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BYGONE TIMES Issue 1

The monthly magazine which brings you Historical Information News of Yesteryear Castles & Manor Houses Myths & Legends Plus much more! Included In This Months Issue: History of Cardiff Castle Plus The Life of Ironmaster Richard Crawshay & Lots More!


PAGE

INDEX

Page 2

INDEX

Page 3

ADVERT

Page 4 - 6

CARDIFF CASTLE

Page 7

EASTCOTE MANOR

Page 8

MYTHS

Page 9- 10

SCOTCH CATTLE

Page 11

TRADITIONAL WELSH RECIPE

Page 12 - 13

WEEKEND BREAK

Page 14

ADVERT

Page 15 - 19

CROXTETH HALL

Page 20

BOOK REVIEW

Page 21

NEWS OF YESTERYEAR - MAY 1844

Page 22 - 25

EPIDEMICS - YELLOW FEVER

Page 26

ADVERT

Page 27 - 29

ABERGLASSNEY MANOR

Page 30- 31

RICHARD CRAWSHAY

Page 32

ADVERT

Page 33 - 34

CRAWFORD PRIORY

Page 35

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CARDIFF CASTLE HISTORY: Cardiff Castle is situated in the centre of Cardiff city. The original castle was a Norman motte and Bailey fortification, built in 1091 by the natural son of King Henry I, Robert Fitzhamon, who was Lord of Gloucester. The de Clare family took possession of the castle before it was passed to the Despenser family in 1306, and remained in the family for over 100 years. In 1414, the rights of the castle were passed to the husband of Isabel, the last Despenser heir. A short time later, with Isabel becoming a widow, marrying her second husband, the castle passed to the Beauchamp family, who were the earls of Warwick. It was Richard Beauchamp who extended the castle adding more residential quarters and the Octagon Tower. Richard was a tutor to the young king Henry VI, and died while travelling to France in 1445. Ann, Richards daughter, inherited the castle, making her husband, Richard Neville, the new Lord. After Richards death in 1471, Isabel, his eldest daughter, inherited the castle until 1483 when it was then passed to her sister Ann, whose husband, Richard, the Duke of Gloucester, became King Richard III. After King Richards defeat by Henry VII, the castle was granted to Jasper, the new King's uncle. Catherine Parr's brother, William Herbert, acquired the castle in 1550. In 1645, during the Civil War, it is thought Charles I stayed at the castle ,with the Herbert's helping to protect him.


In 1776, Charlotte Jane, the last heir of the Herbert family, passed the estate to her husband, John Stuart, who was soon to become the Earl of Bute. John Patrick Crichton Stuart assumed the title 3rd Marquees of Bute on 12th September 1847. He along with architect, William Burges redesigned the castle in 1865, to what we see today. The original features of the castle are greatly overshadowed with the flamboyant dĂŠcor created by the Marquess and Burges. Astrological symbols, Biblical Characters dressed in gilt robes, Moorish designs, Natures creatures and Heraldic features are just some of the themes that are designed through the castle. Bute died on 9th October 1900 and it was in 1947 that the castle became the property of Cardiff City Council.

HAUNTING: LIBRARY: A male figure that has been witnessed walking through the fireplace of the library is thought to be the 2nd Marquess of Bute, John Crichton Stuart. He is said to leave the room by walking through a 6ft thick wall into a corridor, then passes through the wall of the Chapel into the room in which he died.

The 2nd Marquess collapsed and died in his study adjacent to the library in 1848. His son later turned the study into a chapel, but when the 2nd Marquess was alive there was a doorway where the fireplace to the library was later placed.


DINING ROOM/BANQUETING HALL: In the main Dining Room of the castle witnesses have seen doors opening and closing by themselves as well as the lights switching themselves on and off. Whilst the guide was conducting a tour for the New Zealand under 20s rugby team, the whole team saw the door behind the guide open and close by itself! The guide was totally oblivious to this occurrence, even though he was only a few feet in front of it.

A faceless figure dressed in a greyish white skirt has been seen in the stock room near to the Dining Room, where she is said to rearrange items. The mischievous spirit is said to be the ghost of a one time maid, who has come to be known by all the guides as 'Sarah'. The guide believes she is the ghost that he has encountered in the bedroom and banqueting hall. This ghost is also said to set the rocking horse and rocking chair in motion in the nursery.

BEDROOM: On two occasions at the same spot, a guide of the Castle had his trouser leg tugged, just as a child would do in order to get someone’s attention. No explanation could be found for this incident.


EASTCOTE HOUSE Ruislip HISTORY: Originally known as ‘Hopkyttes’, the first known records of the house date back to 1507, and was owned by the Walleston family. It was renamed ‘Eastcote House’ when Ralph Hawtrey married Winifred Walleston in 1525, where they made the house their marital home. When the house was extended, the original timber framework was disguised by the brick exterior and it was only when the house was demolished that the timber framework was revealed. Ralph and Winnifred’s son, John, built the Dovecote without applying for the relevant license, and it was only after his death in 1593, where his nephew Ralph Hawtrey applied for the license of which was granted. It was during the 18th century that the Dovecote was substantially rebuilt, leaving only the original first few rows of bricks. The Hawtrey family, who later became the Hawtrey-Deanes, continued to reside at the house until Francis Deane vacated in 1878. Eastcote House was then tenanted with part of the estate sold for housing development. During 1931, the house and grounds were purchased by Ruislip-Northwood Urban District Council, where the house then became a public building which was used by the Scouts, Guides and Women’s Institute. However, the condition of the house deteriorated and by 1962 was declared unsafe and demolished 2yrs later. HAUNTING: The house was known by locals as the ‘Death House’ due to the amount of hauntings through out the years. It is reported that six people were hanged in the Dovecote by Cromwell’s men, and the sound of the men marching to their death has apparently been heard at 10pm every night. There is also said to be a grey lady who haunts the drive, where her cries can often be heard by those passing by. Galloping horses in the courtyard along with soldiers and a mystery horseman have also been witnessed.


