Page 1

UniversitĂ della Svizzera italiana

Biblioteca universitaria di Lugano

A guide to citing references in the arts and humanities compiled by the Lugano University Library

Lugano, 2009


Biblioteca UniversitĂ della Svizzera italiana Lugano biblioteca@lu.unisi.ch www.bul.unisi.ch


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Contents Introduction Quoting Sources Citing Sources Choosing a Citation Style The Documentary-Note System How to cite Sources in Notes How to compile a Bibliography Basic Rules Books Contribution to a Book Journal Articles Articles on Databases Newspaper Articles Reviews Grey Literature Reference Works Reports Audiovisual Material Multimedia Material Websites E-mail Messages Legal and Public Documents Sources available in Different Formats Citations from Secondary Sources Citing Online Sources Abbreviations List of References Style Manuals available at the Library Glossary

3 4 6 7 9 10 12 12 13 15 16 17 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 21 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 28 29

1


2


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Introduction Any project, thesis or dissertation largely relies on information taken from other works. You can draw upon a multiplicity of sources when writing a text, such as books, articles, statistics, websites, etc. You may quote from a source, by reporting the original author’s exact words; you may paraphrase, by putting a passage from a text into your own words, or you may discuss ideas developed by other authors. In any of these cases it is essential that you acknowledge your sources in order to: • respect intellectual property and avoid plagiarism • enable readers to find the sources you cited • document the range of your research This guide provides you with the basics on how to cite sources (printed and electronic) in your text and how to list references at the end of your work. Examples are given on how to cite the most common types of publications. For types of documents not exemplified here, you can refer to the style manuals suggested at the end of this guide or ask the library staff for advice. Topics explored include: • • • • •

how to quote from other texts how to cite sources using the documentary-note system elements that have to be included in citations how to cite individual types of sources how to arrange a bibliography

The majority of the examples of bibliographic citations quoted in this guide are drawn from The Chicago manual of style by the University of Chicago Press (2003; hereafter referred to as The Chicago manual of style).

3


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Quoting Sources Quotations may either be integrated into the text or set off as blocks. Remember that quotations must reproduce the exact words of the original passage (see the difference between “quote” and “paraphrase” in the glossary). Run-in quotations Generally, short quotations are integrated into the text and enclosed in double quotation marks. In short, there has been “almost a continual improvement” in all branches of human knowledge; Block quotations Quotations longer than eight lines, as well as quotations that are the object of analysis, are generally set off from the text. Block quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks and are indented, commonly set in smaller type and single-line spaced. The sentence/phrase that introduces the quotation may be followed by a colon (as in the case of the introductory phrase “as follows”), a period or no punctuation at all. In discussing the reasons for political disturbances Aristotle observes that revolutions also break out when opposite parties, e.g. the rich and the people, are equally are equally balanced, and there is little or no middle class; for, if either party were manifestly superior, the other would not risk an attack upon them. And, for this reason, those who are eminent in virtue usually do not stir up insurrections, always a minority. Such are the beginnings and causes of the disturbances and revolutions to which every form of government is liable.

Quotes within quotes A quotation within a quotation must be marked by means of either single or double quotation marks. Single quotation marks enclose in-text quotations within quotations. “Don’t be absurd!” said Henry. “To say that ‘I mean what I say’ is the same as ‘I say what I mean’ is to be confused as Alice at the Mad Hatter’s tea party.”

4


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

A sentence quoted in a block quotation must be enclosed in double quotation marks. Summarizing Gordon’s philosophy, Crane says that there has been “almost a continual improvement” in all branches of human knowledge …

Insertions Text added to quoted material must be enclosed in square brackets. Marcellus, doubtless in anxious suspense, asks Barnardo, “What, has this thing [the ghost of Hamlet’s father] appear’d again tonight?” Ellipsis The omission of words, phrases or more from quotations must be indicated by three dots (four dots if a whole sentence is omitted). Emerson claims that “the spirit of our American radicalism is destructive and aimless…. On the other side, the conservative party … is timid, and merely defensive of property…. It does not build, nor write, nor cherish the arts, nor foster religion, nor establish schools.”

