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Zoos are a facility which house different animals in displays, open to the public in which they may be viewed as well as kept for breeding in order to aid conservation to prevent extinction. The term zoo comes from the science of zoology, which is the study

of animals. The government, to ensure the best care and treatment of the animals, with emphasis on space and natural environments, usually regulates those established. The number of zoos around the world exceeds over 1000 as 80% of cities have a zoo,

with other 175 million people visiting a zoo each year who help contribute to the $16 billion given to zoos and aquariums each year.


Before zoos were Menageries, which was a common form of keeping exotic animals, defined as 'an establishment of luxury and curiosity' yet this changed with the times at it later referred to the travelling nature of the menageries as they would travel around exhibiting their animals. Royalty and kings mainly owned them, with menageries highlighting power and status due to the fact that the animals were uncommon, difficult to acquire and expensive to maintain yet at the turn of the

19th century, the modern zoo focused on education in order to educate and entertain the public. These zoos were normally small with as many of one species as possible in a cage that could be fit in in a museum like setting. The earliest evidence of zoos were from 2500BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia where wall carvings depict the collection of strange creatures. These carvings recorded the expeditions taken place by various tribes to different territories as they tried to out-do each

other. They would handle the animals with the intuition of getting them to reproduce so that they could have a better collection than another tribe. The Egyptians initially classed animals as very powerful and would worship them which is why they became gifts for the rulers as it was a symbol of power to have large animals. It is only in later Egyptian Hieroglyphics that showed animals as pets or sacrifices. This early fascination with creatures developed alongside civilisation itself as Chinese, Greek and Roman


cultures began to develop an interest in animals. One of the earliest animal collections is the Aztec emperor Montesuma II’s menagerie yet this was destroyed by destroyed by Hernan Cortes during the Spanish conquest of 1520. The Age of Enlightenment during the Renaissance aided the popularity of public zoos as the want for scientific knowledge extended to zoology. It was of interest to learn about their anatomy and natural behaviours so it was paramount to make the enclosure as natural as possible so it was like the

traditional habitat of the animal. The most well-known version of this in England was in the Tower of London, as the animals were gifts for the king and there needed to be a safe and secure place to house them. However, it closed due to the animals escaping and attacking each other as well as visitors so the animals were moved to London Zoo in Regents Park so they had more room. It housed animals such as grizzly bears, lions, dogs and monkeys as well as griffins, zebras and alligators, building up a menagerie of 60 species and 280 animals. The first zoo in the world to

uses the term 'zoo' is London Zoological Gardens which was open in April 1828 and was intended to be just a house to collect animals for study but became open to the public in 1847. The need for a collection was based on the idea that exotic animals would not be able to survive the cold weather of London so they were kept inside until 1902, where they were let outside in outdoor enclosures.


There are various types of zoos which vary in regards to location, type and space:

Urban Zoo These zoos are usually located in the middle of a city as landmarks, with little space for the animals to roam. They find it hard to expand their space or update their facilities due to their location yet they develop and design realistic natural habitats for the animals.

Game Reserve Game Reserves are areas of large amounts of untouched land with all the natural ecosystems and species are left to roam in the wild naturally and reproduce naturally. It is illegal to hunt animals in a Game Reserve. The most popular reserves are in Africa where tourists go every year to see the main animals to visit: lions, leopard, rhino, elephants and buffalo.

Safari Park Visitors will drive around the course from their cars, viewing the non-native animals in a large enclosure. This gives the animals more space to roam and they appear more like they are in nature as they are less likely to be disturbed yet they may go up to the cars and, in the case of monkeys, climb onto the car itself.

Specialist Zoo A specialist zoo where one type of animal or species is housed in one placed. An example of a specialist zoo would be that of an aquarium which only have sea life and aviaries that only have birds.

Petting Zoo A petting zoo is filled with domestic animals which have a gentle nature that allows children to pet and feed them in a controlled environment. Usually they are found in farms or in larger zoos on a small scale and give the experience of being able to interact with the animals.


rhinos are bulky with skin like tough armour but are very good swimmers and can actually run up to 25 miles an hoursomething we like doing In the rhino reserve. elephants are wise animals due to thier intelligence as a species. we can reach up to the grand old age of 80 years. take a walk to the elephants of the asian forest exhibit and see how old we are.