MYTHS & LEGENDS THE AFANC Aberdyfi in Gwynedd was the setting for the Welsh mythology lake monster, the Afanc. Described as resembling a crocodile or giant beaver it is also believed by some to be a demonic creature who attacked and devoured anyone who ventured into its waters or surrounding area. Various accounts of the story have been created including Iolo Morgannwg, who had told of a two long horned oxen which had dragged the afanc from its water enabling it to be killed. Another version of this tale includes the oxen dragging the afanc into a lake where the afanc was unable to reach the rocky surroundings to escape. Many more tales include the manic thrashings of the afanc in its watering home, causing people to drown through flooding, while another tale is that of a maid who had tamed the afanc by allowing it to rest on her lap, whereby when the villagers attempted to capture it the afanc awoke and frantically crushed the maiden to death. In later years it is suggested that King Arthur slaughtered the monster when his charger dragged the afanc from the water. A rock with a carved hoof print and the words Carn March Arthur (Stone of Arthur’s Horse) lay near Llyn Barfog lake.

BLADUD & THE SWINE Prince Bladud was the son of Lud Hudibras, King of Britain around 8oo BC. The young Prince was banished from the Court after he became infected with leprosy, and so, disguised as a poor peasant he earned his keep as a swineherd. It wasn’t long before the pigs became infected with the disease. A farmer ad vised the disguised Prince to look for acorns on the opposite side of the river, where he came across a sow who he watched wallow in hot mud. He climbed a tree and collected acorns, making a trail out of the water. One by one the pigs came out of the mud filled water. The Prince scraped off the mud from each pig and to his amazement noticed the skin was cleansed and cured. He immediately jumped into the water and emerged to find his skin clear and the disease healed. Restored to health, he travelled back to court. On becoming King, Balud established a settlement in Bath, where the town grew around the temple he built by the hot springs.


SCOTCH CATTLE The 'Scotch Cattle' movement first appeared in the early 1820's.The movement was formed by disgruntled workers mainly from the coal mines of the Monmouthshire valleys. One of the main objects of the organisation was to prevent strangers being taught the art of mining, thereby restricting the output and minerals. No miner was allowed to take a stranger underground without first consulting the organisation. If this rule was violated the offender was warned that violence will be the punishment. Destruction of furniture, bodily violence and sometimes murder would follow. In February 1822 Russell and Brown owners of the Blaina works proposed to lower the wages 5 to 6 per cent and also to lower the prices of provisions in the Company Shop by 10 to 15 per cent. The workers refused to accept the proposal and struck work. After the strike continued for two weeks the workers became desperate. Black legs were introduced and this irritated the miners more than ever. The works manager's house was stoned and a Bull's head painted in red on the doors of the black legs houses. The Bull's head was a warning sign that the '' Scotch Cattle '' would strike. The black legs that were brave enough continued working and the night following the warning the '' Scotch Cattle '' struck. On the night of February 17th between 150 and 200 men met near a Cornish pit. The men were commanded by their leaders to turn their coats and blacken their faces, and order which was promptly obeyed by the mob. Then the procession headed by the leader blowing a horn descended on the cottages of two of the marked men. Windows was smashed, the door forced open, all the furniture would be destroyed and the occupants beaten in a most brutal manner. This included women and children. The “Scotch Cattle� existed as a secret society with its members sworn to allegiance under suffer ance of death. Each valley town and village had its own cell (a pattern still adopted by current terrorist organisations) and a leader was elected, usually a person respected and feared for his aggressiveness and physical strength, known as the 'Bull' or in Welsh 'Tarw'. Their meetings were always held in complete secrecy, normally in dark secluded locations. Normally, this thuggery would be undertaken by a herd from another area to avoid recognition by local residents. Their meetings were always held in complete secrecy, normally in dark secluded locations. Normally, this thuggery would be undertaken by a herd from another area to avoid recognition by local residents. The Cattle's code, however, dictated that any foodstuffs found in the household would always be left intact. Company property was also targeted, with buildings ransacked and burned down.


Despite attempts by the authorities to infiltrate the movement and bring the ring leaders to justice, their activities continued for many years mainly due to the extreme secrecy of their organisation and the reluctance of the general population to speak against their actions, doing so would lead to a visit from the “Cattle”. Eventually the military were called in, but they were unable to prevent the '' Cattle '' from continuing their violent tactics. On Sunday April 22nd they went over the mountain in the dark to Abersychan and destroyed the house of a blackleg who worked in Nantyglo. A reward of £15 (a very large reward for those days) failed to gain any information. Such was the fear of revenge and the solidarity of the workers. Lord Melbourne, the then Home Secretary, was obliged to visit Abergavenny to discuss the matter with the local magistrates. One notice written in red ink (symbolising the blood of workers) and in the Welsh language was as follows: '' To all colliers, traitors, turncoats and others. We hereby warn you for the second and last time. We are determined to draw out the hearts of all the men above named, and fix two hearts upon the horns of the bull, So that everyone may see what is the fate of every traitor and we know them all ''. As time passed, however, the original aim of the movement became forgotten and now innocent people were being attacked, robbed and even killed. On 28th October 1834 two ‘scotchings’ were carried out in Argoed. In the course of the opera tion a gun was fired, the discharge wounded Joan Thomas the wife of a blackleg and Edward Morgan, a member of the herd. Joan Thomas died two days later from her wounds, her husband being too scared to seek medical attention. Edward Morgan returned home severely wounded and was arrested not long after this incident. The killer of Joan Thomas is alleged to have escaped to America, Edward Morgan was not so lucky. He was just 32 when the courts in Monmouthshire found him guilty of murder. He faced the executioner outside the Monmouth Gaol on 6th April 1835.He died expressing the wish that “content” would be re stored to the working classes. The Bull that night was named as Ned Lolly, a man with Staffordshire origins, but this information came out much later, in fact too late to save Edward Morgan. The Scotch Cattle were nearing its end, the execution of Morgan and later the revealing of the names of other Cattle members brought an end to violence and destruction caused by this movement. Some believe that the Cattle were the origins of the Trade Unions, as they are known today.


