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A P ER S ON A L P R OJ E C T R E S E AR C H

“HOW MUSIC AFFECT PEOPLE’S MOOD” BIANCA SIREGAR SINARMAS WORLD ACADEMY 2011-2012


TABLE OF CONTENTS "The sweet, passionate melody captivated his heart from the first note; it was full of radiance, full of the tender throbbing of inspiration and happiness and beauty, continually growing and melting away; it rumored of everything on earth that is dear and secret and sacred to man kind; it breathed of immortal sadness and it departed from the earth to die in the heavens."

What is Music? The History

Music from 17th Century

3

Sound of Music

5

Benefit of Classic Music. AOI : How Music Affecting Us?

Human Body The Water Molecule This is Your Brain on Music

7 8 9

Music in Society The Artist Piano Bibliography

10 12 14


What i s M u s i c ? “Very eloquently the almost mystical power that music wields over the human mind, a power which I find fascinating.” One way into a definition is by opinions or votes, such as:

1.Whatever people think is music, is music. Or 2.Whatever musicians think is music, is music. Or 3.Music is what is accepted as music in a particular society. A different approach is to list the qualities music must have, such as:

1.Music is sound which has rhythm, melody, pitch, timbre (etc.). 2.Music is sound played on musical instruments by trained musicians. (too restrictive) Another approach is by its effect on the listener:

1.Music, like love, has the power to make men happy. 2.Music helps a society keep together. All these and many other attempts, do not capture all aspects of music, or leave out examples which definitely are music. According to Clifton, music is "a certain reciprocal relation established between a person, his behavior, and a sounding object". So Clifton defines music on the basis of the human behavior, not on composition or sounds as physical objects. Musical experience and the music, together, are called "phenomena," and the activity of describing phenomena is called phenomenology. The term was coined by Nils L. Wallin in 1991.Music is an aspect of the behavior of the human and possibly other species. As humans are living organisms, the scientific study of music is therefore part of biology, thus the "bio" in "biomusicology." Music can provide a sense of independence and individuality, which in turn contributes to one’s own self discovery and sense of identity. Music also offers adolescents with relatable messages that allow him/her to take comfort in knowing that others feel the same way they do. It can also serve as a creative outlet to release or control emotions and find ways of coping with difficult situations. Music can improve one's mood by reducing stress and lowering anxiety levels, which can help counteract or prevent depression Ethnomusicologist Alan Meriam (1964) once stated that music is a “universal behavior;” it is something that everyone can identify with. Among adolescents, music is a unifying force, bringing people of different backgrounds, age groups, and social groups together.


CONCEPTUAL Th e H i s to r y A) Music is the daughter of the Muses Is it sufficient that music has been made and heard centuries before we were born, and that all of us have heard and made music from our earliest childhood? B) If this ordinary external observation is sufficient to lead us to a clear and full understanding, whence all the doubts and uncertainties of which we are witness? Whence that narrowness of plan and idea which we cannot even conceal from ourselves? Whence all this contradiction, these bitter quarrels, about the most simple and most pressing questions that relate to our calling? Whence the internal uncertainty of so many honest teachers and artists; this disinclination to acknowledge the merits of others, this exclusiveness and secret enmity of which we see such frequent examples in the musical world? C) It was the mystery of art which we endeavored to fathom in our last investigation. Those amongst my fellow laborers who do not live “from hand to mouth,” who are not satisfied with merely trotting over the ground of their daily work, but look about and before them, will not require to be told that an investigation of such a nature cannot be successfully carried out, unless we enter as deeply into the matter as our powers permit D) The mystery of art consists in that perfect blending of the spiritual and material elements,—of the inner life with the outer world—in that embodiment of the spirit, and spiritualization of sensual things which calls forth the energy of will and power which we have designated by the term of “creative love.” It is impossible to contemplate this mystery of art without being forcibly reminded of that of the Hindoos and other nations of antiquity respecting the incarnation of divinity,—the appearance of the Supreme Spirit in human or animal shape, and the assumption of the divine nature by beings born mortal and finite. Both mysteries refer to the commencement of all things; they touch upon the insoluble enigma of man's existence. Is man a twofold being, consisting of an immortal, creative, and governing spirit, and a perishable body serving as its temporal abode and obedient organ?

