Page 1

The power of inland navigation

The future of freight transport and inland navigation in Europe

2016-2017


Table of contents Preface 5 Chapter 1 The value of transport

6

Chapter 2 The best of all transport modes

14

Chapter 3 The value of waterways

24

Chapter 4 The versatile fleet

36

Chapter 5 The footprint of a sustainable transporter

44

Chapter 6 Sustainable transport thanks to the Blue Road

56

Glossary 68 Organizations

69

3


Source: INE / MigalskiMigalski


Preface Logistics of the future The tempestuous times that shook the planet on its foundations are now behind us. Today, our world is dominated by sustainable production, globalisation, increasing tensions between countries and instability of financial markets. But there is light on the horizon. Trade and goods flows are back to where they were before the crisis and we are slowly but surely climbing out of the abyss. What will the future hold? In recent years, revolutionary developments in the field of ICT, the Internet and 3D printing have broadened our perspective. “Smartphone” and “tablet” are now standard conveniences in our daily life and work. We should be aware that these advancements have only just begun and that the future will be even more radical. Developments will occur in quicker succession and will penetrate even deeper into our daily lives than we care to imagine. In that new world, technology will assist or replace human decision-making, and we will increasingly become supervisors/controllers of processes. Developments in the past mostly made our life and work safer, easier and more enjoyable. Flying, sailing and driving will increasingly be incorporated into automated processes, with logistics determining the best route, speed, loading capacity and exchange possibilities with other modes of transport. Customers and consumers of the future demand reliable and sustainable transport services in transparent chains at the lowest possible cost. Customers want to be able to switch between modes of transport so as to achieve the best performance. If we get it right, the world will be much more organised and less stressful. So whoever has the best network has the lead on the competition. In that future the carrier who faces no obstacles in terms of congestion and who meets the highest safety and sustainability standards will come out the winner, provided his delivery service is reliable and at the lowest possible cost. In that sense, inland navigation promises well for the future. Kees de Vries Dutch Inland Navigation Information Agency

5


1 The value of transport

Source: Annemarie van Oers


1 The value of transport Rotterdam tranships close to 450 million tons of cargo per year. There are not many people who can envisage the sheer volume of that, so to give you an idea: everyone knows what shipping containers look like – those robust, 20-foot (6-metre) steel boxes that fit on lorries one or two at a time. If all the cargo Rotterdam tranships in a year were to be put into shipping containers that are then lined up one after the other, this ‘wall’ would span the globe nearly four times over. The astronomical quantity of transhipped goods reflects the scale and intensity of the global transport network. However, transport is not a solitary undertaking. Nobody transports goods for no reason. Transport is an offshoot of commerce and industry. With today’s ingeniously organised transport, it is much more attractive, economically speaking, to transport products over many thousands of kilometres rather than to set up separate, smaller factories in several locations. As a result, the distance between the factory (the producer) and the user (consumer) has multiplied over the past fifty years. A factory in Indonesia produces Nike shoes that find their way to millions of customers in the United States and Europe. Countless companies centralise their production in one or two locations in the world. Seldom has a word been so fitting as ‘globalisation’ or ‘internationalisation’. Thanks to the boom in communication facilities such as the Internet and mobile phones, geographical distances hardly get in the way of business. The world has become a village. Globalisation relates not only to the production and transport of goods. It also says a lot about the political, financial and social relations between countries. In any event, internationalisation has dramatically changed global transport. Technically speaking, much more is transported and at much greater speeds. Consequently, the vessels that ship the large container flows across the world’s oceans are increasing in size. In the spring of 2015, for instance, a ship arrived in Rotterdam with a surface area measuring more than four entire football pitches. Vessels of that size can only berth in ports that have the required draught and berthing facilities. Rotterdam is the principal, not to mention the largest, seaport in Europe. Ports in Asia are rapidly increasing in scale; there are now seven ports that surpass Rotterdam in size. Changes in transport have, in turn, opened up new possibilities for commerce. The development of transport has become an ever self-reinforcing and dynamic process of innovation and expansion. It is a fascinating spectacle for those who are willing to see it. In the past, although not so very long ago, transport was considered a necessary evil; sometimes there simply was no getting round having to move things. That has changed. Today, any serious entrepreneur, politician or manager understands that goods transport is the lubricant of society and an essential ingredient of that same society. Transport is vital to the economy and hence to the prosperity and welfare of humankind. Nowadays, transport is getting the recognition it deserves.

7


Indicative navigation routes and major seaports and container ports

International trade underlies the flow of goods across the oceans. The boom in the shipping industry has resulted in such low transport rates that the location of production facilities has become of secondary importance. Many Western multinationals have moved some of their production capacity to Asia. Remarkably, 13 of the 20 largest seaports are located in China. Only 4 of those 20 ports are outside Asia.

Rotterdam Antwerp

Hamburg Bremen

Qinhuangdao Yingkou Tangshan Dalian Tianjin Nagoya Qingdao Busan Rizhao Shanghai Ningbo + Zhoushan Guangzhou Xiamen Shenzhen Kaohsiung Hongkong

Los Angeles Long Beach South Louisiana Dubai Ports

Port Klang Tanjung Pelepas

Singapore

Port Hedland

Scheduled sea service Sea and/or container ports

12

Waardevol Transport13

Development of maritime transport by types of goods

10,000

8,000

6,000

4,000

It has taken six years since the worldwide decline in maritime transport in 2009 for an upward trend to re-emerge. Starting in 2006, the share of the group of most important bulk goods has increased by one percentage point. This group comprises iron ore, coal, grain, bauxite & alumina and phosphate rock.

2,000

0 1990

1995

2000

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

1,755

2,050

2,163

2,422

2,698

2,747

2,742

2,642

2,772

2,794

2,841

2,844

Other dry cargo

988

1,105

1,295

1,709

1,814

1,953

2,065

2,085

2,335

2,486

2,742

2,920

Main bulk goods

1,031

1,125

1,928

2,009

2,112

2,141

2,173

2,004

2,022

2,112

2,169

2,260

234

371

598

969

1,076

1,193

1,249

1,127

1,280

1,393

1,445

1,524

4,008

4,651

5,984

7,109

7,700

8,034

8,229

7,858

8,409

8,785

9,197

9,548

Containers

Oil and gas Total

Source: UNCTAD

The power of inland navigation

Unit: Loaded weight x 1 million tonnes

8


Largest ports in the world: transhipment of goods

2012

2013

2014

Ningbo & Zhoushan* Shanghai* Singapore Tianjin* Tangshan* Guangzhou* Qingdao* Rotterdam Dalian* Port Hedland 0

200

400

600

800

1,000

The port of Rotterdam is eighth in the world in terms of transhipment volume. Eight of the nine other top-10 ports are in Asia; seven in China and one in Singapore. Transhipment volume in Port Hedland (Australia) has increased by as much as 51% since 2012.

Unit: Gross weight x 1 million tonnes

*Including domestic transport and inland navigation Source: Port of Rotterdam

Largest container ports in the world: transhipment 2012

2013

2014

Shanghai Singapore Shenzen Hongkong* Ningbo & Zhoushan Busan Guangzhou Qingdao Dubai Ports Tianjin Rotterdam

0

5,000

10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 Unit: Number of containers x 1,000 TEU

*Including inland navigation Source: Port of Rotterdam

9

Since its decline in 2009, container transhipment around the world has escalated by the year, amounting to 651 million TEUs in 2013 according to the World Bank. China accounts for most of the container transhipment, followed by the US, Singapore, Hong Kong and Korea. In 2014 the port of Rotterdam is eleventh in the list of busiest container transhipment ports.


Logistics Performance Index 2014

The Logistics Performance Index is a benchmark for logistics with a value of 1 to 5. The scale provides insight into the efficiency of a country’s trade flows, including cargo transport, storage, customs formalities and payment systems. Since the last measurement in 2012, the Netherlands has progressed from fifth to second place.

Germany

4.12

Netherlands

4.05

Belgium

4.04

UK

4.01

Singapore

4.00

Sweden

3.96

Norway

3.96

Luxembourg

3.96

USA

3.92

Japan

3.91 0

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

4.0

4.1

4.2

4.3

Source: World Bank

Main Extra EU maritime transport flows of EU-27, 2011

Norway 93

Russia - Baltic sea region 119.2 Russia Black Sea region 62.9

USA - East Coast 83.2

Turkey 58.3 Egypt 78.1 In 2011, 64% of the EU-27 maritime goods were transported to or from ports outside the EU; maritime transport is therefore by far the EU’s most important mode of long-distance transport (in terms of tonnage). The depicted eight main goods flows are incoming flows.

Brazil 101.9

Source: Eurostat

The power of inland navigation

China 62.5

Unit: Gross weight x 1 million tonnes

10


Deep sea and short sea transport from and to European countries, 2013 Short sea

Deep sea

600

500

400

In 2013, a total of 3 billion tonnes of goods was transported to or from ports within the 28 countries of the European Union. At 58% in 2013, the short sea share within the EU-28 is greater than the deep sea share. In 2013 Europe’s main short sea ports were Rotterdam, Antwerp, Hamburg, Amsterdam, Marseille, Algeciras, Le Havre, Immingham, Bremerhaven and Valencia.

300

200

100

0

Th

ds

lan

her

et eN

UK Spain

l y y y y e e n Ital Turke rman Franc elgium orwa wede Greec or tuga N S B P Ge

Source: Eurostat

Unit: Weight x 1 million tonnes

European short sea transport goods distribution Liquid bulk

Dry bulk

Large containers

Ro-ro

Other goods & unknown

2,000

1,500

1,000

500

0 2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Source: Eurostat

2011

2012

2013

Unit: Weight x 1 million tonnes

11

Liquid bulk constitutes 45% of the European short sea transport. However, it has been declining in volume since 2005. The share of containers has increased steadily from 10% to 14% since 2005. The share of ro-ro (13%) and dry bulk (20%) has remained stable between 2005 and 2013.


Largest seaports of Europe ≼ 200 million tonnes

Rotterdam

150 - 200 million tonnes Antwerp 100 - 150 million tonnes Hamburg, Novorossiysk

Primorsk

50 - 100 million tonnes Genua, Constanta, Trieste, St. Petersburg, Grimsby/Immingham, Ust-Luga, Primorsk, Valencia, Le Havre, Bremerhaven, Marseille, Algeciras en Amsterdam ≤ 50 million tonnes Barcelona, Dunkerque, London

St. Petersburg

Ust-Luga

Grimsby/Immingham Amsterdam London Dunkerque

Hamburg Bremerhaven Rotterdam Antwerp

Le Havre

The largest seaports in Europe are situated in the northwestern region of the European continent. Two of the five largest European ports are located in the Netherlands, i.e. in Rotterdam and Amsterdam: Antwerp, Hamburg and Novorossiysk are in the top 5. The latter is in southern Russia on the Black Sea.

Trieste Novorossiysk

Genua Constanta

Marseille Barcelona Valencia Algeciras

Source: Port of Rotterdam

Main cargo seaports of Europe 2012

2013

2014

Rotterdam Antwerp Hamburg

Rotterdam is by far the largest cargo seaport in Europe. In 2014 Rotterdam transhipped more than twice the amount of goods compared to Antwerp, the second largest port in Europe. The port of Rotterdam can accommodate the increasingly larger seagoing vessels and with its geographical location the goods can easily be transported far into Europe via the river Rhine and connecting waterways.

Novorossiysk1) Amsterdam Algeciras Marseille Bremerhaven Ust-Luga Valencia 0

100

200

Source: Port of Rotterdam

The power of inland navigation

12

300

400

500

1) Including the Caspian Pipeline Consortium Marine Terminal Unit: Gross weight x 1 million tonnes


Main container seaports of Europe 2012

2013

2014

Rotterdam

Hamburg

Antwerp

Bremerhaven

Algeciras

Valencia

Felixtowe*

Piraeus

Ambarli/Istanbul*

Gioia Tauro

0

3,000

6,000

9,000

12,000

15,000

The largest container ports in Europe are situated in the northwestern region of the European continent. The port of Rotterdam is strongly in the lead in terms of both bulk cargo and container transhipment. Goods arriving in Rotterdam, Hamburg, Antwerp and Amsterdam can be transported beyond their national boundaries far into Europe. Other ports primarily fulfil a national or regional purpose.

* 2014 Provisional figures Unit: Source: Number x 1,000 TEUs (Twenty-Feet Equivalent Units)

Source: Port of Rotterdam

Shares of ports by transhipment of goods in the Hamburg-Le Havre region, 2014 Hamburg Bremerhaven Wilhelmshaven Amsterdam Rotterdam Zeeland Seaports Antwerp Ghent Zeebrugge Dunkerque Le Havre

Dry bulk

Liquid bulk

Containers

Mixed cargo

Source: Port of Rotterdam

Unit: Gross weight

13

The port of Rotterdam is clearly the largest port for all categories of goods. This advantage is most obvious for the transhipment of dry and liquid bulk. Rotterdam accounts for 50% of the transhipment of liquid bulk in the region. Antwerp, Hamburg and Bremerhaven are also strong in container transhipment. The port of Amsterdam handles a significant transhipment volume of dry bulk.