FOOD FOR THOUGHT WELSH CAKES Ingredients 8 oz (225 g) self-raising flour 4 oz (110 g) butter or margarine 3 oz (75 g) mixed fruit or just currants 3 oz (75 g) caster sugar 1 small egg ½ teaspoon mixed spice

Method For best results these cakes should be cooked on a flat iron plate (Griddle). The alternative would be to use a solid flat base frying pan. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

Sieve the flour and castor sugar into a bowl and add the butter or margarine, rubbing the mixture together as you would with pastry. Once all mixed together add the fruit, making sure you stir it in evenly. Lightly beat the egg and add to your mixture to make a dough. Place the dough onto a floured worktop and roll out to 5mm thick. Use a plain cutter (or round cup) and cut the dough. Continue to roll and cut until all the dough is used. Lightly grease your iron plate or pan with lard and place over a medium heat, bare in mind iron plates can take a while to heat up. Cook the Welsh cakes for approximately 3 minutes, turning regularly, until fairly brown. If they are cooking too quickly, turn the temperature down slightly. Once cooked you can serve with butter and jam or Welsh honey.

Bon Appetite!


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CREIGIAU INN Creigiau Inn. Station Road, Creigiau Cardiff. CF15 9NT Phone: 02920 890768 Email: creigiau.inn@btconnect.com Situated in the heart of the delightful village of Creigiau, on the outskirts of Cardiff City, the Creigiau Inn offers a warm welcome, delicious menu with traditional favourites and homemade specials, excellent beer and a traditional Sunday Roast with a vegetarian option. The bar is open daily with a selection of wines served by the glass & bottle. Bass & Brains draught beers are served along with Carling, Stella, Brains Smooth, Strongbow & Guinness on tap and a selection of bottled beers & soft drinks are also available. There is also freshly ground coffee for gorgeous lattes or an amazing hot chocolate - topped with cream & marshmallows. Meals are available to order at the bar with a choice of seating areas to dine, whether it be the sunny room, bar or the more secluded alcove your sure to enjoy your time at the Creigiau Inn.

Meals are available: Tuesday - Friday 12noon - 3 & 5 - 8.45pm Saturday; 12noon - 8.30pm Sunday Lunch; 12noon - 2.30pm

DINE WITH WINE ON WEDNESDAYS Choose 2 main meals and enjoy a carafe of house wine* on us! Valid only on Wednesdays 12noon - 8pm

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QUIZ NIGHT Every Tuesday night from 9pm! ÂŁ1 per person to enter - all money goes to the winning teams chosen charity!


CROXTETH HALL Liverpool HISTORY: The original house was built around 1575 with the Hall and outbuildings being Grade II listed, with extensions of Tudor, Georgian and Queen Anne styles added throughout the years, and the principal front, west façade being erected in 1702. Formerly home to the Molyneux family, Earls of Sefton, the family resided at the house until 1972 when the 7th and last Earl died. However his wife, Josephine, is said to have remained at the house for a time before it was passed to Liverpool City Council, as after a worldwide search, there was no success in finding an heir. On the 9th October 1851 Croxteth Hall received a visit from Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and their children, with 700 members of the local gentry being entertained in the Hall grounds. They stayed at the hall before visiting Liverpool the following day. The ancestors of the Molyneux family, from Molineaux-sur-Seine, near Rouen in Normandy, arrived in England around 1066 and bore the name ‘de Molines’. They settled in Lancashire, having been granted lands by Duke William of Normandy (William the Conqueror) due to their support throughout the Battle of Hastings, holding the manor of Sefton without interruption from about 1100. The Earls of Sefton were: CHARLES WILLIAM MOLYNEUX: 1st Earl of Sefton (b.1748 – d.1794) Charles William was born on 11th October 1748 to Thomas and Mary (nee Leverley) Molyneux. Thomas died on 3 September 1756, leaving Charles William the heir to the title 8th Viscount Molyneux, which he inherited at the age of 10 on 30 March 1759 following the death of his uncle, William Molyneux, 7th Viscount Molyneux. Charles William was a Member of the British Parliament and a member of the peerage of Ireland. He married Isabella Stanhope, daughter of the Earl of Harrington, on 27 November 1768. He conformed to the Church of England on 5 March 1769, for which he was rewarded the title Earl of Sefton on 30 November 1771 with which the viscounts were merged. He was elected to the House of Commons in 1771 and represented the Lancashire constituency as a Whig until 1774. After his death he was succeeded by his only son, William.


WILLIAM PHILLIP MOLYNEUX: 2nd Earl of Sefton (b.1772 – d.1838) Born in 1772, Lord Sefton, the only son of Charles Molyneux, and Isabella Stanhope, married the Hon Maria Craven in 1792, daughter of William Craven, 6th Baron Craven. He had issue of 4 sons and 6 daughters and succeeded to the title in 1795. He was an enthusiastic gambler and sportsman whose main sporting success was in the founding and governance of sports events. His ancestral seat was Croxteth Hall, Lancs. He also resided at Stoke Farm, Berks and at 21 Arlington Street, London. CHARLES WILLIAM MOLYNEUX: 3rd Earl of Sefton (b.1796 – d.1855) Charles William Molyneux, styled Lord Molyneux (or Viscount Molyneux until 1838), was a British Whig politician. Sefton was returned to Parliament for Lancashire South in 1832, a seat he held until 1835. Lord Sefton married Mary Augusta, daughter of Robert Gregg-Hopwood, in 1834. They had several children. In 1838 he succeeded his father in the earldom and took his seat in the House of Lords. Between 1851 and 1855 he served as Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire. He died in August 1855, aged 59, and was succeeded by his eldest son, William. The family seats were: Croxteth Hall, Lancs ; Stoke Farm, Berks ; Sefton House, Belgrave Sq., London WILLIAM PHILLIP MOLYNEUX: 4th Earl of Sefton (b.1835 – d.1897) William Philip Molyneux, was a British peer. Born Viscount Molyneux, he was the eldest son of Charles Molyneux and Mary. He was educated at Eton College, Berks. In 1854, Molyneux became an ensign in the Grenadier Guards and inherited his father's earldom the following year. He was promoted to captain in 1857, retiring a year later, when he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire. On 18 July 1866, Lord Sefton married Hon. Cecil Emily Jolliffe (1838–1899), the fifth daughter of William Jolliffe, 1st Baron Hylton. They had five children: Charles William Hylton, styled Viscount Molyneux (1867–1901), later 5th Earl of Sefton. Lady Gertrude Eleanor (1868–1937) Lady Rose Mary (c.1870-1905) Hon. Osbert Cecil (1871–1930), later 6th Earl of Sefton. Hon. Richard Frederick (1873–1954)


