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Portfolio:

a collection of projects

PORTFOLIO Constantinos Marcou STUDIO TUTORS Luca Galofaro - Davide Sacconi Socrates Stratis - Nadia Charalampous Eraclis Papachristou - Lora Nicolaou

UCY | THE UNIVERSITY OF CYPRUS | Diploma of Architecture 2006/2011 UCL | THE BARTLETT SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE | March Urban Design 2012/2013


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CONTENTS

1.1 The notion of liminality

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1.2. The Meridian corridor as a complex liminal condition

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2. Number 63

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3. Common grounds

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3.1 The case of Gioia Tauro

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3.2 The paradigm of Gioia Tauro as an enclave

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3.3. Scilla and Charibdis as part of a circuit for the Mediterranean

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3.4 Re-considering enclaves: Beyond domesticity

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3.5 Thresholds as part of a common platform

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3.6 Archiving the Mediterranean

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3.7. Thresholds of knowledge

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3.8 Re-considering thresholds as a possibility

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4. Bibliography

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PR O F I LE

Last name: Marcou

e-mail: conniemarcou@hotmail.com

First name: Constantinos

tel: +357-99886556

Date and Place of birth: 8 November 1988, London Nationality: Greek - Cypriot, British Marital status: Single

Education 2012-2013: Bartlett School of Architecture, London, March in Urban Design (Thesis project: Thresholds of Knowledge: Re-considering the Mediterranean as a system of invisible thresholds. Overall grade: Merit) 2010-11: University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Postgraduate Diploma in Architecture (Thesis project: The re-configuration of the old Turkish-Cypriot neighborhood “Skala� within a research procedure. Overall grade: 9.5/10) 2006-11: University of Cyprus, B.Sc. in Architecture (Overall grade: 8.15/10) 2003-6: Vergina Lyceum, Larnaca, Apolyterion of Enienon Lyceum (Overall grade: 19.8/20)

Languages 1.

Greek (mother tongue)

2.

English (IELTS certificate with an overall grade of 7,5)

3.

French (several courses in High School and University)

Publications 2013: B-pro Bartlett Prospective, Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL. 2013: The Bartlett Book 2013, Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL. 2012: J.UCY 02, Journal of Architecture, Department of Architecture, University of Cyprus. 2009: J.UCY 01, Journal of Architecture, Department of Architecture, University of Cyprus.

Computer skills AutoCad, AllPlan, Photoshop, Corel Draw, SketchUp, Ms Office, Corel Video Studio, Rhino, Artlantis.

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Important Seminars and Workshops 2013: Participation in the conference: “Diplo-meeting” organized by the University of Frederic in Cyprus, in order to create a platform of discussion concerning the different design approaches for student thesis.

2013: Participation in the B-Pro Show 2013, the exhibition of the postgraduate program: Urban Design of the Bartlett School of Architecture, which took place at the Royal Ear Hospital in London.

2012-2013: Participation in several workshops organized by Adrian Lahoud, the director of the March program of Urban Design at Bartlett School of Architecture, with the title “Cities within the city”. Elias Zenghelis was also one of the main coordinators of the workshops.

2010: Participation as a volunteer for organizing the series of lectures: “Public Space and the challenges of urban transformation in Europe: Politics and Culture” that took place in Vienna.

Political and Social activities 2004-2005: Voted as a member of the “Youth Greek Parliament” and participated in several decision making procedures along with other Parliament members.

2005: Awarded from the Cyprus Red Cross Association for my social work as a member and for organizing events for raising money.

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1.1 THE NOTION OF LIMINALITY

Liminality as a term refers to the latin word limen which means threshold. Although in the anthropological field has been linked to rites of passage and It has been related not only to the physical qualities of this passage but also to the psychological state in which the person is when crossing towards the next phase of his life either chronically or spatially, a liminal zone is the point where the person practicing this “ritual” has not yet become but is at that in-between moment of becoming. Therefore, a liminal zone, a threshold is characterized by some sort of uncertainty which comes out from the nature of the threshold itself which is not an autonomous condition or act but linked to the geopolitics of the place, of what bridges. In addition to this, Stavros Stavrides suggests that the important fact is that the threshold acquires its meaning as a point of both contact and separation through the practices that cross it. These practices actually create the threshold as meaningful spatiotemporal experience, depending on who crosses it, under what conditions and in which direction.2