E) The sources whence all these riches have sprung, supply us with an answer to these questions. F) Amongst the sources of musical art, there are two—the national song and church music—which have,at all times, been the most prolific. G) Music of the Northern Renaissance the first musician of modern times was Josquin des Pres. He is remembered for his beautiful melodies and expressive harmony. He was especially effective in suiting the music to the text . H) Reformation Music


CONCEPTUAL Th e H i s to r y a) Much of the great classical music of the Post-Reformation Era was decisively influenced by Biblical Christianity, particularly by the Protestant Reformation, which brought the bible to the people. b) Martin Luther King - The leader of Protestant reformation , was himself a singer and composer who highly valued the educational and moral power of music. “Music is a gift o God , not a gift of men” I)

Post-Reformation Music. a) Germany the birthplace of Reformation, became the music; center of the world and produced many of the world’s greatest musicians. Such as : Monteverdi ,Vivaldi and Corelli. An also the three leading German musician of the post reformation were Heinrich Schutz, Johan Sebastian Bach, and George Frederick Handel.


HISTORY

Mus i c Fr om Th e 1 7 t h Cent ur y • Beginning of 19th century, Beethoven composed th 5th symphonhy –a spirit of change and a gope pof new possibilities took hold around the world . • In Europe—essence of Romance Movement • Rebelling against the 18th centyry’s devotion to logic and reason, the Romantics believed that emotions and imahination were the keys to a ,pre fullfiling lige. • Music expand the trade and it is affected people’s vision of the world . • During World War II , allied forces played recording of the first four notes of Beethoven’s fifth symphony as a signal of victory. Three short notes followe by one long in Morse code stand for “V”, or “Victory”. Sound of Music How brain recognize sound of instrument • The Vibration produces sound waves in the ir, which travel to our ears the waves are small, but they cause rapid changes in air pressure at the same rate as the vibration of the instrument The sound waves are small, but they cause rapid changes in air pressure at the same rate as the vibration of the instrument. The sound wave from each instrument makes its own kind of pressure changes which is shown in waveform • Each waveform is creates by a particular pattern of vibration in an instrument . The sound of music causes our eardrums to vibrate in he same pattern as the instrument being played . • These vibrations are ‘translated; by the brain so that we can recognize which instrument is being played. • The Study of Sound and Music began with notes plucked from a simple lyre in ancient Greece. Pythagoras (c. 582-507 B.C.),the famous scientist best know for squaring the hypotenuse, discovered that the pitch of a note created by a stretched string relates to the length of the string . If the lengths used are in simple propositions – such as 3 to 2, or 4 to 5- then the notes which sound are in harmony. • This principle lies behind al string instruments and, substituting air columns for strings, wind instruments. • Different notes can also be created by varying the tension and weight of the strings. The fingers of both hands make he • Being able to influence both pitch and tine so directly give the plays great power of musical expression .


FACT

B e ne fit of Cl assi c M usic ‘ A classic is a work of superior excellence that has stood the test of time- a work for all of all ages. ‘ Through out the history, classics have reflected the thinking of the generation that produced them and have also helped to shape the thinking of the generation. The further investigation to human’s body confirms that even while in the womb, babies can tell the differences between certain types of music. Also called prenatal stimulation this technique has many positive effects including higher levels of intelligence and creativity, along with the ability to calm down when listening to music. Suggested usages for music in early childhood development include teaching children to analyze songs so they can learn how to express and identify their emotions, though processes, behaviors and situations as a way of developing cognitive and motor skills. it is processed in the emotional part of the brain, the amygdala.

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Memorizing Here's where you remember the music played at your wedding, the music of your first love, that first dance. Such things can still be remembered even in people with progressive diseases. It can be a window, a way to reach them."