The best of all transport modes

2


2 The best of all transport modes All Europeans have an ongoing need for a sound and reliable supply of goods. They also want to have electricity, fuel for their cars and a variety of – preferably fresh – produce at their disposal every day. A streamlined, well-organised transport sector is essential for providing those luxuries. People are not very aware of the actual transport, except perhaps when a lorry holds up the flow of traffic on the motorway, or a bridge opens to let a barge through or very occasionally when a freight train thunders past whilst a delay is being called over the PA system on the train platform. Rail, road, shipping and inland navigation are the four modes by which most goods are transported across Europe. Underground pipelines are used as well to transport large volumes of liquids on a fixed route. Cargo airlines are the preferred mode of transport for small packages that require urgent delivery. The distribution over the modes is called the modal split and a change to that split is referred to as a modal shift. Each seaport has its own modal split, depending on its geographical location, the industrial activities and the natural conditions. All ports are connected to the European road network and have access to the rail network. However, the link-up to the network of waterways differs considerably from port to port. This is related to their scale, draught, the condition of the waterways themselves and the dimensions of bridges and locks. These connections to the hinterland also determine the modal split of seaports. Hamburg, for instance, has many rail links to the rest of Europe, but the River Elbe is not navigable in some places and the North German canal network is not accessible to the largest inland navigation vessels. Rail transport therefore has a large share in Hamburg’s modal split. Rotterdam and Antwerp, on the other hand, make much more use of inland navigation thanks to the River Rhine, the easily navigable, natural connection to the hinterland and to which both ports link up directly. The modal splits of both Rotterdam and Antwerp therefore boast a greater share of inland navigation. There was a time when the transport of goods was somewhat simplistic. If a point of departure or destination was not situated directly along a waterway or a railway, a lorry was brought in to transport goods. That is still true today, but one of the best developments society has experienced over the past half century occurred in the transport sector. Congested roads, environmental damage and the likelihood that the climate is changing due to excessive CO2 emissions were decisive reasons for a modal shift to rail and especially inland navigation. The various modes were linked, interwoven and interconnected. Logistics became a concerted action in which coordinators resourcefully employed the best mode to provide an admittedly complex but near-perfect transport product. This combination of various modes of transport is called multimodal transport, with synchromodal transport being the ultimate for the foreseeable future, meaning that the best mode is selected for each segment of the transport activity. In this new configuration, inland navigation stands out as an environmentally friendly, climate-friendly and safe mode of transport.

15


EU-28 transport performance per mode Road1

Rail

Inland Navigation2

Sea transport3

2,000

1,500

The growth in cargo transport is inextricably linked to the growth of the economy. The dip in the graph is clearly explained by the economic crisis. Inland navigation is the only mode that has managed to achieve growth (5.6%) between 2011 and 2012. Road and rail transport both suffered a decline of 3% and 3.6% respectively.

1,000

500

0 2000

2001

2002 2003 2004

2005

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

2011 2012*

1) Road transport: International and domestic transport by vehicles registered in EU-28 2) Inland navigation: Estimates 3) Sea transport: Domestic and intra-EU-28 transport, estimates *) Figures for 2012 are estimates Source: European Union

Unit: Quantity x 1 billion tonne-kilometres

Modal split per EU country (transport performance), 2012 Inland navigation***

Rail transport**

Road transport*

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

ia an

Sl ov ak ia EU ‐2 8 to ta l 

ia tr

Ro m

s nd

he

rla

bo N

et

Au s

ur g

ry un

xe m Lu

* Road transport is based on global transport movements of vehicles registered in the reporting country. Rail and inland navigation figures relate to transport within the reporting countries. Road transport Germany: estimate. ** Belgium, Germany and Luxembourg: estimates. *** Belgium: provisional figure, Germany: estimate. Source: Eurostat

The power of inland navigation

ga

ce H

m G

er

Fr an

an y

tia oa Cr

ria ga ul

B

el

gi

um

0

B

The modal split differs considerably per EU country. Of all the countries in the EU-28, inland navigation has the strongest presence in the Netherlands. In absolute terms, however, the transport performance in Germany is higher than in the Netherlands, because the transport distance is greater in Germany than in the Netherlands.

Base: transport performance in tonne-kilometres

16


Modal split inland navigation on European level and forecast up to 2040

% Modal split 1995-2010

billion tkms 1995-2010

% Modal split IWT low scenario

billion tkms low scenario

% Modal split IWT medium scenario

billion tkms medium scenario

% Modal split IWT high scenario

billion tkms high scenario billion tonnes / km

IWT = Inland Waterway Transport 7%

500 450

6%

Modal split inland navigation

400 5%

350 300

4%

250 3%

200 150

2%

100 1% 50 0%

1995

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

0 2040

The modal split for inland navigation as compared to road and rail transport has decreased over the years. Although transport performance has increased, road transport grew much faster. The forecast for 2040 shows low, medium and high scenarios. Both the transport performance and the modal share of inland navigation in 2013 exceed the three forecast lines in the graph.

Source: NEA

Average forecast for freight transport per types of goods

450

2007 = 100

400

2020 (min) 2020 (max)

350

2040 (min) 2040 (max)

300 250 200 150 100 50

Source: Medium and long term perspectives of IWT in the EU - NEA et al

17

Total

Building materials

Agribulk

Petroleum and chemicals

Steel industry

Coal for power stations

Goods in containers

0 Regarding product groups, the expected growth for inland waterway transport is the largest for the container transport product group.


European goods transport by mode and destination, 2013 Domestic

International

Belgium Rail transport** Inland navigation Road transport*

37

19 143

44

44

249

Germany

In 2013 inland navigation transport in all four countries was mainly internationally oriented. Road transport, on the other hand, was primarily used for domestic transport, which is mainly short haul. Rail transport in the Netherlands and Belgium is predominantly internationally oriented, whilst this mode has a more national function in Germany and France. The rural infrastructure creates the frameworks here.

Rail transport Inland navigation Road transport*

247

126

55

172 2,810

111

France Rail transport Inland navigation Road transport*

60

29

32

37 43

1,954

Netherlands Rail transport Inland navigation Road transport*

3

36 104

252 470

104

* International road transport bilateral. ** Belgian rail transport: figures dating from 2011 Unit: Quantity x 1 million tonnes

Source: Eurostat

Modal split for hinterland container transport of EU seaports, 2013

Rotterdam

Inland navigation Rail transport Road transport

Hamburg 2%

35%

54%

39% 59%

11%

In the north-western European seaports road transport is the main mode for transporting containers to the hinterland. In the German seaports rail transport comes second after road transport. In Rotterdam and Antwerp inland navigation accounts for a major share of the hinterland transport.

Antwerp

3%

36%

57%

50%

47%

7% Source: Port of Rotterdam, Port of Hamburg, Port of Antwerp, The Ports of Bremen

The power of inland navigation

Bremerhaven

Unit: Shares on the basis of quantities in TEUs

18


Modal split for container terminals in the hinterland, 2014

Road transport

Rail transport

TEU

TEU

Inland navigation

Total

TEU

Germany Aschaffenburg

16,439

46.9%

13,877

39.6%

4,761

13.6%

35,077

Berlin

29,823

25.7%

86,279

74.3%

24

0.0%

116,126

7,505

12.5%

11,002

18.3%

41,771

69.3%

60,278

Duisburg1

1,469,000

48.7%

1,092,000

36.2%

455,000

15.1%

3,016,000

Emmerich

no data

no data

20,053

14.8%

115,583

85.2%

135,636

Frankfurt

no data

no data

38,991

47.0%

44,030

53.0%

83,021

Halle/Saale

19,593

32.9%

39,893

67.1%

0

0.0%

59,486

Hannover2

0

0.0%

20,589

28.4%

51,834

71.6%

72,423

Karlsruhe

no data

no data

no data

no data

26,763

100.0%

26,763

Kehl

63,483

68.7%

1,167

1.3%

27,749

30.0%

92,399

Krefeld

91,279

62.3%

35,750

24.4%

19,593

13.4%

146,622

Ludwigshafen1

no data

no data

no data

no data

83,360

100.0%

83,360

Mannheim

no data

no data

no data

no data

140,823

100.0%

140,823

Braunschweig

79,642

59.8%

35,007

26.3%

18,509

13.9%

133,158

Nurnberg1

443,861

62.5%

266,386

37.5%

0

0.0%

710,247

Regensburg und Passau

102,760

50.0%

102,760

50.0%

no data

no data

205,520

Rheincargo1

616,000

50.9%

314,000

26.0%

280,000

23.1%

1,210,000

no data

no data

51,774

60.5%

33,839

39.5%

85,613

4,579

11.5%

1,227

3.1%

33,995

85.4%

39,801

no data

no data

22,129

16.4%

112,427

83.6%

134,556

no data

no data

17,379

15.3%

96,251

84.7%

113,630

Lille1

17,858

26.2%

0

0.0%

50,199

73.8%

68,057

Lüttich4

no data

no data

no data

no data

24,813

100.0%

24,813

Mulhouse Ottmarsheim

43,681

55.7%

3,740

4.8%

31,059

39.6%

78,480

Paris Terminal SA4

265,423

65.7%

9,838

2.4%

128,440

31.8%

403,701

Strasbourg

230,027

55.6%

66,060

16.0%

117,480

28.4%

413,567

Enns

137,216

48.3%

146,287

51.5%

348

0.1%

283,851

Linz/Donau1

111,967

57.0%

84,333

42.9%

280

0.1%

196,580

Vienna3

238,395

50.0%

238,395

50.0%

333

0.1%

477,123

Minden

Stuttgart Weil am Rhein Wörth4

Switzerland Basel2

France

Austria

¹ Figures for 2013 ² Figures for January-November 2014 ³ Figures for road transport and rail transport are not recorded separately. The data is therefore divided in two. 4 Figures for 2012

Total transhipment volume of other major container terminals (modal split unknown): * Germany: Andernach - 132,540 TEU (2013), Bonn - 192,939 TEU (2014), Dortmund - 298,214 TEU (2013), Mainz - 109,147 TEU (2013) * Netherlands (2014): Groningen - 50,000 TEU, Meppel - 47,600 TEU, Leeuwarden - 27,250 TEU, Hengelo: 2013 - 51,000 TEU

Source: Schiffahrt, Hafen, Bahn und Technik and VITO

19

On average, inland navigation has a large share of the container terminal transport in the hinterland of the seaports.


Short sea transport of containers in EU countries Belgium Spain

Italy Germany

Netherlands UK

50,000 The total short sea transport of containers from/to EU-28 ports in 2013 amounted to 249 million tonnes (28.6 million TEUs). The amount of goods in containers has increased by 36% since 2005. Belgium’s load size has increased the most, i.e. by 87% between 2005 and 2013. The Dutch short sea container transport also increased in that period, namely by 20% to 33 million tonnes in 2013. Containerised cargo from/ to Italy declined sharply after 2009, but transport from/to Italy has improved again since 2011. Germany has the most short sea container transport in terms of tonnage.

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000 2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Source: Eurostat

2012

2013

Unit: Weight x 1,000 tonnes

Transport performance of inland container transport to countries, EU-28 2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2,000

1,500

The Netherlands and Germany boast 89% of container transport by inland navigation in the EU-28. Since 2011, the container transport in the Netherlands has been larger than that of Germany. The Netherlands’ share of the transport is increasing every year. 84% of the containers transported in the EU-28 countries in 2011 were transported by inland navigation over Dutch territory.

1,000

500

0 Belgium

Germany

Source: Eurostat

The power of inland navigation

France

Netherlands

EU-28 total

Unit: Quantity x 1 million TEU-km

20


Goods transport: transport flows from, to and in the Netherlands

2004: 1,639 million tonnes 2013: 1,701 million tonnes (+4%)

incoming by sea and air 352 407 +16%

outgoing by land 344 340 -1% domestic 575

524 -9%

outgoing by sea and air

incoming by land

113 174 +54%

175

159 -9%

transit 80 98 +23%

Source: KiM

The total flow of cargo amounted to 1,701 million tonnes in 2013. Between 2004 and 2013 the transported weight of all modes combined increased by four per cent. Domestic transport has declined almost continuously since 2007. The slump in the construction sector is a major contributor to this decline.

Unit: Weight x 1 million tonnes

Cargo tonne-kilometre performance in the Netherlands 2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

80,000

70,000

60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000 0 Road transport**

Inland navigation*

Rail transport*

* Transport over Dutch territory ** Domestic and bilateral transport by Dutch companies Unit: Quantity x 1 million tonne-km

Source: Eurostat

21

The transport performance of modes can be compared on the basis of the cargo tonne-kilometre performance, which takes not only the weight but also the transported distance into account. The significance of inland navigation increases in that case. Unfortunately, the basis of the statistics is not entirely comparable. For the best possible comparison, the volume of the road transport over Dutch territory by foreign transporters should be added and the foreign share of the bilateral transport should be deducted.


Transported weight in the Netherlands 2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

600

500

400

The road, inland navigation and rail modes are usually compared on the basis of the transported weight (tonnage). In 2013 the road transport’s share is 59%, inland navigation 37% and rail transport 4%. The figures for 2014 for road transport are not yet available. In 2014 inland navigation transported 367 million tonnes of goods in the Netherlands. Since 2009 the carried weight has increased in volume by 35% to exceed the peak years 2007 and 2008.

300

200

100

0 Road transport*

Inland navigation

Rail transport * Road figures for 2014 unknown Unit: Quantity x 1 million tonnes

Source: Eurostat, Statistics Netherlands, edited by BVB

Multimodal hinterland transport of containers from Rotterdam

Sea-sea

Inland navigation

12,000

Road

Rail

50%

10,000

40%

8,000 30%

6,000 20%

4,000 The modal split share of sea-sea transit increased considerably between 2006 and 2011 at the expense of road transport. The sea transit share is 35% in 2013. Inland navigation has a share of 22%, and 35% not counting the sea transit.

2,000

10%

0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Unit: Number of ‘movements’ x 1,000 TEU

Source: Port of Rotterdam

The power of inland navigation

22

2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Base: number of ‘movements’ x 1,000 TEU


Types of goods transported via inland navigation, 2013

Metal ores and mining products Coke and refined petroleum products Agricultural products, meat & fish Food, beverages and tobacco Coal and crude oil Chemicals, rubber and plastic Metals & metal products Secondary raw products and waste Other goods

EU-28

19%

30%

3% 4%

8%

9%

16% 4%

Source: Eurostat

7%

Inland navigation transports virtually all types of cargo. Large amounts of metal ores, raw minerals, chemicals, petroleum (products) and metals are transported safely and reliably via the Blue Road. Agricultural products, food and beverages also find their way to their destination via the rivers. The goods distribution for the Netherlands is comparable to the breakdown included in the chart for the EU-28. This can be explained by the fact that the Netherlands carries as much as 67% of the European tonnage.