5


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Citing Sources Citing sources means acknowledging the works you referred to in your own study. This is essential in order to enable readers to identify and find the material you used. You must cite sources both in your text and at the end of your work. Intext citations may be placed either in bibliographic notes (footnotes or endnotes, sequentially numbered) or in short form in the body of your text, in parenthesis, directly after the passage you quoted or reworded. The decision to adopt notes or cite in running text depends on the type of citation style you choose (see the section on Choosing a Citation Style, 7). A fully-detailed list of references, or bibliography, must be provided at the end of your work. The reference list may either include only the materials you have cited in your work or all the works you have consulted; in the latter case you may be required to create a second list named “Further reading” – please ask your supervisor for advice. Discursive notes Footnotes or endnotes may also contain explanatory or discursive material that comments on parts of your text. Discursive or lengthy notes should be used sparingly. Please refer to the style manuals for more information on discursive notes.

6


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Choosing a Citation Style There are many different citation styles. You may find a list of the style manuals available at the Lugano University Library (BUL) at the end of this guide. Whatever style you opt for, it is important to be consistent with it throughout your work. The choice of a style depends upon the kind of text you are writing. Hereafter we describe the most commonly used formats in the academic studies, particularly by the Social Sciences and by the Arts and Humanities. The pros and cons outlined for each style will guide you to choose the format that best suits the nature of your text. Social Science Disciplines (Economics, Communication Studies) The author-date system is the most commonly used style by the Social Sciences. It consists of very brief citations integrated into the text, in parenthesis, and of a list of references. This technique, which may vary in its format, is described in many manuals. The American Psychological Association (APA) and the University of Chicago style manuals are two of the best known. Pros of the author-date style • in-text referencing makes citations clearly visible to readers Cons of the author-date style • this technique is particularly suitable when the bulk of citations include the authors’ names and the publication dates, so that the conversion to parenthetical citations is easily made. If the sources you refer to do not bear such information, as in the case of anonymous texts, manuscripts or ancient texts, illustrated materials, public documents or websites, it may be convenient to use the documentary-note style that is described below • frequent citations in the body of the text interfere with the flow of the document and occupy a lot of space

7


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Arts and Humanities Disciplines (Literature, Architecture) In the fields of Arts and Humanities it is common to cite documents following the documentary-note style. However, the parenthetical citation system is also widely used (the Modern Language Association style manual is a renown guide to this technique). The documentary-note format consists of citations placed either in footnotes or endnotes and of a bibliography located at the end of the document. This system is thoroughly described in the Chicago manual of style (2003). Pros of the documentary-note style • any kind of text, with or without author and date, can be easily cited following this technique • since citations in notes do not interfere with the flow of the document, the documentary-note style is particularly recommended when you refer to a wide and varied range of sources Cons of the documentary-note style • footnotes: if frequent and inclusive of lengthy comments footnotes may take up a lot of space on the page • endnotes: their location at the end of a chapter cause citations to be less visible to readers In this guide we describe the documentary-note style, while the author-date system is outlined in the “Guide to citing references in the social sciences” available on the Library website. The Chicago manual of style (2003) is the reference manual for both formats.

8


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

The Documentary-Note System According to the documentary-note style citations must be placed either in footnotes or endnotes, sequentially numbered in the text. “Nonrestrictive relative clauses are parenthetic, as are similar clauses introduced by conjunctions indicating time or place.” [1] 1. Strunk and White, The Elements of Style, 3. Citations in notes may appear either in a fully-detailed or in a concise form. In the former case it is facultative to provide a complete bibliography at the end of the work, while in texts with concise notes a final bibliography becomes strictly necessary. We recommend that notes display a minimum amount of information (as in the example above) and that a bibliography be compiled at the end of the text. This way both notes and bibliography can be easily consulted by readers. The bibliography must be alphabetically ordered by authors’ names. It is important that the authors’ names cited in the notes correspond to the entries in the bibliography.

