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The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the “flexibility mechanisms” that is defined in the Kyoto Protocol. The flexibility mechanisms are designed to allow Annex B countries to meet their emission reduction commitments with reduced impact on their economies. The flexibility mechanisms were introduced to the Kyoto Protocol by U.S. delegates during Protocol development in December 1997 at the Conference of Parties (COP-3) meeting in Kyoto, Japan. Many developing country delegates were highly skeptical and fiercely opposed to the flexibility mechanisms. High level discussions in Kyoto between delegates of market-oriented economies led to Brazilian Delegate Luiz Gylvan Meira Filho introducing an Intervention on the floor of COP-3 to include the CDM as a distinct mechanism within the Protocol. The purpose of the CDM is to promote clean development in developing countries, i.e., the “non-Annex I” countries (countries that aren’t listed in Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The CDM is one of the Protocol’s “project-based” mechanisms, in that the CDM is designed to promote projects that reduce emissions. The CDM is based on the idea of emission reduction “production”. These reductions are “produced” and then subtracted against an empirical “baseline” of emissions within a “first compliance period” that ends on December 31, 2012. The emissions baseline comprises the emissions that are predicted to occur in the absence of a particular CDM project. CDM projects are “credited” against this baseline, in the sense that non-Annex I countries gain credit for producing these emission cuts. International rules prohibit credits for some

types of emission reduction activities, including operating nuclear power facilities and managing avoided deforestation activities. Registered CDM projects are issued Certified Emission Reduction (CER) units, which can be used in Annex B countries for meeting corporate compliance targets and may also be transacted in private carbon markets. The CDM is supervised by the CDM Executive Board (CDM EB) and is under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties (COP/MOP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC – which was created in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992 through action of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Conference). In the intervening years since the ratification and entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol in February 2005, 2365 CDM projects have been registered. 77% of these projects are located in Asia and the Pacific region, and 20% of registered projects are located in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Discussion within and between Kyoto Protocol signator nations is now occurring on successor “flexible mechanisms” programs following the expiration of the Kyoto Protocol first compliance period on December 31, 2012. C-Trade personnel were Observers to COP-3 and to successive COP and Meeting of Parties (MOP) meetings, and are engaged as Observers to current on-going discussions regarding a second Kyoto Protocol compliance period.


Braรงo Norte III

Braço Norte III The Braço Norte III Plant is part of a multi-facility run-of-river project providing a clean, renewable alternative to fossil-fuel electricity generation. Located more than 700 km from Cuiabá, the capital of the State of Mato Grosso, in the county of Guarantã do Norte, Braco Norte III serves one of the fastest growing regions in Brazil. While the region has been integrated in the National Grid since 2003, transmission losses occurred over the long distances between generation plants and customers. Now, locally distributed plants, including Braco Norte III and sister projects Braço Norte, Braço Norte II and Braco NorteIV, have reduced transmission losses while producing electricity without contributing to greenhouse gas levels. C-Trade partner Guarantã Energética Ltda is the sole owner of Braço Norte III. Commercial operation started in October 03, 2003. All three projects utilize water from the Braço Norte River, which is part of the Teles Pires basin and a subsidiary of Tapajós, a tributary of the Amazon River. The project has a small reservoir (1.3 km2), producing almost no environmental impact. The project serves an area experiencing 5% growth in both agriculture and electricity demand. The region, whose growth is significantly higher than the national average, is rich in agricultural assets (soya and rice) and also is a major contributor to the wood and cattle industries. Braço Norte III: C-Trade`s CERs were sold to Ecosecurities Capital LTD

More information about this Project at the UNFCCC website:

Braรงo Norte IV

Braco Norte IV The Braço Norte IV plant is one component of the Braco Norte complex, a run-of-river facility that provides clean and renewable electric power to one of the most dynamic regions of Brazil. The project is located more than 700 km from Cuiabá, the capital of the State of Mato Grosso, in the divide between the county of Novo Mundo. Like sister projects Braço Norte and Braço Norte II and III, Braco Norte IV produces negligible environmental impact. C-Trade partner Novo Mundo Energética S.A. is the sole owner of Braço Norte IV and is an acknowledged leader in providing alternative-energy generated electricity. The plant and its sister projects have greatly reduced transmission losses that plagued the old system while supplying clean, renewable power to a rapidly expanding area. The region, rich in agriculture (soya and rice) and a leader in the wood and cattle industries, is experiencing agribusiness expansion of 5 percent. Demand for electricity is expanding at the same rate. The project uses water from the Braço Norte River to generate electricity with 14.00 MW installed capacity. Its small reservoir (3 km2) produces minimal environmental impact. The Braço Norte River is part of the Teles Pires basin and is subsidiary of Tapajós, tributary of Amazon River. Braço Norte IV: C-Trade`s CERs were sold to Ecosecurities Capital LTD