The word liminal in Greek means port and therefore connected to the idea of a space which works as a threshold to enter the city. In ancient Greece the port was a central point for the organization of the city and was a space of political, economical and social importance. George Simeoforides gave a lecture in 1994 in Vienna speaking about the city, the port and the sea. Ports in the past were not just related to commerce but the 2

Stavros Stavrides, Towards the City of Thresholds (Professional Dreamers, 2010), p.17 3

Reference translated from Greek: George Semeoforides, Transits (Metapolis Press, 2005), p.221-235

spatial connection to the “agora” meant it was also a center of social, cultural and political discourse in the city. Due to its intersection with the port, the “agora” was a strong transit point and the gate of the city. It was, as he comments, the ideal place for

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Mathieu Deflem, “'Ritual, Anti-Structure, and Religion: A Discussion of Victor Turners Processual Symbolic Analysis.” Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, (1991) http://deflem.blogspot.co.uk/1991/08/ritual-anti-structure-andreligion_29.html [accessed 25 May 2013]

spiritual cultivation, for feeling free to express your position in this world and for gaining experiences from the friction and exchange with other cultures.3

A friction exists within the limits of a threshold based on the idea of conflict and authority. The authority takes part in the “making” process of the threshold which affects and determines the spatial and social composition of that specific territory.

The conditions that define a space as a threshold can be either existing or are created by the one crossing. If it is related to the rites of passage as analyzed by Victor Turner, these conditions are crucial for the integration and adaptation of the people in the margin when they confront a new territory.4 Liminality appears at the stage when flows change form in the sense of becoming and on this line of thinking, within one single journey even, several thresholds could be read in different scales. This however gives to the threshold a level of subjectivity, meaning that something that appears as threshold to someone might not be to someone else, depending on the relationship of the individual with that specific space.

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A few years back an Egyptian holding a fake Canadian passport travelled from Cairo to Gioia Tauro locked inside a shipping container which he transformed into a home for his long journey.

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1.2 THE MERIDIAN CORRIDOR AS A COMPLEX LIMINAL CONDITION

The different cultural and geopolitical divisions in the Mediterranean scale create imaginary lines that at the end affect the understanding of this territory as something which is divided in smaller pieces. This body of water, a land between lands has always been the center of political conflict and a territory that has often been romanticized by the idea of the sea as a border and a connecting element. On the other hand, one can argue that the Mediterranean is a boundary and a clear cut between “the North and the South”, Europe and Africa in which the crossing, the Meridian corridor as a liminal zone is a space of control. The maritime jurisdiction, the configuration of “territorial” seas, the establishment of exclusive economic zones can create an-other reading of this platform which the negotiation of it, constitutes a spatial or physical dimension establishing it not anymore as neutral, but a reflection of its borders. These laws, mechanisms for controlling any unwanted trespassing, construct a reconfiguration on the idea of the Mediterranean as a threshold and of that of a sea that unites. It suggests another reading in which the specific territory is a border for some and a boundary for others. Egypt

The Mediterranean as a frontier, a border is not only a fluid space but becomes material when the “crossings” are seen as part of a greater political conflict. This kind of political conflict can act as a driving force to the configuration of liminal zones. Examples describing this condition are the disputes on the ownership of specific Mediterranean islands such as the Aegean dispute between the Greek and Turkish government were both sides claim rights over some small islands. The islands due to The north and south issue, as analyzed by Franco Cassano in his book: “Southern Thought and Other Essays on the Mediterranean”, is an issue that can reveal an understanding of the world and the potential that someone could extract not from the point of view of the Global north but from the south. These divisions though haven’t appeared recently but have always been structured by both external and internal forces. Especially in the Mediterranean, these divisions go back to the era of the Roman Empire. The divisions are illustrated by taking different parameters that could reveal another way of reading the Mediterranean lands and by shifting these lines so that it is not anymore just something imaginary but it could be traced spatially.

their size, they were never mentioned inside the Lausanne Peace Treaty in 1923 and a conflict occurred with two important incidences in 1987 and 1996. Both incidences appeared as part of the need for Greeks and Turkish to claim ownership by taking pictures of soldiers holding their national flags and placing them on the ground of these islands.5 The islands today are un-occupied and can be characterized as no-man's land due to the lack of political settlement. These voids in the scale of the Mediterranean sea, appear as a platform for political expression, a symbol and reflect upon the political reality. This claim suggests that a liminal condition, especially in the case of the so called no-man's land, can be a void in the city or in a wider territory were the