Lord Sefton was appointed a Knight of the Garter in 1885. In 1886, he built Abbeystead House in the forest of Wyresdale, Lancashire as a 'private shooting lodge on a grand scale'. On his death in 1897, his titles passed to his eldest son, Charles. The family seats were: Croxteth Hall, Lancs ; Abbeystead House, Lancs ; Sefton House, Belgravia Sq., London. CHARLES WILLIAM HYLTON MOLYNEUX: 5th Earl of Sefton, (June 25, 1867 – December 2, 1901). Charles William Hylton was the eldest son of William and Cecil Molyneux, and known as "Mull" within the family. He was ADC to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland during 1889-1892. He never married. As a fit young man of 30 he suffered a bad fall in the Altcar Steeplechase in 1897 which left him severely brain damaged, a hopeless invalid and mentally unstable. His engagement to Mary Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, daughter of the 1st Earl of Ancaster was called off and he eventually died from his injuries. On his death at 34 his title passed to his brother Osbert Molyneux. He was buried in St Chad's churchyard, Kirkby, near Liverpool. OSBERT CECIL MOLYNEUX: 6th Earl of Sefton (b.1871 – d.1930) Osbert Cecil Molyneux was born on 21 February 1871 and styled The Honourable Osbert Molyneux in 1901. He was a British courtier and Liberal politician. He served as Master of the Horse under Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman from 1905 to 1907. Lord Sefton succeeded in the earldom due to the death of his elder brother. In 1926 he was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order. Lord Sefton married Lady Helena Mary Bridgeman, daughter of George Bridgeman, 4th Earl of Bradford, on 8 January 1898. They had three children: Hugh William Osbert Molyneux, 7th Earl of Sefton (1898–1972). Midshipman Hon. Cecil Richard Molyneux (1899–1916), killed in action during the First World War. Lady Evelyn Molyneux (1902–1917), died young. Lord Sefton died on 16th June 1930, aged 59, and was succeeded in the earldom by his eldest and only surviving son, Hugh.


HUGH WILLIAM OSBERT MOLYNEUX: 7th Earl of Sefton (b.1898 – d.1972) Hugh William Osbert Molyneux was born 22nd December 1898 and was the last of the Earls of Sefton. He was the eldest son of Osbert and Helena Molyneux. He was educated at West Downs School, Harrow School and Sandhurst Military Academy. He married in 1941 Josephine Gwynne Armstrong (1903–1980), daughter of George Armstrong of Virginia, USA. The Countess was a life-long friend of the Duchess of Windsor. After pursuing a military career, he was appointed ADC to the Governor-General of Canada (1919), ADC to the Viceroy of India, Lord-in-Waiting to the King (1936–37) and Lord Mayor of Liverpool (1944–45). He was also a chairman of the stewards of the British Jockey Club and Constable of Lancaster Castle, his ancestors having held the Constableship of Liverpool Castle until it was destroyed c1700. He was a sports enthusiast and an owner of racehorses, including Medoc II (FR) which won the Cheltenham Gold Cup in 1942 and Irish Lizard which twice finished third in the Grand National, in 1953 and 1954. He was a descendant of William Philip Molyneux, 2nd Earl of Sefton, who founded the Waterloo Cup and the Grand National. His seats were Croxteth Hall, Lancs ; Abbeystead House, Wyresdale Forest; Grosvenor Cottage, Culross Street, W1. On his death, 13th April 1972, his earldom became extinct and Croxteth Hall passed to Liverpool City Council. On his widow's death in 1980 Abbeystead and the Wyresdale Forest estate were sold to the Duke of Westminster. HAUNTING: Croxteth Hall is said to be haunted by the various members of the Molyneux family who once resided there. Many apparitions have been seen along with unusual smells and unexplainable noises heard. There have been reported sightings of a young boy who stands by the fireplace in the dining room. William Creedy is also believed to haunt the fire room, and it is thought his son Thomas was actually the illegitimate offspring of the 1st Earl of Sefton, Charles William Molyneux. A shadow, described as a male figure has been witnessed in the billiard room, along with ghostly figures who have been seen sitting on non existent chairs. There is also a strong smell of tobacco and the sighting of two males, believed to be William and Phillip Molyneux. The breakfast room is reported to be haunted with a group of ladies, and motion detectors have been reported to be set off by unexplainable forces.


It is thought the 6th Earl of Sefton, Osbert Cecil Molyneux, is the ghostly male seen walking around the tearoom. A small hooded figure, said to be dressed in a black hooded cloak, has been witnessed by many visitors. He is said to walk towards the kitchen and then back along the corridor and simply disappear into a room of which is locked. He is described as a very old male looking very disturbed. The apparition of a housemaid has been witnessed in the kitchen area, along with servants busying themselves. It is also believed that a male had once beaten a pregnant maid in this area, desperately wanting her dead. Two white figures have been witnessed upstairs, both holding hands, where one wears a long hat with a feather attached and the other is reported to have a beard and wear a top hat. Footsteps have been heard walking along the corridors of the hall and again the smell of tobacco in the servants room has also been reported. In the days of the Molyneux family, the servants were housed in the attic. Strange mists, moans and groans and loud bangs, along with a sighting of who is believed to have been a servant has been reported in this area. Visitors have also reported feeling very uncomfortable, as if they were not welcome . An apparition of a male and female have been witnessed in the card room, believed to be Mary and Phillip, with Phillip also being responsible for the dark shadows seen in the corridors. Loud bangs have been heard in the cellar where items have been witnessed to fall off tables for no apparent reason. Staff have reported various electrical faults within the property, but on investigation workmen can find no cause. Doors, both upstairs and down, have been witnessed to open and close by unseen hands, sometimes being slammed shut with force.


