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Regulator Reference Guide


Table of Contents


Table of Contents

Introduction Regulator Function & Operation Safely & Correctly Selecting and Sizing a Regulator Swagelok速 Pressure Regulator Types Maintenance & Repairs Troubleshooting Complementary Products and Accessories How to Read a Flow Curve Chart Glossary of Terms

01 04 06 12 28 30 34 42 44


Introduction

Swagelok is a privately held company that designs, manufactures, and delivers an expanding range of the highest quality fluid system products and solutions. Through an exclusive network of authorized sales and service centers Swagelok Company delivers knowledge, resources, innovation and value to customers worldwide. Because you need reliability in every aspect of your fluid systems, Swagelok provides an expansive line of regulators including pressure reducing, back pressure, vaporizing, and tank blanketing models in sizes from Ÿ� up to 4�. With Swagelok regulators you get accuracy, sensitivity, and pressure stability. Swagelok Company offers an expansive line of regulators to handle various applications including alternative fuels, analytical instrumentation, biopharm, process instrumentation, semiconductor, oil & gas, pulp & paper, water treatment, vaporizing nitrogen supply unit, power stations, power plants, tank blanketing and a range of other applications.

01


Swagelok authorized sales and service centers are a fast and cost-efficient source for regulators, regulator assemblies, technical training and support. Throughout this Regulator Reference Guide you will find a variety of helpful information for selecting, maintaining and ordering regulators. For more information and to find your authorized sales and service representative, visit our website at www.swagelok.com

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03


Regulator Function & Operation


Regulator Function & Operation

Pressure Regulator Function A pressure regulator is a valve that automatically cuts off the flow of a liquid or gas at a certain pressure. Regulators are used to allow high-pressure fluid supply lines or tanks to be reduced to safe and/or usable pressures for various applications. Pressure Regulator Operation Regulators reduce the pressure of a gas or liquid from a source, such as a cylinder or compressor, to a lower pressure required by a device, such as an analyzer. A pressure regulator provides better resolution and control when its inlet and control range pressures closely match the pressure requirements of the fluid handling system. Resolution is the number of handle turns needed to adjust a regulator from its lowest to highest outlet pressure setting. Control is the ability of the regulator to hold a given outlet pressure set point.

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05


Selecting & Sizing


Safely & Correctly Selecting and Sizing a Regulator How to Size a Regulator Pressure regulators are highly technical, specialized fluid handling components. The process of selecting the correct regulator requires definition of the application according to pressure requirements, flow rate, gas/liquid composition and temperature. Proper selection can help avoid undesirable conditions such as droop and creep. Poor selection can lead to failures such as improper pressure control and contamination of gas streams. Required information for regulator selection: Function: Pressure reducing or back-pressure control? Pressure: What are the maximum and minimum inlet and outlet pressure ranges? Fluid: Is it a gas or a liquid? Temperature: What is the operating temperature? Flow: What are the flow requirements? Compatibility: Is the regulator compatible with the system? Functionality: Will the regulator function in the system correctly? End Connections: Have you picked the right regulator with the right connections?

06


Safely & Correctly Selecting and Sizing a Regulator Cont.

Rule of Thumb When selecting a regulator, look for the right size as well as a set of capabilities, which is a function of the regulator’s design. The best way to select a regulator for your application is to examine its flow curve, which is often provided by the manufacturer. Regulators should be sized based on the largest possible flow and the smallest change in pressure. In the event your requirements approach the limit of a regulator, we recommend using the next larger regulator available. A Note on Valve Sizing Valve sizing means determining how much flow can pass through the pressure regulator, not the size of the end connections. Since gases are compressible and liquids are not, significant differences exist when sizing for gas or liquid regulators.

