TRANSFORMATION BEYOND PRESERVATION
Transformation Beyond Preservation Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture Thesis Booklet Thesis Research & Analysis DSCN 5110/6110, Fall 2012 Professor Roser-Gray Chamberlaine Beard
Special thanks to Vicky Lueng and John Hale for allowing me to document the Ferry Terminal and Professor Roser-Gray for her feedback and guidance. 2
Transformation Beyond Preservation Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture
Booklet Contents Thesis Question & Abstract................................... 4 Thesis Document................................................
Precedent Research............................................. 22 Site Documentation & Analysis.............................. 26 Program Analysis................................................
Design Development............................................ 40
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture THESIS QUESTION
How can contemporary architectural form, technology and structural systems be integrated into existing industrial buildings to create a symbiotic hybrid of new
and old architecture? How can this implementation of new exploit and utilize the existing beauty of the industrial language without taking away from its iconic status and historical significance?
As industrial manufacturing gave way to a service-based economy, sprawling factories and large warehouses were replaced with office buildings, condemning
these industrial structures, along with their surrounding areas to rust in a dilapidated state. However, these structures remain important monuments to the economic history and culture of the areas that they once served. In recent years, many of them have been declared as “sites of historical significance”, in order to protect them from demolition and create opportunity and purpose through new programming.
Rather than allowing a building sanctioned as “significant” to simply “exist”, architecture has the opportunity to function as a catalyst to reinterpret and reuse spaces in ways that would benefit the surrounding area and the community therein. A neighborhood experiencing housing shortages has the potential to accommodate
more residents by repurposing an abandoned factory as loft space, just as a district blighted by lack of cultural revenue might convert an unused warehouse into gallery and restaurant space. By allotting new and relevant program to the unused spaces, they should, along with the surrounding areas, experience economic and social rehabilitation as people begin to inhabit the site once again.
In the past, there has been much debate about the advantages of adaptive reuse over new construction in regards to practicality, functionality and cost. However, currently, adding to or reusing existing structures is considered an
economic response to the issue of so many unoccupied buildings and the shrinking availability of buildable land. And, whereas early adaptive reuse undertakings focused on “filling the shell” of the existing structure with new program without much
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture architectural intervention, projects of this nature can offer a lot of creative freedom for designers to create a visual attraction important to for the revitalization of a community.
It is the intention of this thesis to explore how contemporary architectural elements (formal typologies, materials, technologies and construction methods) can be integrated into an existing structure, blending the two languages and creating a kind of “hybrid” building, in which both the new and the old systems work together to create something interesting. The juxtaposition of “new” into/upon “old” will emphasize the historical significance of the existing, celebrating the innate beauty of the industrial architectural language, but also make a statement about the “here and now” as well as the future.
Building reuse- as old as architecture itself.
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture INTRODUCTION
The issue is no longer about new versus old, but about the nature of the vital relationship between the two.
–Kenneth Powell1 As the American economy shifted from industry to service, industrial buildings and districts were demolished or forgotten. However, because they remain as architectural testament to the history and culture of their communities and because of their flexible spatial qualities and scale, these structures should be retained, adapted and transformed to fit more contemporary programmatic needs. There has been much debate regarding the advantages and disadvantages of adaptive reuse in terms of practicality, functionality and cost, but by simply altering the process and
ultimate goal of adaptive reuse projects, many of the negative points will be addressed. Architects must take a more active role in the design, integrating the “new” into the existing building and the significant qualities it holds.
REGARDING ADAPTIVE REUSE
“Adaptive reuse” has been defined and reinterpreted many times in many different ways. Some interpretations advocate for contemporary architectural language to be implemented upon, within, or surrounding the old, whereas others focus more on maintaining the historical significance of the existing site via minimal
architectural intervention. Regardless of approach, the underlying idea behind the concept is the reuse of an existing building to house a program different than the one the structure was originally built for.2 Although the phrase, “adaptive reuse” is fairly new in origin, the concept is as old as architecture itself. In his book, Re/Architecture, Sherban Cantacuzino explains it very simply, “Because structure tends to outlive function, buildings through history have been adapted to all sorts of new uses.” As times change, beliefs, customs, 1
Powell, Ken. Architecture Reborn: Converting Old Buildings for New Uses. (New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Print.)
Joachim, M. 2002, "Adaptive reuse," Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, http://www.archinode.com/lcaadapt.html (accessed November 13, 2012).