BOOK REVIEW A HISTORY of WALES This account traces the history of Wales, from the earliest times to the late-20th century. From the first Welshmen at Ffynnon Beuno to the miners' strike, from the Red Lady of Paviland to the establishment of the Welsh television channel, from the end of the Ice Age to the politics of today, this book is a comprehensive and detailed study of the whole span and history of Wales. John Davies won the Welsh Arts Council Book Prize for Non-Fiction in 1991 for the Welsh version of this book "Hanes Cymru", and he is also the author of "Cardiff and the Marquesses of Bute".

RETURN OF THE BLACK DEATH OBSEVER: “… a piece of astonishing medical detective work…” NATURE: “… a good account of the history of the three great plagues.” NEW SCIENTIST: “… a compelling read…” THE LANCET: “Using documents of unimaginably diverse provenance, Susan Scott and Christopher Duncan assume the role of ‘plague detec tives’.” “…humour, accessible style and gripping disgust–factor…well writ ten…a rare achievement…” GOOD BOOK GUIDE: “With gruesome details of the disease and its consequences, this is not for the squeamish.” WESTERN DAILY PRESS: “…a valuable reference…”


NEWS OF YESTERYEAR The Times 17 May 1844 Extraordinary Case - Neath, May 14 A highly-respectable jury was this day empanelled in the hall, to assess the amount of damages to be paid by Mr. Rowland Fothergill, the wealthy owner of Hensol Castle, for a serious injury inflicted on Mr. Brown, the superintendent of his farms, with a pitchfork, on the 17th of August last. The damages were laid at ÂŁ1,000. Mr. W.H. Cooke, the barrister, appeared for the plaintiff; Mr. Coke, of Neath and Mr. Davis, of Merthyr, for the defendant. It appeared from the evidence, that Mr. Fothergill taking offence at an expression of Mr. Brown's, in a hayfield on the estate, struck the latter with a pike, which broke in two pieces, and inflicted such serious injuries on Mr. Brown, that he remained under medical treatment for nearly five months, and still labours under an injured vision and partial deafness, from which two medical gentlemen gave it as their opinion, he would never recover. The learned counsel in opening the case for the plaintiff, made a very eloquent and impassioned appeal for excessive damages, stating among other acts of aggravation, that the assault was wholly unprovoked; that, notwithstanding the severity of the injury, Mr. Fothergill had evinced no contrition or sympathy with his victim and had not tendered the smallest amount of amends, although the plaintiff was a person of superior attainments, against whose competency and character not a charge was insinuated, and who, a stranger from Northumberland, in a distant part of the kingdom, was thus left to seek proper redress for these injuries to his person and reputation to the justice of a Glamorganshire jury. A number of witnesses described the occurrence in the hayfield - the acute sufferings of the plaintiff, and the injuries under which he continued to labour from the effects of the blow. No witnesses were called for the defendant; and, after a very brief summing up, the jury awarded the plaintiff ÂŁ500 damages. The greatest interest was manifested in Swansea, Merthyr and Cardiff as to the result, Mr. Fothergill being one of the principal iron-masters, and a magistrate of the county.


YELLOW FEVER Yellow Fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by the bite of female mosquitoes, found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. The origin of the disease is believed to be Africa, from where it was introduced to South America through the slave trade in the 16th century. Since the 17th century, several major epidemics of the disease have been recorded in America, Africa and Europe, and it was deemed the most dangerous infectious disease during the 19th century. For most cases the symptoms include fever, nausea, vomiting, headache, and back pain which subsides after several days. In some patients, a toxic phase follows, where the patient suffers recurring fever, liver damage, jaundice, abdominal pain, bleeding in the mouth and eyes, and in the gastrointestinal tract. The toxic phase is fatal in approximately 20% of cases. Because of the increased bleeding through the infection, the World Health Organisation estimates the disease causes 200,000 illness and 30,000 deaths each year in unvaccinated countries. Vaccinations have been available since the middle of the 20th century with some countries requiring vaccinations for travellers. With no available cure, vaccination is the only means of controlling the disease. YELLOW FEVER HITS SOUTH WALES, 1865 During September 1865 Yellow Fever hit Swansea, South Wales. On the 1 May 1865 the barque Hecla left Swansea and headed straight to Santiago de Cuba, arriving on 9 June. George Wilson, the ships boy, died of the disease while in Cuba, and Hansel Pedersen, an able seaman, was hospitalized with a fever while the ship sailed for home. While in Santiago, two replacement able seamen were recruited. Having been discharged from hospital the previous day, John Thompson was one of the two who was employed as a replacement. However, after suffering from a fever illness for 14-16 days he died between 9-11 August.


On 26 July the Hecla set sail for Swansea, with four officers, ten mariners and two passengers on board. During the journey back to Swansea, seamen became ill with symptoms of Yellow Fever, with three crew members having died. However, due to no doctor on board, the illness could not be established. On Friday 8 September, 15 miles N.E. of Lundy, the wooden sailing vessel was boarded by George Morgan, a Swansea pilot, with the master William Clouston requesting assistance in coming into the harbour. The following morning, with five men having gone on board, a tug pulled the Hecla into the port. The Hecla was moored alongside the Cobre wharf in the North Dock, and unloading began. By midday the mayor had been informed of the deaths during the return journey and also of the suspected illness. James Saunders, the sailor with fever, was diagnosed with dying from Yellow Fever by the two doctors who had examined him. The mayor, who represented the local board of health, along with a third doctor examined James Saunders and within minutes he was dead, and within four hours he had been buried. With the dwelling of which he accommodated being emptied and disinfected with lime wash and chloride of lime, further precautions were made throughout all the houses within the court. After the bedding and clothing of the dead man had been destroyed, the house was again lime washed before tenanted a week later. Preparations were then made to find the crew of the Hecla in order for them and their rooms, homes and contents to be fumigated with chlorine. Within twelve days of the Hecla arriving, it is estimated that 29 victims suffered from the disease as the symptoms in each patient were either the same or similar, where milder cases may have possibly gone unnoticed, with 17 victims losing their lives, some of whom died within 2-3 days of contracting the disease.


