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Education Symposium 2020 hosted by California Association of the Deaf

David Longo

Whole Child Development and LRE

January 11, 2020

•Does early language deprivation effect cognitive development?


•Does early language deprivation effect psychosocial development?


•“Without full access to language, the child’s privilege of social communication is taken away. Lack of social communication inhibits development of a healthy, strong sense of self, inhibits developing resiliency in order to deal with adversity, and impedes executive functioning.” •[Breivik, 2005; Hauser, Lukowski, & Hillman, 2008]

Executive Function Higher order cognitive functions important for learning and social behavior.

Diamond, 2013

Assembly Bill 1836 (1994) Deaf Children's Bill of Rights…

considered “one of several critical steps in the state's effort to provide deaf and hard of hearing children with a quality education system.”

AB 1836 stipulates that when the IEP team is developing goals and objectives for a deaf or hard of hearing child, it must consider several important issues, such as… • Does the student have sufficient numbers of schoolmates who are similar in age, language and learning ability? • Are the teachers and other professionals who work with the child skilled in the child's language and way of communicating? • Are the critical elements of the educational program (i.e., academic instruction, school services, and extracurricular activities) available in the child's language and way of communicating?

Stories from the trenches‌ Excerpt from a letter to a parent The District considered your request that B attend the OCDE DHH Program. Your District, XYZUSD, is rejecting your request at this time because your District of residence offers a program for DHH students that includes specialized academic instruction, language and speech, and audiological support within your child’s district of residence.

The DHH Program at Venado M.S. is a total communication program where the primary mode of communication for many of their students is through sign language. Furthermore, two of their 3 teachers are deaf and, in their classrooms they provide instruction in sign language with additional support, sometimes, orally, in English. Many of their students rely exclusively on sign language as their primary mode of communication.

And then… •8th grader referred to Venado •Some history of behavioral issues •Educated only in Oral programs •Delayed academic skills – current reading level at high 1st grade •When the option of attending Venado was proposed to the IEP team, the student’s itinerant teacher said…

•“Teaching him sign would be criminal.”

My Hope/Why •Get kids off the wall!!

David Longo Principal Orange County Regional Deaf and Hard of Hearing Program (Venado Middle/University High)

Dr. Liann Osborne, Ed.D.

Cultural Humility

Dr. Liann Osborne January 11, 2020

Concept of Cultural Humility Cultural humility is a lifelong process of self-reflection, self-critique, and commitment to understanding and respecting different points of view, and engaging with others humbly, authentically, and from a place of learning.

(Tervalon & Murray-Garcia, 1998).

Our culture is personal and deeply rooted. It includes our environment, thoughts, values, convictions, and feelings.

Commitment to Cultural Humility

Cultural Humility

â—? Power of presence and authentic

communication without defensiveness â—? Practice ASSESS (Ask questions in a humble, safe manner, Seek Self-Awareness, Suspend Dr. Liann Express Osborne Judgment, kindness and compassion, November 20,and 2019 Support a safe welcoming environment, & Start where the patient is at) Do not allow your teacup remain full (be open to your role as a learner). This enables us to have a nonjudgemental dialogue. Harper (1993)

Dialogue is... ● To learn ● To listen and understand different perspectives ● Focused on understanding diversity on a deeper, more meaningful ● ● ● ● ●

level To reflect and inquire Perspective-based vs. prejudice–based Inclusive Non-threatening environment to evaluate personal assumptions and stereotypes Not focused on being politically correct

Cultural Humility (HUMBLE) Model H: Humble about the assumptions you make U: Understand your own background and culture M: Motivate yourself to learn more about the other person's background B: Begin to incorporate this knowledge into your work L: Lifelong learning E: Emphasize respect and negotiate service plans Become the agent of change Adapted from: Using Cultural Humility to Navigate

Agent of Change ● Learn about people from members of the group. ● Learn from healthy and strong leaders who strive for social

transformation and healing. ● Learn from experiential reality. ● Learn from constant vigilance of your biases and fears. ● Learn from being committed to personal & institutional action against racism, sexism, audism, ableism, heterosexism, and so forth.

Audism Audism is a term used to describe a negative attitude toward Deaf or hard of hearing people. It is typically thought of as a form of discrimination, prejudice, or a general lack of willingness to accommodate those who cannot hear.

~Tom L. Humphries (1975)

â—? Be willing to learn from others that are different from you.