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture economies, daily routines, and even concepts of personal space also change. Because of this, the spatial and programmatic needs of humanity are altered and new spaces are required. These requirements were easily met by the transformation of old, existing spaces. It wasn’t until the industrial revolution that anybody questioned reuse.3 With the introduction of mechanized and mass production came an abundance of building materials at cheaper costs.4 This meant that new construction was suddenly simpler and more affordable than renovation. Factories, warehouses, breweries, mills, etc. popped up all of the United States to accommodate (and using) the new technologies. However, after WWII, American urban planning policies changed, and these industrial and commercial programs were forced outside the city limits to designated “industrial districts”. The structures that remained in the city were condemned to rust in a dilapidated state, or were demolished to make way for “office buildings and shopping malls” which were considered more “promising” real estate.5 However, not long after the war, America, nostalgic for the past, began implementing federal acts to preserve architecture. With the implementation of The Historic Preservation Act in 1966 and, later the Tax Reform Act in 1976, a new wave of preservation and reuse projects were undertaken, the majority of which focused on preserving the historical and architectural significance of the building rather than reutilizing the space for new function6. This shift from renovation as a means of economic and practical reuse to restoration for romantic and nostalgic purposes greatly limited the hand of the designer. Although a number of architects and preservationists in the sixties and seventies argued for the “conservation of the ordinary” 7, it was the ecological/ environmental-conscious mentality of 21st century architecture that pushed adaptive reuse as a form of practical space use. The diminishing amount of buildable land versus the amount of existing (but unused) built environment became more evident,
Cantacuzino, Sherban. Re-architecture: Old Buildings/new Uses. (New York: Abbeville, 1989. Print), 8. 4 "Mass production." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/368270/mass-production>. 5 Cantacuzino, Re-architecture: Old Buildings/new Uses, 8. 6 Powell, Architecture Reborn: Converting Old Buildings for New Uses, 9. 7 Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. [New York]: Random House, 1961. Print.
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture and planners began to see the advantages of revitalizing the old industrial and commercial districts within cities. In conjunction, adaptive reuse project focus shifted away from the preservation of “prominent” structures (castles, cathedrals, courthouses, country houses, etc.) towards how the industrial structures and
infrastructure (warehouses, factories, brew houses, silos, etc.) could be adapted and utilized for future program.8 This mentality and approach continues in contemporary architectural practice, and today, more than seventy percent of architectural work is centered around existing structure.9
ARGUMENTS FOR ADAPTIVE REUSE
There has always been much debate surround the advantages and
disadvantages of adaptive reuse over new construction in regards to practicality, functionality, and cost, as well as its role in preserving the historical culture of a community. However, the shrinking availability of buildable land due to laterally expanding cities and abandoned urban centers is a problem universally acknowledged, and adaptive reuse can be considered an economic response to the issue and others.
The most ecological position when building is, in fact, to use things that are already there; it can’t get more sustainable than that.
-Frank Peter Jager10
Albeit somewhat dependent upon the program, and the associated mechanical systems being implemented into the existing architecture, an adaptive reuse project will require significantly less energy than entirely new building projects, which often prove to be very energy-consuming because of the machine-powered construction methods and materials. The lower energy usage is rooted in the fact that renovation work often requires more skilled labor and man power than mechanized fabrication. As a bonus, this creates more jobs for those craftsman, who seem to find themselves less needed, therein aiding in the preservation of handicraft and supplementing the
Cantacuzino, Re-architecture: Old Buildings/new Uses, 124. Powell, Architecture Reborn: Converting Old Buildings for New Uses, 10. 10 Jager, Frank P. Old & New: Design Manual for Revitalizing Existing Buildings. (Germany: Birkhäuser, 2010.) Print. 9
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture economy.11 Also, because many of these industrial-era buildings were constructed before central air conditioning and heating, many of them were designed with passive solar and cooling systems which directly respond to the existing site and climate to naturally control the interior comfort levels. Therefore, the buildings, as they exist are naturally energy-saving. Renovation/Adaptive Reuse projects also have an influence on the larger economic scale of things. By restoring program and function to a building in a dilapidated area, it will positively affect the chances that the surrounding area itself will redevelop as well. In his report entitled, A Future From the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities, Randolph Langenbach supports this theory: “A renovation project can often act as a catalyst in a given area, encouraging the construction of new buildings around the renovated structure, attracting activities and life which then add to the success of the surrounding businesses… (the building) can work as an economic generator by attracting a mixture of unusual uses, and by helping to draw both tourists and local people into the area.”12 Depending upon the program to be implemented, reused buildings can host a plethora of new economic activity including job creation at several scales. For example, by repurposing an abandoned structure as a fresh foods store and office space, low-income jobs are created for the high-school age workforce, mediumincome positions are created for corporate associates and managers, a number of jobs are created for off-site work (e.g. growing, transport, etc.), and a number of construction workers will be employed for renovation purposes.13 Whereas it is an arguable point as to whether or not such attempts to reengage are successful, such steps towards community rehabilitation are necessary to reclaim and revitalize the usable land.
Cantacuzino, Re-architecture: Old Buildings/new Uses, 11. Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities. (Washington: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1978. Print), 61.
Jack & Jake's Market at Myrtle Banks: A Fresh Food, Privately-owned Public Market in Central City, New Orleans. 2011. Architectural Proposal. New Orleans.
