 BR SHARED HOUSING 16-64

COUPLE + 2 CHILDREN 3 BR

COUPLE (Airbnb)

COUPLE + 1 CHILD SINGLE PARENT + 1 CHILD

SINGLE PARENT + 3 CHILDREN

SINGLE PARENT + 2 CHILDREN SHARED HOUSING STUDENTS

SHARED HOUSING 65+

9


Housing

Quantitative Distribution of Apartment Types in the Self Sufficient Neighborhood HOTEL ROOM

29m2

X 438

2 BR

70m2

1 BR

TOURISTS

876

X 250

COUPLE (Airbnb)

1750

50m2

X 3138

COUPLE

6275

2 BR

70m2

X 1084

COUPLE WITH ONE CHILD

3250

3 BR

86m2

X 438

COUPLE WITH TWO CHILDREN

1750

4 BR

99m2

X 150

COUPLE WITH THREE CHILDREN

750

2 BR

70m2

X 500

SINGLE PARENT WITH ONE CHILDREN

1000

3 BR

86m2

X 250

SINGLE PARENT WITH TWO CHILDREN

750

4 BR

99m2

X 63

SINGLE PARENT WITH THREE CHILDREN

250

5 BR

125m2

X 870

SHARED HOUSING FOR AGE 16-64

4350

5 BR

125m2

X 630

SHARED HOUSING FOR AGE 65+

3150

7 BR

175m2

X 372

SHARED HOUSING FOR STUDENTS

2600

10

15,859 m2

38,281 m2

47,031 m2

18,561 m2

43,750 m2

26,875 m2

7,734 m2


196,095 m2

94,791 m2

135,937 m2

98,437 m2

81,249 m2

11


Housing

Scenarios to Create Diversity of Household Structures Within Smaller Blocks When the housing units get distributed throughout the Self Sufficient Neighborhood, another important condition arises, which is the adjacencies of different households within the block. Diagrams on the left show the possible different scenarios for household combinations within a smaller block. Our main strategy for the household adjacencies is not have any kind of segregation or isolation of particular households in any part of the neighborhood, but the diversity of different households types within the building and throughout the neighborhood. That’s why different households are combined within the blocks to create diversity and This strategy creates different kinds and levels of social interactions between different households. For instance, a single parent with one child can be neighbors with a family with three children, which is a very organic and natural way to create a social interaction between kids and parents. Another important strategy is to distribute the shared housing for people, who are 65 years and older, evenly to each block. So most of the blocks also contain older people to not to isolate them from the families with kids. They also inhabit either the first floor or the lower floors of the blocks to have an easy access to outside and green spaces. To create these sort of adjacencies helps to trigger a different type of social interaction within the neighborhood. For example, a single parent with children can interact with older parents to create a better social environment for their children.

Hotel Room

Single Parent with one child

Couple (Airbnb)

Single Parent with two children

Couple

Single Parent with three children

Couple with one child

Shared Housing 16-64

Couple with two children

Shared Housing 65+

Couple with three chil-

Shared Housing-Students

12

To have consistent housing strategy, it is also very important to use the same distribution methods even if the blocks get bigger. As you can see on the diagram on the right, the distribution of different units within bigger blocks creates different building types, such as hybrid buildings where the shared housing units, tourist accommodation, commercial stores, and offices coexist. Another important part of the hybrid urban blocks is the units for tourist accommodation, which includes hotel rooms and 2 bedroom apartments where the couples can rent the extra bedroom with Airbnb.


Scenarios to Create Diversity of Household Structures Within Bigger Blocks

Hotel Room

Single Parent with one child

Couple (Airbnb)

Single Parent with two children

Couple

Single Parent with three children

Couple with one child

Shared Housing 16-64

Couple with two children

Shared Housing 65+

Couple with three chil-

Shared Housing-Students

13


Housing

Catalogue of Mixed Typologies in the Self Sufficient Neighborhood Prototype As the cities transform into new forms of habitations, new building typologies starts to appear, and become centers for food and energy production rather than just centers of consumption. Greenhouses, green rooftops, solar panels and thermal panels starts become an essential part of the new building typologies as they become instruments of production of resources in the city, which offers a new concept of living for the inhabitance of the city. The second important strategy for the Self Sufficient Neighborhood is to have mixed typologies throughout the neighborhood. This is particularly important in order to manage the density and heights of the building blocks, but also to generate variety of spacial experiences for the people. As you can see some of the new building typologies examples of the in the neighborhood on the left, the main idea is to create terraces, patios and courtyards within the building to blocks in order to generate strong connection between different households, but also a connection between outside and inside of the blocks. Small patios and courtyards are created to increase the level of interaction between neighbors as they share a common outdoor. In addition to this, It also creates a direct connection to outdoor spaces and green rooftops where the food for the neighborhood is produced. This physical connection helps to create an awareness towards an understanding of food production in the neighborhood. As we create these terraces and patios, we are also able to receive sunlight to deeper parts of the building blocks, and all the units receive sufficient amount of sun exposure. The connection and variation of green rooftops form alleys, passageways and small plazas within the large urban blocks, which becomes a threshold space between outside and inside of urban blocks. In addition to this, it also adds another spatial quality for the pedestrian experience on the ground level, on the upper floors but also on the rooftop of the buildings where they can connect other rooftops of the neighborhood and have inhabit rooftops as another public space. 14