Unit: Percentage based on transported weight

Transport of hazardous substances by mode in the Netherlands, 2010-2013

Road Rail Inland navigation Pipeline

6% 2%

52%

40%

Estimates based on provisional figures. Source: CBS

Unit: Percentage based on transported weight

23

According to estimates based on provisional figures, the CBS has calculated that an average of 216 - 220 million tonnes of hazardous substances were transported in the Netherlands between 2010 and 2013. About half of the hazardous substances in/ through the Netherlands is transported via a pipeline. Inland navigation transports 40%. To optimise the safety of the transport of hazardous substances, inland navigation deploys double-hull vessels.


The value of waterways

Source: INE / Migalski

3


3 The value of waterways In the spring of 2015 the city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch in the southern Netherlands celebrated the opening of the brand new Máxima Canal. A mass of people congregated, huge balloons were released, there was cannon fire and a large choir of school children sang for Queen Máxima a song specially composed for the occasion. The Dutch Queen opened the canal that is named after her. The Máxima Canal is no more than nine kilometres long and actually serves to divert a 180-year-old waterway that runs through the centre of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. Still, it was quite a celebration, because even in the Netherlands with more than its fair share of water, a new canal is only rarely added to its extensive network of waterways. Waterways require high investments and the need for them must be indisputably proven before a political agreement is reached to take such a drastic measure. Both the festivities and the investment prove the social significance of waterways. Rivers have played a significant role since ancient times in the development of civilisation. Most settlements – which later developed into towns and cities – were established along rivers, partly because water was then available for farming, but definitely and not least because of the transport possibilities rivers provide. Although all major ports are naturally connected to the hinterland by a river, they do not make equally intensive use of those rivers. The availability of trade routes over water is a great advantage for a centre of industry or commerce. It takes much less energy to move an unwieldy or very heavy object if you manage to float it on water. It is not for nothing that shipping is the oldest and still the most extensive branch of transport. There is no alternative mode of transport on the high seas. In continental Europe, inland navigation has a major share of all inland transport. Major rivers like the Rhine, Danube, Meuse, Rhône and Scheldt provide an extensive arsenal of easily navigable transport routes, linked by man, resulting in an intricate network of canals and rivers. The benefits of inland navigation are universal. A sizeable fleet of barges navigates several of China’s large rivers. Brazil (Amazon) and the USA (Mississippi/Missouri) also have mighty, natural waterways. The Rhine is the busiest river in the world. This approximately 1,000 km long river flowing between Basel (Switzerland) and Rotterdam constitutes the aorta of Northwest Europe. The economic success of this region is often associated with the presence of the Rhine, which was described as the ‘bearer of prosperity’ when the Mannheim Convention of 1868 was drawn up. It is thanks to this convention that there is free shipping on the Rhine, including the connections to the sea. This international treaty was created nearly a century before the European Union came into being and remained intact during the tumultuous first half of the twentieth century. The value of waterways cannot be stressed any better than that.

25


Length of navigable rivers, canals and lakes around the world

United States 41,000 km

Brazil 50,000 km

Approximately 65 countries in the world have a network of navigable waterways in excess of 1,000 km. Inland navigation is underdeveloped on most of these waterways. China is in pole position with 110,000 navigable kilometres. Countries wanting to develop their own inland navigation are making increasing claims on Europe’s inland navigation know-how. Source: CIA

The power of inland navigation

26


Russia 102,000 km

European Union 53,000 km

China 110,000 km

Top 5 longest navigable rivers China 110,000 km

Russia 102,000 km

EU-27 Member States 53,384 km

Brazil 50,000 km

United States 41,009 km

27

The network of waterways of the European Union comprises more than 53,000 kilometres of canals, rivers and lakes, of which 41,500 kilometres is regularly used for transport purposes. The zone with the busiest navigable network covers more than 20,000 kilometres of waterways, mainly concentrated in the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, France and Austria. These waterways provide a link to the ports on the one hand and major industrial areas and cities on the other.


Transport flows in Northwest Europe 2010

Hamburg Amsterdam

Berlin

Rotterdam

London

Brussels

Frankfurt

Prague

Luxemburg Paris M端nchen Basel

Geneva Lyon

Milan

Vienna

Lubljana

Bordeaux

Toulouse

Marseille

Barcelona Napels

Madrid

The lines on the map represent the transport flows in Northwest Europe by road, rail and inland navigation. The transport intensity is the highest in the Rhine basin. Several intensive flows of goods are concentrated here. This clearly shows that transport by river is extremely practicable. The maximum capacity on the waterways is far from being reached; there is still enough capacity on the busiest waterways to transport twice as much cargo. Logistics chains can be optimised through the clever combination of the various modes.

Transport flows (sum of all land modes) > 100 million tonnes 50 tot 100 million tonnes < 50 million tonnes

Source: Panteia

The power of inland navigation

28


Main waterways network and planned expansions

Planned To be improved

Kiel

Szcezcin

Hamburg Bremen

Berlin

Hannover Emmerich Dunkerque Gent Calais

Duisburg Köln Bonn

Brussel Namur Liège

Le Havre

Koblenz

Paris

Trier

Reims

Dresden Děčin

FrankfurtWürzburg

Praha

Mainz Mannheim

Metz

Regensburg Nancy

Migennes

ntes

Karlsruhe Stuttgart Strasbourg

Passau

Linz Enns

Basel

Bordeaux Lyon Venezia

Valence

Avignon Fos-s-Mer Port-st-Louis du-Rhone

The European Commission intends to carry out a number of infrastructural improvements. The map shows the waterways of the Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T). This network comprises all class IV waterways. New canals and improvements to the existing infrastructure are depicted on the map. Source: BVB, TENtec GIS System - European Commission

29


Navigable waterways and main inland ports in the Netherlands, 2010 Seaports bulk transhipment > 10 million tonnes Bulk transhipment between 3 and 10 million tonnes Bulk transhipment between 2 and 3 million tonnes Bulk transhipment up to 2 million tonnes

Seaports bulk transhipment > 10 million tonnes Bulk transhipment between 3 and 10 million tonnes Bulk transhipment between 2 and 3 million tonnes Bulk transhipment up to 2 million tonnes

Eemsmond

W

AD

D

EN

SE

Dokkum

A

Delfzijl

Harlingen

Franeker

Winschoten Veendam Drachten

Texel

Sneek Heerenveen Eemsmond Lemmer

Schagen

W

Alkmaar

AD

D

EN

SE

Dokkum

A

Emmen Delfzijl

Harlingen

Coevorden

Franeker Drachten

Kampen Purmerend Texel

A

Sneek

Zaandam

IJmuiden

Heerenveen

H

Almelo

NO

RT

Harderwijk Lemmer Schagen Loenen

Deventer

Hengelo

Nijkerk Meppel Lochem

The Hague

Emmen

Hoogeveen Coevorden

Zutphen Alkmaar Markermeer

Kampen Purmerend

Zwijndrecht

Gorinchem

RT

Tiel Geldermalsen

Deventer

Nijkerk

The Hague

Gennep Lochem Zutphen

Veghel Best

Roosendaal

Meerlo-Wanssum

Goes Vlissingen

Helmond

Doetinchem

Wageningen Terneuzen

Hengelo

Cuijk

Loenen Geertruidenberg Oosterhout

Zwijndrecht

Gorinchem

Tiel Geldermalsen Nederweert Oss

Zevenbergen

Leudal

Cuijk Roermond Maashouw Gennep

Geertruidenberg Oosterhout

Roosendaal Goes Vlissingen

Best

Veghel Sittard-Geleen, Born Meerlo-Wanssum

Stein Helmond

Terneuzen Nederweert

Leudal

Roermond Maashouw

Sittard-Geleen, Born Stein

Source: NVB, Ecorys, edited by BVB

The power of inland navigation

Almelo

Harderwijk

Oss Zevenbergen

Doetinchem

Wageningen

Zaandam

H

SE

A

IJmuiden

NO

The Dutch inland ports have an important logistics function. Direct employment is 66,700 with a direct added value of 8.2 billion euros (2011). The Blue Ports report (2012) of the Dutch Federation of Inland Ports mentioned that the inland ports of Utrecht, Cuijk and Hengelo boast the largest volume of bulk transhipment. The main container terminals in 2011 were Oosterhout (160,000 TEUs), Born (125,000 TEUs) and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s-Hertogenbosch (120,000 TEUs). Unfortunately, it was not possible to obtain more recent transhipment and employment data in ports and terminals.

Winschoten Veendam

Markermeer

SE

Hoogeveen

Meppel

30


Transhipment from or to inland navigation in Dutch inland ports, 2014 Containers

Dry bulk

Liquid bulk

6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

ijk Cu

ijl

eg en en dr ec ht â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s -H St er ei to n ge nb os ch G en ne p M ep pe l D ie m en

N

M

Pa p

ijm

fz

el

H

D

el

o

Ti

lo

ge l

en

ss O

Ve n

ric ht st

aa

U

tr ec ht

0

Source: Panteia, RWS

Based on the ship passage data of Rijkswaterstaat (the Dutch DirectorateGeneral for Public Works and Water Management (RWS)), research agency Panteia compiled a list of the top 15 inland ports in terms of transhipment quantities. The largest quantities are transhipped in the inland ports of the municipalities of Utrecht and Maastricht. The transhipment of dry bulk holds a top position in these 15 inland ports. Transhipments in Diemen increased significantly as a result of the large-scale supply of sand for the new sand underlay of motorway A1 at Muiden in connection with the construction of the aqueduct and the rerouting and widening of the A1.

Unit: Quantity x 1,000 tonnes

Container transhipment in Dutch inland ports per municipality, 2014 200

150

100

50

he l ar de n

Le

eu

w

el ep p

Ve g

M

om

lb ur g Ti

pe n

Zo

op

Ka m

er ge n

B

N ijm

e

ge Gr D n on en in B ge os nW c h es te rb ro ek

H en

ge lo

lo Ve n

n or B

te ch t

ra y

U

Ve n

Al

ph

en

aa

n

de

Ri

jn

0

Source: Panteia, RWS

Unit: Quantity x 1,000 TEU

31

In terms of container transhipment in inland ports, the port of Alphen aan de Rijn clearly ranks the highest in 2014. The inland ports of Utrecht, Born, Venlo and Nijmegen transhipped close to equal quantities. Research agency Panteia compiled a list of the top 15 inland ports for container transhipment based on ship passage data of Rijkswaterstaat.


Amount of inland navigation vessel traffic per lock in the Netherlands

The staff working the Dutch locks keep track of the passing shipping traffic each time a barge passes through a lock. No tally is kept of shipping traffic passing through the weir canal, around a lock or through an open lock. The vast majority of barges pass through the Volkerak locks. The busiest shipping traffic is on the river Rhine, but that traffic is not counted since there are no locks on the Rhine.

Counting point

Waterway

2011

2012

Zeesluis Farnsum

Eemskanaal

11,716

10,970

Oostersluis

Van Starkenborghkanaal

13,799

13,289

Gaarkeukensluis

Van Starkenborghkanaal

14,293

13,577

Prinses Margrietsluis

Prinses Margrietkanaal

17,696

18,166

Tsjerk Hiddessluis

Van Harinxmakanaal

Sluis Eefde

Twenthekanaal

Spooldersluis

3,956

3,961

13,801

10,661

Ramsdiep

5,966

5,176

Sluis Driel

Nederrijn

8,528

8,060

Sluis Hagestein

Lek

7,752

7,453

Sluis Weurt

Maas-Waalkanaal

34,157

30,320

Henriettesluis

Gekanaliseerde Dieze

13,212

13,962

Sluis 15

Zuid-Willemsvaart

2,723

2,544

Sluis Panheel

Kanaal Wessem-Nederweert

6,834

5,072

Kreekraksluizen

Schelde-Rijnverbinding

72,412

68,234

Sluis Terneuzen

Kanaal Gent-Terneuzen

58,169

55,668

Sluis Vlissingen

Kanaal door Walcheren

6,107

5,562

Sluis Hansweert

Kanaal door Zuid-Beveland

43,661

43,559

Volkeraksluizen

Schelde-Rijnverbinding

114,412

110,331

Krammersluizen

Schelde-Rijnverbinding

41,636

42,211

Sluis Belfeld

Gekanaliseerde Maas

23,330

21,692

Sluis Sambeek

Gekanaliseerde Maas

29,244

27,049

Sluis Grave

Gekanaliseerde Maas

15,677

13,931

Prinses Maximasluizen

Maas

17,990

16,099

Sluis Born

Julianakanaal

23,474

21,335

Sluis Maasbracht

Julianakanaal

24,814

22,363

Sluis Heel

Lateraalkanaal

21,379

18,667

Algerasluis

Sluis te Krimpen a/d IJssel

119

118

Julianasluis

Gouwekanaal

7,744

7,913

Prinses Irenesluis

Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal

38,083

35,131

Prins Bernardsluis

Amsterdam-Rijnkanaal

22,879

32,220

Prinses Beatrixsluis

Lekkanaal

50,610

48,984

Houtribsluizen

IJsselmeer

32,581

31,055

Oranjesluizen

Binnen-IJ

44,142

41,318

Krabbergatsluizen

IJsselmeer

5,961

4,566

Lorentzsluizen

IJsselmeer

2,708

2,578

Stevinsluis

IJsselmeer

2,015

2,298

Lobith (CBS)

Boven-Rijn

124,774

no data

Source: RWS, DVS

The power of inland navigation

32


Container transport via the Dutch inland waterways 2012

< 10,000 TEU 10,000 - 100,000 TEU 100,0000-1,000,000 TEU > 1,000,000 TEU Terminal Planned terminal

Groningen

19,500 Delfzijl 121,500

Harlingen

Veendam

151,000

16,000

Meppel Alkmaar Lelystad Zaandam

Velsen

Harderwijk

Amsterdam

The Hague

152,500 Rotterdam

35,000

611,000 36,500

Moerdijk 1,671,500 Oosterhout

Terneuzen 186,500

Medel 64,500

Ridderkerk

Vlissingen

Hengelo 86,000

648,500 Utrecht

Alphen a/d Rijn

Europoort

Kampen

255,000

100,800

Nijmegen 1,727,500

Oss

Den Bosch Cuijk 219,000 Waalwijk Veghel 57,500 Tilburg

Wanssum

Helmond

1,329,500 93,000

Venlo

Antwerp

Gent Born 9,500

Source: RWS, DVS

33

The Netherlands has a good network for transporting containers by water. The map shows the distribution of the inland container navigation in the Netherlands. Some waterways transport more than one million TEU. The short distance transport of containers by inland navigation is proving to be increasingly more profitable.