9


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

How to cite Sources in Notes We describe here how to cite references in an shortened form starting from the first note. For information on how to write fully-detailed note citations please refer to the Chicago manual of style (2003, 599-612). Basic form • Insert the author’s or editor’s last name in notes as it appears in your bibliography. The first name, or initials, is generally omitted, unless more authors with the same surname are cited. Abbreviations, such as “ed.”, should not be used. The title of the publication you refer to should follow the author’s name, preceded by a comma (for information on how to format titles see the section on Basic Rules, 12). Page number/s, if any, are separated from the title by a comma. The abbreviation “p./pp.” is not necessary. 5. Farmwinkle, Humor of the Midwest, 241. • Titles with more than four words should be shortened. Initial articles (“the”, “an” etc.) are omitted; the order of the words in the title cannot be changed. Complete title: The War Journal of Major Damon “Rocky” Gause Short title: War Journal Complete title: Daily Notes of a Trip around the World Short title: Daily Notes NOT World Trip More than one author • For works written by two/three authors all names must be cited, using “and” to connect the last author to the other names – see examples for punctuation. 5. Argenti and Forman, Power of Corporate Communication, 28. 6. Siever, Spainhour, and Patwardhan, Perl, 520. • In the case of works written by more than three authors, include the first name followed by “et al.”. For instance, a work by Belizzi, Kruckeberg, Hamilton and Martin appears as Belizzi et al., “Consumer Perceptions”.

10

Unknown author and/or date • Citations to texts whose author and /or date are not known should include the first piece of information with which the document is entered in the bibliography. Such citations are common when referring to websites. N.B. note citations should not include dates of access.


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Note 17. Nikewomen.com. Bibliography Nikewomen.com - Train to be stronger. http://www.nike.com/nikewomen/site_ sp08/shell/index.jsp#,en,32;homepage (4 September 2008). Multiple references • If you are discussing several works by different authors, you need to provide all the authors’ names separated by semi-colons. Web 2.0 techniques are more and more frequently employed in information literacy instruction.[8] 8. Godwin and Parker, Information literacy meets Library 2.0, 2008; Valenza, “Web 2.0 Meets Information Literacy: an Introduction”, 2007. References to the same source • When you cite the same work successively you should use the Latin abbreviation “ibid.”, that replaces the entire reference including the pages (if you refer to different pages of the same work you need to specify them after “ibid.”). “Ibid.” refers to the text cited in the note immediately preceding. If you need to cite a work you referred to in a previous note you should rewrite the citation – the Latin abbreviation “op. cit.” once used to replace such citations is becoming obsolete . “Ibid.” cannot be used if the preceding note includes more than one reference. 6. Morley, Poverty and Inequality, 43. 7. Ibid. 8. Schwartz, “Nation and Nationalism,” 138. 9. Ibid. 10. Ibid., 140. 11. Morley, Poverty and Inequality, 45-46. • If you cite the same work repeatedly, as in the examples 9 and 10 above, it is advisable to insert the page numbers into the text in parentheses, in order to avoid a series “ibid.” notes (see the Chicago manual of style, 2003, 466, 603-06).

11


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

How to compile a Bibliography Basic Rules Authors’ names: the author’s last name is followed by his/her first name (the first name can be initialized). In the case of two/three authors only the first author’s name is inverted. Please refer to the title page of the work you consulted to check the name order. For works by more than three authors, all names should be indicated; if the list of authors is exceedingly long (usually more than ten), you may indicate only the first three followed by “et al.”. Titles Capitalization: generally all words are capitalized, except for articles and conjunctions (for more details see the Chicago manual of style, 2003, 366-67). Style: titles of books and journals are italicized, while titles of articles or chapters in a book are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks. In general, titles of unpublished works, such as theses or working papers, and titles of web pages are set in roman. Abbreviations of journal titles: journal titles are normally written in full, in order to enable readers to quickly pinpoint the source. However, it is possible to use standardized abbreviations of titles, particularly in the reference lists of scientific works. Whatever form you choose, remember to be consistent with it throughout your work. Among the many extant, you may consult the Thomson Scientific list of title abbreviations, which is fairly comprehensive and interdisciplinary, at the URL http://images.isiknowledge.com/ help/WOS/A_abrvjt.html. Finally, the Scientific style and format manual, available at the library, provides a good reference on how to abbreviate titles (Council of Science Editors 2006, 570-71). Order of entries: entries must be arranged alphabetically by the authors’ last names. • Anonymous works should be entered by the title. The Burden of Anonymity. Nowhere: Nonesuch Press, 1948. N.B. articles at the start of titles do not affect the alphabetical order.