Catalogue of Mixed Typologies in the Self Sufficient Neighborhood Prototype The third important strategy for the Self Sufficient Neighborhood is to create hybrid building where different building programs (offices, commercial business, and residences) coexist in bigger urban blocks. The idea of a hybrid building is also important in order to occupy the building evenly throughout the day and keep the energy consumption consistent all the time. When a building consists of only offices or residences, a dramatic change in energy consumption and occupancy of the building occurs between day and night. In hybrid buildings, this shift can be reduced since the building is occupied evenly throughout the day. In addition to this, buildings become a new realm for contemporary social experiments. As you can see the examples of different typologies of hybrid buildings in the neighborhood on the left, residences are located on top of the offices and commercial business. The location of the residences enables them to receive more sun exposure and better view. It also creates a level of privacy and isolation of sound from the urban street life. In some cases, the modulation of the units allows to create narrow building sections, which allows more sunlight to go deeper within the bigger blocks, and also reduce the building density. When the building blocks get bigger, denser and higher, green rooftops get replaced by solar and thermal panels, which can produce energy with higher efficiency due its height and exposure area. By creating different types of modulation of housing, a second layer of public spaces is created on top of the offices as a threshold between working and living. This threshold is very important to experience for inhabitants if they work and live within the same building. It is also a secondary public space or plaza, which is closer to the residences than ground level that creates transition from working to living, or the opposite. In order to create diversity in building typologies throughout the Self Sufficient Neighborhood, we generate terraces, patios and courtyards within the smaller urban blocks, but also modulation of units and hybrid buildings in bigger and denser urban blocks. 15


Housing

Scenarios of Habitation in the Self Sufficient Neighborhood

1

138 UNITS -1 BR X 81 -2 BR X 48 -3 BR X 2 -4 BR X 3 -5 BR X 4

8529 m2 -4200 m2 (1 BR) -3560 m2 (2 BR) -172 m2 (3 BR) -297 m2 (4BR) -500 m2 (5 BR)

332 PEOPLE -162 People (Couple) -102 People (Couple with one child) -8 People (Couple with three children) -28 People (Single Parent +1 child) -12 People (Single parent +3 children) -20 People (Shared Housing 65+)

2

139 UNITS 19,525 m2 781 PEOPLE -5 BR X 96 -7 BR X 43

16

-12,000 m2 (5 BR) -7525 m2 (7 BR)

-480 People (Shared Housing 16-64) -301 People (Shared Housing Students)


Scenarios of Habitation in the Self Sufficient Neighborhood

3

53 UNITS -1 BR X 24 -2 BR X 48

These three building diagrams show possible scenarios of blocks in the Self Sufficient Neighborhood Prototype. Each of them gives information about number of people, number of units and amount of square meters within the blocks. Three different scenarios of habitation represent different building blocks in different scales and distribution in the neighborhood. In addition to this, you can also see the different types of energy and food production systems on each block. The first block inhabits 332 people from 6 different households, in 5 different apartment types, which adds up to 138 units in 8529 square meters. This block produces food from the green rooftops and greenhouses, which is made of transparent solar panels to generate energy. The second block is located on the perimeter of the neighborhood, which is higher and denser then the other parts,and inhabits 781 people in two different housing types;shared housing for students and shared housing for the people between 1664 years old. It generates energy with solar and thermal panels, and produces food in the greenhouses. The third block inhabits 252 people in 53 units, and produces energy with solar and thermal panels, and food with green rooftops.

3398 m2 -1200 m2 (1 BR) -1750 m2 (2 BR) -250 m2 (5 BR) -198 m2 (4 BR)

250 PEOPLE -48 People (Couple) -48 People (Couple with one child) -10 People (Shared Housing 65+) -18 People (Single Parent +1 child) -8 People (Single parent +3 children)

In conclusion, the Self Sufficient Neighborhood Prototype inhabits 25,000 people in 8453 units, which equals to 804,604 square meters of residences. The average households size is 3.0 and residential space per person is 32.2 square meters. The housing layer of the Self Sufficient Neighborhood is realized with three main strategies, shared housing for single person households, mixed typology of housing blocks, and hybrid buildings.

3

1 2 17


Housing

SELF SUFFICIENT NEIGHBORHOOD PROTOTYPE

25,000

PEOPLE

8453 UNITS

804,604 m2

SHARED HOUSING MIXED TYPOLOGIES HYBRID BUILDINGS 18

32.2 m2

RESIDENTIAL SPACE PER PERSON


Housing