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Horse Shoe - This allows the photographer to slot in an external flash on to the camera’s body. this is because the extrnal flash will provide better lighting so that the image wil look more professional. Power switch — This turns the camera on and off. This switch located on the body of the camera.

Sensor image – It is a solid-state device or an analogue that capture the light necessary to form a digital image.

Main Dail - Is behind the shutter button of the camera. The dial’s main function is to set both the aperture and shutter speed. However, it also works with other buttons of the camera, such as the AF point selection, to control other settings. Shutter release button — Press this button to take a picture! It’s almost always located in the same position on all interchangeable lens cameras.

Zoom ring — Usually the larger of the lens rings, turning the zoom ring zooms the lens in or out.

Function of the front of the camera Lens release button— Press this button to unlock the lens mount and detach the lens by rotating it. You don’t need to press it when mounting a lens.

Lens - This type of lens

is a Canon Ef-S 55250mm. it has a very gooood image quality and useful for focal length range that will nicely compare Microphone with the general The microphone is useful for when the purpose zoom lenes. But, at 250mm the s photographer is shooting a video this haking of the hand/ would allow the camera the record what the person is saying, who is being body will be significantly magnified. recorded.


Manual Vs. Automatic

What is Manual Mode? It lets you control the Shutter speed, ISO and aperture, manually. It gives you much more control over the the look the look of your photos. Helps you make the choice based on what results you want, by shooting in manual mode. Some lighting locations are simply too difficult for the camera to auto focus itself, so by doing it manually you can modify it and have a better outcome. Also, by shooting in auto mode you are letting the camera decide how light or dark you image will be, and if you or the object is moving the exposure will change to adapt to it, so you will have to of the same photos but with different exposures. What are the benefits of Manual Mode? You can control all the settings to adjust to your environment & adjust the aperture and shutter speed independently. You will have a more creative and unique outcome. What are the complications of Maunal Mode? It takes a long time to know how or what to change to get get the right picture because there are so many variables to think about like Shutter Composition, Aperture, Lighting, ISO and Subject interaction. Professional photographer, with a mode dial on their camera, use the manual mode. What is Automatic Setting? Using the modal dial on a DSLR camera you can set the camera to ‘A’ which means ‘aperture priority automatic’, it allows the camera to set the aperture then set all the other settings in according to the aperture. this means hat the computer in the camera will adjust the shutter speed and the ISO. Beginners or schools will use Auto mode because it will be easire to learn and understand. What are the benefits of it? It easier and understandable to use for beginners. The cameras are more efficient of delivering a better exposed image in the automatic mode. What are the difficulties? You will not have your own creative and unique look to it. The camera will be making all of your decisions for you.


Focal Plane Indicator - This helps them know the distance between the subject and the image (film/sensor) plane, because that’s how the minimum focus distance of a lens is measured. The mark gives you an easy way to determine whether you’re inside or outside of that distance.

Wifi Lamp - This will help the photographer have quick access to storage and have the ablity to share albums and photts withone step instead of several.

Functions

ISO Button- ISO in Digital Photography.

of top of the camera

In Digital Photography ISO measures the sensitivity of the image sensor. The same principles apply as in film photography – the lower the number the less sensitive your camera is to light and the finer the grain.

AF Area Selection Mode The area of the frame that the camera will use for autofocus is shown by focus points in the viewfinder. The setting that determines how the focus point is selected is called AF-area mode. You can choose from auto-area AF, single-point AF, dynamic-area AF, and 3D-tracking.

Viewfinder - this is where the photogapher looks through to focus on the picture.

Mode dial — This sets the camera to your desired shooting mode. The standard modes are Program (P), Shutter Priority (S), Aperture Priority(A), and Manual (M).


Types ypesof ofCC amera amera Format F ormats In digital SLR cameras, the camera’s format refers to