07


Selecting a Regulator Safely and correctly selecting a regulator requires project-specific information including: 01. Required functions of regulator such as: – Pressure-reducing – Back-pressure – Dome-loaded – Differential pressure – Changeover – Pneumatic (air-loaded ratio) – Vaporizer – High purity – Sanitary 02. Required inlet pressure range – Matched to maximum supply pressure 03. Required pressure control range – Matched to maximum outlet pressure – Determines diaphragm vs. piston 04. Flow requirements – Use flow curves, which are based on Nitrogen – For complete calculations please contact your Swagelok representative 05. System compatibility – Construction materials (body) – Seat and diaphragm material – O-ring

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Safely & Correctly Selecting and Sizing a Regulator Cont.

Selecting a Regulator Cont. 06. System functionality – Determines venting options and accessories 07. End connections, porting, and mounting Information Needed to Quote a Regulator Inlet pressure

What are the minimum and maximum pressures, including units?

Outlet pressure

How accurate do you require an outlet pressure reading (provide a range)? In what units?

Flow

At what inlet and outlet pressure do you require flow? In what units?

Medium

Composition of fluid, is it a gas or liquid?

Loading mechanism

Spring- or dome-loaded? External feedback?

End connections

Specify size, spec, and pressure class.

Material*

Stainless steel 316 (*special alloys are available) What seal, seat, and diaphragm materials are required?

Surface finish and lubrication

Specify Ra value if needed and what lubricants are preferred.

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Information Needed to Quote a Regulator Cont. Certification of material, special testing, PED, and ATEX

Detail all special requirements.

Temperature range

Include fluid minimum and maximum temperatures as well as environmental minimum and maximum temperatures.

Please see Glossary of Terms for more information.

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11


Types of Regulators


Types of Regulators Swagelok Pressure Regulators Regulators: Back-Pressure Dome-Loaded, Back-Pressure SpringLoaded, Pressure-Reducing Dome-Loaded, Pressure-Reducing Spring-Loaded, Specialty • Back-pressure and pressure-reducing models • Spring-, dome-, and air-loaded models • Vaporizing models • Gas cylinder changeover model

Swagelok Back-Pressure, Dome-Loaded Regulators Back-pressure regulators control inlet pressure by balancing adjustable spring force against the force of the inlet pressure. The spring force is adjusted by turning the stem/handle to set pressure. When the force rises above the force of the spring, the regulator opens until the spring force and inlet pressure are balanced again.

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Types of Regulators Cont. Swagelok Back-Pressure, Spring-Loaded Regulators Back-pressure, spring-loaded regulators are designed to maintain back-pressure control in: • analytical or process systems upstream of the regulator • high-flow applications • portable or laboratory analytical systems • gas or liquid applications • high-sensitivity conditions These regulators are available in various styles to adapt to any setting or requirement allowing minimal leakage potential, low internal volume, lightweight or compact designs, panel-mounting, and more.

Swagelok Pressure-Reducing, Dome-Loaded Regulators Pressure-reducing, dome-loaded regulators deliver many options and features that include: • compact sizes • dome- and air-loaded styles • piston sensing • balanced designs • high-purity • high-flow • integral pilot-operated • differential They can be ordered as both venting and non- venting. Multiple gauge connection configurations are also available.

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Swagelok Pressure Reducing, Spring-Loaded Regulators Numerous models of pressure-reducing, springloaded regulators are available to fulfill different needs. They are designed for use in: • applications requiring constant outlet pressure • gas or liquid applications • minimum droop in low-flow and low-pressure conditions • control for pressures up to 10 000 psig (689 bar) • high-purity or high-flow applications • compact settings, and more Features include: bottom mounting, self-venting, tamper-free designs, panel mounting, convoluted and non-perforated diaphragm, metal or polymer seats, and two-stage operation.

Quick Selection Guide Pressure Regulator Series Important feature

Look at

Comments

Supply pressure effect

KCY, KHF (KPF)

Dual stage or balanced poppet

High Flow (K Series)

KHF, KPF

Up to Cv = 13

High outlet pressure or piston sensor

KPP, KCP, KPF, KHP, KHR

Resists over pressure deformation or fatigue failure from pulse / pump effect, where a diaphragm may deform or crack prematurely

14


Types of Regulators Cont.