12


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Albert, Pierre. Histoire de la Radio-Télévision. Paris: Presses Univ. de France, 1996. The Burden of Anonymity. Nowhere: Nonesuch Press, 1948. Gibaldi, Joseph. Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing. 2nd ed. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 1998. • Works by the same author should be ordered alphabetically by title; the author’s name may be replaced by a 3-em dash. Fontanelle, Eric C. Preparing for the Postwar Period. Columbus, Ohio: W. C. Cartwright and Daughters, 1944. ___. What What Really Happened when the War Ended. Cleveland: Chagrin Valley Press, 1952. • A single-author work must be entered before a multi-author work beginning with the same name. Ramos, Frank P. “Deconstructing the Deconstructionists”. Eolian Quarterly 11 (Spring 1990): 41-58. Ramos, Frank P., John R Wizmont, and Clint T. O’Finnery. Texts and Nontexts. Philadelphia: Whynot Press, 1987. Books N.B. correct bibliographic information can be found on the title page of the book and its reverse side. Order of elements: Author (or editor, abbreviated as “ed./eds.”) Title Edition (only if different from the first) Place of publication Publisher Date N.B. see examples for the correct punctuation.

13


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Two or more authors Walker, Janice R., and Todd Taylor. The Columbia Guide to Online Style. New York: Columbia Univ. Press,1998. Editor as author Schellinger, Paul, Christopher Hudson, and Marijk Rijsberman, eds. Encyclopedia of the Novel. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1998. Edition other than the first Lesina, Roberto. Il Nuovo Manuale di Stile. 2. ed. Bologna: Zanichelli, 1994. Multivolume works Work as a whole Wright, Sewell. Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4 vols. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1968-78. Single volume Wright, Sewell. Theory of Gene Frequencies. Vol. 2, Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1969. Organizations as authors Works authored by organizations or associations must be entered by the organization’s name. International Organization for Standardization. Information and Documentation: Bibliographic References. Part 2, Electronic Documents or Parts thereof. Excerpts from International Standard ISO 690-2. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 2001. http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/iso/tc46sc9/standard/690-2e.htm [15 settembre 2003]. University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style. 15th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2003. World Health Organization. WHO Editorial Style Manual. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1993.

14


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Electronic Books The rules for citing printed books also apply to electronic books. Add the book URL and the date of access in brackets; if a subscription is required to access the document, specify this after the date of access. Felleisen, Matthias, Robert Bruce Findler, Matthew Flatt, and Shriram Krishnamurthi. How to Design Programs: An Introduction to Programming and Computing Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2003. http://www.htdp.org/ (10 March 2008). Contribution to a Book Order of elements: Author of the contribution Title of the contribution, in roman and followed by “in” Title of the book, in italics Editor/s of the book (if known) Page numbers of the contribution Place of publication Publisher Date of the book which contains the contribution N.B. contributions to or chapters in conference proceedings are treated as contributions to a book. Phibbs, Brendan. “Herrlisheim: Diary of a battle.” In The Other Side of Time: A Combat Surgeon in World War II, 117-63. Boston: Little, Brown, 1987. Wiens, J. A. “Avian Community Ecology: An Iconoclastic View.” In Perspectives in Ornitology, edited by A. H. Brush and G. A. Clark Jr., 355-403. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983.

15


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Journal Articles Order of elements: Author Article title, in roman Journal title, in italics Place of publication: only if the journal may be confused with another Volume, issue/month, date Page numbers N.B. see examples for the correct punctuation. Allison, G. W. “The Implications of Experimental Design for Biodiversity Manipulations.” American Naturalist 153, no. 1 (1999): 26-45. Batson, C. Daniel. “How Social Is the Animal? The Human Capacity for Caring.” American Psychologist 45 (March 1990): 336-46. Bullock, D. J., H. M. Bury, and P. G. H. Evans. “Foraging Ecology in the Lizard Anolis Oculatus (Iguanidae) from Dominica, West Indies.” Journal of Zoology (London) 230 (1993): 19-30. Loften, Peter. “Reverberations between Wordplay and Swordplay in Hamlet.” Aeolian Studies 2 (1989): 12-29. Electronic Journals The rules for citing printed articles also apply to electronic articles. Add the article URL and the date of access in brackets – it is better if it is a stable URL; for more details see the section on Citing Online Sources, 26. If a subscription is required to access the document, specify this after the date of access. Warr, Mark, and Christopher. G. Ellison. “Rethinking Social Reactions to Crime: Personal and Altruistic Fear in Family Households.” American Journal of Sociology 106, no.3 (2000): 551-78. http//www.journals.uchicago.edu/AJS/journal/issues/ v106n3/050125/050125.html (15 May 2002, subscription only).