â—? Be curious, explore, and inquire more often when working with families.

Dr. Liann Osborne (510) 344-6127 VP

Michele Berke, Ph.D.

The new 4-letter F word Why “just fine” is not OK! CAD Symposium 11 January 2020

It happened then, it’s happening now • 2012: 2nd grade child with mild hearing level; doing fine! • 2019: 3-year old unilateral child; doing fine! • What is hard-of-hearing anyway?

What are they really saying? • Ok to Fail (and then we’ll provide services) • “focus on the good ear” rather than recognizing the risks • Forgetting that a strong language foundation (regardless of hearing level) is critical to Kindergarten readiness • $$

curated and created by Rachel Friedman Narr, Ph.D. and Rebecca Lewis, AuD on behalf of the California Newborn Hearing Screening Program (NHSP) Learning Community (supported by CDE)

Studies show... •Few close friends •Difficult in noisy environments (cafeteria, gym, recess, etc.) •Increase in behavior issues •It gets better as children get older (better at coping strategies)

What parents can do • Know the language milestones (what they are and how your child is progressing) • Make sure there is an IEP/504 and that your child's progress is discussed at every IFSP/IEP meeting. • Preferential seating • Captioning on all videos • Ok to ask questions

What can parents do?

ate! c o v , ad e t a c dvo a , e t ca Advo

• Recognize what the child may be missing (and sometimes, the child won’t know what they are missing) • Empower the child • Understand own hearing level • Understand what may be missing • Foster assertiveness/comfort in asking to repeat • Make things explicit (incidental learning) • Extracurriculars are important, too!

What should professionals do? • Don’t ignore the obvious! • Provide/suggest counseling as appropriate (Munoz, Ong, & Twohig, 2019) • Be sensitive when communicating with families (Borton, Mauze, & Lieu, 2010) • IEPs, 504s: track and support the child • Theoretically, 100% of children with UHL should receive IEPs to provide accommodations (Lieu, Tye-Murray & Fu, 2012). • a lack of hearing professionals on IEP teams might explain why schools seem to ignore UHL as a contributing factor to school performance (Lieu, TyeMurray & Fu, 2012).

Table discussion

• How do we reframe the conversation so that stakeholders (families, professionals) understand that children with mild/unilateral levels are at-risk for language deprivation?

• Borton, S. A., Mauze, E., & Lieu, J. E. (2010). Quality of life in children with unilateral hearing loss: a pilot study. American journal of audiology, 19(1), 61–72. doi:10.1044/1059-0889(2010/07-0043) • Lieu J. E. (2013). Unilateral hearing loss in children: speech-language and school performance. B-ENT, Suppl 21, 107–115. • Lieu, J. E., Tye-Murray, N., & Fu, Q. (2012). Longitudinal study of children with unilateral hearing loss. The Laryngoscope, 122(9), 2088–2095. doi:10.1002/lary.23454 • Munoz, K, Ong, C., & wohig, M. (2019). Engaging parents of children with mild bilateral or unilateral hearing loss: Counseling considerations. The Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention, 4(3), 20-25. • Rohlfs, A., Friedhoff, J., Bohnert, A. et al. Unilateral hearing loss in children: a retrospective study and a review of the current literature. Eur J Pediatr 176, 475–486 (2017) doi:10.1007/s00431-016-2827-2

Mallorie Evans, M.A., FAAA

"Audiologists: Rethinking the Concept of Auditory Deprivation in Deaf Children" Mallorie Evans, M.A., FAAA Educational Audiologist

Audiologists as part of the medical home ●

Our status within the medical home gives us an authority and power that has long-lasting effects on parents and children We don’t often recognize or acknowledge how this affects the way we interact with parents or how much “weight” our words carry Parents view audiologists as experts, and as such, often cling to whatever advice we provide

Language and modality bias ● ● ●

● ●

As audiologists, our focus is on the auditory system and how its functions affect communication (in adults) Pediatric audiologists tend to focus on how the auditory system can be made to function in order to establish spoken language development. These concepts are all based on an inherent bias and preference for spoken language and auditory input as the primary way for the brain to receive and process the world around us The brain does not discriminate between spoken and signed languages, but people do. This can lead to a conflation of the concepts of auditory and language deprivation.

