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1.009.076

when parking becomes a tool for urban re-organization

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


competition brief Hand in your project, report or thesis showing your sustainable and solutions to improve the living environment.

ideas

One can think about a design that allows for environmental and energy conservation in buildings.

Or a model that solve the problems of traffic jams or problems related to parking. One can also come up with ideas for urban renewal or recreation in neighborhoods and cities. - empathic

does the project solve a social problem? - initiative

does one come up with the solution on his own initiative, unasked and surprisingly? - innovative

is the solution making a change? Is it original and unique? - CO2-reduction

has the student thought about reducing CO2-emissions? http://www.strukton-studenten.nl/

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


chicago project

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


chicago famous for its...

...skyline... 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


chicago ...its...

...grid... 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


chicago ...and for its...

...El... 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


chicago ...but also...

...downtown traffic... 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


chicago ...and...

...numerous parking garages 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design problem the automobile threatens to destroy the fabric...

...by which cities are defined 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design task but the automobile is not something to fear...

“reclaim the streets� Trafalgar Square, London, Saturday 12 April 1997

...but rather must become a tool in the hands of urban planners. 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design task what if...

...the automobiles are used to create

new diverse neighborhoods that facilitate urban renewal?

...parking structures are the most ...parking, the parking

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

important structures within a community?

structure and their manipulation can be used to shape urban communities?

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


parking ratio allowed parking spaces per 100 sq. m...

Parking Ratios

(parking spaces) Land Use 1.6 Manufacturing 1.2 Furniture Store 1.5 Industrial Park 1.1 Residential condominium 12.5 Restaurant 0.5 Warehousing 0.9 Motel 0.3 Retirement Community 0.4 Church 3.8 Government Office 3.6 Discount Store 2.4 Hardware Store 2.9 Supermarket 0.7 Tennis Courts/ Club 10.0 Fast Food with Drive-Thru Fast Food without Drive-Thru 11.7 4.2 Bank with Drive-Thru 0.6 Bank without Drive-Thru 1.4 Convenience Market per 100 sq. m.

Trip Generation

Trips Per Parking Space(

1.9 2.2 3.5 2.9 47.8 2.4 5.1 1.7 3.8 34.5 35.6 25.6 62.8 16.5 316.1 388.6 145.6 95.0 443.5

1.2 1.8 2.4 2.6 3.8 4.9 5.7 6.1 9.0 9.0 10.0 10.6 21.9 23.2 31.6 33.3 34.4 150.8 314.6

(round trips/day)

round trips/space/day)

Source: Institute of Transportation Engineers

...can be used to shape urban communities 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


the car the car...

a car spends 95% of its life parked a car occupies 20 sq. m. parked for each car there exists 5 parking spaces

...allows for infinite number of destinations

but decreases the distance people are willing to walk and the amount of interaction that occurs between individuals

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


the train public transport...

area of Chicago: 600 sq. km. area of loop (saturated): 3 sq. km. light rail system has 116 stops outside Loop each stop effectively services 0.5 sq. km. 60 sq. km. served

...services a much reduced portion of the city

but increases the distance people are willing to walk and the amount of interaction that occurs between individuals

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal condense transportation...

parking garage

building/ parking garage

public transit

surface parking

off-street parking street parking

allows city to manipulate urban areas by adjusting the number and cost of parking spaces creates a hybrid transportation infrastructure that includes car, bus, light rail and pedestrian limited and carefully placed street parking help to create new areas of urban stimulus

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal ...condense community program Big Box Retail Coffee Shop Grocery Store Hardware Store Art Store

Exercise Club Spa Gymnasium Sports Team

Parking

Gas Station Car Maintenance Rental Car Car Sharing Police Station Fire Station Emergency Health Care

Bus Station Light Rail Station School Daycare Community Center Garbage Collection Recycling Center

parking structure more than a warehouse for the automobile various programs needed within community are inserted parking garage becomes the source of community identity

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal

area of Chicago: 600 sq. km. number of parking garages: 1158 number of parking spaces per garage: 2000 number of parking spaces within the city: 2.316.000

600 sq. km.

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal existing parking lay-out...

total number of parking spaces: 73.467 parking garages: 227

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

...does not serve 0.25mile radius layout

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal new parking lay-out...

starting point to boost under-developed areas

...will serve the walking community every 0.25mile radius 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal different zones...

2000sp

0.29sqkm

max pr 1:1

0.06sqkm 0.03sqkm 0.03sqkm

4000sp

max pr 3:1

6000sp

0.21sqkm 4000sp

max pr 7:1

max pr 2:1

max pr 5:1

0.11sqkm

0.21sqkm

2000sp

4000sp

max pr 6:1

2000sp

max pr 4:1

...mean different numbers of available parking spaces, parking ratios and buildable area 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal land value...

...increases closer to the parking structure and in the hybrid zones 1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal

1 5 2 6 3

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

1

Initial Parking Ratio: 1:1 Max Land Development: 75% Max Building Height: 150 Feet

Mulholland

2

Initial Parking Ratio: 2:1 Max Land Development: 50% Max Building Height: 150 Feet

3

Initial Parking Ratio: 4:1 Max Land Development: 25% Max Building Height: 450 Feet

4

Initial Parking Ratio: 5:1 Max Land Development: 20 % Max Building Height: 600 feet

5

Initial Parking Ratio: 3:1 Max Land Development: 33.3% Max Building Height: 300 feet

6

Initial Parking Ratio: 6:1 Max Land Development: 16.7% Max Building Height: 600 Feet

7

Initial Parking Ratio: 7:1 Max Land Development: 14.3% Max Building Height: None

Shifting Towers

7

4

Lingotto

Hybrid zone

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal Lingotto

Parking Demand

24:00

18:00

12:00

parking ratio: 1:1 Space for New Programs High Demand

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

M-F

S/S

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal Mulholland

Parking Demand

24:00

18:00

12:00

parking ratio: 2:1 Space for New Programs High Demand

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

M-F

S/S

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


design proposal Shifting Towers

Parking Demand

24:00

18:00

12:00

parking ratio: 4:1 Space for New Programs High Demand

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

M-F

S/S

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


HOLISTIC IDEA

- relocation

of parking to a central structure, servicing the surrounding 0.25mile community,

- condensing

the number of possible destinations within the city,

- creating areas of heightened social - and dissolving

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

interaction around centralized structures

the Chicago grid by replacing unused streets by parks and building plots

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


HOLISTIC IDEA will result in a model...

...for urban renewal, recreation and human ineraction ...that can be a solution for the problems related to parking ...that reduces the CO2 emissions ...that improves the living environment

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


competition brief Hand in your project, report or thesis showing your sustainable and solutions to improve the living environment.

ideas

One can think about a design that allows for environmental and energy conservation in buildings.

Or a model that solve the problems of traffic jams or problems related to parking. One can also come up with ideas for urban renewal or recreation in neighborhoods and cities. - empathic

does the project solve a social problem? - initiative

does one come up with the solution on his own initiative, unasked and surprisingly? - innovative

is the solution making a change? Is it original and unique? - CO2-reduction

has the student thought about reducing CO2-emissions? http://www.strukton-studenten.nl/

1,009,076

a limited resource is never free

08 maart 2011 Bart van Lakwijk


1.009.076; when parking becomes a tool for urban reorganization