AHST 5110/6110 AHST 5110/6110 ThesisThesis Research & Analysis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Beard Chamberlaine Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse Reuse of Industrial Architecture Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive of Industrial Architecture For a program to succeed and ensure properproper reengagement with the For a program to succeed and ensure reengagement with the community, the existing buildings must have functionality and flexibility within within the community, the existing buildings mustahave a functionality and flexibility the spacesspaces they offer wellasaswell economic viability. As Langenbach so eloquently phrases theyas offer as economic viability. As Langenbach so eloquently phrases it, “Perhaps the most factor factor in favor the of conservations of old of industrial it, “Perhaps the critical most critical in of favor the conservations old industrial
14 buildings is the is inherent usefulness of the of space being preserved.” buildings the inherent usefulness the space being preserved.”14
Industrial buildings, designed and constructed to accommodate the large buildings, designed and constructed to accommodate the large Industrial scale and activity of manufacturing and production (and other programs), are scale and activity of manufacturing and production (and similar other similar programs), are characterized by large 1),fig. interrupted only by a gridded characterized by open large floor openplans floor (see plansfig. (see 1), interrupted only by a gridded systemsystem of support columns. This openness allowsallows and flexibility allowsallows more design of support columns. This openness and flexibility more design opportunity for an for architect lookinglooking to adapt and transform the space. Also, because opportunity an architect to adapt and transform the space. Also, because these large depended mostlymostly on daylighting to function, the light these spaces large spaces depended on daylighting to function, thequality light quality within within the spaces is already desirable by contemporary architectural standards (see (see the spaces is already desirable by contemporary architectural standards
fig. 2),fig. dependent upon the new program, of course. 2), dependent upon theproposed new proposed program, of course.
Fig. 1 Fig. 1
Fig. 2 Fig. 2
Another characteristic of industrial buildings and infrastructure is heavy (and (and Another characteristic of industrial buildings and infrastructure is heavy often exposed) structural systems (see fig. 3),fig. which allowed for immense loads, loads, and and often exposed) structural systems (see 3), which allowed for immense are capable of, in the case reuse, meeting the load of additional are capable of, in theofcase of reuse, meeting therequirements load requirements of additional
structure and the unusual loads accompanying the new structure and the unusual loads accompanying theprogram. new program.
14 Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene A Future from the Past: Case Langenbach, Randolph, and Bunnell. Gene Bunnell. A Future from the The Past: Thefor Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old of Buildings in Industrial Communities. (Washington: Conservation and Reuse Old Buildings in Industrial Communities. (Washington: U.S. Dept. Housing and Urban Development, 1978. 1978. Print),Print), 69. U.S. of Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 69.
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture
Fig. 3 Perhaps the most debated aspect of adaptive reuse is the cost- is it really cheaper to reuse rather than build? Sherban Cantacuzino says, “Ten years ago, there was evidence that the cost of converting old buildings consistently outstripped the cost of equivalent new work. This tendency appears to have been reversed, and conversions are now fully competitive. In addition, more developers have learnt to appreciate the unquantifiable values of age, character and architectural quality and have discovered that people will pay more to be in an old building where space standards, not to mention architectural quality, are much higher than they would be in an equivalent new building.”15 In today’s market, building materials are becoming more expensive,
construction a costly endeavor and further encouraging the reuse of existing structure & material.
Cantacuzino, Re-architecture: Old Buildings/new Uses, 10. Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities. (Washington: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1978. Print), 59. 16
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture Renovation/restoration projects can also qualify for government aid and tax incentives. In 1966, the Historic Preservation Act provided money to those who owned or were trying to revitalize historically significant properties.17 Then, in 1976, the Tax Reform Act was passed, encouraging renovation over new construction by
offering tax concessions for reused material, as well as reducing tax incentives for new construction projects, and later, in 1981, the Economic Recovery Tax Act was passed, allotting up to a twenty-five percent tax credit to real estate owners for utilizing an old building of landmark status.18 And today, architects looking to rack up LEED points can gain a good number by recycling building material and/or existing structure.19 Adaptive Reuse can be argued from a real estate point of view as well. Randolph Langenbach explains:
“Old buildings depreciate at a slower rate than new construction; and, under certain conditions, they even appreciate in value. This provides long-term stability which can offset the rapid initial decline in value of most new buildings.”20 Supporting this argument is the importance of community identity & nostalgia through architecture, because some people take great strides to preserve places that are important to them. The built environment as a whole has a large impact on the community, meaning even the less iconic and historically significant buildings play their role in cultural identity. In his book “Old & New”, Peter Jager says, “What matters is the
spirit of the place and the historical period that a building represents, even if it has not made history itself.”21 And in her argument for “the old”, Jane Jacobs presents this argument:
"National Historic Preservation Act of 1966." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Nov. 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Historic_Preservation_Act_of_1966>. 18 Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. “A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities”, 59. 19 "Materials Reuse." LEED NC-v2.2 MRc3 Materials Reuse. LEEDuser, 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.leeduser.com/credit/NC-v2.2/MRc3>. 20 Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. “A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities”, 63. 21 Jager, Frank P. “Old & New: Design Manual for Revitalizing Existing Buildings”, 9.