The welfare of animals within zoos is of paramount importance to make sure that the animals are well fed and exercised, comfortable in their cages and are housed with others of the same species. On the other hand, a lot of critics argue that animals are kept in captivity and by doing this, it takes away the natural instincts and behaviours of the animals so, if released back into the wild, they would not be able to fend for themselves. A causative factor to extintion is the destruction of the habitats themselves thereby doing nothing to recover the species. Another argument

against them is that the constant voyeurism the animals are under lead to abnormal behaviours due to the stress of zoo life. Despite conservation, there are a lot of zoos where animal welfare is neglected such as barren, concrete cages and lack of food or cleaning of cages. Another area is baiting within modern zoos where live animals are fed to the animals for the view of spectators as sport. Within this debate are the zookeepers themselves who spend their days looking after the animals within the zoos. This includes preparing food and feeding the animals, cleaning out cages and checking for signs of health deterioration or stress within the animals so that they can provide the animal with medical attention during illness. People who are zookeepers tend to be individuals who are interested in the wellbeing of conservation and are animal lovers by nature. With a large amount of time being spent with the animals on a daily basis, the keepers tend to gain a large emotional attachment to the animals that they are looking after.


Chester Zoo holds over 11,000 animals from 400 different species with over half of them on the endangered species list. It receives no government funding so it relies on donations, memberships and visitors to aid the funding of the zoo in order to care for the animals as well as updated and build better facilities and spaces for the animals. In 2013, they had over 50,000 memberships taken out for the zoo- the highest in the zoo's 80-year history.

In regards to the zoo itself, it takes up 110 acres of space that is accessible to the public. A large addition to the zoo's function of space is the inclusion of a monorail which has 2 stations, one by the elephants at the entrance of the zoo and another by the lions on the opposite side of the zoo. This allows for a wide over-the-top view of the zoo as well as making it easier to get around with less walking for the less able-bodied. Throughout the day at the zoo, there are talks going on

in the enclosures so that you can learn about the animals themselves, their natural habitats and habits and watch them be fed by the keepers. These alternate throughout the day and vary on the animal.


The origins of chester zoo

The Zoo itself was founded by George Mottershead and opened in 1931 after he bought the Oakfield Manor with 7 acres of land in 1930. As a young boy, he had been to a zoo in Manchester and had decided that he wanted to build a zoo which would have no bars. Initially there was some opposition from neighbours and locals who didn't want the zoo in the area but Mottershead fought for it and won. Originally he was uninspired by the use of the Victorianstyle caged menageries as a way of housing the animals due to the lack of space so he decided to use moats and ditches as an alternative method of using cages as it seemed a more natural, humane method of housing them. Mottershead already had quite a large avery so he added to that with the first animals which came to the zoo being bought from Shavington zoo. In the early days, the family interacted with the animals by playing with them and feeding them, developing quite a close bond with them. The fact that the animals were not in cages and were roaming the grounds of the zoo with the family gives the impression of being quite an open experience for the animals. Many of the photos show Jane Mottershead (daughter of George) playing and caring for the animals,

making them seem more like pets than wild animals. During the war, with the zoo being a relatively new attraction, it was difficult trying to keep it open but Mottershead managed and soon after, the zoo became a popular destination as it became an escape from the destruction of the real world.


As part of the zoo, they have specific areas and buildings set apart from the rest of the animals which acts as exhibits of the zoo: The Realm of the Red Ape The Realm of the Red Ape focuses gibbons and apes which have indoor as well as outdoor space to more around and climb freely. Housed alongside them in the warm building are snakes and other reptiles that would normally habitat within the rainforests and jungles. Spirit of the Jaguar The large scale building houses jaguars and panthers that have access to an indoor and outdoor habitat that they can venture between. The area itself is reminiscent of a forest with lots of oversized tree branches to hide and run over and the outdoor area even has a waterfall.

Tropical Realm Tropical Realm is the largest of the attractions, housing tropical animals in a warmed building. This is the main avery with birds being positioned along the sides and top level, where the birds have room to free-fly and are normally have another of their species accompanying them. The birds are alongside a range of reptiles, like frogs, tortoise, lizards, alligator and snakes whilst insects, like cockroaches, have their own places as well.

Mongoose Mania This interactive element of the Zoo allows visitors to be able to crawl through tunnels beneath the enclosure. It has space to put your head through the top and look around the enclosure at 360 degrees as the mongeese run around the enclosure, allowing the visitor to experience what it is like to see things from the same view as them. Fruit Bat Forest Fruit Bat Forest is a large blacked-out building which has free flying bats hanging from the ceilings. Visitors can walk through the darkened enclosure on a marked out path while the bats make noises and fly overhead.