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Healing Studies show that music therapy can cause changes in physiology by releasing brain chemicals including melatonin, norephinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin and prolactin, which help to reduce depression, regulate mood and make patients feel calm and more able to sleep. Doctors have used music therapy to help stroke, cerebral palsy and Parkinson's patients improve

According to a 2009 Cochrane review of 23 clinical trials, it was found that some music may reduce heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure in patients with coronary heart disease.[38] Benefits included a decrease in blood pressure, heart rate, and levels of anxiety in heart patients. 1. According to Laurence O'Donnell of Cerebromente.org, classical music has the tendency to calm the body and stimulate the mind because its rhythm matches typical body functions, like the heartbeat and breathing. Classical music's calming effects can also help reduce anxiety. 2. The classical music reduced the time it took to learn new vocabulary words, and he increased his classes' average retention to nearly 92 percent. Research from the University of North Texas confirms this study. The research seems to indicate that classical music is ideal for elevating your emotional spirits and soothing your mind. Yet, it can be a bit distracting when attempting to concentrate on an exam or complex mental task. 3. Studies conducted by the University of California have shown how music's effect on the right hemisphere of the brain improves spatial reasoning processes within the left hemisphere. The students observed showed improvement in their ability to learn math and science when music was applied in the background.


FACT

B e ne fit of Cl assi c M usic ‘ A classic is a work of superior excellence that has stood the test of time- a work for all of all ages. ‘

"Mozart effect" was proposed by a French researcher named Alfred Tomatis in 1991. His book, "Why Mozart?" described how listening to classical music improves the brain's ability to reason and learn. 1997 by Don Campbell, entitled "The Mozart Effect: Tapping the Power of Music to Heal the Body, Strengthen the Mind and Unlock the Creative Spirit," served to further validate the theory. Campbell described music as a transformational force, able to enhance intelligence and learning, as well as aid in the treatment of a variety of emotional, physical and learning disorders. 4. A number of studies point to the healing ability that music can provide for people with head injuries, dementia and even cancer. One particular experiment conducted by the Mind-Body Wellness Center in Pennsylvania enlisted 111 cancer patients who were asked to play drums for 30 minutes a day. Results from the experiment showed improved immune system functioning in all of the patients. An increase in their number of cancer-fighting cells was also observed

This is Your Brain on Music Music, Brain, and Mind • • • • • •

• • • •

Music is a set of pitch relations Base on Cognitive scientists, mind refers to part of each of us that embodies our thoughts, hopes, desires, memories, beliefs, and experiences. Brain is an organ of the body, collection of cells and water, chemicals and blood vessels that lives in the skull. Therefore the activity in the brain gives rise to the contents of the mind. Networks of interconnected neurons perform computations on information and combine their computations in ways that lead to thoughts, decisions, perceptions, and ultimately consciousness. Behavior is complex and not readily reducible to simple mappings The frontal lobe is associated with planning, and with self-control, and with making sense out of the dense and jumbled signals that our senses receive-called ‘perceptual organization”. The temporal lobe is associated with hearing and memory The cerebellum involved in emotions and the planning of movements and is the evolutionary (oldest part of the brain) . Even animals such as reptiles (lack of higher brain) they still have cerebellum in the cortex Musical Activity involved nearly every region of the brain that we know about, nearly even neutral subsystem. Different aspects of the music are handled by different natural regions-the brain uses functional segregation for music processing, and employs a system of a feature detectors whose job it is to analyze specific aspects of the musical signal such as pitch, tempo, timbre and so on


UNIT QUESTION

H o w Mu sic Affec t ing Us

Through out the history, classics have reflected the thinking of the generation that produced them and have also helped to shape the thinking of the generation. The further investigation to human’s body confirms that even while in the womb, babies can tell the differences between certain types of music. Also called prenatal stimulation this technique has many positive effects including higher levels of intelligence and creativity, along with the ability to calm down when listening to music. Suggested usages for music in early childhood development include teaching children to analyze songs so they can learn how to express and identify their emotions, though processes, behaviors and situations as a way of developing cognitive and motor skills. it is processed in the emotional part of the brain, the amygdala.