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture “Cities need old buildings so badly it is probably impossible for vigorous streets and districts to grow without them. By old buildings, I mean not museum-piece old buildings, not old buildings in an excellent and expensive state of rehabilitation… but also a good lot of plain, ordinary, lowvalue old buildings, including some run-down old buildings.” 22 Additionally, this concept of preserving the “ordinary” is all relative. Even though an old mill may not have been the site of some great undertaking (or disaster), it will hold important memories for somebody ( a worker, the family of a worker, a buyer of the product that was produced there, etc.) and it will always serves as a symbol of the economic history of its surrounding community and peoples.
ARGUMENTS AGAINST ADAPTIVE REUSE
Despite the aforementioned benefits, there are still a number of arguments from many different sides against adaptive reuse versus new constructions. From the perspective of the historical preservationists, adaptive reuse project architects are often too eager in their incorporation/addition of new materials & structure, which can hide/overwhelm the historical building and its “significance.” Their anxiety stems from the fear that the old buildings will be altered beyond recognition. On the other hand, real estate agents might argue that the buildings chosen for adaptive reuse are not significant enough or hold enough value to deem worth of renovation. A more subtle argument is that of progress- renovating and reusing old buildings is getting in the way of the construction of progressive new structures. Because it is ingrained into the concept of “the American Dream” that “progress is good”, may people tend confuse the product of change with the process of change, and society, in an attempt to progress, simply destroys its historically significant buildings to make way for contemporary architecture.23 It is also important to analyze the arguments against adaptive reuse in terms of functionality, questioning whether the new program can successfully utilize the
Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. [New York]: Random House, 1961. Print. 23 Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. “A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities”, 5.
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture building systems currently in place or if it is merely a matter of “filling the shell.” And if one is merely just inserting architecture within a space anyway, why not building a new structure that will appropriately accommodate the new program rather than trying to “fit it in.” very few older buildings were designed to accommodate the
technologies of modern comforts such as air conditions, small scale electrical outlets and twenty-first century mechanical equipment, and incorporating these technologies into the existing can prove to be very difficult.24 There is something to be said for these arguments against the renovation and reuse of old buildings, but the direction that contemporary adaptive reuse projects are heading is progressively attempting to address the issues.
TRANSFORMATION BEYOND RESTORATION
We should not live in a bright shining new future, any more than we should hide in a comfortable pastiche of the past. We must inhabit an ever-evolving present, motivated by the possibilities of change, restricted by the baggage of memory and experience. –David Chipperfield 25
In order to address the issues of functionality, keeping in mind both the progress and nostalgia of a community, the process and ultimate goal of adaptive reuse must be altered. Kenneth Powell argues this point: “Out of necessity comes invention, and conservation and rehabilitation
schemes now generate some of the most innovative and intelligent work… ’Saving’ old buildings is no longer enough. The aim is not preservation but transformation, an architectural… approach to creating new form out of old fabric.” 26
Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. “A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities”, 5. 25 Guell, Xavier. David Chipperfield: Recent Work. Barcelona: Watson-Guptill Pubns, 1997. Print. 26
Powell, Architecture Reborn: Converting Old Buildings for New Uses, 10.
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture This requires architects to investigate how the new program, architectural language, technology and structural systems can be inserted into, through, atop, or around the existing, and how the two systems work together to create a functioning (and hopefully, aesthetically-pleasing) structure.
SITE SELCTION & DESIGN PROPOSAL
The site chosen to investigate this thesis is located on the fringe of the Irish Channel at the corner of Jackson Avenue and Tchopitoulas St. This proposed site features the abandoned Jackson Ave. Ferry Terminal, an empty monument to the old Gretna ferry route that used to carry automobiles and pedestrians from across the Mississippi River to Gretna and back.27 Built in the 1920â€™s, the first ferry terminal on the site consisted of a simple set of vertical circulation towers connected by a bridge that carried pedestrians over the floodwall to the ferry dock on the other side. The ferry terminal, as it exists today, rests upon the same footprint (see fig. 4).
"Jackson Avenue- Gretna Ferry." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 1 Aug. 2012. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackson_Avenue_%E2%80%93_Gretna_Ferry>.
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture Designed in 1980 by Stoffle-Mitchell Associate Architects, in conjunction with Barnard & Thomas Engineering & Gulf Marine Design, the terminal consists of a series of well-lit, industrial-scale vertical and horizontal circulation spaces that are evident in their architectural form. Because of its industrial scale, the available
be adapted or transformed into something new. The structural systems are evident in the construction of the two “bridge” pieces, which gesture strongly towards the Mississippi River, breaking the traditional boundary that the floodwall sets (see fig.5). It is because of this building’s spatial qualities and expression of structure that it was chosen for this project.
spaces within (and immediately surrounding) the building are flexible and can easily
Fig. 5 The surrounding neighborhood, a run-down semi-industrial area, has taken
great strides to redevelop the existing fabric, repurposing structures for commercial and residential purposes. In an effort to contribute to this redevelopment and engage the community, the Jackson Ave Ferry Terminal is to be repurposed as an aquatic center and public pool for the neighborhood. New Orleans is notoriously lacking in public swimming facilities, so by implementing this in-demand program into the existing structure, the site will become a more populated place. The aquatics center will serve as an opportunity for the public to connect with the Mississippi River on a more personal level than simply “a view.” The intention is to make a statement about water; where it exists now (the river), where it can exist
(new programmatic additions), and where it might come from in the future (e.g. how is rain handled on the site).