Linking of auditory deprivation to decreased executive functioning ●

There are several studies linking auditory deprivation to decreased EF: Davidson, et. al (2018), Kronenberger, et. al (2013), Castellanos, et. al (2015) However, these results can also be explained by a significant lack of a solid and completely accessible language foundation during the critical period of language acquisition. Hall, et. al (2017) found that the deficits in EF of deaf children were more closely linked to language deprivation syndrome (LDS) than specifically to a lack of auditory stimulation

Audiology Counseling The information that parents retain most from audiologists are: 1. 2.

Info regarding hearing technology Audiologist’s recommendations regarding language options (spoken vs signed)

How do audiologists provide information to parents regarding auditory stimulation? What is problematic about this framing?

How do we provide information to parents regarding language opportunities? ●

This nuanced presentation of information regarding auditory deprivation often leads to parents feeling pressured into choosing hearing technology and spoken language only approaches instead of natural signed languages for fear of causing cognitive delay. Additionally, we tend to place a heavy emphasis on “auditory access”, and place value as to who “needs” sign language and who doesn’t. Not only is this not our job to determine, but again, as an expert and an authority in the medical home, it is potentially detrimental to multimodal natural language acquisition for Deaf children.

Discussion Question:

â—? What are some programatic changes that can be made to audiology training programs regarding the concept of auditory deprivation as it relates to cognition and language development?

THANK YOU!!! Mallorie Evans

Wyatte Hall, Ph.D.

Question for discussion

DRY HOT DOG: What changes could audiology programs make to ensure that children do not grow up with language deprivation?


Wyatte C. Hall, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor, Obstetrics & Gynecology, Pediatrics, Public Health Sciences, and Neurology University of Rochester Medical Center @wyattehall

Ease of Learning


Neurocritical Period of Language Acquisition







A TALE OF COMPETING HYPOTHESES ▸ Auditory Deprivation ▸ Dominant medical and education-led approach for 150+ years

▸ The main problem is access to sound ▸ Sign language exposure is strongly discouraged, and seen asdistracting from learning how to hear and speak

▸ Language Deprivation ▸ “New” deaf-led approach in past 10 years

▸ The main problem isaccess to language

▸ Any and all accessible language exposure is seen as beneficial.

A TALE OF COMPETING HYPOTHESES WITH COCHLEAR IMPLANTS AND SIGNED LANGUAGE ▸ Auditory Deprivation ▸ Predicts that hearing children will do better than signing and non-signing implanted children

▸ Predicts no difference between signing and non-signing implanted children

▸ Language Deprivation ▸ Predicts no difference between signing implanted children and hearing children

▸ Predicts that signing implanted children will do better than non-signing implanted children

(NiParko et al., 2010)

(Hassanzadeh, 2012)

(Davidson, Lillo-Martin, & Chen Pichler, 2013)

A TALE OF COMPETING HYPOTHESES WITH COCHLEAR IMPLANTS AND SIGNED LANGUAGE ▸ Auditory Deprivation ▸ Predicts that hearing children will do better than signing and non-signing implanted children

▸ Predicts no difference between signing and non-signing implanted children

▸ Language Deprivation ▸ Predicts no difference between signing implanted children and hearing children

▸ Predicts that signing implanted children will do better than non-signing implanted children







IN SUM… ▸ Consequences of auditory deprivation are more accurately described as consequences of language deprivation

▸ Signed languages are more effective at preventing language deprivation than cochlear implants are at remediating auditory deprivation

DISCUSSION QUESTION ▸ Why do less than 10% of deaf children in America and less than 2% worldwide receive early sign language exposure when… 1. All known research evidence and everyday experiences of deaf people points to the neurocognitive benefits of early signed language exposure (like any other natural language) 2. Poor outcomes continue to persist with the auditory deprivation model for 150+ years 3. Signed languages are accepted as “real” languages by every professional field (linguistics, psychology, public health, etc.) except deaf education and early intervention

Nancy Sager, Ed.D.


Research Questions ■ What are the attitudes and beliefs of audiology students about people who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing?

– What are the attitudes and beliefs of audiology students about sign language?

– What are the attitudes and beliefs of audiology students

about their role in the educational system as it relates to Deaf and Hard of Hearing children and their families?

My Bias I believe that most hearing people are unintentional audists, because they have never been exposed to people who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. But, my bias is that NO PROFESSIONAL in the field of Deaf and Hard of Hearing education (teachers, SLPs, audiologists) should be an audist. There is no place in the field of Deaf and Hard of Hearing education for audism.