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Memorizing Here's where you remember the music played at your wedding, the music of your first love, that first dance. Such things can still be remembered even in people with progressive diseases. It can be a window, a way to reach them."

-

Healing Studies show that music therapy can cause changes in physiology by releasing brain chemicals including melatonin, norephinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin and prolactin, which help to reduce depression, regulate mood and make patients feel calm and more able to sleep. Doctors have used music therapy to help stroke, cerebral palsy and Parkinson's patients improve

1. According to Laurence O'Donnell of Cerebromente.org, classical music has the tendency to calm the body and stimulate the mind because its rhythm matches typical body functions, like the heartbeat and breathing. Classical music's calming effects can also help reduce anxiety. 2. The classical music reduced the time it took to learn new vocabulary words, and he increased his classes' average retention to nearly 92 percent. Research from the University of North Texas confirms this study. The research seems to indicate that classical music is ideal for elevating your emotional spirits and soothing your mind. Yet, it can be a bit distracting when attempting to concentrate on an exam or complex mental task. 3. Studies conducted by the University of California have shown how music's effect on the right hemisphere of the brain improves spatial reasoning processes within the left hemisphere. The students observed showed improvement in their ability to learn math and science when music was applied in the background. "Mozart effect" was proposed by a French researcher named Alfred Tomatis in 1991. His book, "Why Mozart?" described how listening to classical music improves the brain's ability to reason and learn. 1997 by Don Campbell, entitled "The Mozart Effect: Tapping the Power of Music to Heal the Body, Strengthen the Mind and Unlock the Creative Spirit," served to further validate the theory.


CONCEPT

Mu sic in Soc iet y Background :

People usually become friends with others who have a same taste in music as the rest of the people they hangout with, or it can be vice versa. People may not want to associate with people who have different tastes in music because they’ll argue about what they think is better but its just their own opinions. Music is something that every person has his or her own specific opinion about. Different people have different taste, and various types of music have many ways of leaving an impact on someone. It can be relaxing, angering, soothing, energizing, and many more.

Positive

• It has been shown over and over again that one of the strongest effects of music on is in the area of the memory. Like learning language. • This feat was accomplished with the use of baroque classical music. The tempo was the most successful at a steady rate of 60 beats per minute • Parkinson's patients also benefitted from the effects of music on the brain. Motor skills seemed to improve when some patients were better able to walk while music was being played. • The types of music that cause these effects on the brain are mostly agressive forms of music such as heavy rock or rap. The specific type of beat may be at fault. It could also be attributed to the fact that too much repetition leads to feelings of anger and hostility. • To achieve positive effects of music on the brain, music must have certain attributes. It needs to be fairly complex to involve more of the brain in the activity and keep the person interested. New and different music is another factor that keeps the brain active and not bored. • People can use music to express themselves, in ways it can’t be expressed through behavior, or art. You can usually tell how someone’s feeling by the type of music he or she is listening to at the time. It’s a tool used by many. Groups of people around the world can come together and gather at concerts, shows, and venues to show what their interests and likings are and you see how many people have similar likings as you.

1. Entertainment : At the most fundamental level music provides stimulation. It lifts the mood before going out, it passes the time while doing the washing up, it accompanies travelling, reading and surfing the web. 2. Revival : Music revitalizes in the morning and calms in the evening.


Brain Th e I ns t rume nt of Hum a n B od y Here ‘s the part of the brain and how it works? Frontal Lobe : The frontal lobe contains most of the dopaminesensitive neurons in the cerebral cortexThe dopamine system is associated with reward, attention, short-term memory tasks, planning, and motivation. Ability to recognize future consequences resulting from current actions, to choose between good and bad actions (or better and best), override and suppress unacceptable social responses, and determine similarities and differences between things or events. Therefore, it is involved in higher mental functions. The frontal lobes also play an important part in retaining longer term memories which are not taskbased. These are often memories associated with emotions derived from input from the brain's limbic system The frontal lobe modifies those emotions to generally fit socially acceptable norms.