Pressure Regulator Series Cont. Sensitivity

KLF (KHF)

Larger diaphragm providing more sensitivity for outlet pressure change

Heating

KEV, KSV

To vaporize liquids or to keep gas above its dew point

Compact size

KCP

Dimensional or weight considerations

Low control pressure

KLF

May require low inlet pressures also

High Flow (RHPS Series)

RS, BS, RD, BD

Large seat diameter, balanced poppet designs

Low pressure, high sensitivity

LPRS, LPBS, LPRD, LPBD

Large diaphragm for high sensitivity

Minimal droop

RD-EF, RD-EFP

External feedback to main (dome-loaded) regulator or external feedback to pilot regulator reduces droop

Differential pressure

DP

Diaphragm sensing, adjustable bias

Air-loaded, ratio regulator

RA

Air-loaded pressure control, choice of dometo-outlet pressure ratios (1:15, 1:40, 1:70)

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Function Selection Guide Pressure-Reducing

Back-Pressure

Dome-Loaded

Specialized

KPR, KCY, KLF

KBP, KFB, KCB

RD, LPRD

KCM, KCA

KHF, KCP, KPP

KBP, KHB

BD, LPBD

KSV, KEV

KPF, KHP, KHR

BS, LPBS

DP, RA

RS, LPRS Green – K Series models Blue – RHPS Series models For more information, please refer to the following catalogs: Pressure Regulators RHPS Series catalog MS-02-430

Pressure Regulators (K Series) catalog MS-02-230

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Types of Regulators Cont.

Inlet Pressure Range Selection Guide (Matched to maximum supply pressure) Pressure-Reducing Model

Max Inlet Pressure psig (bar)

Back-Pressure Model

LPRS

232 (16)

KFB

KLF, KHF, KCP

3 600 (248)

KCB

RS2

5 800 (400)

KBP

KPR, KCY

6 000 (413)

KPB

KPP, KPF

6 000 (413)

BS

KHP, KHR

10 000 (689)

KHB

RSH

10 150 (700)

BSH

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Max Inlet Pressure psig (bar)

Dome-Loaded Model

Max Inlet Pressure psig (bar)

250 (17.2)

LPRD

232 (16)

375 (25.8)

RD-DP

1 015 (70)

500 (34.4)

RD

5 800 (400)

4 000 (275)

RDH

5 800 (400)

5 800 (400)

RA

5 800 (400)

10 000 (689)

RDH-DP

5 800 (400)

10 150 (700) Green – K Series models Blue – RHPS Series models

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Types of Regulators Cont.

Pressure Control Range Selection Guide (Matched to maximum outlet pressure) Pressure-Reducing Model

Max. Control Pressure - psig (bar)

Back-Pressure Model

LPRS

43 (3)

KFB

KLF, KHF

250 (17.2)

KCB

KPR, KCY

500 (34.4)

KBP

KCP

1500 (103)

KPB

KPP

3600 (248)

BS

KPF

4 000 (275)

KHB

RS

5 075 (350)

BSH

KHP, KHR

10 000 (689)

RSH

10 150 (700)

Make sure you know the actual control range of the process. Flow needs may dictate going up one size.

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Max. Control Pressure - psig (bar)

Dome-Loaded Model

Max. Control Pressure - psig (bar)

250 (17.2)

LPRD

29 (2)

375 (25.8)

RD-DP

1 015 (70)

500 (34.4)

RDH-DP

3 335 (230)

4 000 (275)

RD

5 800 (400)

5 075 (350)

RDH

5 800 (400)

10 000 (689)

RA

5 800 (400)

10 150 (700)

Green – K Series models Blue – RHPS Series models

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Types of Regulators Cont. Pressure Control Ranges

0 to 50 psig (0 to 3.4 bar)