Methodology ■

Participants – AuD students. –

I chose to study the attitudes and beliefs of audiologists because audiologists are the first professionals parents meet.

Data Attitudes to Deafness Scale – 19 students – Interviews – 6 students – Archival data – Readings from Deaf Culture class –

Conceptual Framework Systems Theory – Lens of Cultural Disability Theory –

Findings – Attitudes to Deafness Survey – Possible scores range from 22-132 – Scores ranged from 75 – 123 – A score <77 = medical; >76 = social/cultural – All but one student scored in social/cultural

range – Not as much as diversity as I had hoped – Participants ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Casey – 85 Blair – 101 Tony – 108 Terry – 116 Bailey – 122 Hayden - 123

Interview Analysis ■ 3 coders assured validity– me, hearing

clinical audiologist, Deaf EdD student ■ Within-case deductive analysis – Medical vs. social/cultural ■ Cross-case deductive/inductive analysis – Medical vs. social/cultural – Emergent themes

Interviews: Within-case Analysis

â&#x2013; EVERY student had mixture of medical views and social/cultural views. â&#x2013; Vocabulary tended to be medical

Examples – Medical vs. Cultural Medical


■ Give them some time to

■ I can be part of a patient’s

accept that their baby isn’t perfect ■ I think it’s just my duty to diagnose it, how bad it is, and to tell them exactly what it is ■ …me, as a normal human being… ■ No parent wants to be told that something bad is going to happen when that’s not necessarily going to be the case

journey ■ …give these kids both languages – you know, you’re technically raising a bilingual child ■ They may feel more comfortable at a Deaf school, just because they may be the only one, or one of a few, at a typical school ■ I feel like the critical period is equally as important for either one

Interviews: Cross-case analyses

What are the attitudes and beliefs of audiology students about Deaf and Hard of Hearing people? ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

■ ■ ■

Use of medical/audist terminology Social/cultural view of success for Deaf and Hard of Hearing children and adults Functional difference between Hard of Hearing and Deaf Options are only for Deaf children, not for Hard of Hearing children Options for Deaf children – “this” or “that”; “technology” vs. “ASL” – Some openness to bilingualism Critical period for listening and spoken language development; negative effect of auditory deprivation – NO mention of language deprivation Isolation Deaf culture is great, but discriminatory Technology – Adult decision – Parents decide for children ■ Two lowest scorers would encourage technology/spoken language

Interviews: Cross-case analysis What are audiology students attitudes and beliefs about sign language?

■ ASL is a true language. ■ I wish I could sign better. ■ Spoken language is preferable to signed

language. – Sometimes apologetic – Sometimes ASL is seen as last option ■ Two students who had not taken ASL would encourage spoken language.

Interviews: Cross-case analysis

What are the attitudes and beliefs of audiology students about their role in the educational system as it relates to Deaf and Hard of Hearing children and their families? ■ ■

Audiologists are part of the medical team that serves families. Responsibility of audiologist to parents – Audiologists tell parents about “options” – Students with lower scores and no ASL were more directive/favored spoken language – Refer to parent organization Role of Deaf mentor or Deaf organization – No mention – Mixed views when asked – Did not see collaborative role Role of teacher of the Deaf – Very little knowledge – Did not see collaborative role

Recommendations for AuD students ■ Words have power. Focus on using terminology that is ■

■ ■ ■

social/cultural (not medical) and avoid negative, audist terms. Focus on negative impact of LANGUAGE DEPRIVATION (not only auditory deprivation), and how SB 210 can help pinpoint and prevent language deprivation. Replace “communication options” with “language opportunities.” Provide ALL information about ALL language opportunities to parents of ALL Deaf AND Hard of Hearing children. Adopt a more inclusive definition of Deaf culture.

■ Learn more sign language. ■ Seek more involvement with the Deaf and Hard of Hearing

community. ■ Collaborate with Deaf adults and with teachers of the Deaf as families go through the decision making journey.

Leala Holcomb, Ph.D. Contact

Harshada Kadu, Parent

Story of my Deaf Baby

My Story ● My First child. ● New mother. ● New country. ● Newborn Hearing Screening. ● My Life changed.

“Sorry ! Your Baby is Deaf !” ● Emotional Drama. ● Medical options.(hearing aids, cochlear ● ● ● ●

implants) Confusion and Chaos. Pressure of acting fast and “Doing the Best for my baby.” Everybody has their opinions about how to raise my baby.(extended family and friends) Meeting the surgeon, the audiologist.