Impression of Dutch inland container navigation terminals in 2020

Function of inland container navigation terminals in 2020 Seaports with international hub function Terminals with national trimodal function Terminals with container transfer point function Terminals with national function Terminals with regional function

Dokkum

Delfzijl

Harlingen

Winschoten

Franeker

Drachten

Veendam

Sneek

Texel

Heerenveen

Emmen

Lemmer

Schagen

Meppel

Alkmaar

Hoogeveen Coevorden

Kampen

Purmerend

Zaandam Almelo Harderwijk

Deventer

Nijkerk

Loenen

Lochem Zutphen

The Hague Wageningen

Doetinchem Tiel Zwijndrecht

Gorinchem Geldermalse

Oss Zevenbergen

Cuijk

Geertruidenberg

Oosterhout

Goes Vlissingen

Gennep

Veghel

Best

Roosendaal

Helmond

Terneuzen

Meerlo-Wanssum

Nederweert Leudal Roermond Maasgouw Sittard-Geleen, Born

Stein

No container transhipment < 20,000 B端ckman (2010) expects that the Dutch container terminals will have sufficient capacity to handle container transport up to 2020. This is partly due to the planned investments in almost all major terminals.

20,000 - 40,000 40,000 - 80,000 80,000 - 200,000 >200,000

Source: B端ckman et al (2010)

The power of inland navigation

34

Hengelo


Categories of European waterways (ECMT)* Category

Type of Tonnage motorized vessel (tonnes)

0

Leisure

< 250

Spits

250 400

II

Campine vessel

400 650

III

DortmundEems canal vessel

650 1,000

IV

Rhine Herne canal vessel

Va

Large Rhine vessel

Vb

Push convoy (2 barges)

-

Vla

Push convoy (2 barges)

-

Vlb

Push convoy (4 barges)

Vlc

Vlc

I

Formation push convoy -

Length (m)

Width (m)

-

-

-

-

Height (m) -

1.8 2.2

4

38.5

-

-

50 55

6.6

2.5

4.0 5.0

-

1,250 1,450

67 80

8.2

2.5

4.0 5.0

1,000 1,500

1,600 3,000

80 85

9.5

2.5 2.8

5.25 / 7

1,500 3,000

3,200 6,000

95 110

11.4

2.5 2.8

5.25 / 7

3,200 6,000

172 185

11.4

2.5 4.5

9.1

-

6,400 12,000

185 195

22.8

2.5 4.5

7.1 9.1

Push convoy (6 barges)

-

9,600 18,000

270 280

22.8

2.5 4.5

9.1

Push convoy (6 barges)

-

9,600 18,000

193 200

33 34.2

2.5 4.5

9.1

*European Conference of Ministers of Transport

5.05

Draught (m)

-

Source: ECMT

-

Tonnage (tonnes)

The official categories of the European waterways network is based on the ECMT standards as drawn up during the European Conference of Ministers of Transport in Paris.

Standard push barge dimensions: 76.5 m x 11.40 m

Length of waterways per country by ECMT category, 2011

Country

I

II

III

Belgium

533

484

127

6,936

792

591

France

6,692

580

149

194

2,891

200

Germany

1,012

395

388

2,989

4,396

3,292

12,472

240

1,567

306

1,197

1,581

1,337

6,228

Netherlands

IV

V

VI

Austria 17

Switzerland 110

1,761

1,905

275

Source: NEA

Total 9,463

196

10,902

37

37

Luxembourg

Poland

VII

360

360

5

22

151

4,202

Unit: Kilometers

35

The table shows the length of the waterways in the Rhine, east-west and northsouth corridor. Although Germany, France and Belgium boast longer waterways, the largest tonnage of goods is transported over the Dutch waterways, amounting to no less than 367 thousand tonnes in 2014.


4 The versatile fleet

Source: Annemarie van Oers


4 The versatile fleet There are barges to fit every kind of transport. The range of barges is enough to guarantee anyone, from insider to incidental spectator, an enjoyable afternoon out on the banks of a waterway, watching the barges pass by. But that variety of barges and equipment was not designed for onlookers. Demand induced them. The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, France, Switzerland, Austria and Luxembourg all have a versatile fleet of barges. A large part of those fleets is new or relatively new. Barges give years of service and the older types have either been or are being successfully adapted to meet the current wants and needs of logistics. Over the years, the waterways largely determined the shape and especially the size of barges. The use of all those different designs has its own dynamics. Thanks to their diversity, water transport, especially for containers, is the backbone of many a clever logistics concept. The biggest barges navigate the river Rhine, which uniquely has no locks between southern Germany and the North Sea; consequently, there is virtually no limit to the length of the barges. Pushed convoys with four to six pushed barges are no exception on the Rhine. Coupled formations – motorised barges with a push barge in front– measure over 200 metres in length and are navigated with great skill up and down the meandering river. The shape and equipment of the barges also depend on the type of cargo. By far the most well- known is the dry-cargo barge or freighter, either open or with hatches above the hold. These barges, all of different sizes, transport millions of tonnes of animal feed, coal, fertiliser, phosphates, corn and other bulk goods over the European waterways every year. Agriculture and industry cannot do without the supply of these raw materials and fuels by water. When the ‘bulk’ cargo is liquid cargo, the barges are tankers with an ingenious system of interconnected or separate tanks. The intricate pipeline on deck connects to the terminals along the waterways. Here, too, the load determines the barge’s design. Naturally, the transport of large quantities of hazardous, flammable and toxic substances is subject to strict conditions. Transport by tanker is undisputedly the safest way to move this kind of cargo. Freight barges and tanker barges have developed in different directions. Well barges are cargo vessels that, through their construction, can transport (wet) sand in an open hold. The hold dimensions of container barges are precisely tailored to the size of containers. Container barges can raise their wheelhouse to look over the stacked containers. Bunker tankers have special equipment on board to pump their cargo into the fuel tanks of large seagoing vessels. This modern industry keeps up with the times and responds to developments in the logistics sector. Consequently, there is a barge to suit virtually every logistics system.

37


Flag Shares of Western European inland navigation in percentages, April 2015

6

2

3

Cargo capacity x 1,000 tonnes

Country 4

According to the database of the IVR, the Western European inland navigation fleet has a cargo capacity of 15 million tonnes. Over half of the tonnage sails under the Dutch flag.

Share

1

Luxembourg

2

Switzerland

3

France

4

Germany1

5

Netherlands

9,414

62%

6

Belgium

1,898

12%

15,206

100%

TOTAL

5

50

0%

171

1%

982

6%

2,691

18%

Note: The data from various sources varies, partly because of differences in definitions. 1

Data as of 31 December 2013

Source: IVR, FOD Mobiliteit & Vervoer, France, ZBBD

Flag Shares of Western European inland navigation, April 2015

Belgium* 1,696 vessels

France 2,003 vessels

4%

20%

21%**

4%

Note: The sources of information provide substantially differing data (see note on page 41).

The power of inland navigation

26%

7%

5%

The pie charts clearly show a difference in the composition of the fleet in each country. In France, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium, the majority of the fleet consists of dry cargo vessels. Luxembourg and Switzerland have a significantly smaller fleet and their distribution of vessel types differs as well.

Germany*** 3,840 vessels

45%

4%

12%

68% 11%

59%

14%

Luxembourg 45 vessels

Netherlands 10,252 vessels

Switzerland 209 vessels

7%

16%

7%

9%

11%

9%

24% 12% 40%

36%

58% 57%

11%

* Source: FOD Mobiliteit & Vervoer ** Source: France *** Source: ZBBD Source: IVR

38

3%

Dry Cargo fleet Liquid cargo fleet Push boats and towboats Passenger ships Other


Number of new vessels in Western European inland navigation Belgium

France

Germany

Luxembourg

Netherlands

Switzerland

300

250

200

150

100

50

0 2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

Source: IVR

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

During the last ten years (2005-2014) the Western European fleet has expanded by approximately 1,700 new vessels, 65% of which sail under the Dutch flag. Most newly built vessels were commissioned in 2009, in which year almost 350 vessels were added to the Western European fleet.

NOTE: Years of registration of import/construction are never definite.

Inland navigation fleet per construction year per country 1880-1930

1931-1950

1951-1980

1981-2014

100 12%

90

35% 80

36%

30%

33%

70 60 79%

62%

50 40

46% 30

44%

8%

20 9%

19%

7%

11%

12%

9%

10 0 Source: IVR

43%

47%

18% 19%

11% Belgium

7% France

Germany

Luxembourg

39

2% 1% Netherlands

Switzerland

Vessels are very durable. With proper maintenance and regular investments, vessels have a lifespan of over 50 years. The older types of vessels have been and are being successfully updated so as to meet the requirements and needs of modern-day logistics.


Average growth in tonnage of the Western European fleet Tanker fleet

Dry cargo fleet

3,000

2,500

2,000

Increases in scale have been a major trend in inland navigation over the last decades. Vessels that are added to the fleet have, on average, an increasingly greater cargo capacity. This is evident in the graph showing the average vessel size by shipbuilding years. The scale of vessels in the tanker fleet increased enormously between 2000 and 2010 due to the upsurge in investments in double hull tankers.

1,500

1,000

500

0 19511960

19611970

19711980

19811990

2001- 20112010 2015

19912000

Source: IVR

Unit: Quantity in tonnes

Composition of the European inland navigation fleet, 2013 Composition of the tanker fleet

Composition of the dry cargo fleet About half of the tanker fleet has a cargo capacity of over 2,500 tonnes. In recent years, many large tankers (> 5,000 tonnes) were added to the fleet. These are mainly deployed in the so-called ARA region (Amsterdam-RotterdamAntwerp). Dry cargo vessels are more differentiated in terms of size. The smaller vessels can penetrate into the capillaries of the waterway network. According to STC Nestra and based on CCNR Market observation, the total tonnage of the Western European fleet comes to 10 million tonnes for dry cargo vessels and 3 million tonnes for tankers.

4%

3% 16% 26%

41%

54%

28%

11%

< 400 tonnes 400 - 1,000 tonnes 1,000 - 2,000 tonnes 2,000 - 2,500 tonnes > 2,500 tonnes Source: STC-NESTRA, CCNR

The power of inland navigation

17%

40


Motor cargo Motor vessels cargo vessels

Pushed barges Pushed barges

Towboats Towboats

Push boats Push boats

Motor cargo Motor tankers cargo tankers

Pushed tankers Pushed tankers

Inland navigation fleet data, 2013

887

758

122

226

366

41

Western European Inland navigation fleet*, 2013 Germany

Western European Inland navigation fleet*, 2013 1,003 258 10 95 Belgium Germany France

887

758

122

226

187

6

366

41

In the Western European member states, motor cargo vessels constitute the largest share of the total fleet. In Poland and the Czech Republic, the share of pushed barges is noticeably high in proportion to motor cargo vessels. The dry cargo segment expressed in numbers of vessels is significantly larger than the liquid cargo segment. The Dutch fleet has by far the largest number of vessels in the Western European inland navigation fleet.

839

372

0

11

37

44

Belgium Luxembourg

1,003

258

10

95

187

6

7

0

3

7

15

1

France Netherlands

839

372

0

11

37

44

2,740

998

408

593

839

18

7

0

3

7

15

1

14

2

4

2

50

3

Netherlands Poland (2010)

2,740

998

408

593

839

18

71

571

17

192

0

0

Switzerland Czech Republic

14

2

4

2

50

3

32

119

**

83

0

0

NOTE: In addition to the

Poland (2010) Total

71

571

17

192

0

0

CCNR, the IVR (International

5,593

3,078

564

1,209

1,494

113

Association for Inland Navigation

Czech Republic

32

119

**

83

0

0

and Insurance in Europe) and Van

Luxembourg Switzerland

* The size of the Western European inland navigation fleet differs significantly between the various sources. ** Combined push boat and towboat data.

Total

5,593

3,078

564

1,209

1,494

113

Hassel - University of Antwerp also provide statistics on the size of the Western European

Source: Central Commission for the ofEuropean the Rhineinland (CCNR), European Commission, Panteia - between based onthe national Dry cargo of Danube states, 2013fleet * The size of Navigation the fleet Western navigation differs significantly varioussources sources. ** Combined push boat and towboat data.

Austria1

6

publish differs substantially.

0

10

Dry cargo fleet of Danube states, 2013 31 141 2 Slovakia

39

definition. It is as yet impossible

Austria1 Hungary2 Slovakia Romania2

54

fleet . The data these sources

be explained by differences in

6

54

0

10

to know which source has the

72

285

49

23

best data.