0 to 100 psig (0 to 6.8 bar)

Nitrogen Flow, std L/min

Outlet Pressure, psig

400

800

1200

1600 5.0

Inlet Pressure 2200 psig (151 bar)

60

2200 psig (151 bar) 500 psig (34.4 bar)

40

20

100 psig (6.8 bar) 0

10

3.0

1000 psig (68.9 bar)

500 psig (34.4 bar)

20

30

2.0 1.0

40

50

Nitrogen Flow, std ft3/min

Inlet: 500 psig (34.4 bar) Outlet: 80 psig (5.5 bar) Flow needs: 30

21

4.0

60

70

Outlet Pressure, bar

0

80


Outlet Pressure, psig

0

100

200

300

400

0

0

C

B 100

A

0 to 203 psig (0 to 14.0 bar)

B

A

B

600

700

5.0

10

15

20

0 800

Inlet Pressure: A = 1015 psig (70.0 bar) B = 580 psig (40.0 bar) C = 218 psig (15.0 bar)

A B

A

25

0 to 406 psig (0 to 28.0 bar)

600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300

300 400 500 Nitrogen Flow, std ft3/min

B A

C

400 500

0 to 43 psig 0 to 101 psig (0 to 3.0 bar) (0 to 7.0 bar) Nitrogen Flow, Nm3/h

200

C

100 200 300

Pressure Control Range:

Flow Co-efficient: 1.95 Maximum Inlet Pressure: RS=1015 psig (70.0 bar) Outlet Pressure Control Range: 0 to 406 psig (0 to 28.0 bar)

Outlet Pressure, bar

RS6 Series

Sample Flow Requirement Curve

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Types of Regulators Cont.

System Materials Compatibility Look for materials compatibility at the seat, diaphragm, O-ring and overall system. Fluorocarbon FKM or Kalrez速

K Series O-ring

PCTFE, PEEK, Metal RS Series Regulators with Diaphragm Sensing and Standard Knob Handle

RHPS Series

Diaphragm Material

Inlet Seat/Seal Materials

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Outlet


System Functionality Selection System functionality selection can be based on: • Self-vent options • Knob handle, anti-tamper • Gauges, relief valve, isolation valve, hoses • Pilot regulator • External feedback

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Types of Regulators Cont.

End Connections, Porting, and Mounting Selection Type Options

Mounting Options

• NPT, BSP

• Panel

• ANSI or DIN Flange

• Bottom

• VCR®, Sanitary Ferrule • Tube Stub

2.50 (63.0)

1.50 (40.0)

25

adapter


Swagelok Specialty Regulators See the Swagelok Tank Blanketing Pressure Regulators catalog, MS-02-431 and Swagelok HF Series Pre-Set Compact Gas Pressure Regulators catalog, MS-01-156 for information regarding Specialty Regulators.

RHPS Series Regulators

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Maintenance & Repairs


Maintenance & Repairs

Swagelok factory rebuild is available for K Series Regulators. There are three options available depending on repair needs. Options include: 1. Repair Only (no evaluation) 2. Evaluate and Repair 3. Evaluate and Advise Repair services are only available for product rebuilds, not reconfiguration of a product. For more information on wait-time and pricing, or to inquire about RHPS Series Regulators, please contact your authorized sales and service representative. Maintenance Kits for RHPS Series Regulators: Maintenance Kits are available for RHPS Series Regulators, please contact your authorized sales and service representative.