More information about this project at the  UNFCCC website:

Castro Alves

Castro Alves The Castro Alves Plant is part of the Antas River Energy Complex, which is located midstream on the Antas River in northeastern Rio Grande do Sul. The multi-facility complex serves the cities of Bento Gonçalves, Veranópolis, Cotiporã, Nova Roma do Sul, Nova Pádua, Flores de Cunha, and Antonio Prado. The complex is comprised of three plants: the Castro Alves and Monte Claro facilities (130 MW each) and the 14 de Julho facility (100 MW). C-Trade is partnering with CERAN (Companhia Energética Rio das Antas) on this historic project. The plants are part of a rich tradition dating back to the 1930s, when the first studies of the hydrographic basin of the Taquari/Antas River were undertaken by Empresas Elécticas Brasileiras S.A. (Brazilian Electric Companies Inc.). The early study suggested three plant sites. In the 1990s, CEEE – Companhia Estadual de Energia Elétrica (State Company of Electric Energy) identified 57 sites capable of producing up to 130 MW of electric power. This project, which has minimal environmental impact, reflects the regional commitment to provide 10% of total energy consumption through renewable energy sources. HPP Castro Alves distributes its clean, renewable electric power through the SIN (National Integrated System) with almost no environmental impact.


CPFL Re-powering Plants in São Paulo, Brazil. One of C-Trade’s most wide-reaching projects is the re-powering of several small hydro plants in the State of Sao Paulo in southeastern Brazil.In this region, which is Brazil’s richest, all major hydropower potential has long been tapped, as have most smaller assets. These multi-dimensional C-Trade projects, however, have been successful in expanding the supply of electricity while simultaneously reducing environmental impact. For this project, C-Trade is partnering with CPFL Energia, one of the three largest electricity distributors in Brazil (36,647 GWh delivered to more than 5.4 million customers). The installed capacity of its generation subsidiary, CPFL Geração de Energia S.A., or Geração, was 812 MW. Starting in 2000, CPFL began upgrading older plants and participating in the construction of six new large hydroelectric generation facilities around Brazil. The older plants were built in the early 1900s and since then have undergone few turbine or generator updates. The re-powering of six plants will raise their total installed capacity from 25.6 MW to 35.6 MW, adding more than 86 GWh per year to the grid. These projects are being re-powered without expanding reservoir area, which will prevent additional environmental impact. In four of the plants, extra power is achieved with fewer turbines. Because of their historical significance, all the plants utilize the original buildings and worker quarters. This project should be contrasted with national plans calling for an expansion in the number of gasfired thermal plants. The current 10-year plan forecasts expanding thermal plant participation up to 15% of the total installed capacity (more than 15 GW). This C-Trade re-powering project is vital to countering GHG emissions from the new generation of gas-fired plants being constructed elsewhere in the region.CPFL: C-Trade`s CERs were sold to SSE Energy Supply Ltd More information about this Project at the UNFCCC website:

Santa LĂşcia II

Santa Lúcia II The Santa Lúcia II Plant is one of Brazil’s most unique SHPs (small hydro plants) and a showcase for replacing environmentally harmful facilities with clean, renewable power generation. Located more than 480 km from Cuiabá, the capital of the State of Mato Grosso, in the county of Sapezal, the plant was originally diesel powered. Now a run-of- river plant, it generates no environmental impact. By contrast, the Sapezal Thermal Plant, utilizing seven diesel generators, burned an average of 8.000 m3 of diesel oil per year, emitting more than 20,000 tCO2 e per year. C-Trade has partnered with Maggi Energia S.A., which is the sole owner of Santa Lucia II. Commercial operation started in October, 2003, with generation of nearly 80 GWh in the last two years. Though formerly thought of as isolated, the region served by Santa Lucia II is now one of Brazil’s fastest growing areas. This dynamic expansion reflects a 5% growth rate in the agribusiness and electricity market. The region’s main economical activities are agriculture (soy and rice), wood industry and diary. Santa Lúcia II uses water from the Juruena River to generate electricity with 7.6 MW installed capacity. It is adjacent to its sister plant, Santa Lúcia I, both of which fully utilize river flow and require no dams or reservoirs, further reducing environmental impact. The Santa Lúcia II Project is vital to the ongoing economic growth of this region, which will require additional power sources to meet expected demand. Santa Lúcia II - C-Trade`s CERs were sold to CAF- Corporacion Andina de Fomento

More information about this Project at the UNFCCC website:


Projeto Taquesi

Rio Taquesi HPP (Phase II) C-Trade’s most dynamic Bolivian project is the second phase of the Rio Taquesi Hydroelectric Power Plant, a run-of-river hydroelectric facility with an effective capacity of 89.5 megawatts of renewable electricity. The project, comprised of two in-cascade plants, is on the Taquesi and Unduavi rivers, approximately 90 road-kilometers northeast of La Paz. It will provide a renewable, clean alternative to fossil fuel plants that would emit 5 million metric tons of CO2-e during the 35-year life of Rio-Taquesi. The project is operated by C-Trade partner Hidroelectrica Boliviana S.A. (HB), whose major shareholder is Tenaska Bolivia Holdings SRL, a subsidiary of the U.S. based Tenaska. Also partnering on this project is the Vice Minister of Land Planning and Environment. The Project constitutes a milestone in the history of power generation in Bolivia. This is the first totally private power project in the country’s power sector and, at a time when hydrocarbon resources dominate the national energy portfolio due to low natural gas prices, the Taquesi Project demonstrates that, in the framework of global GHG mitigation efforts, renewable energy facilities have a promising future in Bolivia. The project is bringing much-needed development to a region historically lacking in sustainable growth. Construction wages have provided a significant economic boost to a region that has long depended on a non-cash economy. The project has also provided a modern and vitally needed health care facility. The investment in infrastructure and creation of permanent jobs ensures continuing benefits to the region, and is also resulting in investors re-appraising this long- overlooked region. C-Trade is proud to be part of this historic project. Taquesi Partners: Hidroelectrica Boliviana S.A. e Estado Plurinacional De BoliviaTaquesi C-Trade`s CERs were sold to CAF- Corporacion Andina de Fomento and CAF as representative of CAF Netherlands and Facilities. More information about this Project at the UNFCCC website:


Total Panama Project Tons: 434,560 tCO2e reduced annually

Grupo Cuerva

Grupo Cuerva Description: Cuerva Hydroelectric Project is located in the south west region of Panama near the border of Costa Rica. The Project will utilize water from the Chagres River to generate renewable electricity starting in 2011. The Project consists of the construction, operation and maintenance of a hydroelectric power plant and ancillary facilities with an installed capacity of 8MW. It will be composed of a concrete dam, 2 Francis-type turbines with installed capacity of 4MW each. The Project will contribute to the host nation’s sustainable development in the following ways: · Generate clean energy which will be supplied primarily to rural households. · Create temporary and permanent jobs for the area. · Contribute to the reforestation of the surrounding areas. Installed Capacity: 8MW CO2e Tons per year: 23.520 tCO2e

Bajo Frio

Bajo Frio Description: Bajo Frio Hydroelectric Power Plant is located between the Counties of Bella Vista, Veladero and Cerro Viejo in the district of Tolé, within the province of Chiriquí. The purpose of this project is to build a Hydroelectric Power Plant, with a total installed capacity of 56MW. The project will utilize water from the Chiriqui River. The main objectives of the power plant’s construction are as follows: • Increase the countries installed energy generation capacity by approximately 2.35%. • Increase the presence of energy generated with autochthonous natural resources, as compared to the generation of energy with hydrocarbons. • Protect the national energy market from the rising cost of hydrocarbons in the international markets. • Reduce or mitigate the CO2 emissions. Installed Capacity: 56MW Estimated CO2e Tons per year: 147.840 tCO2e

Energia del Itsmo

Energia del Itsmo Description: Itsmo Hydroelectric Power Plant entails the construction of a run-of-river small hydroelectric plant with an output of 9MW. Turbines will be operated by the flow of two rivers, the Rio Grande and Rio Chico. Three lowpressure conduction pipes optimized for the design flow will channel the water to the loading chamber where it flows into the penstock and on to the powerhouse where the electro-mechanical generating equipment is located. Energy will be transported along 11 km of transmission lines at 34.5 kV which will connect the plant’s substation. Installed Capacity: 9MW Estimated CO2e Tons per year: 25.200 tCO2e

Inversi贸n Electron

Electron Investment Description: Electron Hydroelectric Project is a run-of-river plant with daily impoundment to partially regulate the dry season daily flow. Electron is projected to have a total installed capacity of 83MW. The project consists of dams and a convergence system (canal and tunnel) and a powerhouse. The project uses the outflow from the existing Chucunaque and Tuira Rivers, using their natural flows to produce electricity in the Power Station. The powerhouse will contain two vertical shaft Francis-type turbine generator units, each rated at 41.5 MW. The Electron Hydroelectric Project is located in the province of Darien, about 400 kilometers east of Panama City. Installed Capacity: 83MW Estimated CO2e Tons per year: 238.000 tCO2e

Los Planetas

Los Planetas Description: The project entails the construction of a small hydroelectric project with a total capacity of 10MW with and output of 4.01MW and use factor of 75%. One low-pressure conduction pipes optimized for the design flow. The energy will be transported along 3.12km of transmission lines at 34.5 kv. Turbines will use the flow from the David River located in the Providence of Chiriqui. Installed Capacity: 10MW Estimated CO2e tons per year: 10.500 tCO2e