31

141

2

39

103

1,131

64

163

Hungary2 Bulgaria

72

285

49

23

55

161

13

42

Romania2 Moldova3

103

1,131

64

163

17

26

10

1

Bulgaria Croatia

55

161

13

42

13

119

30

10

Moldova3 Serbia

17

26

10

1

97

408

94

65

Croatia Ukraine

13

119

30

10

35

341

5

71

Serbia Total

97

408

94

65

423

2,612

267

414

35

341

5

71

267

414

Ukraine

These disparities can partially

1 Austria: data pertaining to 2010, source: CCNR 2 Hungary and Romania: data pertaining to 2012 2,612 Total data pertaining 423 3 Moldova: to 2008

The number of pushed barges in the dry cargo fleet of the Danube states is noticeably large in relation to the number of motor cargo vessels, towboats and push boats. Romania has by far the largest dry cargo fleet of the Danube states.

1 Austria: data pertaining to 2010, source: CCNR 2 Hungary and Romania: data pertaining to 2012 3 Moldova: data pertaining to 2008

Source: Danube Commission

Unit: Number of vessels

41


Dry cargo transport

14 to 160 x

• Efficient and environmentally friendly transport of both bulk goods and mixed cargo, from gravel to grain and from coal to wind turbines; • Transport far into the European hinterland, from Hamburg to Marseille and from Rotterdam to Constanta; • Vessels ranging from 362 to 9,000 dwt; so there is a vessel for any shipment volume; • Extremely suited for voluminous (lightweight) goods thanks to holds ranging from 400 m3 to 9,500 m3; • Clients enjoy ‘free storage time’ while vessels are underway; • Flexibility and high level of commitment of the privately owned company.

Transport by tankers

120 to 380 x

• Depending on the cargo, various types of tankers for transporting fuels, chemicals, powdered substances or edible oils; • Transport of everyday products: petrol for vehicles, sunflower oil for margarine, or cement for building; • Vessels ranging from 500 to 12,000 dwt; • Closed and fully automated loading systems; • Separate loading of different products possible; • Strong double-hulled ships and coated tanks for the most environmentally friendly and safe means of transport for chemicals; • Vessels and crew meet strict quality and safety requirements (e.g. EBIS).

The power of inland navigation

42


Container transport

16 to 250 x

• For transporting all types of containers (20, 40, 45 ft, pallet-wide); • By cleverly combining cargo flows, any container on board can contain a different type of cargo; • Air-conditioned transport (by refrigerated container (reefer)) is possible; • Transport from 24 to 500 TEU on one vessel; • Hydraulic wheelhouse (adjustable up to 10 metres) for optimal view and for passing under low bridges; • Sailing 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year; • Due to various high-frequency scheduled services, inland navigation container transport is a reliable link in the logistics chain; • Part of modern intermodal or synchromodal chains; • Track and trace goods with AIS. Push convoys

220 to 660 x

• Large-scale transport, especially of dry bulk, but also for transporting containers; • The biggest (up to 6 barges) push-tow units can transport up to 16,000 tons of cargo at a time; • Various kinds of cargo can be loaded in the separate barges; • Pushed barges can be used for longer term “floating storage”.

Source of images: * Tanker and container vessel: Christian Westerink, www.scheepvaartinbeeld.nl * Push convoy: Leo de Heus

43


The footprint of a sustainable transporter

Source: Annemarie van Oers

5


5 The footprint of a sustainable transporter Water transport is a sustainable mode of transport. What does ‘sustainable’ mean? Many people believe it has something to do with footprints. That is true in a metaphorical sense, but it does need further explanation, starting with the environment: our living environment. Human activities produce waste. It is a daunting task in our complex society to collect and process solid and liquid waste without disagreeable consequences, but it is an impossible task when it comes to the volatile waste we release into the air. There is only one good way to minimise the harmful effect of waste in the air we breathe and that is to produce as little of it as possible. Due to our growing world population striving for ever greater prosperity, the production of goods and energy, agriculture and horticulture and, of course, the transport sector are increasing and so is the production of waste. Our only way out, therefore, is to reduce volatile waste through innovation. Technological innovation can keep harmful substances from entering the atmosphere, such as by making engines more economical and efficient and by using filters. If we manage to achieve the same activity with less waste, then that is a sustainable development. Our environment will remain liveable for much longer and will provide more opportunities for future generations to enjoy mother earth. Innovating to improve the sustainability of our environment can also be achieved by organising things differently. A well-known example is the greater use of public transport instead of everyone using their own means of transport. This ‘cargo bundling’ works in goods transport too. It is ‘simpler’ than with people because goods do not have a will of their own. Transporting as many goods as possible over as much of the ‘distance’ as possible by barge works well. Barges are a relatively sustainable means of transport. Thanks to their cargo-carrying capacity relatively little fuel is consumed in proportion to the tonnage of the transported load. The lower the fuel consumption of an engine is, the fewer harmful nitrogen oxides and particulates it produces. All industries are innovating their technology to reduce the emission of harmful substances and that is true for inland navigation as well. Increasingly more barges run on clean, liquefied natural gas (LNG) – some in combination with electric propulsion– and most engines in barges have become much more economical, besides which a growing number are fitted with effective filters. Moreover, inland navigation emits the lowest amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) of all transport modes due to its low fuel consumption. Although CO2 itself does not pollute the environment, too much CO2 in the atmosphere causes higher average temperatures and that has an effect on the environment due to rising sea levels and extreme weather with floods in some places and severe drought in other places. The total CO2 emission per activity is called a carbon footprint. That is the footprint referred to in the heading of this chapter. Inland navigation boasts a small carbon footprint.

45


CO2 emissions cargo transport in 2009 and 2020 (average bulk and general cargo) TTW* * TTW = Tank to Wheel (propellor) WTW = Well to Wheel (propellor)

WTW

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

Elektric Road transport

Diesel

Rail transport

Rhine Herne canal vessel

Pushing unit

Tanker

Tanker

(90 - 5,000 t)

(5,000 -10,000 t)

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

0

2009

CO2 (carbon dioxide) is the most important greenhouse gas. The capacity of a modality has a significant impact on the emissions. A variety of techniques used to reduce CO2 emissions, among others, are described on pages 50 to 55.

Sea-going vessel

Sea transport

Inland navigation

Source: CE Delft

Unit: g/tonkm

NOX emissions cargo transport in 2009 and 2020 (average bulk and general cargo)

TTW* * TTW = Tank to Wheel (propellor) WTW = Well to Wheel (propellor)

WTW

1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

Elektric Road transport

Diesel

Rail transport

Source: CE Delft

The power of inland navigation

Rhine Herne Pushing unit canal vessel

Inland navigation

Tanker

(90 - 5,000 t)

Tanker

(5,000 -10,000 t)

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

0

2009

NOx (nitrogen oxides) contributes, among other things, to acid rain and smog. Inland vessels can be equipped with SCRcatalysers, as a result of which NOx emissions can be reduced by 85% to 90%. Read more about this on page 52.

Sea-going vessel

Sea transport

Unit: g/tonkm

46


SO2 emissions cargo transport in 2009 and 2020 (average bulk and general cargo)

TTW* * TTW = Tank to Wheel (propellor) WTW = Well to Wheel (propellor)

WTW

0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05

Elektric Road transport

Diesel

Rail transport

Rhine Herne Pushing unit canal vessel

Tanker

Tanker

(90 - 5,000 t)

(5,000 -10,000 t)

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

0

Sea-going vessel

Sea transport

Inland navigation

Source: CE Delft

The level of emissions of SO2 (sulphur dioxide) has been reduced significantly since 2011, when the same lowsulphur fuel used for road transport came available for inland navigation. This fuel contains 99.5% less sulphur. This chart provides a distorted picture, as it includes figures pertaining to the old situation in 2009.

Unit: g/tonkm

PM2,5 emissions cargo transport in 2009 and 2020 (average bulk and general cargo)

TTW* * TTW = Tank to Wheel (propellor) WTW = Well to Wheel (propellor)

WTW

0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01

Elektric Road transport

Diesel

Rail transport

Rhine Herne Pushing unit canal vessel

Inland navigation

Source: CE Delft

Tanker

(90 - 5,000 t)

Tanker

(5,000 -10,000 t)

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

2020

2009

0

Sea-going vessel

Sea transport

Unit: g/tonkm

47

PM2.5; stands for fine particulate matter. The level of the emissions of particulate matter depends partly on the sulphur content in the fuel. Since 2011, the sulphur content in fuel has been greatly reduced. Consequently, the emission of particulate matter is also much lower. Various sustainable techniques reduce the emission of particulate matter. The diesel particulate filter blocks 90% to 95% of particulate matter.


Energy consumption modalities, 2011

3

2.5

This graph shows the energy consumption of some kinds of road, rail and water transport. Each mode of transport demonstrates a significant difference in energy efficiency, but the difference between the modes is even greater. Inland navigation is an energy-efficient mode of transport. Vessels with larger cargo capacities are generally more energy-efficient. The energy consumption per tonne-kilometre of an inland navigation vessel is approximately one-third that of a truck trailer.

2

1.5

1

0.5

Source: CE Delft

Electric train

Diesel train

Pushing unit 2x2

Large Rhine vessel

Rhine Herne canal vessel

Truck Trailer

Lorry (>20 tonnes)

Lorry (10-20 tonnes)

0

CO2 savings as a result of transport by inland navigation Bulk cargo

Savings

40 ft Containers

The transport of dry cargo from the port of Rotterdam to a recipient in the port of Mannheim (DE). The weekly transport quantity is 2,500 tonnes. The decision is to opt for a Class V vessel (110 x 11.40 metres) sailing 18 hours per day.

To illustrate: the weekly CO2 savings generated by this transport equals the CO2 emitted by the production of 66,489 crates of beer.

In this example, the shipper opted to have his 400 40-ft containers per year transported by scheduled inland navigation from Groningen (NL) to Rotterdam. The containers are supplied empty and then transported back loaded to Rotterdam.

Kg CO2/tonne

Truck

Vessel

17

8

Kg CO2/container

Difference in CO2 emissions: 52%

The amount of carbon dioxide emissions that can be saved by using inland navigation has been calculated for the examples provided on the right. To get an idea of the scale of the savings, a comparison is made with the production of beer. The savings per week are expressed in the amount of beer produced with corresponding amounts of CO2 emissions.

The power of inland navigation

Truck

Vessel

687

355

Difference in CO2 emissions: 48% * Based on 26.4 tonnes per container.

Palletised cargo

Savings

45 ft Palletwide containers

Savings

Every week, 30 trucks transport 28 block pallets weighing 1,000 kg each from Namur in France to Meppel, the Netherlands; 840 pallets per week. These pallets can also be transported by inland navigation. A Europa vessel can carry 1,500 pallets in one shipment. The pallets need only be transported by road to the port.

To illustrate: the weekly CO2 savings generated by this transport equal the CO2 emitted by the production of 14,894 crates of beer.

Every week, ten 45-ft containers are shipped from Lohmar (Germany) to England, via Rotterdam RST, loaded with 25 tonnes. The containers are picked up empty by truck and returned loaded back to Rotterdam. This transport can easily be carried out by inland navigation via the Bonn terminal.

To illustrate: the weekly CO2 savings generated by this transport equal the CO2 emitted by the production of 4,433 crates of beer.

Kg CO2/tonne

Truck

Vessel

19

13

Kg CO2/tonne

Difference in CO2 emissions: 31%

Truck

Vessel

24

18

Difference in CO2 emissions: 25%

48


Even more sustainable transport Inland navigation is an inherently energy-efficient mode of transport. The mere fact that an average vessel can transport 1,500 tonnes or 60 truckloads at once makes inland navigation an environmentally conscious choice. The graph and the examples on the previous page also demonstrate how energy-efficient inland navigation is. The CO2 emissions per tonne are low compared to road transport. Inland navigation boasts a 42 per cent share of the Dutch transport volume, whilst its share of CO2 emissions is only 7 per cent of that of the comparable group of modes. Inland navigation therefore scores relatively well when comparing the various modes. Inland navigation operators, however, also look to the future and are committed to making transport even more sustainable. Although there are no regulations (yet) calling for mandatory sustainable measures in inland navigation, many inland navigation companies apply technology to reduce or even prevent unwelcome emissions. Unwelcome emissions are produced by diesel combustion and contain CO2, NOx, SOx and soot particles. CO2 is the main greenhouse gas. NOx, nitrogen oxides, contributes to acid rain and smog. Along with soot particles, SOx (sulphur oxides) is one of the leading causes of smog and air pollution. Because inland navigation has used low sulphur/sulphur-free fuel for several years now, SOx emissions have been reduced to nil. Technology is developing rapidly, producing incre6

asingly more systems for environmentally friendly 5

4 Engine room

3

1 Fuel tank

transport. The EICB, Expertise and Innovation Centre Barging, encourages and supports inland

3

navigation operators with respect to sustainability.

Exhaust

2

Sustainable techniques are diverse and can be

Engine

classified by the locations where they can be implemented on a vessel. The illustration on the left 1. Fuel 2. Engine 3. Pre- and post-treatment 4. Propulsion 5. Vessel: drag reduction 6. Use of the vessel

is a schematic overview of these locations.

Various techniques apply to each of the listed components. Some of these are described in more detail on the following pages. The shaded boxes alongside the technology indicate which emissions the technology reduces:

Carbon dioxide, CO2

Sulphur oxides, SOx

Nitrogen oxides, NOx

Particulate matter

The techniques described can be implemented separately as well as combined. The latter achieves even better results. Inland navigation, the quickest way to sustainable transport!

49


1. Sustainability via fuel Fuel is an important factor in the production of unwelcome emissions. Alternative fuels can be an effective solution to reduce emissions. The three main methods for using alternative fuels are: • The use of alternative fuels, if necessary in a different type of engine (e.g. LNG, GTL and hydrogen); • Admixtures in the conventional fuel in the fuel tank (e.g. biodiesel); • Admixtures in the conventional fuel in the engine (e.g. dual fuel).