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Maintenance & Repairs

Filter Replacement Kits Filter replacement kits are available for KPR, KCM, KCP, KCY, KPP, KHP, KLF, KHR, KHF, and KPF series regulators. Filter replacement kits include: • five sets of filters, filter rings, and filter retaining rings • instructions Regulator Series

Inlet Size

Order Number

KCP

1/8 in. NPT 1/4 in. NPT

REG-FILTER-2-KIT5

½ in. NPT

REG-FILTER-8-KIT5

KPR, KCM, KCY,

REG-FILTER-4-KIT5

KPP, KHP, KLF, KHR KHF, KPF

KPR, KCP, AND KBP Series Maintenance Kits Maintenance kits include: • all wetted components, except for the regulator body and piston, if applicable • wetted lubricant with MSDS • instructions KCY series regulators can be rebuilt with two KPR series maintenance kits. • The second-stage kit should be configured for the desired pressure control range. • The first-stage kit should specify designator J for the pressure control range and designator 0 for the ports (filter size). All other options should match those of the second-stage kit.

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Troubleshooting


Troubleshooting

Problem: Potential Cause: Potential Solution:

Outlet pressure creeps up without turning the control knob. Damaged valve and/or seat. Replace cartridge.

Problem: Potential Cause: Potential Solution:

Controlled pressure drops off sharply even when the flow is within regulator capabilities. Clogged filter element. Replace cartridge.

Problem: Constant leak through relief hole under the control knob. Potential Cause: Damaged relief valve seat or regulator mounted in wrong position. Potential Solution: Assemble new relief valve seat or mount regulator in the correct position. Problem: Required outlet pressure cannot be reached. Potential Cause: Inlet pressure not high enough. Potential Solution: Ensure sufficient inlet pressure. Problem: Outlet pressure rises too much moving from dynamic to static situation. Potential Cause: Too much flow in dynamic situation. Potential Solution: Check specific application data against flow curves in Swagelok documentation.

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Troubleshooting Cont.

Problem: Outlet pressure does not drop if adjustment knob turned counter clockwise. Potential Cause: Non-venting regulator. Potential Solution: Open shut-off valve in outlet line to reduce the outlet pressure. Problem: Outlet pressure changed without turning adjustment knob. Potential Cause: Changes to inlet pressure result in changes to outlet pressure. Potential Solution: Maintain constant inlet pressure to regulator. Problem: Potential Cause: Potential Solution:

Constant leakage from outlet before relief set pressure reached. Damaged valve and/or seat and/or seat O-ring. Replace valve and/or seat and/or O-ring.

Problem: Required set pressure cannot be reached. Potential Cause: Inlet pressure not high enough. Potential Solution: Ensure sufficient inlet pressure. Problem: Leakage between body and spring housing or through relief hole at side of spring housing or through 1/8� NPT connection on body. Potential Cause: Damaged O-ring or insufficient torque on spring housing. Potential Solution: Replace O-ring or tighten spring housing according to torque specifications. Problem: Potential Cause: Potential Solution:

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Inlet pressure rises too much when going from static to dynamic situation. Too much flow in dynamic situation. Larger regulator is required. Check specific application data against flow curves in Swagelok documentation, if available.


Problem: Regulator will not relief at set point. Potential Cause: Valve is sticking or adjustment knob is accidentally adjusted. Potential Solution: Replace valve or re-adjust adjustment knob. Problem: Potential Cause: Potential Solution:

Set pressure has changed without turning adjustment knob. Changes to outlet pressure result in changes to set pressure. Increase of outlet pressure will result in fall of set pressure. Decrease of outlet pressure will result in rise of set pressure. Maintain constant outlet pressure on regulator.

Problem: Potential Solution:

Regulator certifications required. Certifications vary depending on geographical location and specification of regulator application. Contact your local Swagelok distributor to discuss your regulator needs and certification requirements.

For further assistance contact your authorized sales and service representative.

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Complementary Products & Accessories


Complementary Products and Accessories Options and Accessories Regulator accessories are available separately or mounted on Swagelok regulators. Some accessories limit regulator pressure or temperature ratings. Additional materials, options, and accessories are available. Please contact your authorized sales and service representative for more information. Cylinder Connections • Available in a variety of CGA connections • Stainless steel construction To insert a designator into the ordering number (see the ordering information for each regulator).