16


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Articles on Databases The rules for citing articles on electronic journals also apply to articles on databases. Include either the URL of the database homepage (root URL) or the article stable URL, if given. Generally, in printed works it is advisable to provide the root URL as it may be reproduced more easily. On the other hand, in electronic material it is more convenient to give the stable URL of the article, since it links directly to the document. Database root URL: Thomas, Trevor M. “Wales: Land of Mines and Quarries.” Geographical Review 46, no.1 (1956): 59-81. http//www.jstor.org/ (21 April 2004, subscription only). Article stable URL: Bowlin, John R., and Peter G. Stromberg. “Representation and Reality in the Study of Culture.” American Anthropologist 99, no. 1 (1997): 123-34. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-7294%28199703%292%3A99%3A1 %3C123%3ARARITS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6 (2 June 2003, subscription only). Also see the section on Citing Online Sources, 26. Newspaper Articles Order of elements: Author (if known) Article title (if known), in roman Newspaper title, in italics Month, day, year

Goodstein, Laurie, and William Glaberson. “The Well-Marked Roads to Homicidal Rage.” New York Times, April 10, 2000. Unsigned Articles Order of elements: Newspaper title, in italics Article title, in roman Month, day, year

New York Times. “In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor.” July 30, 2002.

17


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Newspapers published in different editions Sapp, Meghan. “European Companies Win a Big Tax Break.” The Wall Street Journal (Europe), May 6, 2005. Electronic Newspapers Mitchell, Alison, and Frank, Bruni. “Scars Still Raw, Bush Clashes with McCain.” New York Times, March 25, 2001. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/25/ politics/25MCCA.html (12 February 2001, subscription only). Reviews Order of elements: Name of the reviewer (if known) Review title (if any) Title of the work reviewed and its author, preceded by “review of” Title and details of the publication in which the review appeared

Boehnke, Michael. Review of Analysis of human genetic linkage, 3rd ed., by Jurg Ott. Am J Hum Genet 66 (2000): 1725. http://www.journals.uchicago. edu/AJHG/journal/issues/v66n5/001700/001700.html (21 January 2002). Grey Literature The term “Grey Literature” refers to works not distributed by normal publishers. Generally, it defines material produced and distributed by public and private organizations. The title of the document should be cited in roman. Theses Specify the type of thesis and the academic institution. Murphy, Priscilla Coit. “What a Book Can Do: Silent Spring and Media-Borne Public Debate.” PhD dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2000.

18


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Papers presented at meetings Specify the meeting name and place. O’Guinn, Thomas C. “Touching Greatness: Some Aspects of Star Worship in Contemporary Consumption.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York, 1987. Working Papers Specify the type of material and the academic institution. Lucki, Deborah D., and Richard, W. Pollay. “Content Analysis of Advertising: A Review of the Literature.” Working paper, History of Advertising Archives, Faculty of Commerce, University of British Columbia, 1980. Patents Order of elements: Patent creator (if known) Patent name Reference number Date of patent filing

Petroff, M. D., and M. G. Stapelbroek. “Blocked Impurity Band Detectors.” US Patent 4,586,960, filed Oct. 23, 1980, and issued Feb. 4, 1986. Reference Works Dictionaries, Encyclopedias It is not necessary to include titles of well-known dictionaries or encyclopedias in the bibliography, since note citations provide the necessary information to identify them. However, if a bibliographic entry is needed, follow the rules provided for books. Garner, Bryan A. A Dictionary of Modern American Usage. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

19


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Reports Corporate reports or reports issued by organizations should be treated as books. American Library Association. Presidential Committee on Information Literacy. Final Report. 1989. http://www.ala.org/ala/acrl/acrlpubs/whitepapers/presidential.htm (20 May 2005). Audiovisual Material Note citations generally suffice to identify audiovisual documents. However, if it is necessary to include them in the bibliography, they should be treated as books. The medium (DVD, CD, etc.) should also be indicated. One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest. DVD. Directed by Milos Forman. Burbank: Warner Home Video, 2002. An Incident in Tiananmen Square. 16 mm, 25 min. San Francisco: Gate of Heaven Films, 1990. Radio Broadcasts Order of elements: Title of broadcast (if known) Station Date, time and year of broadcast

Cosmic Quest. BBC Radio 4, 10 June 2008, 15.45.