LNG, Liquefied Natural Gas, is an alternative fuel used in five Dutch inland navigation vessels in 2015. Natural gas is cooled for liquefaction to -162°C. During this process, pollutants such as particulate matter, sulphur compounds and other gases are removed from the natural gas making LNG a much cleaner fuel than diesel. The high investment required for running on LNG has to be recovered by savings on fuel costs. For now, given the high investment costs, only vessels with many operating hours and high fuel consumption are able to recover the investment within a reasonable period of time. Based on an investment of approximately €1.2 million, the potential for the implementation of LNG in the Netherlands is estimated at 300 inland navigation vessels. According to the EICB, if that investment were to drop by 50 per cent, the Dutch potential would quadruple to 1,200 vessels. GTL, gas-to-liquid, is a clean, biodegradable, synthetic (liquid) diesel fuel made from natural gas. Like LNG, GTL emits much lower quantities of harmful emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur and nitrogen oxides (SOx and NOx), particulate matter (PM), substances that deplete the ozone layer (ODS), soot and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Furthermore, GTL produces visibly less smoke and less stench and it can help to reduce engine noise. Technically speaking, this fuel can be used in vessels without any modification being required and so no investment, but the cost of this fuel is higher which affects the variable costs. In recent years, inland navigation has taken giant, albeit virtually unnoticed, steps to make its sector more sustainable. Since January 2011, all (regular) inland navigation vessels run on low-sulphur fuel. Consequently, the sulphur content of the fuel they use has been slashed from 2,000 ppm to 10 ppm (g/kg), a reduction of no less than 99.5 percent. This lower sulphur content results not only in a direct reduction of SOx emissions but in reduced emissions of particulate matter (PM10) as well, proving once again that inland navigation is sailing a sustainable course!

The power of inland navigation

50


2. Sustainable techniques in engines Combustion in diesel engines as used by most inland vessels releases matter such as CO2, NOx and soot particles. Various techniques can reduce those emissions. Techniques that can be applied to engines include diesel-electric propulsion, the use of multiple engines (hybrid), the use of waste heat, system integration/optimisation and exhaust gas recirculation. The EICB estimates that sustainable techniques can be implemented in the engines of approximately 1,400 Dutch vessels. Diesel-electric propulsion enables diesel engines to produce electrical energy by driving a generator. The electricity is used to propel the vessel, via an electric motor, and to power the electrical equipment on board. Profit is

Groningen

feasible considering the energy is easier to regulate, resulting in reduced fuel consumption which in turn reduces the emission of CO2, NOx and particulate matter. Hybrid vessels are propelled by multiple power sources, usually a diesel engine and an electric motor. This enables them to use

Rotterdam

and regulate their total power more efficiently, depending on the power demand at any given moment. Because the power is used in a different way, the engine nearly always runs at its optimum speed. Captains of these vessels can decide whether to run on the electric motor, the diesel engine or a combination of both. Hybrid vessels are more fuel-efficient and thus reduce fuel consumption by up to 25 per cent, automatically reducing the emission of CO2, NOx and particulate matter. Source: m/s Nadorias, Sendo Shipping

The use of the sustainable fuel LNG, liquefied natural gas (see page 50), requires a specific engine. Three options are currently

Load capacity: 75x

Required power output: 1.3x

available: Single fuel engines run entirely on LNG and take full advantage of the benefits of LNG. Dual fuel engines use two fuel systems (diesel and LNG) alongside each other. Hybrid engines, a combination of diesel engine and electric motor, are the third option. Combined with LNG, hybrid engines are even more economical. Another solution is re-motorisation with â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;appropriate powerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Some engines have more power than strictly necessary, for

This hybrid vessel transports 150 containers between Rotterdam and Groningen requiring 400 kW. By way of comparison: an average truck has a power output of 300 kW and can transport only two containers at once.

instance because at the time of purchase the engine was tuned to the greatest power that might be required. Environmental benefits can be achieved by replacing the engine by a smaller one whose power is adjusted to what is realistically required, possibly in combination with an electric motor. Smaller truck engines can also be considered here.

51


3. Capturing or preventing emissions by pre-treatment and post-treatment Combustion in diesel engines generates matter such as nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are produced during all forms of combustion at a high temperature. These kinds of matter contribute to the occurrence of acid rain and smog. Particulate matter comprises airborne particles smaller than 10 micrometres. The amount of particulate matter that is emitted is determined by the quality of the combustion. Pre-treatment and/or post-treatment techniques are applied to specifically reduce NOx and particulate matter in exhaust gases. The most effective pre-treatment or post-treatment techniques are the SCR catalyst and the diesel particulate filter. Also worth mentioning are: addition of water to the inlet air, water injection into the cylinder, water-in-diesel emulsion and hydrogen injection in the engine. The EICB estimates that the potential for these techniques is about 2,000 vessels. A brief explanation of some of these techniques is provided below. A SCR catalyst removes nitrogen oxides from flue gases. A chemical reaction converts NOx into harmless water and nitrogen using urea as a catalyst. This device reduces the emission of nitrogen oxides by 85 to 90 per cent. Soot particles are caused by incomplete combustion. A diesel particulate filter captures the smaller particles in particular as they stick to the walls and pores of the filter material. The captured soot particles are burned periodically in the diesel particulate filter. The diesel particulate filter blocks 90 to 95 per cent of the particulate matter. The use of a water-in-diesel emulsion allows better combustion with a cooling effect of the water in the fuel emulsion. This produces a reduction in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of approximately two per cent and reduces NOx emissions. Tests performed by the German â&#x20AC;&#x153;TĂ&#x153;V Nordâ&#x20AC;? demonstrate a potential reduction of particulate matter of 80 per cent and approximately 25 per cent of NOx (for a EURO III engine). According to the Greening Tool (see page 54), this technology can be applied to all vessels without the need for a retrofit. It can be considered a promising technology for making transport by inland navigation even more sustainable. The injection of water or hydrogen via the air inlet reduces the temperature in the combustion chambers of the engines. Combustion is more efficient and occurs at a lower temperature, resulting in a reduction of particulate matter, NOx and/or CO2. This technique will have been installed, and experience will be gained with it, on 15 vessels by mid-2015. There are a number of other innovations on the horizon besides the described existing and promising techniques. One of these other innovations is the diesel converter. This technique centres on transforming the properties of the diesel molecule. Influencing the properties has a positive effect on NOx emissions, particulate matter (PM10/PM2.5) and CO2. This application can contribute significantly to sustainability. The diesel converter is currently undergoing extensive testing.


4. Saving energy by means of other propulsion techniques For more efficient propulsion, the following techniques can be used: the O-foil, contra-rotating screw propellers and the adjustable tunnel. Vessels are usually propelled by means of a screw propeller. When rotating, screw propellers create vortices in the water, decreasing thrust and thus causing loss of energy. Techniques designed to diffuse and weaken these vortices and to reduce the loss of energy include counter-rotating screw propellers (two screw propellers, one behind the other, which turn in opposite directions) and propeller boss cap fins (the propeller is secured to the propeller shaft by means of a boss cap). These solutions are aimed at saving fuel. With the Oscillating Foil (O-foil) technique, vessels are propelled by a vertically oscillating wing under the vessel. The movement is inspired by the motion of swimming dolphins. The large wing surface significantly increases the propulsion efficiency compared to screw propellers. The O-foil technique combines this technology with electric propulsion and optimised ship design, lowering fuel consumption (by up to 50%) and systematically reducing harmful emissions. Drawing of new generation Campine vessel with O-foil

5. Improving efficiency by reducing resistance The energy required to propel the vessel depends on how much resistance, or drag, the vessel incurs in the water. The less drag there is, the less energy is needed. Drag can be sub-divided into wave-making resistance and viscosity, or the extent to which water â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;sticksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; to the hull. Techniques for reducing drag include a bulbous bow, a properly shaped stern, the use of air lubrication and a hull with less resistance. Air Lubrication is achieved by letting air bubbles escape from under the hull. The hull of the vessel is covered in small bubbles, reducing the resistance between vessel and water. Inland navigation has experimented with air lubrication with promising results. ACES air lubrication was recently installed on an inland navigation vessel. Tests with this technique resulted in average fuel savings of 15 per cent. Algae and shellfish grow on the hulls of vessels, below the waterline. An accumulation (fouling) of only ten microns (one hundredth of a millimetre) increases fuel consumption by about one per cent. Preventing fouling therefore helps to keep fuel consumption in check. An innovative foil for the hull and a cleaning robot are examples of new techniques which can be applied.

53


6. Use of the vessel Inland navigation can be made more sustainable by improving the manner in which vessels are deployed. Three categories can be distinguished in this respect: 1) Better utilisation of cargo capacity, thus decreasing emissions per tonne-kilometre. 2) Mindful navigating behaviour, taking waterway conditions and itinerary into account. Following the optimum course on the river is another consideration. 3) Using shore power when moored in a port. Making the most of the cargo capacity has a positive effect on a vessel’s environmental impact per tonne-kilometre. Navigating with empty or partially empty cargo holds is avoided as much as possible for economic reasons in any case. Covadem is an innovation aimed at making navigation more efficient. This innovation, which is still in its pilot phase, collects soundings taken by vessels. Collating the data collected by many vessels creates a permanent, up-to-date picture of the depths of rivers. This data could be used in the future to optimise a vessel’s itinerary and for a better utilisation of the cargo capacity. Mindful navigating behaviour, geared to the characteristics of the waterway and the itinerary, generally has a positive effect on fuel consumption and hence unwelcome emissions. To stimulate this kind of mindfulness, the EICB provides an e-learning course called ‘VoortVarend Besparen’ (www.eicb.nl/cursus), which addresses helmsmanship and making proper itineraries. Introduced in 2015, the EICB Econaut app is a quick and easy way for captains to calculate the CO2 emissions of a voyage. The app can also work on a more continuous basis using GPS data to keep track of the number of kilometres. The amount of cargo and the fuel consumption have to be entered manually. All data is processed into a monthly report. The app gives inland navigation operators the possibility to report their CO2 footprint to third parties, thereby contributing to mindful navigation. The app is available for both Android and iOS devices. Many ports provide shore power. The provision of shore supply reduces the use of diesel generators, allowing ports to improve the air quality and prevent noise Econaut-App for smartphone

pollution in urban areas.

The European Commission is convinced that inland navigation plays an important part in hinterland transport, in greening the transport chain and in reducing congestion. The European Commission therefore stimulates (technological) innovation in inland navigation. The main purpose of the ‘Prominent’ project is to provide cost-effective, standard solutions for the European inland navigation fleet. One aspect of this project is the ‘Greening Tool’. This tool can be consulted on the Internet: www.eicb.nl/greeningtool. It shows inland navigation operators, policy makers and others which greening technologies are potentially the most interesting for use on existing vessels.  

The power of inland navigation

54


Sustainable ports For several years now, both the shipping industry and ports have in many respects been putting more and more effort into their sustainability. As in business, it is all about a perfect balance between â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;people, planet and profitâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. For the Port of Amsterdam, this means developing the port together with employees, customers, suppliers and other stakeholders into an innovative and sustainable port in which a healthy financial return goes hand in hand with a good quality of the living environment and considerable added value for the region. The following infographic pertaining to the Port of Amsterdam clearly shows the versatility of the sustainable port, within

Port of partnerships

the framework of Port Vision 2030.

Good employment practices

Use of sustainable materials and recycling

Biomass Urban mining Bio-based economy

Green commercial vehicles

Temporary nature & recreation

Chain management

Shifting road transport to water and rail

Certification of goods Socially responsible organisation Smart grid Bio-LNG

Source infographic: Port of Amsterdam, Vision 2030

Green port

Intensive space utilisation and sustainable construction

Multilateral consultation Stakeholder dialogue

Shore-based power units Sustainable chain

Promote green vessels

The port of Rotterdam is also committed to developing into a sustainable port with balanced growth by having regard for its surroundings and the environment on three levels: 1) improving its own performance; 2) encouraging sustainable enterprise in the port; and 3) calling for sustainable innovation in the entire chain. The Port of Rotterdam Authority is investing in clean air, nature and climate. Firstly, its own vessels are being made as green as possible in terms of fuel consumption and engines. Vessels in the port are encouraged to produce less air pollution, for instance by granting greener ships discounts on port dues. When purchasing, tendering and issuing sites in the port, the sustainability aspect is taken into serious consideration. In terms of climate, several initiatives are being taken to drastically reduce CO2 emissions. Additional efforts are being made with respect to nature in the port area. The port is home to unexpected nature, from wild horses and free ranging Highland cattle to orchids. Seals and common pipistrelles (bats) are not uncommon here. Vessels are usually granted a discount on port dues when they emit fewer pollutants. In this respect, the Green Award certificate (www.greenaward.com) serves as an incentive. This certificate certifies that an inland navigation vessel meets certain high requirements in terms of quality, safety and the environment.