• Problems with wide-angle lenses • Smaller viewfinder size

Advantages of FX format the size of its image sensor. Nikon makes a DX-format • Higher sensitivity and lower noise – pixel sizeis big in sensitivity levels of the camera sensor and an FX-format sensor. The DX-format is the smaller sensor at 24x16mm; the larger FX-format sensor • Large dynamic range – bigger pixel size allows colmeasures 36x24mm, which is approximately the same lecting more light particles • No field of view issue – with FX,you get a similar size as 35mm film. field of view as if you were shooting film. Advantages of DX • Lens compatibility – FX lenses are backwards comformat patible with DX lenses, meaning that they will work • Cost – the sensor perfectly on DX bodies as well. is much cheaper to • Larger and brighter viewfinder – large sensor make. means large mirror, which means a large and brighter • Lens sharpness and vignette – since viewfinder. Focusing with a large viewfinder is much easier, because you see more details. DX sensors use the • An ultra-wide-angle lens like a Nikon 16-35mm f/4 centre of the lens because the centre of the lens is always optimized for is not that wide on a DX body, due to the crop factor. This problem goes away on FX and you get the sharpness than the corners. • Low-cost lenses – the people who make it started true 16mm field of view as you would if you were using offering smaller and more compact lenses for DX sen- 35mm film. Disadvantages of FX format sors that cost much less than regular lenses 1. High cost • Reach – due to the size of the sensor and its crop 2. Lens sharpness and vignette – because FX uses a factor, DX sensors generally provide a better reach bigger area than DX on the lens, corner performance than full-frame sensors. on lenses might become an issue. • Size and weight – cameras with DX sensors are 3. Size and weight – larger components and smaller and lighter than cameras with FX sensors. professional electronics all add to the weight, making Disadvantages of DX format FX cameras the heaviest in Nikon’s line of DSLRs. • Noise in high ISO levels


Hand-held Devices Examples of hand-held devices that have some type camera are smartphones, video cameras; compact cameras and tablets. Smartphones are a big mass producing are more convenient than DSLR cameras because everyone has a phone and taking pictures on a smartphone will be easier to share on-the-go because it can easi-

a compact camera. Good for photographing static subjects in good lighting but with compact cameras they are still superior with moving subjects, in low difficult lighting. Smartphones have limited capability because of the slim design. Compact cameras have a larger sensor image that confirms the image quality is better in any and all kinds of lights, the battery life is generally better, the

flash is more powerful, and lenses have a better zoom. A compact camera has a wider aperture and a bigger sensor image which means is would perform betly connect to the Wi-Fi. Then when it connected, they ter in low light. High-end smartphone tends to offer can share the photos via text message, emailing or these but they still aren’t as good as high-end and posting it a social media. High end smartphones has a you will need to pay more. higher resolution. The trend for smartphones with fiveand six-inches screen, which is sometimes double the size found on a compact camera. Not as versatile as


ly moving the camera is fairly limited. Not as rigid as the higher-end modMany applications use Large Format Cameras for ad- els and the back vertising, landscape photography, fine-art photogra- screen is quite dim phy and mainly for images that will be enlarge to an with a f8 optic. exceedingly amount and still have the high quality as its original. An advantage of using large formats cam- Medium Format eras is because of the freedom of the camera move- Cameras is usually a roll film. Their ments and its great image quality. They are used is advertisement for large pictures uses on the billboard. systems use interchangeable film magazines, allowing the user to switch rolls quicker and save time. It On a 35mm or medium format camera the plane of supports different types of lenses and supports differfocus is parallel to the camera back, but with large format cameras you can tilt the lens downwards while ent winding mechanisms/viewfinders/camera backs, so you need to buy specific type of equipment for keeping the back of the camera upright. Photograthe camera, anyone you have will do. Thesse equipphers that take pictures of land- ment’s are used in films and used in 35mm photography. Due to its large size of the film/digital sensor scapes use this technique to ac- (x2-x6 bigger than a 35mm) the image has a higher quire landscape resolution, which permits a bigger enlargement withimages with front out the grain or blur. Which also means better control of the depth of field and a more photographic creto back sharpness without hav- ativity. It has great support ‘tilt and shift’ of the lens. ing to stop all the The permits landscape photography an exceedingly way down to the large depth of field from the foreground to the backnarrowest aper- ground. The only setback is that it is mainly limited to ture settings. The professional photography shops and can be extremebad thing about ly expensive. They also tend to be bulkier than others. this is that actual-

Format Cameras


Lighting

Studio Lighting Many photographers use ‘Flat Light’ in their photos. This is when the light source faces drirectly at the for of the subject. This means that your subject is well lit and there will be no shadows show on their faces. It is good for photographing babies, teens with a lot of blemishes and elderly people, who fell insecure with their wrinkles. Another is ‘Split Light’. This is when the light hits the subjecs at a 90 degree angle. It is easily revealed by an image with the subject is half lit on one side and the other side is in the shadows. With a face especially you will be able to see the shadow line go straight down the subjects forehead, nose and chin. External Lighting An external light is a flash locked into the hotshoe of the camera. It provides a cleaner look to the subject and softens the lighting. Also, it is good way to get different angles of lighting due to its flexablity and rotation. This will allow the photographer to get a wider variety of lighting for their photos.There are also reflectors. These can change the angles of the light and either incease or decrease the intesinty of it.