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Complementary Products and Accessories Cont. Cylinder Gases and Connections These cylinder connections are rated to 3000 psig (206 bar) maximum, so the maximum inlet pressure designator P must be used in the ordering number when a regulator is assembled with a cylinder connection. See the ordering information for each regulator for details. Gas Air, industrial Ammonia, anhydrous Argon Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Chlorine Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen sulfide Krypton Methane, natural gas Methyl chloride Methyl mercaptan Neon Nitric oxide Nitrogen Nitrogen dioxide Oxygen Phosgene Refrigerant-14 Refrigerant-22 Sulfur dioxide Sulfur hexafluoride Xenon

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CGA Connection 590 660 580 320 350 660 350 350 580 350 330 330 580 350 660 330 580 660 580 660 540* 660 580 660 660 590 580

*Available only on select KPR and KCY series regulators, contact your authorized sales and service representative for more information. DIN, BS, and JIS cylinder connections are also available. Contact your authorized sales and service representative for more information.


Hoses Hoses are available assembled to the inlet of the regulator to allow connection to remote gas cylinders. Hose options, rated to 3000 psig (206 bar), include: • 3 ft. long Swagelok ¼ in. high pressure, metal flexible hose (FM series), ¼ in. female NPT inlet, ¼ in. male NPT outlet connected to regulator • 3 ft. long Swagelok ¼ in. PTFE-lined, stainless steel braided hose (TH series), ¼ in. female NPT inlet, ¼ in. male NPT outlet connected to regulator • Coreflex X Series PTFE Hose - Highly flexible, smooth-bore PTFE hose; size range of 1/4 through 1 in. and working pressures up to 3500 psig (241 bar). 304 stainless steel braid protects the core from abrasion and enhances hose pressure rating. With a variety of end connections from Tube Fittings, Tube Adapters, Male & Female NPT, ISO/ BSP threads and JIC (AN) threads See the Swagelok Hose and Flexible Tubing catalog, MS-01-180, for more information.

Cleaning: Hoses are not available assembled to ASTM G93 Level E or SC-11 specially-cleaned regulators.

Variable Area Flowmeters - G Series and M Series • Glass and metal (armored) tube models, including miniature armored model • Highly accurate measurement even at very low flow, with individually calibrated scales based on flow tests • Flexible and adaptable to specific system requirements • High quality, durability, and repeatability • ⅛ in. to 1 ¼ in. process end connections See the Swagelok Variable Area Flowmeters – G Series and M Series catalog, MS-02-346, for more information.

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Complementary Products and Accessories Cont. Handles Knob, thumbwheel, and anti-tamper handles are available. The green plastic knob handle is standard for most K Series regulators. Other colours are available; add a handle colour designator to a regulator ordering number. Colour Designator Black BK Blue BL Orange OR Red RD Yellow YW The metal thumbwheel handle is available for the compact KCB and DCP series regulators. The metal anti-tamper nut is available to prevent inadvertent pressure adjustment.

Pressure Gauges • Provides measure of inlet pressure, outlet pressure, or both • 2 ½ in. (63 mm) dial size with ¼ in. male NPT connection • 1 ½ in. (40 mm) dial size with 1/8 in. male NPT connection • Stainless steel cases and wetted components See the Swagelok Pressure Gauges, Industrial and Process catalog, MS-02-170, for more information.

Cleaning Unfilled gauges assembled to ASTM G93 Level E or SC-11-cleaned regulators are cleaned in accordance with ASME B40.1 level IV.

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Proportional Relief Valves Swagelok offers proportional relief valves for generalindustry applications. We offer both high pressure and low pressure relief valves. Features: • Spring adjusts to provide desired set pressure • Cap provides easy external set pressure adjustment • Label identifies set pressure range • Lock nut maintains cap position, ensuring set pressure adjustment • Lock wire capability secures cap to maintain set pressure adjustment • Quad seal eliminates leakage around the stem during relief mode • O-ring or bonded disc provide elastomer-to- metal seal for positive shutoff at seat See the Swagelok Proportional Relief Valves catalog MS-01-141, for more information.