Alongside the work that they do caring for the animals within the zoo, Chester Zoo does conservation work outside of the zoo in order to improve habitats for animals in the wild. They have main aims through their conservation work, which they use as a message to get across when educating others. These are:

Independence All living things, including humans, live in an ecosystem and depend on each other to living things for their survival Human Impact Human activities are causing serious damage to the environment. Partnerships Chester Zoo works in partnership with other to conserve nature and natural resources

Chester Zoo A charity whose mission is to be a major force in conserving biodiversity worldwide You We can make changes to the environment and zoos help inspire to do so


They have ten main conservation projects currently going on worldwide which work with different species and habitat types: Jaguar Conservation Currently developing a global survey of jaguars with human conflicts surrounding this habitat aiming to reduce the amount of conflicts and acting as an independent research source for researchers and conservationists affected by the conflict. Mascarenes Providing technical support in hand-rearing the endangered birds and aiding the conservation of threatened plants and ecosystems.

Black Rhino The main area of conservation for the black rhino is to educate locals on the rhino as well as developing, monitoring and protecting their existence. Native Species The conservation of endangered and threatened species within the UK, such as sand lizards, and hazel dormouse, providing practical help, advice and funding as well as recording the biodiversity of the local areas.

Asian Elephant Due to the shrinking of their natural habitat due to the domination of the natural landscape by humans, elephants are losing out on the amount of space that they need to live thereby causing them to end up destroying crops and killing humans causing retaliation deaths of elephants. They intend to help villagers develop strategies to prevent this and help aid the conservation of the habitats. China Conservation The blue-crowded thrush is stuck in one province in China so the aim is to expand their habitat and aid the birds from extinction. Forests within China have been established and given protection through being raised to reserve status.


Amphibian Programme With over a third of 6,600 species under threat of extinction due to pollution of habitat and infectious disease on land, Chester Zoo supports field monitoring as well as carrying out research in particular research pods specifically for amphibians called apods. The zoo has three of these pods which are dedicated to supporting critically endangered species.

Nigeria Supporting research into the flora and fauna of the local National Parks to conserve the current biodiveristy as well as currently campaign to get borders for the parks so as to highlight the edges of the protected areas to stop poachers and illegal harvesting.

Realm of the Red Ape Alongside the display within the zoo, the conservation programme aims to protect wild orang-utans, conserve their habitats and the biodiversity within these areas.

Philippines Working with other teams, they support sponsorship of wildlife wardens, support of rare species and communitybased conservations in order to encourage breeding in these areas.

elephants are wise animals due to thier intelligence as a species. we can reach up to the grand old age of 80 years. take a walk to the elephants of the asian forest exhibit and see how old we are.


The current brand identity for Chester Zoo was produced by the studio Music, who created a comprehensive identity by producing their own font and a range of hand-drawn illustrations. This was then expanded to using a mixture of illustrations and photography for the main principle promotional material, which personifies the animals and gives the animals characteristics,

especially as the hand-drawn font gives a more child-like tone, looking like the type has been drawn there by the animal and then rather than printed. The typeface has different thicknesses and colours intermingling for greater emphasis on information.

Giraffes can reach up to 45cm long which means we can eat leaves, bark and flowers from trees. visit the giraffe pen and see for yourself


The photographs are natural and allows the zoos most important aspect, the animals, as its brand. The shop design by M Worldwide reflects the zoo well by providing an imaginative shopping area which plays on the main structure being a tree of life which acts as a main base camp for the zoo. These elements make the zoo friendly for families and entertaining for the public, encouraging them to visit and to return regularly.

Chimpanzees have a high-pitched mating call which we use to communicate with one another. When you visit us in the realm of the red ape exhibit, you’ll know that we are talking to you.


Based on the research topic, I took a visit to Chester Zoo itself and paid particular attention to seeing if there was any signs of stress or malpractice but the animals seemed to have space to roam within their enclosures, however, typically it still wasn't a lot. The space they had was reminiscent of the habitats they would be in naturally with cages being used only when necessary and they had food available


otters ARE STREAMLINE WITH SLIPPERY SKIN THAT MAKE US QUICKER TO SWIM. while we swim around underwater, watch us from the underwater viewing gallery.


from the keepers. In particular, this seemed to be beneficially for the orang-utans who had outdoor and indoor grounds where they had had apparatus built for them so that they could swing around up and down the enclosure. The keepers were always around and on hand with the animals as well as available

for questions, highlighting the close attachment that they have grown towards the animals in their charge. It is this relationship alongside the animals themselves, which makes the zoo what it is.

cheetahs can run up to the speed of 75mph when sprnting to catch prey. we like to run around in our enclosure and chase each other- come and watch us play.


visit us: chester zoo upton- by- chester chester cH2 lH1 opening times: 10am- 6pm (Peak times) 10am- 4pm (off-peak times) call us: 01244 380280 email us with enquiries: guest.services@chesterzoo.org registered charity no. 306077


Chester Zoo Final Book 2