CASES OF YELLOW FEVER IN SWANSEA 1865 SEX AGE

PLACE OF PROBABLE INFECTION

DATE OF ONSET

DATE OF DEATH

M

32

Hecla (able seaman on board).

AT SEA

9 SEP

M

25

Worked on North Dock.

15 SEP

REC

M

33

Patrolled the east side of the North Dock

17 SEP

22 SEP

F

20

Lived about 150 yards from Hecla's mooring

18 SEP

22 SEP

M

24

Worked on island/on board Hecla 9 Sept

18 SEP

22 SEP

F

21

Lived in house adjacent to where Hecla was unloaded. Servant

18 SEP

REC

M

25

Worked in smithy on the island

19 SEP

24 SEP

F

55

Lived on island

20 SEP

26 SEP

F

46

Lived on island

20 SEP

27 SEP

M

35

Lived 150 yards from Hecla's mooring

20 SEP

REC

F

15

Lived on island

21 SEP

27 SEP

F

52

Lived on island

22 SEP

25 SEP

F

11

Lived on island

22 SEP

REC

F

23

Lived 150 yards from Hecla's mooring

22 SEP

26 SEP

F

?

Lived in house adjacent to dock where Hecla was unloaded

23 SEP

REC

M

ADULT

Worked on board Eleanor. Moored near Hecla 16-18 Sept

23 SEP

25 SEP

M

18

Lived on island

24 SEP

27 SEP

F

18

Lived on island

25 SEP

REC

M

ADULT

Lived on island, went on board Hecla

25 SEP

REC

M

ADULT

Worked on island 14-15 Sept

25 SEP

REC

M

23

Worked in shipyard next to Cobre Wharf

26 SEP

29 SEP

M

60

Mate of Eleanor, moored near Hecla 16-18 Sept

26 SEP

30 SEP

F

35

Lived on island

29 SEP

1 OCT

F

10

Lived on island

30 SEP

REC

M

18

Worked on island in copper assay office.

1 OCT

10 OCT


M

-

Ship's Worked on Eleanor, moored boy" near Hecla 16-18 Sept

2 OCT

REC

M

20

Worked in Richardson's yard

3 OCT

REC

F

6

Lived on island

3 OCT

REC

M

40

Worked in Richardson's yard

4 OCT

5 OCT

On Thursday 12 July 2001 the BBC News reported the concerns regarding ‘Yellow Fever Vac cine Fears’. Questions had been raised over the safety of the vaccine for yellow fever following several deaths. The Lancet medical journal contained reports of people from around the world who died after taking the vaccine. A five year old girl died after having suffered fever, headache and vomiting three days after receiving the vaccination. A 22 year old woman died after developing a sore throat and fever, accompanied by headache, muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting four days after vaccination. She then developed symptoms including jaundice and renal failure, and died after six days of illness. A third case found similarities in all victims which demonstrated symptoms of infection by the form of yellow fever virus found in the wild. Three further deaths of elderly patients were recorded by US scientists from the Centres for Disease Control, Atlanta. In each case the victims suffered from fever, muscle pain, headache and confusion followed by a general deterioration. Writing in The Lancet, Philippe Marianneau and colleagues from Institute Pasteur, Lyons, France, suggest that the virus strain used in the vaccine may occasionally mutate, either before or after it is administered. Alternatively, the problem may be that the vaccine triggers an inappropriate immune system response in some people. They conclude: "The use of 17D vaccination remains highly advisable for people living in or travelling to endemic and epidemic zones. "However, these three reports raise relevant questions about the mechanisms of attenuation (weakening) of yellow fever virus that should be urgently investigated." A spokesman for the Public Health Laboratory Service said: "The yellow fever vaccine is in fact one of the safest live vaccines. "It is important to remember that many millions of doses of yellow fever vaccine have been given worldwide over more than 60 years, and the vaccine has an excellent safety record. "In Brazil 54m doses of the vaccine were given between 1998 and April 2001, and just three of these possible serious adverse events were observed. "Clearly, if this adverse reaction is indeed prompted by the vaccine, it is extremely rare. "In contrast to this, the serious consequences of yellow fever disease are well-established. "It is vital that those who need the vaccine continue to be vaccinated so that they are protected against the disease." The WHO has called for further research to look at this possible reaction to vaccine, to establish its frequency, and whether particular groups of people are more vulnerable.


ABBERGLASSNEY MANOR HOUSE HISTORY: Aberglassney Manor House is situated in Carmarthenshire, and the house that we see today was built by Bishop Rudd in the mid 1600's. The origins of Aberglassney are shrouded in mystery and myths which have grown over the years. The old genealogies show ten generations of Welshmen before the arrival of Bishop Rudd. In the 13th century Gruffydd ab Elidir and his son Owain resided at the property. Half a century later came Llewelyn ap Llewelyn Ddu. In the1470's the owner was William ap Thomas. The next owners were three generations of the Thomas family including, Captain William Thomas, who was killed in Zutphen in 1586. It is believed Sir William and his wife Gaenor sold the property to Bishop Rudd, who rebuilt the house. The Bishop's son, Sir Rice Rudd was a favourite of James I, married well but received heavy fines for his Royalist sympathies during the Civil War. During 1664, Sir Rice was succeeded by his grandson, the second Sir Rice and in 1710 the house was sold to Robert Dyer. Robert Dyer only lived in the house for ten years before he died in 1720, passing the house onto his eldest son, who was also named Robert and married to Frances Croft of Croft Castle. By 1752, Robert Dyer and Frances Croft's son, Robert Archer Dyer, inherited the house. Both he and his brother married Herbert sisters. Robert Archer Dyer and his son, William Herbert Dyer, both struggled financially and in 1798, Aberglassney was put up for sale. In 1803, Thomas Phillips, who had served as a surgeon with the East India Company for 30 years, bought Aberglassney. He died in 1824, and as he had no children, his estate was left to his nephew John Walters who then took on the surname of Phillips. John Walters Phillips had 4 children, his son had died in infancy, his daughters, grown up and married became, Mrs Harries, Mrs Lloyd-Phillips and the middle daughter married John Pugh Pryse, and had 1 daughter, Marianne, before Mrs Pryse died at a young age.