Isolation Valves • Allow isolation from downstream equipment • Working pressures up to 5000 psig (344 bar) • 316 stainless steel construction • Swagelok integral-bonnet needle valve (1 series) • Used in conjunction with an adjustable regulator relief valve See the Swagelok Integral-Bonnet Needle Valves catalog MS-01-164, for more information. Isolation Valve and Relief Valve Ordering Information: Isolate valves are available factory assembled on KCP, KPP, KPF, KHP, KHR and KHB series regulators. Isolation and adjustable regulator relief valves are available factory assembled on KPR, KCY, KCM, KLF and KHF series regulators.

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Complementary Products and Accessories Cont. Isolation Valves Cont. To order a regulator factory assembled with an isolation valve or isolation valve and adjustable regulator relief valve, insert a designator from the table below into the ordering number as shown in the appropriate regulator ordering information pages.

Description Kenmac KW series adjustable regulator relief valve ¼ in. male NPT inlet ¼ in. Swagelok tube fitting outlet angle pattern isolation valve ¼ in. male NPT inlet 6 mm Swagelok tube fitting outlet angle pattern isolation valve ¼ in. male NPT inlet ¼ in. female NPT outlet angle pattern isolation valve ¼ in. Swagelok tube fitting inlet** and outlet straight pattern isolation valve 6 mm Swagelok tube fitting inlet ** and outlet straight pattern isolation valve

3/8 in. Swagelok tube

fitting inlet** ¼ in. female NPT outlet straight pattern isolation valve

Valve Designator

Relief Only

Isolation Isolation Only* and Relief

1 -

A

2

B

3

C

4

F

7

G

8

E 6

* Not available on KPR, KCY, KCM, KLF and KHF series regulators, because a relief valve is needed to protect the diaphragm sensing mechanism. ** Includes male NPT to Swagelok tube adapter fitting (required for regulators with 1/8 and ½ in. female NPT ports).

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Isolation Valves Cont. For more information see the Swagelok V Series Instrument Isolation Block & Bleed, Double Block & Bleed catalog, MS-02-317 or see the Swagelok R Series Proportional Relief Valve catalog, MS-01-141.

Additional Products Filters Swagelok offers a variety of filters, filter elements, and sizes. • 316 SS and brass materials • Sintered and strainer elements • Tee type, inline and all-welded models For more information about Swagelok filters, see the Filters-FW, F, and TF Series catalog, MS-01-92.

Transducers Swagelok industrial pressure transducers electronically monitor fluid system pressure in a variety of analytical and process applications. • Accurate and repeatable readings • Swagelok tube adapter end connections available for ease of installation and maintenance • CE compliant For more information about Swagelok industrial pressure transducers, see the Industrial Pressure Transducers catalog, MS-02-225.

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Reading Flow Curves


How to Read a Flow Curve Chart Notes: • • • • • •

Initial drop of the curve occurs when a regulator starts from a no-flow state. Area under the curve is the ideal operating range. Droop is the gradual decrease in outlet pressure (P2) as flow increases. Choked Flow Area occurs when the regulator is in the full open position and is no longer regulating pressure. If the outlet pressure is at 60, then flow is at 76 for this regulator (see next page). Ideally, your regulator will operate at the flattest part of the curve.

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How to Read a Flow Curve Chart OUTLET PRESSURE (psig)

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

0

20

60

Flow 80

100

Ideal Operating Range

Seat Load Drop / Lock-Up

40

120

140

160

Droop

Choked Flow Area Cv

43

Please see Glossary of Terms for definitions


Glossary of Terms


Glossary of Terms

Accumulation Definition: The increase to inlet pressure required to obtain a specified flow rate for a back pressure regulator. Causes: Accumulation is the opposite of droop, pressure will increase as flow increases. Nitrogen Flow, std L/min 400

200

600

800

Pressure Control Range 0 to 500 psig (0 to 34.4 bar)