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Claudia Zanfi, “Floating Symmetry”, in Atlante Mediterraneo: Going

Public '06, ed. by Ofri Cnaani and Jenny Vogel, (Silvana Editoriale,

crossing is symbolic but affects the configuration of the urban. One could understand

2006), p.148-163

this liminal condition by taking as an example the “green zone” in Cyprus. A strip separates the borders of the Greek-Cypriot part and the Turkish-Cypriot. This strip is not only constituted by fences or military bases but it is an in-between territory controlled by the UN forces. It is there to act as a neutral territory for the two sides and politically exists as a spatiotemporal border in order to re-configurate future conditions of borders.

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migration routes legal ship routes illegal ship routes ports

The main routes and ports of the mediterranean: a re-drawing of its borders

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closed camps open camps

The in-land and sea camps for illegal immigrants

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2.

Number 63

This diploma thesis negotiates the notion of boundaries that create “enclaved enviroments” in the city. These boundaries can be categorized into: pragmatic, temporal, physical and experiential, influencing the relation of these enclaved enviroments with the outside. The main thesis question is whether architecture, through mechanisms that can corrode pragmatic and physical boundaries of the city, could influence the social boundaries that exist, encouraging cohabitation

and

coexistence.

The old Turkish-Cypriot neighborhood in Larnaca is an example of a strong “enclaved environment”. This thesis explores mechanisms that can convert it into a reception threshold for “new” temporal social groups, by studying mostly the ways that the greek cypriot refugees adapted themselves for settling into the neighborhood back in 1974 because of the turkish invasion.

The configuration of this network of reception results from the synergy of a series of interventions in different scales on the physical characteristics that compose the neighborhood through mechanisms of connection, readjustment and completion from the scale of the building to the scale of the city. These interventions redefine and reconsider the borders of the neighborhood, through a series of tools, that prepare the field for this new reception.

The tools explore the informal negotiations of the users of the neighborhood through penetrabilities of limits. The informal becomes a design strategy that creates the network of reception encouraging a more flexible system which in the future might bring new informal situations.

The application of the tools enables to proceed stage by stage without having to devise a master plan. This enables a self-regulating plan in which architecture “occurs” and is not “planed”.Number 63 represents the year which politically was crucial both for the city and for the whole island. The greek-cypriots evacuated the neighborhood which later became quarantined. No-one could enter the borders of the neighborhood except turkish-cypriots.

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3.

COMMON GROUNDS

The project Common Grounds investigates the notion of common space in a mixedused building, situated in the area of the old G.D.P stadium in the center of Nicosia. The idea of the common is extracted by the voids of the city that are part of a negotiation platform between the city-dwellers. Is the void a gap or a possibility? Can the void be more than an empty plot or an un-used space? Could it even become part of the design process?

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3.1 THE CASE OF GIOIA TAURO

The prison-island was meant to constitute a violently imposed spatiotemporal rupture in the life of the exiled. This rupture would construct a space-time of exception that could be prolonged arbitrarily. However, the left exiles, projecting to this incarcerating enclave their own vision for a liberating social rupture, have transformed it to a threshold: in their everyday hidden solidarity they were opening holes, communicating passages, in every spatial and temporal perimeter which was punishingly controlling their life. While inhabiting exception they were implicitly or explicitly fighting to make it porous, permeable. A precarious and contradictory condition indeed. However, sparks of a different public culture became visible as ephemeral thresholds opened the brutally imposed uniformity towards liberating otherness.1 The image illustrates the prison island of Gyaros in Greece, the place inhabited by exiles. Today it is a void in the Mediterranean. Stavros Stavrides in his book: Towards the City of Thresholds explains how within this enclave the need for a rupture, a spatiotemporal threshold is visible by the way the exiles transformed their own territory with passages, holes in the walls for communication and other interventions.

The geopolitical and cultural divisions, the growing migratory flows, disputes on property ownership, the declining status of important commercial ports or routes, the traces of past colonial periods, the transformation of borderline conditions into zones of retrospect are some of the issues that characterize the cities on the edge of the Mediterranean sea.

