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Due to increased demands for energy efficiency, affordability and shifting work patterns, cities will need to be denser and taller in the future. 2

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On a global scale we are witnessing this phenomenon as one of the best ways to accommodate a global population of 9 billion-plus people and with that an increasing demand for urban style living.

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The city will need more vertical density to make room for a growing population of many types of people from the well off to the less fortunate. 6

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How can a clever use of higher densities relate to different demographics and create vertical communties that are smart and share more facilities?

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And how can Amsterdam start thinking of new models for delivering clever vertical communities through intelligent densities?

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The modern concept of the vertical city where a singular tower or many connected together can solve all the issues related to urban life is outdated. The new vertical city is an intelligent densities concept that makes the city part of a sharing community, integrated in the real and virtual world. Recent technologies and social innovations are allowing us to rethink the concept of the residential tower and provide more quality for less in more surprising building concepts. As the popularity of urban liv12

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ing grows, and the desire to be more connected to public transportation increases, stacking program as a community of vertical buildings is now a matter of necessity instead of a choice. New requirements for carbon neutrality and green environmental targets will have direct impact on where and how we live. Tall buildings that are thin, varied, intelligent, adaptive, affordable, low emission, with shared amenities and street relationships are the future of vertical communties. 13

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Why is Vancouverism a successful model? Vancouver tower blocks are oriented towards the water, are part of a consistent urban fabric on small compact parcels with amenities, place high rises and low rises next to each other, and have high plinths with strong street frontages.

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Why is a city like Toronto growing so incredibly fast yet still remains liveable? All of Toronto’s high-rise projects are a direct result of city and provincial planning policies designed to fight sprawl and encourage urban “intensification.” In fact, 84 per cent of recent development in Toronto has been in places – like big intersections served by public transit – that are targeted as growth areas in the city’s official plan. As a result, “we are starting to see a greater acceptability for a more intensified form of living.” Ms. Keesmaat (Toronto’s Chief Urban Planner.)

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What else contributes to Toronto’s livability? Many Toronto neighborhoods take pride in being walkable. The pace of walking, rather than other forms of transport, encourages community building by creating vibrant street life. Plinths at the bases of towers foster pleasant environments for interaction between neighbours and visitors.

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How well does a vertical city like Rotterdam perform? A recent study (M.de Nijs 2015) has revealed that only 20 percent of all the 108 high-rise buildings (+65 meters) built in the Netherlands from the period 2004 to 2015 have a plinth that provides conditions for a lively street scene. In conclusion, plinths and high-rises that are part of a block outperform plinths of stand-alone towers in terms of urban vitality and liveliness.

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The Rise of the Skinny Tower New York City like many cities is experiencing a boom in luxury housing projects, including a series of super-tall residential towers that are now under construction in midtown Manhattan. Much taller, and ever thinner, the new condo towers racing skyward in Midtown Manhattan are setting new standards in high rise living, including price. More money can be made from housing people in the sky than ever before. In part, this is because a building full of apartments requires far fewer elevators than an office building with its armies of workers. It casts thinner shadows and creates a more ‘transparent’ skyline. In addition, people are willing to pay a lot more money for better views like to Central Park, and they will pay an even greater premium for an apartment that occupies an entire floor. Tall skinny buildings maximize indoor space by transferring the structural system to the exterior of the building thus making the cores thinner, with colomn free interiors. Thin towers also provide greater access to stacked shared amenities and large stacked gardens.

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Global Residential Skinny Tower Index

472.4m New York

240.9m Melbourne

438.3m New York

236.8m New York

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425.5m New York

224m Toronto

413.3m New York

224m Toronto

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392.8m Dubai

218m London

354.1m Moscow

217.9m New York

335m Dubai

217.9m New York

312m Makati

209.4m New York


307.5m New York

208.8m Boston

306.3m New York

195.7m New York

284m Dubai

190.4m Malmo

280m Makati

187.8m Vancouver

262.4m New York

183.8m Montreal

262m Brisbane

179.8m Chicago

260m Kuala Lumpur

172.5m New York

258m Xiamen

151.5m Vancouver

Source: skyscraperpage.com

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Netherlands Residential High Rise Index