AHST 5110/6110 Thesis Research & Analysis Chamberlaine Beard Transformation Beyond Preservation: Adaptive Reuse of Industrial Architecture The existing structure can be utilized, tweaked and built upon to accommodate the necessary program, but the architectural intervention will not take away from the iconic form that has developed on the particular site.
THESIS PRECEDENT STUDIES SITE ANALYSIS PROGRAM ANALYSIS DESIGN
WORKS CITED Bruckner, Christian. “A Gift From the Past.” Interview by Frank P. Jager. Old & New 2010: 11-15. Print. It is from this interview, which I drew a good number of insightful quotes regarding adaptive reuse and its sustainable benefits. Cantacuzino, Sherban. Re-architecture: Old Buildings/new Uses. New York: Abbeville, 1989. Print. Re/Architecture takes a more historical and statistics-based approach at supporting rehabilitation and adaptive reuse, citing the social, environmental and even economic advantages. It has been a common thought throughout my research that adaptive reuse appeals to the nostalgia in an area; a way of preserving a piece of the history of the town or district. However, Cantacuzino goes beyond to explain how the cost of renovating a building is cheaper in terms of energy and material costs and provides more specialized jobs for small builders rather than large commercial construction companies. Contrary to some of the other resources, Cantacuzino’s collection of fifty-four examples of adaptive reuse projects focuses more upon industrial architecture and large public buildings rather than private buildings (e.g. townhouse, castle, villa, etc.) to better illustrate how such readaptation can promote economic as well as social revitalization. The idea is that, by assigning a new revenue-producing program to the old building, it will, in turn, bring wealth and new life to the area. “…people will pay more to be in an old building.” Cantacuzino’s collection personifies perfectly the kind of adaptive reuse I wish to investigate, sympathizing similar typology, program and overall goals. Fischer, Manfred F., Frances Anderton and Helmut Wirner. “Development and Reutilization of Industrial Areas and Unused Industrial Land.” Architektur + Wettbewerbe 140 (1989): n. pag. Print. This article focuses less on the rehabilitation of old industrial buildings, but rather on the reuse of industrial land (in this case, the London Docklands), combining adaptive reuse with new construction to create a composition of architectural language. Frances Anderton explains that this juxtaposition of architecture without much thought to infrastructure, civic amenities, etc. (not to mention the unfamiliar and uninviting architectural form) renders the Docklands “unsuccessful” and shunned as not really being a part of the city. By paying little attention to cultural and historical context and overlooking the infrastructure that plays an integral part in functional society, the Docklands condemned themselves to be almost uninhabitable. However, such exclusion from the city is not, in my opinion, necessarily a bad thing, and there can be something to say for the locale as a “showcase” rather than a functioning society. For example, many of the buildings that have been constructed or altered are “test sties” for the newest technologies (e.g. anti-condensation detailing for exterior circulation), as well as building methods and typologies.