1 Stavros Stavrides, Towards the City of Thresholds (Professional Dreamers, 2010), p.51

This thesis looks at the notion of liminality beyond the poetic explanation that was embedded by different approaches and to read it through a dominant system of political, economical and social context. It departs from a speculation around the extraterritorial character of Gioia Tauro both as one of the largest containership harbor of the Mediterranean and as location of one of the Italian identification and detention center for illegal immigrants, as well as place where immigrants that are exploited and reduced to bare life conditions by criminal organizations that control the flourishing agricultural production. The project proposes to enforce the "liminal" character of the space constructing a system of thresholds to liberate the “otherness� through knowledge. Thresholds of knowledge manifest as a sanctuary, a neutral territory that politically belongs only to those who inhabit it.

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A re-drawing of the stair case from the movie: The Truman Show. The stair case represents a threshold separating and uniting the two worlds but manifests as the place of “possibilities�.

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3.2 GIOIA TAURO AS AN ENCLAVE

Taking into consideration the flows of un-document people, these “penetrability of limits” can also be read by the camps that are not only situated as islands “floating” in the sea but also on the edge of the Mediterranean and expanding in the land of the coastline cities, mostly strategically, creating an imaginary line and establishing a control over these flows. An article from the Economist states that more than 25,000 people have arrived in Italy by sea in 2011 and more specifically through the island of Lampedusa. These people in transit are Tunisians where a great percentage of them which are travelling die during their journey. An interesting point is that the Italian government offered the Tunisian coastal patrol one hundred and fifty million euro and Author Anonymous, “Take my Migrants Please”,

equipment in order to improve their control over these crossings that try to intrude the

The Economist, Electronic Journal, (2011)

borders of the Mediterranean countries.6 The Mediterranean therefore can be traced

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http://www.economist.com/node/18561247 [accessed 13 November 2012]

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spatially not only by its edges but internally by these points of control.

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The story of the Italian movie “Terraferma”7 is developed in Linosa, although it is never referred to in the movie, which is a small island south of Sicily that the locals call terraferma as in solid land. The director captures the relationship between the local's perception and how they understand the “other” which invades their territory and varies depending on the rules of each individual or group as in the case of the Sea people that have their own ethic code in relation to what kind of practices take place within the sea. The movie's main axon circulates around the story of a fisherman that saves the life of Africans that have found refuge in his boat. The boat becomes the political exodus, the sanctuary for these people in which the nature of it suggests a different kind of judgment for the Captain or the sailors that inhabit it. 7

Roman Polanski, “Terraferma”, Movie, 2011

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Michael Richardson, “A Time Bomb for Global

Trade: Maritime-related Terrorism in an Age of

The narrative of Terraferma with all its contradictions can also be related to the case of Gioia Tauro port which is controlled by the Mafia Ndragheta and has created a back

Weapons of Mass Destruction”, Electronic Article for the Institute of South East Asian Studies, (2004)

door to Italy, creating a similar condition of crossing. A few years back an Egyptian

http://cat.middlebury.edu/~scs/docs/Richardson,%

holding a fake Canadian passport travelled from Cairo to Gioia Tauro locked inside a

20Time%20Bomb%20for%20Global%20TradeISEAS.pdf [accessed 21 January 2013]

shipping container which he transformed into a home for his long journey.8

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Gioia Tauro

Messina

Reggio Calabria

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3.3 SCILLA AND CHARIBDIS AS PART OF A CIRCUIT FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN

The project comments on the duality of the cities Reggio and Messina as Scilla and Charibdis who works simultaneously completing each other. Each city hosts part of the workshop’s population in permanent docks. The docks are formed in the cities’ waterfront waiting for the day when it’s protector saint is celebrated to be completed by a floating structure which would travel the rest 354 days in the Mediterranean hosting a quarter of the required population and the infrastructure for the saints festivals which is a great polarity on the saints nameday in every Mediterranean coastline city.

Sketch illustrating the floating structure as it is seen by the opposite shore

Sketch illustrating the relationship land and sea as it is proposed

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view from the floating structure

view from messina

view from reggio calabria

architectural plan

territorial plan

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3.4 R-CONSIDERING ENCLAVES: BEYOND DOMESTICITY

Taking the story of the burrow by Kafka as a metaphor and questioning the design process as something that could go beyond the idea of domesticity or beyond the idea of “informality� what could be the new form of this process? Taking the case study of Reggio Calabria the project proposes a model of cohabitation for those refugees who are taken to S. Ferdinando, south of Gioia Tauro port, which is the point they are taken before re-settled into the city. This in-between space, chronically and physically, could be seen as a positive rupture for the design process. It could shift from the idea of pluralism or identity and through the spatial data needed based on desire and lifestyle, the result could be a modular unit which reflects on each individual.