135m Sluisbuurt

158.4m Rotterdam

152.3m Rotterdam

149.1m Rotterdam

145m Sluisbuurt

141.6m Tilburg

105m Amsterdam

105m Eindhoven

104.8m Rotterdam

102m Rotterdam

101.4m Enschede

101m Tilburg

89.5m Rotterdam

88.4m Rotterdam

87m The Hague

86m Rotterdam

85m Rotterdam

85m Amsterdam

75m The Hague

75m Eindhoven

75m Groningen

74m Delft

74m Vlaardingen

73.5m Hertogenbosch

70m Utrecht

70m Almere

70m The Hague

69.6m Rotterdam

68m Zoetermeer

66m Amsterdam

63m The Hague

62m Groningen

62m Breda

62m Capelle aan den IJssel

62m The Hague

61m Rotterdam

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131.6m The Hague

127.1m Rotterdam

125m Sluisbuurt

108.8m Rotterdam

106m Rotterdam

106m Rotterdam

101m Rotterdam

100.8m Eindhoven

99m Rotterdam

98m Rotterdam

91.6m The Hague

90m Sluisbuurt

85m Rotterdam

85m Vlissingen

82m Amsterdam

80m Sluisbuurt

79.9m Groningen

77m The Hague

72m Amsterdam

71.3m Rotterdam

71m Zoetermeer

70.5m Tilburg

70m Rotterdam

70m Zaanstad

66m Zaanstad

66m Haarlem

65m Rotterdam

64.4m Amersfoort

63.1m Amsterdam

63.1m Groningen

61m Amsterdam

60m Eindhoven

60m Amsterdam

60m Rotterdam

60m Amsterdam

59.1m Amsterdam

Source: skyscraperpage.com

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432 Park Ave.

100 East 53rd St.

New York City

New York City

Het Kasteel Amsterdam

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VerticalCity Sluisbuurt 1 Madison Ave. Sao Paulo


Maple Leaf

Red Apple

Toronto

Rotterdam

Jheronimus Den Bosch

IJ Toren

Amsterdam


Anatomy of the Skinny Tower

Avg. 1 Story Unit 686.7 m2

Avg. 1 Story Unit 56.7 m2

Avg. 2 Story Unit 388.98 m2

Avg. 2 Story Unit 584 m2

432 Park Ave.

Maple Leaf

1 Madison Ave.

100 East 53rd

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Avg. 1 Story Unit 152.5 m2

Avg. 1 Story Unit 128 m2

Avg. 1 Story Unit 112.3 m2

Avg. 1 Story Unit 144 m2

Red Apple

Jheronimus

IJ Toren

Het Kasteel

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Urban design guide lines for high-rise building blocks need to account for contextual relationships, street frontage, views, climate, public space, private greenery, and parking.

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Context

75 m

75 m

SUNZONE 50 m

50 m

25 m

25 m

0m

Highrise in height to separation distance ratio

Top

Top

Middle

Middle Plinth Plinth

The plinth has strong relationship with the street

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Views

The highrises are positioned so that the viewlines look through and over each other

Define highrise in relationship to its surroundings

• The function of the plinth is to facilitate interaction with public spaces, street level and surrounding buildings. It gives the public space an urban facade and articulates entrances. • The plinth has a strong relationship with the street. • The middle part has a strong relationship with the city. It can step back 3-5 meters from the street frontage. • The top of buildings have a special function such as luxury apartments, an observation deck and other facilities and installations.

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Positioning

x x

x

High-rises should be positioned diagonally, away from each other • Tall buildings should be generously away from each other so as to allow for more sunlight, and better views through, over and between buildings.

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Sunlight

Use reflective surfaces to bounce light to strategic zones

High-rises in relationship to directing sunlight • Position a high-rise design so that there is sufficient daylight and ‘skyline view’ for the area; in particular, the streets, parks, public and private outdoor space.

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Wind

Setbacks prevent wind hindrance at street level and between buildings

High-rises need to be designed to minimize wind hindrance on the street level • Ensure that location and orientation of high-rise buildings create better air circulation and natural ventilation • Plinth roofs and greenery help in reducing wind at street level. • Back lying facades can be used to reduce fall winds. • Provide amenities like overhangs on the building at street level for protection against bad weather conditions for pedestrians. 38

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High Rise Block

Highrise living needs to be integrated within an urban block with varied heights

High-rise blocks should make ​​a good transition with low-rise buildings, parks and public spaces. • Position high-rises at corners with a plinth so that they mark the edges of the streets, parks and open spaces. • Place entrances on the street and place ‘back of house‘ facilities in order to ensure quality of public spaces and parks. • Make sure the pavement is wide enough for cyclists, pedestrians, buffer zones and green front gardens. 39

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Plinth

Line the base of the building with active, grade-related uses to promote a safe and animated public realm

Stacked Amenities

Provide collective amenities on roofs and terraces to compensate lack of green space on ground level 40

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Plinth functions

Touwnhouse as plinth

Groundfloor mixed use

Groundfloor residential

Midlevel indoor pool

Midlevel indoor gym

VerticalCity Sluisbuurt Skybar and cafe

Urban farming


Green Spaces

Private gardens, pocket parks, green facades and roof gardens

Public and private green spaces need to provide intimacy and protection • Provide high quality and comfortable internal private and collective outdoor facilities within the high-rise location. • Integrate street level vertical green and pocket parks to create intimacy in small open spaces • Green elevations provide more opportunities for vertical gardens and wind protection

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Pocket parks

Pocket parks

Green facades, balconies

Roof terraces

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VerticalCity Sluisbuurt Courtyards-Private gardens

Roof terraces


Parking

• Underground

• Above ground above retail spaces

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• Automatic parking system above retail spaces

• Middle of deep building plans

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Sluisbuurt as part of IJ-East

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Sluisbuurt Urban Structure

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Important Public Spaces

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Main Street and Bicycle Bridge