55


Sustainable transport thanks to the Blue Road

6


6 Sustainable transport thanks to the Blue Road All prognoses concerning the role of inland navigation in logistics are being surpassed. As the second decade of this century progresses, inland navigation is offering more and more possibilities to shippers. Inland navigation is an integral part of complex transport chains. With their sense of innovation and strong entrepreneurship, shipowners and logistics organisations can respond flexibly to the needs of customers in the world of goods distribution and supply chains for industry. The brand name of this surprisingly modern carrier is the Blue Road. The Blue Road – It took a while to get used to inland navigation’s new image in 2012. Today, many in the sector are completely familiar with the Blue Road. The ‘blue’ in the name stands for more than the scenic reflection of the blue sky in the calm waters of a canal. ‘Blue’ also stands for smart technology, innovation, efficiency and sustainability: the logical way. Shippers who use the Blue Road do not transport simply by water, but integrate inland navigation cleverly into their logistics chain. That is to their own advantage, but at the same time they benefit society by choosing a sustainable, safe mode of transport, albeit sometimes for only some of their transport activities. Opting for the Blue Road can be a plus-point for shippers if they communicate that message to their customers. A single brand name suggests that the Blue Road is one large company. Obviously it is not. The inland navigation industry comprises a wealth of large and small companies, each with their own strengths and characteristics. New customers will not immediately know their way about this exciting industry full of enterprising people, most of whom are each other’s competitors. How do shippers learn what the best solution is for transporting their goods? Online route planning To make it simple: The website of the Inland Navigation Information Agency (Bureau Voorlichting Binnenvaart-BVB) www.blueroadmap.nl contains the Blue Road Map, a program that immediately shows all the available possibilities. The transport route can be calculated by clicking the points of departure and the destinations. In many cases, the shipper will know instantly what options are available to them. With that information in hand, it is advisable to contact the Inland Navigation Information Agency (BVB), whose logistics consultants can provide much more information on how the Blue Road can be incorporated into the relevant transport. As an independent party, BVB can also provide insight into the CO2 savings and provide a cost estimate. Only an estimate because as shippers know all too well, the transport market is a free market and parties are free to negotiate. The BVB puts the shipper in touch with a number of specialised carriers or, in the event of more complex transport constructions, with one of the logistics consultants who can formulate a neutral recommendation on how the transport chain can best be structured. The beauty of these neutral advisers is that they have or can acquire insight into third-party traffic flows in comparable situations. This knowledge frequently helps to combine the transport of one shipper with that of another shipper into sufficient volume to enable a barge to operate 57


profitably at full capacity. This requires consultation and coordination, and that is what the Blue Road excels in. Continental container transport That combination with other modes of transport works perfectly, particularly in container shipping. With their fixed dimensions, containers are handy units for transhipping from one ship, train or lorry to another. Containers as a means for packing products were developed mainly thanks to deep-sea container shipping, in which the TEU (Twenty Foot Equivalent Unit or twenty-footer) has become the universal unit. Containers of a different size were designed for transport within Europe that does not connect up directly to transport to other continents. This ‘continental transport’ occurs largely by road and mostly uses pallets as its transport unit. In order to enable the pallet-in-container combination, the ‘45-foot’, ‘pallet wide’ and ‘high cube’ containers were designed to transport as many euro pallets as possible. The 45-foot containers are an intermodal alternative to a standard trailer and are therefore a big opportunity for intermodal transport across the continent. The introduction of these containers meant that an alternative transport flow was created in addition to road transport. The Blue Road is a perfect match for transporting larger containers, for which we have the short sea container shipping companies to thank. The Blue Road responds surprisingly quickly to new opportunities. Because deep-sea ships deliver a tremendous number of containers all at once in the seaports, the transit of containers occasionally suffers waiting periods and delays in the port. The relatively rapid transport of continental goods therefore makes it less attractive to use the seaport terminals for transhipment. Terminals operating exclusively for short sea shipping have no such problems. By using the short-sea terminals in the seaports, the Blue Road is more than able to handle the speed of continental transport. A Dutch example can explain this development. A food producer in Zoetermeer transports their goods by road to Venlo. Alternatively, the food producer can transport their goods by road to Rotterdam, from where the cargo can be shipped by the Blue Road’s regular Rotterdam-Venlo service. The problem here is that the producer has to be sure as to when their product will arrive in Venlo, so that its connecting distribution can proceed smoothly. The transhipment in Rotterdam depends on how accurate the terminal’s planning is. The short-sea terminal has proven to provide that accuracy. The planners of these terminals are accustomed to the shortsea vessels that operate in the same way as barges and lorries provide continental transport. They are not dependent on the large quantity of containers deep-sea vessels deliver or collect all at once. The food producer now transports their goods to Venlo by barge via Rotterdam. The widespread use of containers enables those who direct logistics chains to fit the Blue Road perfectly into the supply chain. The Blue Road has unobtrusively become the logical carrier of

The power of inland navigation

58


luxury products such as computers, televisions, beer, automotive parts, bicycles, coffee, lamps and even refrigerated or frozen products such as shrimp, Mars Bars, cheese and fruit. These fast moving consumer goods already constitute a surprisingly steady share of the cargo transported via the Blue Road. If there is sufficient volume, it pays to let a barge sail. Sometimes a smart approach is needed to create that volume. Smart constructions Many more examples can be given of the successful use of the Blue Road for unexpected goods flows and the expectation is that this will increase substantially, if not explosively, in the decades to come. Large companies make the strategic decision to transport by water because it improves the total logistics picture of both supply and removal. Costs go down, performance goes up and, last but not least, the ‘Transported by the Blue Road’ label benefits the image of the company. Those big companies sometimes have sufficient cargo to have a barge sail exclusively for them, but not always. The handling of smaller volumes of cargo – enabling the deployment of barges through the bundling of cargo with other shippers – is usually the precise reason for opting for the Blue Road. This way, shippers with fewer numbers of containers can also transport by water. It is not uncommon nowadays for a shipper to have one or two containers a week transported by water. The terminal can coordinate and arrange the pre- and end-haulage so the shipper does not have to worry about it. That is why the Blue Road is able to count small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) among its target groups. Literally tens of thousands of companies are starting to see that their transport can also acquire the ‘Sustainably Transported by the Blue Road’ label. Because shippers with small cargo volumes use scheduled services with fixed departure times at the numerous inland terminals, opting for the Blue Road has a positive snowball effect. The scheduled services can deploy more barges, offer more sailings and the performance of the Blue Road will ultimately get even better. And that in turn benefits the shippers. Collaboration The awareness among large and small businesses that the greater part of their products can be transported by water has grown by leaps and bounds in the second decade of the 21st century. That is not least due to the high degree of cooperation in the sector. The Blue Road offers services that would have been relegated to the realm of fantasy had they been predicted in the previous decade. Today, no one in inland navigation is surprised when express freight is offered or if water transport is provided over short distances – such as within the Port of Rotterdam. This has a positive, self-reinforcing effect. Successful, new activities attract more cargo and transporters will offer clients increasingly ingenious logistics solutions. The Blue Road is the future.

59


Inland navigation: even for extremely variable cargo quantities and short delivery times

Customers can also benefit from the advantages of inland navigation when cargo quantities vary considerably and even if the orders are placed at the last moment. The graph contains an example. In this case, the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ship to forecastâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; principle is applied. This means that the shipper sends nine units ahead to a location close to the customer even before the customer has placed the order. Once the customer places the order, these nine units are delivered the same day from this nearby location. The other two to maximum nine units are delivered by road within two days. This way, the shipper is still able to benefit from the advantages of inland shipping.

18 16 14 12 10

Road transport

8 6 Inland navigation

4 2 0 Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May June

July Aug

Sept

Oct

Source: BVB

Nov

Dec

Unit: Fictitious cargo units

Inland navigation facts, 2013/2014 Netherlands

Northwestern Europe

8,375 ships (Dutch flag)

14,000 ships

9.4 million tonnes cargo capacity

15.2 million tonnes cargo capacity

37% transport share based on tonnage as

6.7% share based on tonne kilometres as

compared to road and rail

compared to road and rail (2012)

356 million tons in 2013 (367 million tons 2014)

528 million tonnes EU-28 in 2013

Over Dutch territory in 2013:

Over EU-28 territory in 2013:

* 4.9 million TEU

* 5.9 million TEU

* 689 million TEU-km

* 1,511 million TEU-km

Inland navigation transported 2.8 million TEU from/to Rotterdam in 2014 13,602 inland navigation jobs in 2013: * cargo trade: 7,753 * tanker trade: 1,496 * tow & push trade: 1,496 * passenger transport: 2,856 Inland navigation turnover: 2.32 billion euros Number of companies: 4,130

Source: Statistics Netherlands, Eurostat, IVR, ZBBD, Port of Rotterdam, Maritime by Holland

The power of inland navigation

60


Possibilities with terminal connections for inland container navigation

Harlingen

Groningen

Heerenveen Meppel Kampen Amsterdam

This map contains a schematic representation of the terminal links for container transport via inland navigation. Due to the expansion of container terminals and scheduled services, the geographic reach of container transport via inland waterways is increasing. The network provides future possibilities for changing at terminals to other scheduled services, providing more opportunities for continental container transport.

Hengelo

Alphen a/d Rijn Rotterdam

Utrecht

Emmerich

Den Bosch

Maasvlakte Moerdijk

Nijmegen

Oss Veghel

Tilburg

Bergen op Zoom

Duisburg

Venlo

Krefeld

Antwerp

Neuss

Gent Meerhout

Willebroek

Born Cologne

Avelgem

Bonn

Source: BVB

Modal split development container transport on the Maasvlakte, the Netherlands

2010

Total 4.6 million TEU 1.8 million TEU 40%

2.2 million TEU 48%

3.0 million TEU

0.6 million TEU 12%

Total 15 million TEU

20% 7.0 million TEU

5.0 million TEU

45%

35%

Source: Port of Rotterdam Authority, NVB

61

Expectations are that container transport by land to and from the Dutch Maasvlakte, either by road, rail or inland navigation, will increase to 18 million TEU in 2035. Changing the modal split (relatively more water transport and rail transport and relatively less road transport) is necessary in order to be able to handle the increasing flow of containers. The aim is to lift the share of inland navigation to 45% by 2035.


European waterways and their transhipment locations

Delfzijl Leeuwarden Groningen pr. Ma rgr iet ka na al

Harlingen Veendam Heerenveen

Alkmaar

Meppel Lelystad Kampen

Zaandam

Harderwijk Alphen Utrecht a/d Rijn

Rotterdam Europoort

Twente Rijn

Lek Waal

Bremerhaven

Oss

Nijmegen

Moerdijk Waalwijk Oosterhout Tilburg

Bremen

Wanssum

We se

r

Helmond

lle Wi

id-

Venlo M

art

va

aa

s

ms

Terneuzen Antwerpen

Roermond

Maasbracht Born

Gent

Dunkerque

Gent

lde

Duisburg Düsseldorf Köln

e

Sch

Alb

Calais

ert

kan

aal

Rh

Namur

Liège

Maas

Le Havre

Dortmund

Bonn Andernach

ein

Brussel

Lille

Koblenz Rouen

Main

l

se

Mo

Se

ine

Frankfurt

Reims

B Aschaffenburg

Mannheim

u

na

Do

Heilbronn

n-

Neckar

ai

Germersheim

Metz

M

Seine

Würzburg

Mainz

Trier Paris

Nancy Karlsruhe Migennes

Strasbourg

Stuttgart

Nantes Mulhouse

al Can

du

au

ne-

Rhô

in -Rh

Basel

Chalon-s-Saône Bordeaux Lyon

Valence

Rh ôn e

The website of the Vereniging Regionale Overslag Centrales (Association of Regional Transhipment Hubs) www.rocnl.com provides an insight into the facilities and locations of its Dutch members.

The power of inland navigation

Hannover Mittellandkanaal

Emmerich

Maastricht

Although all the main transhipment sites are shown on the map, there are so many loading and unloading locations that it is impossible to include them all. The container transhipment terminals in the hinterland of the seaports situated on the North Sea are concentrated along the waterways, ensuring reliable just-in-time transport at attractive rates. If necessary, the terminals can provide storage facilities in the vicinity of the customer.

Hamburg

Oldenburg

Cuijk

Den Bosch Veghel Zu

Vlissingen

kanaal

Dortmund Ems kanaal

Den Haag

Kiel Hengelo

IJssel

A’dam

Elbe Seiten kanal

IJmuiden

Po

Avignon Arles Port-st-Louis du-Rhone

62

Fos-s-Mer


The Blue Road Map Your waterway explorer

www.blueroadmap.nl

This website, www.blueroadmap.nl,

Elb

e

combines the transport and transhipment possibilities into a sophisticated planning tool. The various types of vessels and cargo capacities are also included. The Blue Road Map advises the best route for your cargo. Check out your options today!

Immediate insight into the transport options for your cargo.

Szcezcin Oder

Berlin Elbe Havelkanaal

Eisenhüttenstad

Magdeburg

Elb

Halle

e

Oder

Dresden

Děčin Gliwice

Bamberg

Praha

Main container terminals

u

Nürnberg Regensburg l

na

ka

Main transhipment ports

Passau

Linz

u

na

Do

Enns

Wien Bratislava Budapest

Baja

Constanza

Venezia

o

Ruse

63

The largest navigable waterways in Europe are the Rivers Rhine and Danube. Inland navigation can cover a large part of Europe via the network of canals and rivers. Historically, major industries have chosen a location in the vicinity of a waterway and that is where the industrial centres will remain well into the future.