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THE SPATIAL CONFIGURATION

The cube as an assemblage of rooms that can create the data base for the spatial configuration of the components that consist it on “other surfaces” such as a strip. The cube is the survey tool.

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3.5 THRESHOLDS AS PART OF A COMMON PLATFORM

Ali Madanipour states that that in our contemporary cities we can read two reactions/strategies for reacting towards diversity or in our case for the reception of a new social, ethnic group. There are those who have tried to impose and order onto it so that it becomes understandable and manageable and those who promote a celebration of diversity. However, both these reactions, which indeed represent modernist and post-modernist thinking have been unable to deal with the issue of social marginalization and exclusion.17 A platform therefore is needed which goes beyond a forced system but nevertheless creates the conditions of thresholds in both spatial and social terms. The definition of thresholds could act as a new way for re-configurating the urban and its possibilities.

Henri Lefebvre referring to the victims of segregation understands the problematic role The university of Law in Athens: occupied by un-document immigrants.

of those who deal with the urban as detaching themselves from the political conditions, lacking in a way to address these issues that goes beyond traditional planning methods. Speaking about the Right to the city and the importance of social needs - but not to say that other needs are not important especially if someone has in mind the un-document cosmos of Gioia Tauro and their survival tactics- he refers to the need for creative activity, of the need for information, symbolism, the imaginary and play and in general the need for urban life.18 Knowledge becomes the threshold to create possibilities for integration but how can this overlap political conditions that are crucial for the “illegal� immigrant.

The paradigm of Riace, a town also situated in Calabria is an exceptional one but could be a a reference point in which knowledge and productivity became the apparatus, the driving mechanism for the city in different levels. Riace ten years ago was in a declined economic situation leading to abandonment of important public facilities and to an under-population that was increasing. The Mayor Lucano decided to accept political refugees in order to sustain the town economically due to the several funds they would receive. By turning the abandoned homes into workshops and through the development of the ceramic industry the town became a machine of production and by 17

Richard T. Le Gates and Frederic Stout, The City Reader, (Routledge, 1996), p.190.

educating the refugees both in terms of knowledge and production, by learning the

18 Eleonore Kofman and Elizabeth Lebas, Writings on Cities: Henri Lefebvre, (Blackwell Publishers, 1996), p.14.

traditional methods of creating ceramics, this system worked as an integrating machine and helped as well the local economy. Due to this fact, the Italian government offered amnesty both in the case of Riace and in similar conditions to un-document people, providing them with citizenship and political status.

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Knowledge and education as practical conditions have always been linked to the notion of asylum not only in the past but even by taking into consideration recent examples. In Greece since 1982 there was a law in which within the space of the universities each individual could express himself freely and also this law protected anyone that wanted to find refuge, sanctuary whereas the state could not remove or prosecute someone within the borders of the university. This notion goes back even in ancient times, linked to spaces of rituals, temples in which the refugee was safe as long as he contained himself physically inside the temple or was praying to the holly statue. Within this argument, the university becomes the asylum of the society, excluding noone. It becomes not just an iconic figure but a monument of political substance.

If we consider, this geographical point of Gioia Tauro as a crucial point for communities in transit how can thresholds of knowledge manifest as a sanctuary, an apparatus to re-define the urban? What can this mean for the scale of the Mediterranean? How can the subject of education be seen not as an architectural 19

Pier Vittorio Aureli, “Labor and Architecture: Revisiting Cedric Price's Potteries Thinkbelt�, Article from Log 23, (2011) http://www.anycorp.com/anycorp/article/84 [accessed 13 January 2013]

problem but as a system that has the potential to create a network both physical and social in this scale?