Parietal lobe The parietal lobe plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various parts of the body, knowledge of numbers and their relations,and in the manipulation of objects, visions and movements ]Both the left and right parietal systems play a determining role in self transedence, the personality trait measuring predisposition to spirituality Significant functional aspects of the occipital lobe is that it contains the primary visual cortex and is the part of the brain where dreams come from.

A very large percentage of the brain, perhaps more than 90%, is required for body maintenance (heart, respiration, etc.), information gathering (sensors and data preprocessing), memory, and motor control (legs, arms, etc. post-processing and command translation). These together describe the physical abilities and limitations of the individual. The senses determine the amount and quality of current environmental information. But man's behavior goes much deeper. It is the balance of the brain which provides much of what becomes behavior. It is clear from this description, that man learns best (whether in knowledge, motor skill or instinct control) through repetition. In fact, practice (repetition) is the only way that it can 'learn'. Ask any basketball player, pianist or mathematician. The neural mechanisms in each instance, though specialized, operate on the same principle. Only the modern educator scoffs.


CONCEPT

Mu sic in Soc iet y

3. Strong sensation : Music can provide deep, thrilling emotional experiences, particularly while performing. 4. Diversion : Music distracts the mind from unpleasant thoughts, which can easily fill the silence. 5. Discharge : Music matching deep moods can release emotions: purging and cleansing. 6. Mental work : Music encourages daydreaming, sliding into old memories, and exploring the past. 7. Solace : Shared emotion, shared experience, a connection to someone lost. Music effecting mind - Brain waves : music that carries a strong beat has been shown to align brainwaves with the particular beat being played. Fast beats promote increased concentration and alertness. Slow beats promote a calming, meditative effect.

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Breathing and heart rate : brainwave changes go on to affect the breathing and heart rates within the body. Slowed brainwave patterns have been shown to slow the heartbeat, breathing rate and help a person relax more quickly. State of Mind--music has been shown to improve one's state of mind, especially in those suffering from constant stress and depression disorders.

Reflection: • Music increased the understanding of feelings, an effect not associated with rumination. • Does it reflect what was happening at the time or could it have been used as an 'escape' - a more pleasant alternative than what current events dictated? • Music is used in various settings to help set the mood of an environment or to enhance an experience; it is also used to deliver messages in media and entertainment. The power of music continually affects the emotions of people and motivates them toward change or unity.

Personal Engagement : I can personally relate to the effects that music has on its listeners and users because it’s a big part of my life. Every day I listen to the words and sounds of different singers/bands with contrasting ideas and opinions. The music I listen makes me who I am. 8.


CONCEPT

M usi c T he ra p y

1. Music therapy goes back to biblical times, when David played the harp to rid King Saul of a bad spirit. As early as 400 B.C., Hippocrates, Greek father of medicine, played music for his mental patients. Aristotle described music as a force that purified the emotions. In the thirteenth century, Arab hospitals contained music-rooms for the benefit of the patients In the United States, Native American medicine men often employed chants and dances as a method of healing patientsMusic therapy as we know it began in the aftermath of World Wars I and II. Musicians would travel to hospitals, particularly in the United Kingdom, and play music for soldiers suffering from war-related emotional and physical trauma. 2. NMT studies how the brain is without music, how the brain is with music, measures the differences, and uses these differences to cause changes in the brain through music that will eventually affect the client non-musically. As one researcher, Dr. Thaut, said: "The brain that engages in music is changed by engaging in music." NMT trains motor responses (i.e. tapping foot or fingers, head movement, etc.) to better help clients develop motor skills that help "entrain the timing of muscle activation patterns" 3. Music therapy can help children with communication, attention, motivation, and behavioral problems As some children will be able to handle an instrument while others cannot, the child should be given an instrument adapted to them.All these elements help the experience and outcome of the music therapy go better and have more successes for the child. 4. tarted inside the womb, surrounded by amniotic fluid, the fetus hears sounds. It hears the mother’s heartbeat, at times speed up, at other times slow down, not only that but other music, conversations, and environmental noises. 5. Music has been shown to affect portions of the brain. Part of this therapy is the ability of music to affect emotions and social interactions. Research by Nayak et al. showed that music therapy is associated with a decrease in depression, improved mood, and a reduction in state anxietyBoth descriptive and experimental studies have documented effects of music on quality of life, involvement with the environment, expression of feelings, awareness and responsiveness, positive associations, and socialization.Additionally, Nayak et al. found that music therapy had a positive effect on social and behavioral outcomes and showed some encouraging trends with respect to mood. 6. Music can increase patient's motivation and positive emotions. 7. hypothesized that music therapy helps stroke victims recover faster and with more success by increasing the patient's positive emotions and motivation, allowing them to be more successful and driven to participate in traditional therapies