Early Start Services ● Meeting the teacher for the Deaf. ● Understanding the communication ● ● ● ●

options. Understanding the educational options. Getting the school tours. (CSDF, mainstream program) Starting to enjoy the Deaf baby. The feeling of “My Deaf Baby will be OK.”

The Deaf Community enters my Hearing World ● From pathological to cultural ● ● ● ● ●

perspective. From grief to celebration. From ignorance to education. From alone to a full house. From speech to ASL. From medical professionals to Deaf role models.

Our Second Family : The Deaf Community.

● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Deaf Friends ( a lot !) Deaf Role Models ( teachers, staff, coaches, from world over.) Deaf Sports (athletics, leagues, opportunity to compete with other schools ) Deaf Social Events ( parties, gatherings, camping.) Deaf Competitions ( Spelling Bee, Academic Bowl, Culinary ) Deaf Adults (experiences sharing, what works/ what doesn’t ) Deaf Support ( child care, information sharing, psychological /emotional)

Newborn Hearing Screening Program â&#x2014;? My experience ? Focused more on fixing my Deaf baby, Audiological labelling, Extremely pathological approach, Biased model, Intervention does not focus on the Whole Child.

â&#x2014;? My suggestions ? More parent socialising, Deaf Mentors, School tours of local DHH school/program, Unbiased information sessions for new parents, Educating parents on what being Deaf means.)

What do you think:

Should ASL be taught to all Deaf babies(of hearing families) as soon as early start services begin ?

My email :

Sheri A Farinha, Norcal CEO

Januar y 2020

Acqui sit

Langu age ion Se rvices

Pres NorCeanted by, She Hearinl Services f ri A Farinh or Dea g f & Haa, CEO, rd of

l? a C r o N s i t a Wh


h c a o C f a e D Why Have a Program? Federal Law IDEA Part C includes services for Deaf & Hard of Hearing Infants ages 0-3: • • • • • •

Family training • home visits • speech-language pathology services • audiology services sign language services

cued language services assistive technology devices assistive technology services



! 0 1 2 B S y That ’s wh • Track and Monitor Deaf & Hard of Hearing Children’s Language Development using Language Milestones as Goals, doing SKI HI Assessments 2x a year, and reporting statistics every year on overall progress. • Early Start or preschool teacher should discuss with Families whether their child is meeting each of these milestones and making age-appropriate language growth • For Families, check off each milestone as your child meets it (Parent Profile) • Any time the child is not making age-appropriate language growth, it is important that the teacher discuss services that can be added to the child’s program to help ensure progress is happening in order for the child to be Kindergarten-ready. • Make sure service changes get written into your child’s Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) or Individualized Educational Program (IEP)


Who is a Deaf Coach? A person who is Deaf, who is fluent in ASL, and/or English who works with families and the Deaf child towards the IFSP or IEPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s language goals. 94

a s e o d t a h W ? o D h c a o C Deaf •

Meet with family for 1 - 1.5hrs each week at their home (or as stated in the IFSP or IEP;

Teach vocabulary and engage the family;

Model the use of sign language when interacting with their child and/or English (spoken and/or written);

Share about Deaf Culture and the general experiences of Deaf people; and

Introduce families to events in the Deaf Community to meet other Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adults and Families


f o s t i f e n e b e What are th ? h c a o C f a e D a • Connect the Family & Deaf Child to a positive adult role model who is Deaf • Support the Child’s Teacher and Family on language milestone goals • Provide families with understanding of ASL, English, Deaf Culture, and the Deaf Community


d? e t s e r e t n i e Who may b

• Families of Deaf & Hard of Hearing children age 0 – 5 who want language rich environment for their child that includes Sign Language • School aged Deaf students who show delay in language acquisition and would benefit from Deaf Coach Services


fa o s n o i t a c i f i ual What are q ? Deaf Coach

• Required Background check via DOJ Fingerprint Clearance • Ability to communicate and develop rapport with Families from all colors of the rainbow • Fluency in Sign Language and English • Prefer college degree, professional experience teaching ASL and/or English, working with families • Commit to meetings with Families and follow-up with reports • Attend all trainings and quarterly meetings 98

oach C f a e D t e How do I g Services?