20


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Television Programs Order of elements: Title of the television series (if known), in roman Year of production (if known) Title of the program, in italics Broadcaster Date of broadcast

The Falklands Play. BBC 4, 11 June 2008. Multimedia Material Multimedia material should be treated as audiovisual material. Add the document URL and the date of access if the material is available online. Royal Institute of British Architect. CD-ROM. Architecture and Design Illustrated. London: RIBA, 1998. Websites Entire Websites Order of elements: Author/owner of the website (if known) Website name/title, in roman URL Date of access

21


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

World Resources Institute. “EarthTrends: Environmental Information.” http:// earthtrends.wri.org/ (27 March 2008). Contribution to a Website References to individual pages or individual works on websites should include the author’s name and the title of the document, if available. Mabry, Donald J. “Pinochet’s Legacy.” Historical Text Archive. http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=764# (17 March 2008).

22


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Unknown Author If no personal author is specified, the name of the organization or association that owns the website may be entered in his/her place. Federation of American Scientists. “Resolution Comparison: Reading License Plates and Headlines.” http://www.fas.org/irp/imint/resolve5.htm (15 May 2001). If neither the author nor the organization are known, indicate the name of the website or the title of the page, followed by the URL and the date of access. Also see the section on Citing Online Sources, 26. E-mail Messages Note citations generally suffice to identify e-mail messages. However, if it is necessary to insert them in the bibliography, the following elements should be included, if available. Order of elements: Author Subject line, in roman Name of the electronic mailing list, in roman Date of posting URL Date of access

Morgan Lease, Eric. “Report on the Future of Bibliographic Control.” E-mail to Oss4lib mailing list, 11 December, 2007. http://oss4lib.org/mailing-list (11 March 2008).

23


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Legal and Public Documents Note citations generally suffice to identify legal documents. However, if it is necessary to insert them in the bibliography, the following examples show what to include. Law Articles U.S. Const. art. I, § 4. Svizzera. Cst. fed. art. 182. Public Documents Order of elements: Country Legislative body Division (if any) Document title, in italics Report number (if known) Date

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. The Mutual Security Act of 1956. 84th Cong., 2d sess., 1956. S. Rep. 2273. Svizzera. Consiglio Federale. Gli Obiettivi del Consiglio Federale per il 2005. Decree issued 17 Nov. 2004. Sources available in Different Formats If a work is available in different formats, for instance in print and in electronic form, you should cite the format you consulted. The other form may be mentioned in the bibliography, if that is deemed convenient for the readers. Welch, Ivo. “Capital Structure and Stock Returns.” The Journal of Political Economy 112, no.1 (2004): 106-31. Also available at http://proquest.umi. com/pqdweb?did=595250721&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=65081&RQT=309& VName=PQD (10 March 2008, subscription only).

24


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Citations from Secondary Sources It is always advisable to read original sources. However, if they are not available, it is possible to cite works mentioned in other texts. In this case, the example below shows how to cite both sources in a note and in the bibliography. N.B. In the body of the text it is necessary to make clear that you are referring to a work cited in a secondary source Pecorari suggests that the technique described by Rebecca Howard as “patchworking” … [5] Note citation 5. Howard, Shadow of Giants, xvii, quoted in Pecorari, Academic Writing and Plagiarism, 5. Bibliography List both the original and the secondary source. The entry relating to the original source should be completed by the phrase “quoted in”, followed by the reference to the secondary source. Howard, Rebecca M. Standing in the Shadow of Giants, xvii. Stamford, CT: Ablex, 1999. Quoted in Pecorari, Academic Writing and Plagiarism, 5. Pecorari, Diane. Academic Writing and Plagiarism: A Linguistic Analysis. London: Continuum, 2008.