After the death of his wife, John Pugh Pryse remarried. His second wife being, Decima Dorothea Rice. In 1872, Marianne married Charles Mayhew, a soldier, and they spent most of their married life living in Derbyshire. Aberglassney was rented at this time. The couple returned to Aberglassney in 1902 on Charles' retirement, yet only spent 5 years together with Charles dying suddenly in 1907 after having caught a cold. Marianne only spent a year at Aberglassney after the death of her husband before moving to London where she spent the last 30 years of her life. Aberglassney was cared for by relatives and caretakers until 1939 when Marianne died, passing the property to Eric Evans, who was related through her fathers second marriage. Eric only lived at Aberglassney for a short time. He died at the age of 30 in 1950, leaving a wife and young son. His son's Trustees decided to sell Aberglassney and in 1955 the house was bought by David Charles. With the estate having been split, the land was acquired by several tenant farmers. The house was again sold in 1977, yet the new owners found it impossible to restore the house which had suffered years of neglect. 1995 saw the start of The Aberglassney Restoration Trust where restoration work began on the house and gardens. HAUNTINGS: Figures, dark shadows, unexplained knocks and bangs and lighted candles floating through the air have all been witnessed by staff and visitors. It is believed Thomas Phillips has haunted the house ever since his death in 1824. It is thought he is responsible for the heavy footsteps heard by staff and visitors. Another incident of which occurred before the restoration of the house took place involved a member of staff, who recalls her hair being stroked with someone whispering in her ear as she cleaned the bathroom. A spectral family of a mother, father and daughter have been witnessed walking from the house into the gardens, sometimes sitting for a while in the gardens.


A dark figure of a male has also been seen, simply standing and staring in the grounds. Some rumours suggesting he was responsible for the possible murders of 6 maids. Pigeon Wood, which is situated behind the property, is where many visitors have reported feeling very uneasy. Approaching the edge of the woods has the feeling of ‘coldness' and ‘fear'. It is believed a young man who was trying to evade capture, was actually caught at this point of the woods and killed by a gun shot, although the identity of this young man is not known. BLUE ROOM: Situated on the first floor of the eastern wing this room had experienced a great tragedy in 1630 where six maid servants were found dead in their beds. The cause of deaths were asphyxiation, which could have been attributed to the fumes emitting from the lime plaster mortar that had been used during a major reconstruction of the mansion. Many speculations on the deaths were rife with suggested causes including arsenic poisoning from the wallpaper in the room, and a blocked chimney causing death by carbon monoxide inhalation. Visitors and staff have reported to have felt an overwhelming spine chilling experience when entering the room. With the room empty, five flickering lights have been witnessed by many who have stood outside looking up to the window. Members of staff have also witnessed Victorian dressed ladies staring out of the window. Another story regarding the sighting of flames suggests that the amount of disembodied candle flames witnessed foretell the number of deaths due to occur. This coincides with the story of the maids, where the evening before their deaths during the 1630’s, a house keeper had witnessed five lights in a room where redecoration had just been completed. The following morning the five maids were found dead in the room. The room of which the maids are believed to have died and have since show their presence is located on the first floor, middle window of the above photograph.


The Crawshay family who lived at Cyfartha were from yeoman farmers who originated from the small hamlet of Normanton, Yorkshire and known as Crawshaw. However, the family tree can be traced as far back as 1582 with Richard Crawshay’s great great Grandfather having lived in nearby Wragby, Yorkshire. Richard Crawshay, the first of the Crawshay family to come to South Wales, and his father William Crawshay had argued when Richard was 15 years old, as Richard did not wish to become a farmer ,as was his father, grandfather, and great grandfather and believed he could earn his fortune in London. His father William told him “You will go with not a penny and make your own way”. This is exactly what Richard Crawshay set out to do, and achieved his dreams in making his fortune. Richard Crawshay came to Wales from London, acquired Cyfartha works and was known as the Iron King of Wales. The Crawshay family, through the generations, were admired and loathed by the people of Wales, where some report that the Crawshays were tyrants; others report that they were kind and generous. They brought wealth and they brought unhappiness, they were one of the richest families in Wales and one of the most talked about families throughout the generations. RICHARD CRAWSHAY 1739 - 1810 Richard Crawshay was born in 1739 in Normanton, Yorkshire, son of a yeoman farmer William Crawshay and his wife Elizabeth Nicholson. He was one of 6 children, 3 boys and 3 girls. Two of his brothers died in infancy, and his sister Susannah went on to marry John Bailey and formed the Crawshay-Bailey family in Wales. After an argument with his father, Richard Crawshay changed his name from Crawshaw to Crawshay, and left his family home travelling to London on horseback in search of work. He sold his horse in London in order to buy an apprenticeship in an iron warehouse working for a Mr Bickleworth in York Yard, Thames Street, London. Through his hard work he soon earned himself promotion, becoming a flat iron salesman and in 1763 eventually became the owner of the company when Mr Bicklewith retired. Also in 1763 he married Mary Browne b.1745, a daughter of a stonegrate marker. Richard and Mary had five children: Child 1: Died Child 2: William Crawshay I b.1764 –1834 Married Elizabeth Couzens. Child 3: Anne Crawshay b.1766 Child 4: Charlotte Crawshay b.1784 – 1839 Married Benjamin Hall. Child 5: Elizabeth Crawshay b.1768 By 1770 Richard Crawshay was a leading London iron merchant, and by 1774 had changed the company name Crawshay & Moser, in 1784 it became Crawshay, Cornwell & Moser and by 1816 it was known as R & W Crawshay.