Despite the ambiguity of whether or not the Docklands are a flop or a success, nobody can deny that it is an interesting area, and a precedent which I would like to study in order to further understand it’s qualities and how it failed AND succeeded. Guell, Xavier. David Chipperfield: Recent Work. Barcelona: Watson-Guptill Pubns, 1997. Print. From this book, I extracted information regarding David Chipperfield’s point of view on adaptive reuse as a means of creative expression without the limitations of sentimental to-the-books preservation. Jack & Jake’s Market at Myrtle Banks: A Fresh Food, Privately-owned Public Market in Central City, New Orleans. 2011. Architectural Proposal. New Orleans. This proposal offered insight on how adaptive reuse projects can benefit an area economically even before the project is completed by providing jobs for skilled laborers, etc. “Jackson Avenue- Gretna Ferry.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 1 Aug. 2012. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jackson_ Avenue_%E2%80%93_Gretna_Ferry>. Wikipedia’s abbreviated history of the terminal offered a general background upon which a lot of the thesis research was expanded. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. [New York]: Random House, 1961. Print. The book presents many of Jacobs’ arguments in favor of preserving old buildings as a form of cultural preservation. Jager, Frank P. Old & New: Design Manual for Revitalizing Existing Buildings. Germany: Birkhäuser, 2010. Print. This collection of adaptive reuse projects offered a plethora of precedents to study and analyze. Joachim, M. 2002, “Adaptive reuse”, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1 Oct. 2011 <http://www.archinode.com/lcaadapt. html> Joachim’s article on adaptive reuse provided this thesis with a simple, clear definition of adaptive reuse to be applied in this case. Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1978. Print. In his case for conservation, Langenbach goes in depth in regards to WHY this industrial architecture has been left abandoned and neglected as well as why others argue against the preservation/renovation of such buildings. The author’s position, albeit firmly “pro”, is a level-headed one, admitting with full understanding as to why the majority of these industrial gems are torn down by the cities in which they reside. By beginning his argument with the “other
THESIS PRECEDENT STUDIES SITE ANALYSIS PROGRAM ANALYSIS DESIGN
side’s” point of view, it is more helpful to me, as a reader, to follow his logic. Langenbach argues that, because it is ingrained in our American minds that “progress is good”, many people confuse the “product” of change with the “process” of change, and that society, in an attempt to progress, simply destroys its historically significant buildings to make way for some snazzy new piece of architecture. It is not the architecture that governs the business, but instead, the resources. Therefore, these dilapidated buildings and industrial districts can be more beneficial as an existing resource upon which to grow a business (assuming, of course, that the proper improvements are made.) On a lesser note to some, but importantly to me, the author argues an aesthetic case for these old buildings, admitting that they are, to him… “beautiful.” “mass production.” Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/368270/mass-production>. This encyclopedia entry provided relevant historical information regarding mass production in regards to industrial architecture. “Materials Reuse.” LEED NC-v2.2 MRc3 Materials Reuse. LEEDuser, 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.leeduser.com/credit/NC-v2.2/MRc3>. This guide to LEED accreditation provides the rules of “points” architects can gain for an adaptive reuse project. Mostaedi, Arian, María Ribas, and Jacobo Krauel. “Introduction.” Introduction. Reborn Buildings. Barcelona: Carles Broto & Josep Ma. Minguet, [200. N. pag. Print. In this collection of featured projects, the buildings (mostly ecclesiastic) have been renovated and repurposed to fit a new program. The author, Arian Mostaedi, acknowledges the dichotomy between mere renovation and historical preservation, and how difficult it is for an architect doing either to avoid criticism. While both approaches require a great deal of research and care in preserving historical character, preservation, Mostaedi explains, is simple mimicry, limiting or preventing altogether the creativity of the artist architect. When an architect is given the freedom to explore possibilities of incorporating new technology or architectural language, a stronger dialogue is hatched and more interesting architecture is created. Only when this creativity is allowed are spaces truly transformed into something more. The examples Mostaedi presents in this book vary in site, scale and program, as well as levels of “intervention” by the architect, offering a diverse spectrum of precedents upon which to base research. Nagin, Ray, Arnie Fielkow, and Sean Cummings. New Orleans Riverfront: Reinventing the Crescent. New Orleans: n.p., Apr. 2008. PDF. In this proposal for the New Orleans Riverfront Revitalization master plan, the selected site is highlighted and proposed as an integrated part of the plan.
“National Historic Preservation Act of 1966.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Nov. 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Historic_Preservation_Act_of_1966>. This article provided information regarding the benefits that can be gained by preserving historically significant buildings. Powell, Ken. Architecture Reborn: Converting Old Buildings for New Uses. New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Print. “Architecture Reborn” is, in short, a glorified history lesson, through the use of precedent, on renovation and reuse over time. Kenneth Powell gives a very thorough background on the reuse of architecture throughout history, dating back to ancient Rome when temples gave way to other program and more modern additions were being added to the buildings, albeit for more functional rather than aesthetic purposes. It is the author’s opinion that “reusing existing buildings is, first and foremost, a matter of common-sense economics and it is a process which has gone on throughout history.” Powell’s introduction and collection focuses on architectural additions rather than full-building renovation, an aspect to adaptive reuse I had not thought to explore or research. The author is unafraid to list the negative aspects of renovation and adaptive reuse, such as the defacing of symbolic elements (e.g. frescos, structure and machinery, etc.) and the difficulties and criticisms that renovation architects must face. This candid assessment to the practice is important to my understanding and planned implementation of the process. IMAGES Fig.1 Langenbach, Randolph. 1977. Photograph. Mill in Manchester, N.H., Just Prior to Demolition, Manchester. A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1977. 15. Print. Fig.2 1910. Photograph. Webley and Scott Factory Interior, circa 1910, Probably in Weaman or Slaney Street, Birmingham. Birmingham’s Industrial Heritage; 1900-2000. By Ray Shill. Stroud: Sutton, 2001. N. pag. Print. Fig.3 Jackson Ave. Ferry Terminal Bridge, New Orleans. Personal photograph by author. 2012. Fig.4 Jackson Ave. Ferry Terminal Dimensioned Site Plan, New Orleans. Personal drawing by author. 2012. Fig.5 Jackson Ave. Ferry Terminal-View from Jackson Ave., New Orleans. Personal photograph by author. 2012.