Camera Support

Tripod There are diffterent types of tripods in the world but they all have use - a platform for supporting the weight and maintain the stability of other objects if needed. A compact camera tripod is, obviously, for a compact camera, which is the only camera to have a sepcific tripod. All the other tripod can be use for any kind of camera depening on the weight of the camera. Drone Drones are the best to capture the right ariel photo. The Gimbal technology pervents any vibration from the drone to not effect the camera and allows you to tilt the camera mid flight producing unique and effective angles. However, props can appear in the frame of the camera and ruin the shot. Also, while in the air the drone may run out of battery and it will be lost.


Exposure

Correct Exposure – If it is correctly exposed then there will be highlights and shadows shown equally, it wouldn’t be too light or too dark. It wouldn’t matter if the photo was in black and white there will still be a varying degree of contrast between the two. It is always best the correct the exposure because not even the best software would be able to re-obtain the details lost due to it was not being recorded in the first place. Underexposed – if it is underexposed then the photo would be to dark. Resulting in all the details lost in the darkness and the shadows. It will also lead to a deepening of the colour saturation and cause a nice effect. to avoid this problem you will need to add more lighting to the scene or adjust aperture and the shutter speed, so it would slow down, and more light can get in. Overexposed – if the image is overexposed then it would be too light because too much light is being recorded, so the details would be lost in the brightness and he highlights. This is known as a” blown out” in photography. This can be useful when taking photographs of dark scenes and objects – it will bring out the details lost in the dark. To prevent this from happening you must dim the lights in the scene itself or speed up the shutter speed and aperture so less light will be shown on the sensor. Auto-Exposure Aracketing – This is the technique of taking several photos of the same subject or object using different camera settings. Exposure Bracketing is the most useful bracketing there is, the two type of exposure bracketing there is are auto exposure bracketing (AEB) and manual bracketing Auto Bracketing allows the photographer to capture multiple of shots constructed on one predetermined setting. Different cameras have different arrangements for auto bracketing, so check if to see if the camera has AEB. Manually Bracketing is instead of letting the camera take the multiple pictures the photographer can manually set the adjustments after each shot. The benefit of this is that you can take fewer pictures if you can get the perfect range of light in just two shots, then you won’t need the third shot, which will save space on your memory card and back-up file. HDR (High Dynamic Range) - It is a technique used to replicate a better dynamic range of light than an average digital imaging would. This is so that it can display a similar range of light that a human eye would. HDR would exhibit a vast range of light levels.


Image manipulation Removing Unwanted Material – editors remove unwanted material, so the subject will look nice and smooth the media and celebrities use this to reduce the amount of detail shown in their skin. As a result, it will enhance the softness of the subject, making the image look more attractive and eye-catching. To achieve this in Photoshop 7.0 you will need to use the “Healing Brush Tool” it uses the texture structure of the image and calculates the colour values and lightness from the actual surroundings. Resizing Images – Cropping is one way to resize an image. This will allow you to zoom in on an image, if you just want the subject and not the background. This useful because not of the information of the photo will be lost, you will be always able to un-crop it later. Compressing Files – One key fact is that not all files can be compressed by a large amount. Co,pressing works by changing the set files size and replacing it with smaller numbers for the photograph. Compressed files use up less storage space and can be transported to computers much quicker, but some infomation may be lost when you compress it and might not be found again.


Exporting & Storting Files Storing - Depending on your type of photos then you could store your files in various of ways. (SD cards, Online services, External hard drives, DVD discs and many more) External hard drives have been the best solution so far. The user can connect their USB to their PC/MAC and transfer the images and files to the hard drive. These hard drives are reliable, fast and have a big enough storage to hold your files. However, if the hard drives are lost, by you moving houses, hen your files will be lost as well. Therefore, another way of storing your files could be through online services. This is the new way people are startin to store their files of any kind. by choosing this you would be preventing the stress of having a hard drive and saving disk space. Also, you will be able to access your files anywhere in the world, where there is internet. Exporting - Different software use different ways to export the files, but regardless when you export them they are all saved in the same formats. One example is JPEG, which is most used in digital photography and web pages. Jpeg uses lossy ompression so it can save he file in a much smaller version than the original. However, the downside is that the image quality will degrade when it is exported as a Jpeg because of it being a smaller file. Although, Majority of digital cameas now give you the option of exporting your images as RAW, but they will eventually need to be managed as a Jpeg or TIF, so it can be usable and viewable. Some photographers use RAW because it allows them to choose the settings after they have taken all the images. This is so they can analyse the proscessing options, like white balance and contrast, and decide what they need to work on.


Brytanni Burton Task 1 Part 2  
Brytanni Burton Task 1 Part 2  
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