In 1775 he was acting as the agent for London merchant and founder of Cyfartha Anthony Bacon, supplying iron cannon to the Board of Ordinance, and by 1777 Richard Crawshay became a partner in the company. It was during 1783 that Crawshay and his family eventually moved to South Wales, where they lived at Cyfartha House. In 1786 Crawshay took over the company and went into partnership with William Stevens and James Cockshutt, but due to making little profit he terminated the contract in 1791. By 1796 a blast furnace had been built with the fourth built during 1796 and by 1810 there were 6 blast furnaces. After visiting Henry Cort, Crawshay adopted the process of ‘puddling’ which was the method used of converting pig iron into malleable iron. This method was a great success and Cyfartha works grew extensively, whereby 1,500 workers were employed by 1803 in what was to become known as the largest works in the world. Crawshay had also set up works in the Forest of Dean and become a partner in the Rhymney furnace where it’s believed his reason in doing so was to enable him to use this as a dowry for his daughter Charlotte when she married Benjamin Hall, along with the Abercarn Estate, of which he had also purchased. The Rhymney furnace was later to become the Union Iron Company which when it amalgamated with Bute Ironworks it became known as the Rhymney Ironworks. Richard Crawshay was highly thought of by his workers for being fair and generous, paying good wages and having houses built for his workers and their families, some of which are now re -erected at the Museum of Welsh Life (St. Fagans). It was due to himself having been poor that Richard Crawshay was reported to have once said “If I can do it, every man in my employ shall have a piece of beef and a pint of beer for his din ner every day”. Crawshay had made many influential friends through his work and many visited Cyfartha, including Admiral Nelson. Another of the many visitors was the founder of Sunday Schools, Mr Robert Raikes, who was asked, as a special request from Crawshay, to study the living conditions in Merthyr. It was through this special request to Raikes that the first Sunday School was built at Cyfartha. During September 1809 Richard Crawshay changed his will after having an argument with his son William Crawshay I. He had completely cut out his son from his will leaving him nothing, with shares of Cyfartha going to both his son-in-law Benjamin Hall and his nephew Joseph Bailey. The following May he relented and changed his will, a month before he died on 27th June 1810, leaving an estate valued at £1.5 million. William Crawshay I inherited three eighths of his fathers ironworks, with Benjamin Hall, who had married Charlotte Crawshay, inheriting three eighths and his nephew Joseph Bailey inherited two eighths. Mary Browne died in 1811. Next Month: William Crawshay I


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CRAWFORD PRIORY Fife, Scotland HISTORY Crawford Priory is the former home of the Earls of Crawford, Earls of Glasgow and Barons Cochrane of Cults. The original building, Crawford Lodge, was built by the 21st Earl of Crawford, George LindsayCrawford during 1758 . During 1809 the building was extensively redeveloped by Lady Mary Lindsay Crawford, sister of the 22nd Earl of Crawford. Lady Mary Ladyhired Mary thehired architects the architects David Hamilton, David Hamilton, and then in 1811 and James then Gillespie in 1811Graham James Gillespie took over.Graham took over. Hamilton Hamilton disguiseddisguised the original the original house byhouse introducing by introduca High Gothic style ing awhich High included Gothic style buttresses which included and turrets, buttresses while Graham and extended turrets, it to while the Graham rear in Ecclesiastical extended it toGothic the rear in where pinnacles Ecclesiastical were added Gothictowhere createpinnacles the impression were added of a to priory. create the impression of a priory. Lady Mary Ladywas Mary described was described as being as a beautiful, being a beautiful, eccentriceccentric independent woman who never independent married. She woman lovedwho animals neverand married. kept dogs, She loved birds,animals a fox, deer and her brother’s beloved horse.and kept dogs, birds, a fox, deer and her brother’s beloved horse. Lady Mary died in 1833, where her funeral took place in the Gothic Hall of the Priory. Lady Mary died in 1833, where her funeral took place in the Gothic The building Hall ofwas thefurther Priory.developed where some minor alterations were made by the 4th Earl of Glasgow, who had inherThe building ited the estatewas from further Lady developed Mary. where some minor alterations were made by the 4th Earl of Glasgow, who had inherth Earl ited 6the The estate continued from Lady with Mary. the alterations which included the building of a chapel in the east front during 1871. The 6th Earl continued with the alterations which included the building of a chapel in the east front during 1871.


Due to increasing debts, the 7th Earl, Alexander Lindsay, sold the estate to Liberal Unionist politician and former Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department, the Hon. Thomas Cochrane, the second and youngest son of Thomas Barnes Cochrane, 11th Earl of Dundonald

Thomas Cochrane, was also brother-in-law to the 6th Earl of Glasgow, and became Baron Cochrane of Cults in 1919. Further alterations were made to the building which began in the 1920’s, where the Porte cohere to the west front was removed.

In 1968, with the death of the 2nd Baron, Thomas George Frederick Cochrane, the mansion was closed, and by 1971 the whole building was abandoned and what was once a beautiful building, gradually fell into a state of disrepair.

HAUNTING: The spirit of Lady Margaret Lindsay Crawford is said to haunt the derelict mansion and grounds. Witnesses have reported seeing her wandering around the grounds calling on visitors to follow her.


COMING UP IN NEXT MONTHS

ISSUE! More Castles & Manor Houses The Life of Ironmaster William Crawshay I Life During The Cholera Epidemic Another Headline from News of Yesteryear Plus Much More! What To See and Do On A Weekend Break in Historical Gloucestershire Plus A Spooky Tale of ‘The Deserted Cabin’! To Advertise In Bygone Times Please Contact Us: email: bygonetimes1@btinternet.com or bygonetimes2@btinternet.com Whilst every care has been taken to ensure the contents in this publication are accurate, Bygone Times can not accept any claim for liability due to loss, damage, errors or omissions resulting from negligence, accident or any cause. Bygone Times do not officially endorse any advertising material included in this publication.


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