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Water System

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Streets and Pocket Parks

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Neighborhood

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Tower Positions

100m + 70m + 40m + <40m

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3D mass in relation to height limitations Mass on the base of a maximum height of 150 m

3D limitations maximum height

Schiphol airport 89 m Schiphol airport 84 m

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CO ES UN

CO ES UN

UN

ES

CO

Amsterdam Structuurplan 2040 ‘Highrise IJ banks’


Result 3D restrictions on mass

Effect of sun orientation and sightlines

12.00 summer

12.00 winter 22.00 summer 17.00 winter

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3D mass envelope: principles for high-rise and low-rise locations

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Skyline studies

Tribune

Valley

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Forest

Mountain

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Skinny Tower Ecology Skinny tower ecology MAX. 145m

MAX. 100m

MAX. 80m

+ 145 m Canopy 2 - skybar - public deck

+ 100 m Canopy 1 - skybar - public deck

+ 80 m

+ 60 m Mid Storey - residences

+ 40 m + 30 m + 20 m Plinth

- retail space - townhomes

+ 10 m 0m

Parking

20-25m

Medium

20-25 m

Typical Plan

Tall

20-25 m

Extra Tall

15-20m

20-25 m

20-25 m

Massing 60 m60 m60 m

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100 100 m 100 m m

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60 m60 m60 m

100 100 m 100 m m

60 m60 m60 m

100 100 m 100 m m


MAX. 60m

MAX. 40m

15-20 m

Skinny Houses

10-15 m

15-20 m

Tall Homes

15-20m

Mid Level

MAX. 20m

max 45m

10-15m

60 m 60 m60 m

100 m100 m 100 m 60 m 60 m60 m

100 m100 m 100 m

60 m 60 m60 m

100 m100 m 100 m

60 m 60 m60 m

100 m100 m 100 m 60 m 60 m60 m

100 m100 m 100 m

60 m 60 m60 m

100 m100 m 100 m

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Proof plots 50 m

50 m 130 m

50 m

130 m 130 m

70 m

70 m 70 m

90 m

90 m 90 m

100 m

100 m 100 m 60 m

60 m

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Block typology studies: Plot 1

GFA: 51.150 m2 FSI: 7,5

GFA: 48.330 m2 FSI: 7,1

GFA: 46.150 m2 FSI: 6,8

GFA: 44.550 m2 FSI: 6,6

GFA: 38.470 m2 FSI: 5,7

GFA: 24.150 m2 FSI: 3,6

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Block typology studies: Plot 2

GFA: 30.590 m2 FSI: 4,9

GFA:29.980 m2 FSI: 4,8

GFA: 29.090 m2 FSI: 4,7

GFA: 25.915 m2 FSI: 4,2

GFA: 24.750 m2 FSI: 4,0

GFA: 23.990 m2 FSI: 3,9

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Block typology studies: Plot 3

GFA: 46.480 m2 FSI: 7,6

GFA: 40.530 m2 FSI: 7,3

GFA: 41.795 m2 FSI: 6,9

GFA: 39.855 m2 FSI: 6,6

GFA: 34.840 m2 FSI: 5,7

GFA: 31.270 m2 FSI: 5,2

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Block 1 (Plot 1): Open block

25

25

Roof plan

15

25

GFA: 51.150 m2 FSI: 7,5

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22

22

12

25


Typical floor plan

75m²

75m²

65m²

65m²

65m²

65m²

75m²

75m²

360m²

75m²

65m²

230m² 180m² 75m²

65m²

Concept Section

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180m²


Block 2 (Plot 2): Mixed block Roof plan

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8

18

10

8

16

6

8

16

10

6

6

18

6

10

30

20

20

22

GFA: 24.750 m2 FSI: 4,0

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16

20


Typical floor plan

90m²

90m²

65m²

65m²

65m²

75m²

55m²

90m²

90m²

100m²

100m²

55m²

65m²

65m²

75m²

65m²

95m² 70m²

70m² 95m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

70m²

Concept Section

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95m²

180m²

125m²

95m²

125m²

180m²

125m²


Block 3 (Plot3): Closed Block 25

6

28

6

20

25

6

28

6

20

25

50

42

20

Roof plan

GFA: 46.480 m2 FSI: 7,6

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Typical floor plan

115m²

115m²

80m²

80m²

80m²

80m²

80m²

80m²

115m²

1200m²

65m²

45m²

180m²

65m²

180m²

Concept Section

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65m²

180m² 45m²

180m²

65m²

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115m²

115m²

115m²

80m²

65m²

65m²

80m²


Proof Strip

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Vertical City Booklet Commissioned by: Ruimte en Duurzaamheid Gemeente Amsterdam Contributions from: R+D Gemeente Amsterdam BurtonHamfelt Urban Architecture Boom Landscape Vastu Urbanism LUMA Peutz Studio SK d.d. 28.06.2016 Contact Info: BurtonHamfelt Urban Architecture Pedro de Medinalaan 7b 1086 XK Amsterdam The Netherlands tel: +31(0)20 314 1191 www.burtonhamfelt.nl info@burtonhamfelt.nl 90

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