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3.6 ARCHIVING THE MEDITERRANEAN

The Cedric Prices’ project Potteries Thinkbelt and the SANAA project Rolex Learning Center, have the subject of education as a main common although the projects were designed in different periods of time and are referred to two different scales. The Potteries Thinkbelt was designed in 1964 and located at the North Staffordshire Potteries which was the centre of the English ceramic industry. The Rolex Learning Center was built on the campus of EPFL Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, and function sas a laboratory for learning, a library with 500,000 volumes and an international cultural hub for EPFL, open to both students and the public. Cedric Price, Potteries Thinkbelt (1964)

Cedric Price's project: the Potteries Thinkbelt can really be used as a starting point, a referendum for exploring the relationship between flows, infrastructure and education and how all these elements can create a network in many different levels. What Cedric Price proposed was a mobile learning resource utilizing the infrastructure of a declining industrial area and his interventions were based on this network of spaces, uses and infrastructural systems. The Rolex Learning Center on the other hand is more of a singular intervention followed by other small ones changing the circulation system of the surrounding area in order to force itself within the lansdcape. More specifically, it forces in a way the street network to have a relationship with the building and its entrances by either adding new routes or public spaces or extending streets that are SANAA, Rolex Learning Center (2010)

directed in the main entrance of the research center. The Center, as described by the architects, encourages cross-disciplinary research and offers flexibility to use the building in many different ways to absorb new technology and working methods. Taking these two projects as a starting point for the design proposal, the first step, to understand this relationship between education, production and infrastructure and the kind of network that could be extracted, was to redraw the projects within the urban context of the territory under study. The projects were re-scaled and interpreted in a way to create a new dialogue within this Mediterranean context but also to create a dialogue within themselves revealing the next step for the thesis.

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Cedric Price’s Potteries Thinkbelt as part of a circuit.

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The four zones: transfer area, educational/flexible spaces, the public uses and the residential towers as they were designed.

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The port of gioia tauro as the main base for the ship that holds and organizes the archive/preparation for the distribution process

archive information collector

A public square near the center becomes the main hub for exposing the information The knowledge laboratory that filters the information

The three parts of the narrative.

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The archive information collector in transit.

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The library as a transit point.

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The knowledge laboratory.

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A conceptual drawing illustrating the body of thresholds.

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3.7 THRESHOLDS OF KNOWLEDGE

The project proposes to enforce the "liminal" character of the space constructing a system of thresholds to liberate the “otherness� through knowledge. Thresholds of knowledge manifest as a sanctuary, a neutral territory that politically belongs only to those who inhabit it. The reading of the territory goes beyond its physical qualities which is connected mostly to the stories of the immigrants that inhabit the territory.

Gioia Tauro is read through a strip of four conditions: water, port, industries and agriculture. These conditions although physically are disconnected with each other are all inter-connected to the politics of the place. What is proposed is to reconfigure the strip under the lense of a political sanctuary by using the university not only as a threshold of adaptation but as a political exodus.

The commercial port of Gioia Tauro becomes the place were the floating structure meets the territory. The floating structure works as a research center that holds the archive of information for all the universities of the mediterranean, collecting information and giving the opportunity to the travellers to exchange their knowledge. When they arrive at the port a bridge detaches their journey from the ground in-order not to step in italian grounds. Even when they are inside their communal garden at the point of the port were an abandoned industrial building is re-used, they are politically in a liminal zone. Arriving at the educational platform the immigrants are quarantined within the limits of the university.

The agricultural fields are transformed into strips of co-habitation connected with an under-ground passage to the other parts of the intervention.

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Territorial plan of the area under study.

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AGRICULTURE INDUSTRIAL PORT WATE R Re-thinking the territory within a single strip, constituted by water, a commercial port, industries and agricultural fields. All these elements are connected to the stories of the in-habitants that are part of this liminal conditions.

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Masterplan of proposal illustrating the different parts of the narrative.

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Section illustrating the educational platform, the hotel for the researchers and the floating structure arriving at the port.

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Plan view of the port.

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Plan view of the educational platform.

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Detailed plan view of the agricultural part illustrating the co-habitation strips.

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Collages illustrating a view of the intervention arriving to the port from the sea. The view as it seen from the floating structure.

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The bridge as a threshold connecting the different parts of the proposal.

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Axonometric view of the different parts of the intervention.