300

20

250

16

200

0 to 250 psig (0 to 17.2 bar)

150

12

0 to 100 psig (0 to 6.8 bar)

100 50

24

8.0

Inlet Pressure, bar

Inlet Pressure, psig

350

0

4.0 0

5.0

10

15

20

25

30

Nitrogen Flow, std ft3/min

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Glossary of Terms Cont. Choked-Flow Area Definition: The area of a flow curve under which flow demand is greater than the pressure-controlling capabilities of the regulator. IDEAL SITUATION

OUTLET PRESSURE

SEAT LOAD DROP

NORMAL FLOW AREA

FLOW

45

CHOKED FLOW AREA


Creep Definition: An increase in outlet pressure typically caused by regulator seat leakage. Causes: • Contamination of the seat. • Damage to the poppet or seat. • Misalignment of the poppet to the seat.

OUTLET PRESSURE

Creep

TIME

How to prevent: • Use upstream filtration. • Do not use regulator as a shut-off device, especially in gas service.

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Glossary of Terms Cont. Droop Definition: A decrease in outlet pressure caused by an increase in flow rate to a pressure-reducing regulator. Causes: Droop is primarily caused by the set spring. The more flow required, the more the set spring relaxes and loses load force causing the outlet pressure to drop (droop). IDEAL SITUATION

OUTLET PRESSURE

70 50 40 30 20

CHOKED FLOW AREA

NORMAL FLOW AREA

10 20

50

80

110

140

FLOW

How to prevent: • Use a longer spring. • The set spring causes droop. Look at the set spring first. • Use a dome-loaded regulator, it has less droop than a spring-loaded regulator. • Use external feedback (EF) or electronic pilot regulators (EPR) as they produce low or virtually no droop.

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Joule-Thomson Effect Definition: When a high-pressure gas drops in pressure the gas expands causing a heating or cooling effect, depending on the gas. What does Joule-Thomson mean to me? • Cooling of your system fluid may cause constituents to drop out, changing the composition. • Liquid in the fluid stream may freeze, impairing or damaging the regulator. • Even if your fluid is a pure gas, the decrease in temperature may damage elastomeric seals. Lock-Up Definition: An increase in outlet pressure that occurs as the flow rate is decreased to zero. As outlet pressure builds, the balance of forces favor the control element, which allows the poppet to seat itself and close off inlet pressure. Therefore, P2 increases when V2 is shut-off.

P1

P2

F Test Regulator

Valve V2

Flow Controller

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Glossary of Terms Cont. Seat Load Drop: Definition: The initial pressure drop experienced when a regulator starts from a no-flow state. Supplier Pressure Effect (SPE) Definition: The effect on the set pressure of a pressure-reducing regulator as a result of a change to inlet pressure. This is normally experienced as an increase in outlet pressure due to a decrease in inlet pressure.

Safe Product Selection When selecting a product, the total system design must be considered to ensure safe, trouble-free performance. Function, material compatibility, adequate ratings, proper installation, operation, and maintenance are the responsibilities of the system designer and user. The complete catalog contents must be reviewed to ensure that the system designer and user make a safe product selection.

Caution: Do not mix or interchange components with those of other manufacturers.

Warranty Information Swagelok products are backed by The Swagelok Limited Lifetime Warranty. For a copy, visit swagelok.com or contact your authorized Swagelok representative.

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Kalrez--TM DuPont Swagelok, VCR--TM Swagelok Company Š 2012 Edmonton Valve & Fitting Inc., Calgary Valve & Fitting, Swagelok Central Canada, Swagelok Grande Prairie, Columbia Valve & Fitting Ltd. and Š 2012 Swagelok Company


Swagelok designs and manufactures an expanding range of high quality fluid system products and solutions, including regulators. This Regulator Reference Guide is your comprehensive resource on Swagelok regulators. For more information please contact your authorized sales and service representative.


Swagelok Digital Pocket Guide