• Teachers/Parents put Deaf Coach as a language service in the IFSP or IEP • Use the District’s standard agreement • Description of service and hourly rate for service • Time Period: July 1 - June 30 • Include the number of families in the district to be served


What does ? d NorCal nee

• • • •

Teacher’s contact info Child’s family contact info Language Milestone Goal(s) to be achieved The Teacher’s attendance at the first visit to introduce the Deaf Coach to the family.

Who helped start this program off?


Teachers like Cheryl Esson are partners with NorCal to help families set up services. Deaf Coach can be provided as a School-based Service if written as a service in the IFSP or IEP.


Important: The Teacher, Deaf Coach, & Family all work together to support the Deaf childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s language acquisition for K-readiness!


QUES suppo TION: Wha rt D t ar Servic eaf kids to e ways YO U es in your a get Deaf C can o rea/d istrict ach ? Thank


sfarinh Contact for more in fo : a amcgi @norcalcen ll@no rcalce nter.o rg

Why We are Here Today Marla Hatrak CAD Deaf Education Symposium: EHDI Stakeholders January 12, 2020 Ohlone College, Newark CA

The Missing Stakeholder?

Who are the Missing Stakeholders?

EHDI Legislation: look at lines 8



The Road to Kindergarten Readiness

Language Policy for Deaf Children Ages 0-5 The Road to Kindergarten Readiness Language Policy for Deaf Children Ages 0-5 17/10/04/cad-languagepolicy-for-deaf-childrenages-0-5/ California Association of the Deaf September 2017

So, Now, What’s our Problem?

• 70% babies and toddlers language delayed or deprived ( • 8% Deaf and 15% Hard of Hearing K-12 students reading at grade level (O’Connell, J. (2009).

Why is This Happening? • “The basic deprivation of deafness is not the deprivation of sound; it is the deprivation of language.” (Meadows, 1980) • Lack of or ineffective access to language: language deprivation syndrome (Gulati, 2019) • Medicalization (Maudlin, 2015) • Ableism (Hehir, 2002) • Audism (Humphries, 1977) • Hearing technology not a panacea for language development (Hatrak & Peterson, 2017)

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Professionals are wedded to the old ways of doing things. We need people who are willing to be a little bit more accepting and less challenging of new information and new research as things come to light and not take it personally.â&#x20AC;?

-Renatta Cooper

Understanding difference between Language and Speech “This is by far the most common question I get asked. I am actually very surprised at how many people who work in the field of education cannot define the difference between the two…these terms [speech, language and communication] are important for parents and educators to understand.” -Katie, a pediatric speech pathologist & blogger

What is speech? Speech is how we say sounds and words. Speech includes: - Articulation using mouth, lips, and tongue - Voice: using our vocal folds and breath - Fluency: rhythm of speech

What is Communication?

- The imparting or exchanging of information or news; - The conveying or sharing of ideas and feelings. - Oxford Dictionary

What is Language? Language is made up of socially shared rules that include the following: - What words mean - How to make new words - How to put words together - What word combinations are best in what situations.

Why Language is Essential • To develop our brain architecture • Cognitive development • Social-emotional development • To be able to communicate • To learn to read • Being Kindergarten-ready • To read to learn academics


Dr. Lantos wrote: “…(Deaf) Children need to learn language. They must learn it from parents, teachers, and their community. The more languages they learn, the better these children will be able to communicate…(continued)

â&#x20AC;&#x153;I admit the ease with which a Deaf child acquires sign language and its perfect adaptability for the purpose of developing its mind.â&#x20AC;?

-Alexander Graham Bell, 1884

Is Language as Part of Interventional strategies?

EHDI Legislation: look at lines 11-12



Who is NAEYC? • National Association of Education of Young Children • Nonprofit association representing early childhood teachers, paraeducators, center directors, trainers, college educators, families, policymakers, and advocates. • Code of Ethical Conduct and Statement of Commitment: • Four Sections (Ideals and Principles) • • • •

Ethical Responsibilities to Children Ethical Responsibilities to Families Ethical Responsibilities to Colleagues Ethical Responsibilities to Community & Society

NAEYC Principle & Ideals: Children, P-4.11

“It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken Men.”

-Frederick Douglass


Thank you for your participation!

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CAD Collaborative & Educational Symposium Program Book  

This conference took place on January 11, 2020.

CAD Collaborative & Educational Symposium Program Book  

This conference took place on January 11, 2020.

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