The Artist Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart another Austian, was a child prodigy ( a child of high unsual talet/genius) . At the age of three, he amused himself at the piano ; at four began the music lessons; at five he composed hist first pieces; at seven he took a grand tour of Europe, performing in the musical centers of the day; at nine he wrote his first symphony ad at 11 he wrote his first opera. By the time he was 13 Mozart had mastered all musical forms. Before the death at age 35 , Mozart composed over 600 works, including 48 symphonies several famous operas, many piano concertos and also Sonatas.

Johan Sebastian Bach Became of history’s greatest composers. Born into a family known for musical talent (about 60 Bachs became musicians) and godliness. He said the aim of music is “to produce a well- sounding harmony to the glory of God and the permissible delight of the spirit. Bach composed in all the musical formm of his day, bringing together German, Italian and French styles and raising them to an unprecedented level of perfection.


The Artist Ludwig van Beethoven

The climax of the classical style of music came at the turn of the 19th century with the work of German Composer Ludwig Van Beethoven. By his era the growing middle class had begun to support public concerts, and the publishing of music had become a flourishing business. The development allowed Beethoven to make a living music directly to publishers rater than being dependent solely on the occasion support of individual patrons.

Before Beethoven , music which had a written message (an opera, an cantata, or a song) was considered superior purely instrumental music ( a sonata, concerto or symphony). But during Beethoven’s time, instrumental music became as important as vocal music for the first time in history and people learned to enjoy the musical, independent of words. A new explosion of individual effort and creativity in music followed Beethoven. Musical instruments were improved, and with the rise of music schools, musicians, became more skillful. There was a shift in music from the courts and churches to the concert hall : Greater emphasis was placed on expression of emotion and on individuals and soloists rather tan the chorus.


THE MAKERS OF

Sounding board that m o r e e f fi c i e n t l y couples the acoustic energy to the air. The sound would otherwise be no louder than that directly produced by the strings. When the key is released, a damper stops the string's vibration. See the article on Piano key frequenciesor a picture of the piano keyboard and the location of middle-C. In the Hornbostel-Sachs system of instrument classification, pianos are considered chordphone. • By the 17th century, the mechanisms of keyboard instruments such as the clavichord and the harpsichord were well known. In a clavichord the strings are struck by tangents, while in a harpsichord they are plucked by quills. Centuries of work on the mechanism of the harpsichord in particular had shown the most effective ways to construct the case, soundboard, bridge, and keyboard.

PIANO • While the clavichord allowed expressive control of volume and sustain, it was too quiet for large performances. The harpsichord produced a sufficiently loud sound, but had little expressive control over each note. The piano was likely formed as an attempt to combine loudness with control, avoiding the trade-offs of available instruments. • In the period lasting from about 1790 to 1860, the Mozart era piano underwent tremendous changes that led to the modern form of the instrument. This revolution was in response to a preference by composers and pianists for a more powerful, sustained piano sound, and made possible by the ongoing • Industrial Revolution with resources such as high-quality Piano wire for strings, and precision casting for the production of iron frames. Over time, the tonal range of the piano was also increased from the five octaves of Mozart's day to the 7⅓ or more octaves found on modern pianos. There are three factors that influence the pitch of a vibrating wire : • • •

Length: All other factors the same, the shorter the wire, the higher the pitch. Mass per unit length: All other factors the same, the thinner the wire, the higher the pitch. Tension: All other factors the same, the tighter the wire, the higher the pitch.