25


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Citing Online Sources It is advisable to cite a persistent (or stable) URL when listing electronic sources; however, for documents found on databases it may be sufficient to provide the link to the main entrance of the service– see section on Articles on Databases. A stable URL may be characterized by a document identifier called DOI (Digital Object Identifier). Generally, the stable URL or DOI can be found together with the other bibliographic details of the work you consulted. If no stable URL or DOI are provided, insert the URL of the main entrance of the website. It is advisable to add the date of access and to specify whether a subscription to the service is required in order to view the document. The URL must contain the database or website domain and NOT the proxy domain, as exemplified below: Proxy domain: http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.lu.unisi.ch:2048/ Database domain: http://www.jstor.org/

26


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Abbreviations We provide here a brief list of abbreviations commonly used in text writing, citations and bibliographies. Some of these are Latin. For a detailed list please consult a style manual. anon.: anonymous cf. : confer (compare with) ed.: edition ed./eds.: editor/editors e.g. : exempli gratia (for example, for instance) et al. : et alii (and others), used in citations and reference lists. fig.: figure i.e. : id est (in other words) ibid. : ibidem (in the same place), used in notes to refer to the immediately prior source. ill.: illustration para./paras.: paragraph/paragraphs ref./refs.: reference/references s.l.a.n: sine loco, anno, vel nomine (without place, year, name of publisher) s.v.: sub voce/verbo (under the word), used to quote a specific entry in a reference work. vol./vols.: volume/volumes

27


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

List of References Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee. 2006. Scientific style and format: The CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 7th ed. Reston: Council of Science Editors. Pearsall, Judy, and Bill Trumble, eds. 2002. Oxford English reference dictionary. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. University of Chicago Press. 2003. The Chicago manual of style. 15th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Wikipedia: The free encyclopedia. http://www.wikipedia.org/.

Style Manuals available at the Library American Psychological Association. 2002. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. 5th ed. Washington: American Psychological Association. Council of Science Editors, Style Manual Committee. 2006. Scientific style and format: The CSE manual for authors, editors, and publishers. 7th ed. Reston: Council of Science Editors. Gibaldi, Joseph. 1998. MLA style manual and guide to scholarly publishing. 2nd ed. New York: The Modern Language Association of America. Iverson, Cheryl, Stacy Christiansen, Annette Flanagin et al., eds. 2007. AMA manual of style: A guide for authors and editors. 10th ed. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. University of Chicago Press. 2003. The Chicago manual of style. 15th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Walker, Janice R., and Todd Taylor. 1998. The Columbia guide to online style. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.

28


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Glossary Author: a person/organization responsible for the creation of a work and its content in its published form. Bibliography: see Reference List. Citation: a reference to a work/document that provides the necessary information to identify the source. Cite: see Citation. Database: “a structured set of data held in a computer, esp. one that is accessible in various ways” (Pearsall and Trumble 2002). DOI (Digital Object Identifier): “… a permanent identifier given to an electronic document” (Wikipedia, 18 June 2008). Domain name: “a name that identifies a computer or computers on the Internet. These names appear as a component of a Web site’s URL” (Wikipedia, 17 June 2008). Editor: “a person who edits [assembles, prepares, modifies or condenses] material for publication or broadcasting” (Pearsall and Trumble 2002). Intellectual Property: “a property that is the result of creativity and does not exist in tangible form …” (Pearsall and Trumble 2002). Paraphrase: “a free rendering or rewording of a passage” (Pearsall and Trumble 2002).

29


CITING IN THE ARTS AND HUMANITIES

Plagiarize: “take and use (the thoughts, writings, inventions, etc. of another person) as one’s own” (Pearsall and Trumble 2002). Proxy Server: “… a server (a computer system or an application program) which services the requests of its clients by forwarding requests to other servers” (Wikipedia, 16 June 2008). Quotation: see Quote. Quote: “repeat or copy out (a passage) usually with an indication that it is borrowed” (Pearsall and Trumble 2002). Reference list: a list containing full bibliographic information regarding the works cited and consulted in one’s own text. Source (source text): “a text (sometimes oral) from which information or ideas are derived” (Wikipedia, 17 June 2008). URL (Uniform Resource Locator): “in popular usage, it means a web page address. Strictly, it is a compact string of characters for a resource available via the Internet” (Wikipedia, 17 June 2008). Root URL: generally it corresponds to the website homepage or domain name.

30


Biblioteca UniversitĂ della Svizzera italiana Lugano biblioteca@lu.unisi.ch www.bul.unisi.ch

A guide to citing references in the arts and humanities  

This guide provides you with the basics on how to cite sources (printed and electronic) in your text and how to list references at the end o...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you