Types of vessels

ECMT Category

I

14X

Spits Length 38.50 m - width 5.05 m draught 2.20 m - cargo capacity 350 t

22X

Campine vessel

II Length 55 m - width 6,60 m draught 2,59 m- cargo capacity 655 t

40X

Dortmund-Eems canal vessel

III Length 67 m - width 8.20 m draught 2.50 m - cargo capacity 1,000 t

Rhine-Herne canal vessel (Europe vessel)

54X

IV Length 85 m - width 9.50 m draught 2.50 m - cargo capacity 1,350 t

120X

Large Rhine vessel

Va Length 110 m - width 11.40 m draught 3.00 m - cargo capacity 2,750 t

160X

Extended large Rhine vessel

Va Length 135 m - width 11.40 m draught 3.5 m - cargo capacity 4,000 t

220X

Two lighter pushing unit

Vb Length 172 m - width 11.40 m draught 4.00 m - cargo capacity 5,500 t

VIb VIc Va

440/660X

Four or six lighter pushing unit

Length 193 m - width 22.80 / 34.20 m draught 4.00 m - cargo capacity 11,000 / 16,500 t

120X

Standard tank vessel Length 110 m - width 11.40 m draught 3.50 m - cargo capacity 3,000 t

The power of inland navigation

64


ECMT Category

120 xx 160 160 14 54 120 14xxxxxx 220 220 22 22xx 40 40 54 54 xxx x 160 120 440 440xxx 160 220 220 xx 120 22 22xxx 40 40xx 54 xxxxxx 54 160 120 120 120 120 220 x 440 440 220 xxx 160 380X 40 x 40 x 54 54xxxxx 440 160 160 120 120 120 xxx 120 220 440 380 380x x 220 x 54 54xx 120 x 440 120 160 120 160 220 220 xxxxx 440 x 380 380 6060x xxx 60X 120 x 120 120 160 160 440 440 x xxxx 380 x 220 x 220 120 380xx 60xxxx 60 16 16 160 x 160 120 120xxx 440 xxxx 440 220 220 380 60 x 380 60 xx 16 16 xx x 100 100 16X 220 220 120 440 120xxxx 440 380 380x x 60 16 xx 16 x x 60 100 100 440 xxxx 440 120 120 250 250 xx 380 380 60 60 x xxx 16 xx 100 120 120 100 x xxx 100X 16 72 72 xx 250 250 380 380xxx 60 60xxxx 1616 100 x 100 250 380 380x xx 250 72 72 240 240 x xxxx 60 60xx 16 xx x 16 100 100 x 250X 72 250 72 x x 60 60 240 240 xxxxx 250 16 16 240 240 x xxxxx 100 100 250 250 72 240 xx x 240 xxxx 72 16 16 100 100 240 240 xx xx 72 72 x 250 250xxx 72X 240 x 240 x x xx 100 100 240 240 x 250 72 xxx xx 72 240 240 x250

Large tank vessel

Vb Length 135 m - width 21.80 m draught 4.40 m - cargo capacity 9,500 t

Car vessel

Va Length 110 m - width 11.40 m draught 2.00 m - cargo capacity 530 cars

Container vessel (Campine class)

III

Length 63 m - width 7 m draught 2.50 m - cargo capacity 32 TEU

Standard container vessel

Va Length 110 m - width 11.40 m draught 3.00 m - cargo capacity 200 TEU

Large container vessel

Vb Length 135 m - width 17 m draught 3.50 m - cargo capacity 500 TEU

Ro-ro vessel

Va Length 110 m - width 11.40 m draught 2.50 m

Coupled formation (vessel with pushed lighter)

VIb

Average length 185 m - width 11.40 m draught 3.50 m - cargo capacity 6,000 t

240 x 240250 x xx 250 72 72xx 240 240xx 240X240 240x x 72 72xx 240 240xx 240 240xx 240 240xx

Coupled formation (vessel with pushed vessel)

240X 240 x 240 x

VIb

240 240xx Average length 185 m - width 11.40 m draught 3.50 m - cargo capacity 6,000 t Designer: ŠStephan le Sage

65


Cost price development index for inland navigation in the Netherlands Inland navigation cost price development 150

140

130 Index (2004=100)

120

110

100

2015 (estimate)

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

90 2004

Transport via inland navigation was more economical in 2014 than in 2013. This is due to two main reasons: the drop in fuel prices and the drop in the cost of capital (interest). The biggest cost decrease was found to be in capital intensive vessels and vessels that counted many sailing hours (continuous navigation) whose fuel costs account for a significant portion of the total sailing costs. The expected drop in operating costs for 2015 is mainly attributed to the sharply decreasing fuel prices. However, as this component is highly unpredictable, it is advisable to keep an eye on the actual development of the gas oil price.

Consumer price index

Source: Panteia

Cost per hour of dry bulk transport by inland navigation (price level 2014)

This cost price table compiled by research institute Panteia provides an indication of the costs per hour of an inland navigation vessel. The effect of the drop in fuel costs can be seen in this cost price table: there is not as much difference between sailing hours and idle hours as there was a few years ago.

Waiting for chartering idle hour (in €)

Hour sailed with cargo (in €)

Hour sailed without cargo (in €)

370

43.21

40.44

30.53

26.71

540

51.63

49.33

34.05

29.68 32.02

730

65.94

58.08

36.45

900

70.15

64.87

40.18

35.82

1,150

87.68

79.35

49.18

44.18

1,360

101.87

95.54

61.31

55.85

1,910

145.77

119.63

80.79

74.42

2,700

203.69

170.79

102.58

95.82

3,900

254.29

189.38

111.22

102.33

5,500

313.41

233.41

150.27

140.83

Source: Panteia

The power of inland navigation

General waiting, loading/unloading idle hour (in €)

Cargo capacity (in tonnes)

66


Examples of cost price calculations Palletised cargo

45 ft Palletwide containers

Every week 30 lorries with 28 block pallets of 1,000 kg each are transported from Namur to Meppel; 840 pallets per week. These pallets can also be transported by inland navigation. A European vessel can carry 1,500 pallets in one shipment. The pallets only need to be transported to and from the port by lorry.

Every week ten 45ft containers are shipped from Lohmar (DE) to England, via Rotterdam RST, loaded with 25 tonnes of cargo. The empty containers are picked up by lorry in Rotterdam and then returned again filled with cargo. This can easily be done by inland navigation via the terminal at Bonn.

Shipping costs per pallet

Shipping costs per container

€ 203.30

€ 7.04 Transhipment costs per container*

Transhipment costs per pallet

€ 80.00

€ 3.03 Pre- and post-transport per container

Pre- and post-transport costs per pallet Total supply chain costs per pallet

€ 6.70

Total cost per container

€ 150.00 € 433.30

€ 16.77 * Excluding handling charges in Rotterdam

Bulk cargo

40 ft Containers

The transport of dry cargo from the port of Rotterdam to a recipient in the port of Mannheim (DE). The weekly transport quantity is 2,500 tonnes. The decision is to opt for a Class V vessel (110 x 11.40 metres) sailing 18 hours per day.

In this example, the shipper opted to have his yearly 400 containers (40 ft) transported by scheduled inland navigation from Groningen to Rotterdam. The containers are supplied empty and then transported back loaded to Rotterdam.

Shipping costs per tonne

€ 8.80

Roundtrip shipping cost per container

Transhipment cost per tonne

€ 2.10

Transhipment costs per container *

Total cost per tonne by inland navigation

€ 10.90

Post-transport container

€ 240.00 € 80.00 € 120.00

Total cost of inland navigation per container

€ 440.00

* Excluding handling charges in Rotterdam

Hinterland transport by means of inland navigation for maritime transport chains

Maritime supply in a seaport

Transhipment to inland navigation

Import connection Export connection

inland navigation

Inland navigation operator

Inland navigation operator

Main transport: Inland navigation

Inland terminal

Main transport: Inland navigation

Shipper / Recipient

Pre / post transport by road

Designer: ©Stephan le Sage

67

Inland terminal

Shipper

Pre / post transport by


Glossary

Inland navigation vessel

PM10,PM 2.5: particulate matter

An inland navigation vessel is a non-seaworthy vessel

Particulate matter is a form of pollution that has an

for the transport of cargo on inland waters (such as

unfavorable effect on our health. Particulate matter

rivers, lakes and canals).

includes floating parts in the atmosphere that are smaller than 10 micrometres or 2.5 micrometres.

ECMT classification In order to align the dimensions of the West European

SO2: sulphur dioxide

waterways network, the inland navigation in Europe is

Sulphur dioxide is a combination of oxygen and sul-

divided into ECMT categories. Each category specifies

phur. Fossil fuels contain high quantities of sulphur.

the maximum dimensions of the ships. The classifica-

Combustion causes sulphur dioxide. It is harmful for

tion is determined by the members of the European

man, animal and nature.

Conference of Ministers of Transport. Synchromodal transport CO2: Carbon dioxide

Based on the customer’s needs, deciding at every

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important green-

stage which modality can best be used at the specific

house gas. CO2 is part of a natural cycle. CO2 surplus

moment in time and depending on the actual situation.

occurs after combustion of fossil fuels such as oil, gas TEU

and stone coal.

TEU is the designation for the dimension of containers. Emission

The abbreviation stands for Twenty feet Equivalent

Emission means ‘substances discharged into the air’.

Unit. 1 TEU is a container measuring 20 feet long, 8

Polluted parts can penetrate the soil, water and air.

feet wide and 8 feet deep.

Emission relates to the discharge of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOx), particulate matter (PM10)

the Blue Road

and/or sulphur dioxide (SO2).

The Blue Road stands for sustainable transport by water. It is the umbrella brand for the inland navi-

Inland terminal

gation sector. ‘Blue’ refers to the water and also

A location in the European hinterland where local

stands for innovation, efficiency, sustainability and

container flows come together and are subsequently

smart technology. The Blue Road is an initiative of the

transported onwards by train or inland vessel.

Bureau Voorlichting Binnenvaart (BVB/ Dutch Inland Navigation Information Agency).

Intermodal transport/co-modality Involves the transportation of freight in a container

Tonne-kilometre

or vehicle using multiple modes of transportation wit-

Unit of measure for goods transport which repre-

hout any handling of the freight itself when changing

sents the transport of one tonne of cargo over one

modes.

kilometre.

Modality

Tank to Wheel/Propeller (TTW)

A type of transportation for moving goods. Modes of

Emissions generated by a means of transportation.

transportation are lorries, trains and inland vessels.

When emission is generated by a vessel, it is referred to as Tank to Propeller.

Modal shift The shift of cargo flows from one modality to another.

Shipper A company or person who has cargo transported by

Modal split

a carrier.

The division of the shifts of goods over the modes of Well to Wheel / Propeller (WTW)

transport (modalities).

Well-to-wheel emissions are all emissions combined for NO x: nitrogen oxide

the use of a mode of transportation. This means that

Nitrogen oxide is one of the substances that contribute

emissions generated by the means of transport itself

to the acidification of the environment. Nitrogen oxide

(Tank to Propeller in case of a vessel), as well as the

is released during any kind of combustion at high

emissions released during the extraction and refining

temperature.

process or the production of electricity (Well-to-Tank) are included.

The power of inland navigation

68


Organizations

Dutch Association for Inland

European Federation of

Navigation Inspection

Inland Ports

Algemeene Schippers Vereeniging

T: +31 10 798 98 88

T: +32 22 19 82 07

(General Skippers Association)

W: www.nbkb.nl

W: www.inlandports.eu

Dutch Federation of Inland Ports

Inland Navigation Europe

T: +31 10 798 98 40

T: +32 25 53 62 70

W: http://havens.binnenvaart.nl

W: www.inlandnavigation.eu

Dutch organizations

T: +31 10 414 85 85 W: www.algemeeneschippersvereeniging.nl Royal BLN - Schuttevaer T: +31 10 206 06 01 W: www.bln.nl

ROC Vereniging Nederland

Agency for Telematics in Inland

Transhipment Centres)

Waterborne Transport

W: www.rocnl.com

T: +31 10 206 06 06 W: www.binnenvaart.org

European promotion organizations

(Dutch Association of Regional

Promotion Office for Inland Navigation in Flanders

Rijkswaterstaat

T: +32 11 23 06 06

(Directorate-General for

W: www.binnenvaart.be

Dutch Inland Navigation Information Public Works and Water Management) Agency

T: 0800 80 02

T: +31 10 452 91 51

W: www.rijkswaterstaat.nl

W: www.bureauvoorlichtingbinnenvaart.nl

T: +31 10 798 98 98

Inland Navigation

W: www.sabni.nl

T: +31 10 798 98 00 W: www.cbrb.nl Expertise and Innovation Centre

T: +49 22 83 00 48 92 W: www.shortseashipping.de

SAB (Maritime Services Organization)

Central Bureau for Rhine and

de l‘Intermodalité

VITO (Association of Dutch Inland

T: +32 42 20 87 50

Terminal Operators)

W: http://voies-hydrauliques.wallonie.be

W: www.vito-nederland.nl

Via Donau - Österreichische Wasserstraßen GmbH

European Interest Groups

T: +43 50 43 210

W: www.eicb.nl IVR International Association for inland navigation and insurance in Europe

SPW - Direction de la Promotion des Voies Navigables et

Barging T: +31 10 798 98 30

SPC Multimodal Transport Solutions

W: www.via-donau.org

European Barge Union T: +31 10 411 60 70

Voies Navigable de France

www.ebu.uenf.org

T: +33 32 163 24 50

T: +31 10 411 60 70

European Skippers Organization

W: www.ivr.nl

T: +32 50 47 07 20 www.eso-oeb.org

69

W: www.vnf.fr


Colophon

A publication of Dutch Inland navigation Information Agency (BVB) T: +32 10 412 91 51 www.bureauvoorlichtingbinnenvaart.nl info@bureauvoorlichtingbinnenvaart.nl @BVBinnenvaart

Design and layout ZandBij, dtp and design studio

Printed by Veenman+

Development and coordination Dutch Inland navigation Information Agency (BVB): P.J. Figee, W.T.G.A. Volker Communications Consultancy Agency ROOK Communicatie

Text MG Redacties

Pictures Source photo short sea ship on cover: Samskip Source photo page 50: Flowers smell likeâ&#x20AC;Ś, by Juhan Sonin, CC BY 2.0 / https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0

Initiative Dutch Inland navigation Information Agency, C.J. de Vries The use of information or data mentioned in this publication is the responsibility of the user. Neither BVB nor ROOK Communicatie can in any way be held liable for the use or for the consequences of the use of information or data contained in this publication. The information in this publication may be reproduced provided the source is acknowledged. This publication can be downloaded from website www.bureauvoorlichtingbinnenvaart.nl. All rights reserved.

This publication was made possible by:

+ 450 inland navigation entrepreneurs The power of inland navigation

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