A vibrating wire subdivides itself into many parts vibrating at the same time. Each part produces a pitch of its own, called a partial. A vibrating string has one fundamental and a series of partials. The most pure combination of two pitches is when one is double the frequency of the other. For a repeating wave, the velocity, v, equals the wavelength, λ, times the frequency, f. v = λf Grand Piano All else being equal, longer pianos with longer strings have larger, richer sound and lower inharmonicity of the strings. Inharmonicity is the degree to which the frequencies of overtunes known as partials or harmonics) sound sharp relative to whole multiples of the fundamental frequency. This results from the piano's considerable string stiffness; as a struck string decays its harmonics vibrate, not from their termination, but from a point very slightly toward the center (or more flexible part) of the string. The higher the partial, the further sharp it runs. Pianos with shorter and thicker strings, i.e. small pianos with short string scales, have more inharmonicity. The greater the inharmonicity, the more the ear perceives it as harshness of tone. Inharmonicity requires octaves to be “ stretched” or tuned to a lower octave's corresponding sharp overtone rather than to a theoretically correct octave. If octaves are not stretched, single octaves sound in tune, but double—and notably triple—octaves are unacceptably narrow. Stretching a small piano's octaves to match its inherent inharmonicity level creates an imbalance among all the instrument's intervallic relationships, not just its octaves. In a concert grand, however, the octave "stretch" retains harmonic balance, even when aligning treble notes to a harmonic produced from three octaves below. This lets close and widespread octaves sound pure, and produces virtually beatless perfect fifths This gives the concert grand a brilliant, singing and sustaining tone quality—one of the principal reasons that full-size grands are used in the concert hall. Smaller grands satisfy the space and cost needs of domestic use. Keeping the Tune Pianos need regular tuning to keep them on pitch, which is usually the internationally recognized standard concert pitch of A4= 440 Hz. The hammers of pianos are voiced to compensate for gradual hardening, and other parts also need periodic regulation. Aged and worn pianos can be rebuilt or reconditioned. Often, by replacing a great number of their parts, they can perform as well as new pianos. Older pianos are often more settled and produce a warmer tone. Piano moving should be done by trained piano movers using adequate manpower and the correct equipment for any particular piano's size and weight. Pianos are heavy yet delicate instruments. Over the years, professional piano movers have developed special techniques for transporting both grands and uprights, which prevent damage to the case and to the piano's mechanics.

THE OBJECT


BIBLIOGRAPHY Websites: Baker, Mitzi. "Music Moves Brain." Med.stanford.edu. 1 Aug. 2007. Web. 26 Feb. 2012. <http:// med.stanford.edu/news_releases/2007/july/music.html>

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"How Music Affects Teens." Teen Ink. Web. 23 Oct. 2011. <http://www.teenink.com/reviews/ music_reviews/article/123483/How-Music-Affects-Teens/>.


BIBLIOGRAPHY "Piano." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piano>.

"Social History of the Piano." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 21 Sept. 2011. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_history_of_the_piano>.

"The Ultimate Source for Understanding Yourself and Others." How Music Affects People's Moods. Web. 25 Oct. 2012. <http://www.2knowmyself.com/How_music_affects_people_moods>.

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MessySean. "How Mood Changes With Music." YouTube. YouTube, 24 Sept. 2009. Web. 17 Oct. 2011. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NH2t2xhGb4I>.

NihilisticNero. "Music's Effect on Mood." YouTube. YouTube, 17 Aug. 2006. Web. 22 Oct. 2011. <http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpnaHUKdWfY>.  S4ms0nr. "Music Effects on Mind." YouTube. YouTube, 08 Aug. 2010. Web. 15 Oct. 2011. <http://

RESEARCH FINAL  

This is the research stage of my personal project.