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In an effort to reengage the Amsterdam community with these old silos, NL Architects repurposed and redesigned the towers for “climbing and culture.” The forms included theatre and rehearsal space, workshops, exhibition and gallery spaces, a music studio, offices and a penthouse restaurant. The mixed-use program aims to attract a variety of patrons, bringing life back to the deserted area of Amsterdam. Diagram: Deformations in the cylindrical form are derived from interior and somewhat more extreme exterior forms of vertical circulation.
The “Silo Competition” Entry Architect: NL Architects Location: Amsterdam Project Year: Currently Unbuilt
Kraanspoor Architect: OTH Location: Amsterdam Project Year: 2007 Kraanspoor is built on top of a large existing craneway in the NDSM shipyard, saving the structure from demolition and providing the industrial area with a different kind of function- office space. Located on the very edge of the dockyard, the building sits on the existing concrete frame work 40â€™ above the dock, mimicking the rectangular form of the surrounding dock houses. Diagram: The modern structural elements (black) are woven into the existing structure (red), creating an interesting web of new and old.
THESIS PRECEDENT STUDIES SITE ANALYSIS PROGRAM ANALYSIS
Gemini Residence Architect: MVRDV Location: Copenhagen, Denmark Project Year: 2005 In response to the lack of housing in the Copenhagen area, MVRDV repurposed a pair of silos into multi-family housing units. The Gemini Residence not only served to alleviate housing shortages, but also brought new life to the somewhat derelict area. This rejuvenation via architectural reuse is key to my thesis, but I also very much admire MVRDVâ€™s strategy of weaving the new program and materials throughout the existing structure rather than just filling it.
Diagram: New residential program is inserted into and through to the exterior of the existing silo volumes.
Zollverein Mining Complex Architect: Rem Koolhaas OMA Location: Essen, Germany Project Year: 2006 Koolhaas’ new master plan for what used to the be the largest and most modern mining complex is innovative and true to the architect’s style, but retains the majority of the physical structure on the site, maintaining the historical language and significance of the mining complex to the city. These buildings are to be repurposed to house a kind of “creative village”- programs centered around art and design. Diagram: The masterplan is allotted to the education of art, the exhibition of art, and the business of art, with residual spaces for future programming and public interaction. RESIDUAL SPACE
Located on the fringe of the Irish Channel at the corner of Jackson Avenue and Tchopitoulas, this proposed site features what remains of the old Gretna Ferry terminal, a large warehouse, and an empty lot (across Jackson.)
Originally built in the 1920â€™s, the ferry terminal carried was the crossing-over point for the Jackson Ave. Ferry which carried automobiles and pedestrians from Tchopitoulas to Gretna. The structure that exists today was built over the original footprint in 1980. A striking composition of form in a sea of warehouse buildings, the terminal extends over the busy road and the levy wall, coming down to meet the Mississippi riverâ€™s edge and offering a unique opportunity to interact with the powerful water source otherwise hidden to the neighborhood.
Although the site is well set back from the busy hub-bub of the Magazine St. nightlife, a growing social scene has been developing in this particular section of Tchopitoulas as neighboring factory buildings are converted to housing.
EXITING TERMINAL GROUND FLOOR PLAN
THESIS PRECEDENT STUDIES SITE ANALYSIS DESIGN
Calculating the lot at the corner of Jackson Ave. and Tchopitoulas St.
Calculating the lot on the other side of the levy wall.
Tchopitoulas St. passes directly under the bridge of the terminal- this passage of traffic becomes an integral part of the design.
The ferry terminal is located along an industrial strip that is backed by neighborhood on one side and the Mississippi River on the other.
THESIS PRECEDENT STUDIES SITE ANALYSIS DESIGN
The site plays a key role in the master plan for the New Orleans riverfront redevelopment.
â€œCurrently, deteriorated and vacant wharves line the Mississippi river; most of these will be removed and replaced with... a linear walkway connecting a string of informal lawns, groves, marshes, piers and decks. Some wharfs will be salvaged... serving as destinations suited for small gatherings, fishing, or simply observing the passing ships.â€?
Up and down the Mississippi River, structures such as ferry terminals, docks and pedestrian walks all bridge out towards the water in a similar architectural gesture. Every one of these shares two (or more) grounded elements connected by one or more bridges.
THESIS PRECEDENT STUDIES SITE ANALYSIS PROGRAM ANALYSIS DESIGN
The terminal has two bridge components that connect pedestrians to the river.
Interior spaces are large, airy and flexible. Mulitlayered and overlapping elements make for interesting spaces.
PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Located on the fringe of the Irish Channel at the corner of Jackson Avenue and Tchopitoulas, the Jackson Ave. Ferry Terminal sits as an empty monument to the old Gretna ferry route.