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3.8 RE-CONSIDERING THESHOLDS AS A POSSIBILITY

In conclusion, a platform based on the idea of the common as a space of social and political substance could be a starting point for a new ideological configuration of the thresholds. It is important to understand the liminal space as something not abstracted from the political space. Under this claim the threshold as a possibility, becomes the point where flows meet and friction appears as a positive element for integration. An integration based not only on the romanticized way of thinking about social space but a creation of a network of common spaces that could redefine the contemporary city. These spaces that refer to the common, in the paradigm of Gioia Tauro and its stories could take the form of knowledge hubs that act as thresholds. They could manifest as in-between spaces of expression encouraging a common ground and an essential coexistence of diversities. Like the project of Oswald Mathias Ungers for Berlin, the thresholds could be seen as part of a strategy based on the idea of the archipelago. Although the project for Berlin was referring to different conditions, another reading could suggest a similar approach based on the configuration of the city based on its thresholds. Instead of suggesting a city within the city, one could read the void of possibilities as part of a circuit of thresholds.

The thresholds could refer to a specific program that has the potentiality to create in-between conditions of passage or to a re-configuration of the territory by creating spatial in-between conditions, re-claiming with this way territory for the people in the margin. The “camps� can therefore be reconsidered not anymore as enclaves, whether they go under the name of legal or illegal but through the window of opportunity that the notion of liminality can create. To rethink the notion of thresholds means to vision a city organized by its in-between spaces that potentially could emerge as monuments. Monuments for the common.

UCL | The Bartlett School of Architecture | March UD

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4.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Armstrong, T. Michel Foucault. 1992. Harvester Wheatsheaf. Calarco. M, DeCaroli. S. Giorgio Agamben: Sovereignty and Life. 2007. Stanford University Press. Gates. R, Stout. F. The City Reader. 1996. Routledge. Kofman. E, Lebas. E. Writings on Cities: Henri Lefebvre. 1996. Blackwell Publishers. Semeoforides, G. Transits. 2005. Metapolis Press, 2005. [book in greek: self-translated] Stavrides, S. 2010. Towards the City of Thresholds. Professional Dreamers. Ungers.M, Koolhaas.R, Riemann.P, Kollhoff.H, 1997. The City in the City-Berlin: A Green Archipelago. Zurich: Lars Muller Publishers. Zanfi, C. 2006. Going Public '06: Atlante Mediterraneo. Milano: Silvana Editoriale.

Electronic Articles An Architectur. “On the Commons: A public Interview with Massimo De Angelis and Stavros Stavrides”. 2010. Article in E-Flux. http://www.e-flux.com/journal/on-the-commons-a-public-interviewwith-massimo-de-angelis-and-stavros-stavrides/.

Aureli, P. “Labor and Architecture: Revisiting Cedric Price's Potteries Thinkbelt”. 2011. Article from Log 23. http://www.anycorp.com/anycorp/article/84.

Author Anonymous. “Take my Migrants Please”. 2011. The Economist, Electronic Journal. http://www.economist.com/node/18561247.

Bernabei, F. “Mafia and Drugs: Organized Crime and Drug Trafficking in I t a l y ” . 2 0 1 0 . L e c t u r e f o r 4 4 t h C a r n e g i e S e m i n a r. http://www.academia.edu/791549/Mafia_and_Drugs._Organized_Crime _and_Drug_Trafficking_in_Italy.

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European Resettlement Network. 2010. http://www.resettlement.eu/country/italy.

Deflem, M. “'Ritual, Anti-Structure, and Religion: A Discussion of Victor Turners Processual Symbolic Analysis.” 1991. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. http://deflem.blogspot.co.uk/1991/08/ritual-anti-structure-andreligion_29.html.

“Italy: Speed Investigations of Rosarno Attacks”. 2010. Human Rights Watch Journal. http://www.hrw.org/news/2010/02/04/italy-speed-investigationsrosarno-attacks.

Richardson, M. “A Time Bomb for Global Trade: Maritime-related Terrorism in an Age of Weapons of Mass Destruction”. 2004. Electronic Article for the Institute of South East Asian Studies. http://cat.middlebury.edu/~scs/docs/Richardson,%20Time%20Bomb%2 0for%20Global%20Trade-ISEAS.pdf.

Movies Crialese, E. “Terraferma”. 2011

Portfolio 2012/2013 |

Constantinos Marcou

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Architectural Portfolio: A collection of Projects by Constantinos Marcou  

This portfolio is a collection of both under-graduate and post-graduate projects designed at the University of Cyprus and the Bartlett Schoo...

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