In an effort to contribute to this redevelopment, the Jackson Ave Ferry Terminal is to be repurposed as an aquatic center and public pool for the neighborhood. New Orleans is notoriously lacking in public swimming facilities, so hopefully, by implementing this in-demand program into the existing structure, the site will become a more populated place. The aquatics center should make a statement about water; where it exists now (the river), where it can exist (new programmatic additions), and where it might come from in the future (how is rain handled on the site). The new design should also take into account the terminalâ€™s strong relation to the Mississippi river. The existing structure can be utilized, tweaked and built upon to accommodate the necessary program, but the design should not take away from the beauty of the architectural language as it stands. METHODS Because this is an adaptive reuse project, the size of the site and the square footages of the existing structure are the main determining factors of program size and dimensions.
The surrounding neighborhood, a run-down semi-industrial area post-Katrina, has taken great strides to redevelop the existing fabric, repurposing structures for commercial and residential purposes.
Interior Spaces Lobby Office Changing Area + Restrooms (Male) Changing Area + Restrooms (Female) Lap Pool (indoor) Gym & Fitness Bridge Spin Studio Yoga Studio Fitness Classroom Childrens Dance Studio Childrens Day Care and playroom Hot Tub/Jacuzzi Sauna (x2) Smoothie Bar & Bistro
1000 sf 200 sf 500 sf 500 sf 1500 sf 3000 sf 600 sf 600 sf 600 sf 800 sf 1200 sf 500 sf 500 sf 2000 sf
Exterior Spaces Social Pool Lesson Pool Childrenâ€™s Pool Storage Parking
2000 sf 2000 sf 1000 sf 500 sf 6000 sf
TRAExercise VERS E EXER CISE
LEARN PLAY Socialize SOCIALIZE Public PUBLIC Private PRIVATE Exterior OUTDOOR Interior INDOOR
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START PROGRAM “DRY”
” PROGRAM FINISH
“WET” PROGRAM FINISH
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“WET” SPACES 16,000 sf
“DRY” SPACES 10,900 sf
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RECONNECTING THROUGH DESIGN In an effort to reconnect the people with water and the river, and to re-establish the structure as the southern gateway to the “reinventing the crescent” plan, this thesis proposes to repurpose the terminal as a fitness and aquatics center. Here, the public can participate in a variety of aquatic programs (swim lessons, water aerobics, lap swimming, or social play), fitness programs (yoga, spin classes, zumba, or general fitness machines), utilize the multi-purpose facilities for events, or patronize the small bistro and bar. To accommodate the extensive program, new volumes have been added, curving around the existing terminal, mimicking its form and allowing it to play an integral role in the building’s circulation- a program true to its original purpose. The existing structure has been reinforced and two large pools have been inserted- a large conventional pool for the purposes of education, exercise and social interaction rests below the second bridge, looking out on the Mississippi river; and a smaller lap pool is suspended from the bridge which cross Tchopitoulas st. The volumes hold a variety of spaces- the ground level is occupied by public and commercial program, exercise classes, general fitness and the children’s area on the second level, and the third level is dedicated mostly to the lap pool and covered outdoor bridge deck. At the end of the project, a multi-level bar has been inserted, catering to both the social deck crowd and the fitness patrons above, offering all a wonderful view of the river. One can enter either from the lobby on the Jackson Ave. corner then move up and across the building, or one can directly engage the large social pool from the small road behind the levy wall or the riverfront park.
The design hopes to draw in and reconnect the public with the river, offering a view they would not have seen otherwise, via a program that is practical yet flexible, as the building can be utilized for many different programs.
ADDED: WOOD SLAT SHADING
EXISTING STRUCTURE (SIMPLIFIED)
VIEW DOWN TCHOPITOULAS STREET
PROGRAM ANALYSIS SITE ANALYSIS
VIEW DOWN JACKSON AVENUE
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VIEW ACROSS POOL
VIEW ACROSS THIRD FLOOR TERRACE
SECTION THROUGH LAP POOL
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GROUND FLOOR PLAN
Main Entry/Lobby Smoothie Bar & Bistro Main Shipping Dock & Storage Area Building Operations & Maintenance Office Elevator & Stairs Parking Pool Office/Lobby & Lifeguard Station Secondary Male Locker Room Secondary Female Locker Room Multi-purpose & Birthday Party Room Social Pool, Learning/Lesson Pool, Lap Pool Pool Mini-bar & Lounge
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
THIRD FLOOR PLAN
Children’s Fitness & Daycare Area Children’s Play Deck Children’s Fitness/Dance Studio Spin Studio Lap Pool Pump & Mechanical Room Fitness Studio Storage Fitness/Dance Studio Fitness Deck Weight Room & Fitness Machines Bar & Viewing Lounge
Female Locker Room Male Locker Room Lounge Lap Pool Jacuzzi & Pool Lounge Pool Deck Elevated Fitness Area Social Roof Deck
MODEL: View Down Tchopitoulas St.
PROGRAM ANALYSIS SITE ANALYSIS
MODEL: View from Mississippi River (East)
MODEL: View from Mississippi River (West)
MODEL: View Down Jackson Ave.
PROGRAM ANALYSIS SITE ANALYSIS
MODEL: Aerial View