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PART// 01 EXPRESSION OF INTEREST

PART// 02 RESEARCH PROJECT

PART// 03 DESIGN PROPOSAL

PART// 04 LEARNING


CONTENTS A I R / J O U R N A L 2 012

TABLE OF CONTENTS

2

LET TER FR OM EDITOR

3

E X P R E S S I O N O F INTEREST

RESEARCH PROJECT

CA SE FOR INNOVATION

PR OJECT PRECEDENTS

AR CHITECTURE A S DISCOURSE

7

DESIGN PROPOSAL

40

Precedent Project I

Precedent Project I

70

Design Realization 2D TO 3D

STREA MING HOUSE

Precedent Project II

AA POP S ICLE AGGREGATION

DESIGN PR OCESS

CONSTRUCTION testing

SPLITSCANNING

Precedent Project II

Project Considerations

Precedent Project III

HYBRID BIOSTRUCTURES

2 PR OPOSALS

HOMEOSTATIC FACADE

Precedent Project III

SITE PL ACEMENT INPUT/ A SSOCIATION/ OUTPUT

ARTIFICIAL CLOUDS

48 READING THE DESIGN

COMPUTING IN AR CHITECT URE

23

Matrix of Designs construction logic

INITIAL E XPERIMENTS

80

Introduction reason for computation

SYSTEM FOR L ABELLING

Precedent Project I

RE VERSE engineered CA SE STUDY

e xpression of code

scripTING IN AR CHITECTURE

Introduction

compressed comple x ity

50 CONSTRUCTION process

31

REPR ODUCING AIRSPACE TOKYO

LEARNING OUTCOMES

M ATERIAL EFFECTS

words about scripting

Precedent Project I

Documentation

SELECTION PR OCESS

DESIGN PR OCESS

58 learning objectives

Development Process GEOMETRIC PAT TERNING

DATA DRIVEN R OTATION

learning outcomes

Personal Statement individual progress

Refining Technique E VOLUTIONARY SOLVER

potential for future learning

assembly methods

CONCLUSION

RESEAR CH OUTCOMES

B RYA N C H UNG x MELBOURNE. 2012

100


LETTER FROM EDITOR

ABOUT THE JOURNAL

This research journal is for the proposal of a new Gateway for Wyndham City. In this journal we document the design process of the Gateway Insallation from conception to realisation. Throughout our project we utilise a computational design method to drive our project, as opposed to the computer aided design (CAD) design processes of the recent past which tend to be more referential than beneficial to the creative process. In doing so, we have in every aspect of this project, aimed to optimise, document, and innovate. our argument

The two concepts that drive our project are (1) Dynamism and (2) Complexity. Dynamism has to do with concepts of movement which are derived from the idea that residents experience great population movement and dispersal (both short and long term). Dynamism also has to do with idea of creating something exciting and

unique. Complexity has to do with an accumulation of many different elements and connected parts, symbolising the complexity of the identities of the city. Complexity is also about creating something which demonstrates a certain sophistication, that shows the public that Wyndham city embraces new trends and technologies. These are achieved, as mathematician Stephen Wolform has rightly put, to mimic nature, by using computation to create complexity from simple rules. Computation plays a large part in our argument because it allows us to adapt our designs rapidly and to explore sophisticated designs which consider many different parameters which a hand drawn design would not have been able to consider, let alone implement. design process

Our design follows the narrative of “A History of a Fictional Organism”, where sample populations not dissimilar to Wyndham’s population are studied over many many generations, to watch

B RYA N C H UNG x MELBOURNE. 2012

how different breeds disperse in different ways, and when compared in a split-scan, produce interesting 3-dimensional effects. Our design process begins with the refining of our grasshopper technique, then selecting from a pool of all possibilities which to continue studying, and then constantly refining and adapting the chosen definition according to concurrent manual testing and theoretical research about the evolution of species. competitive advantage

We feel our entry is something Wyndham resident’s will have never seen before and might never understand, but it all feels strangely familiar. Our design is optimised for construction and material efficiency and has potentials for development which will be addressed in detail later in this journal.


Architecture as Discourse


DESIGN TASK

P. 07

EXPRESSION OF INTEREST Select one (1) personal and two (2) state of the art projects and explain how they are (could be) advancing architectural discourse. Integrate into the Expression of Interest proposal.


PERSONAL PROJECT

Popsicle Stick Aggregation << Architectural Association Visiting Studio (Singapore) Michel da Costa Gonรงalves Nathalie Rozencwajg from RARE Architects

COMPLETED JULY 2011


PERSONAL PROJECT


PERSONAL PROJECT

Popsicle Stick Aggregation << Architectural Association Visiting Studio (Singapore) Michel da Costa Gonçalves Nathalie Rozencwajg from RARE Architects

COMPLETED JULY 2011

What is this project about? The popsicle stick accumulation project is about the generative potentials of the mass-produced popsicle stick. We developed a parametric system based on material attributes of the popsicle stick, which would adapt to a wide variety of topographies by responding to different environmental parametric data, and in doing so addressed the issue of Singaporeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s fragile urban ecology. The environmental data collected from the chosen site corresponded to percentages of built up area and light intensity. We compiled an arbitrary list of light intensity figures based on the quality of light at the site. This informed both the curvatures and aperture sizes of the output. We translated the data

(Above) Structurally stable in Suspension

into two Light Intensity Analysis diagrams where (1) The system responds to bright areas with a porous structure allowing more light to pass through, and (2) The system responds to bright areas with a more dense structure rejecting light penetration, acting as an environment filter. Form was derived from a series of parametric studies, where the parameters of the system were adjusted by adding and changing the input data. These changes in parameters resulted in the distortion of form. These forms reflect the environmental conditions of the site, providing a simplification of the complexity of the site.

(Above)Rubber Bands


PERSONAL PROJECT

Why have I selected this project? The design process in which this project was created is directly relevant to the gateway design project. First we investigated the material properties of the stick (depth first). Then we developed a system of weaving the sticks together. Then we investigated how we could exert greater control in the weave (larger arpertures = greater sunlight, less curvature). Then we digitised the system and manufactured the final product. I would like the gateway project to follow such a system of design progression.

Are there specific areas about this project I find relevant to the gateway brief? The precedent project is relevant to the Gateway brief because it demonstrates how a parametric design process can be utilized to generate successful, inspiring, brave forms while generating new discourse. What is parametric design? In a way all design is parametric. Design begins with the conscious or unconscious attribution of values to parameters describing functional requirements of the object and the constraints that limit the range of possible design solutions. The term parametric design is used in this journal means the use of a computer to automatically modify a design as the values of parameters change and to make correspond-

ing changes to the computer models during the design process. As such, a parametric Gateway design concept will be able to implement many different design parameters by generating form in both an efficient, logical and highly documented process. It can consider scale and impact of the proposed installation within a very flat and wide open landscape, or the high speed movement of traffic along the Princes Freeway. In doing so, the installation will enhance the physical environment through the introduction of a visual arts component.


PERSONAL PROJECT

How does this project advance architectural discourse?

(Above) System conforms to environmental data

This project investigates a couple of issues central to current architecture discourse now. The first is the new order in design and construction. With the onset of digital technologies, the old order of standardised design and its established processes no longer hold sway; contemporary architectural design can now be characterised by irregularity, and an appetite for producing customised non-standard, complex curvilinear forms. The shift in design and production technologies calls for a high level of collaboration between architects and engineers, essential in the earliest generative stages. In our findings there were some differences in the physical and digital morphologies as expected. The physical stacking mechanism overlaps to form a tight structural weave, and forms a continuous regular pattern. This provides spaces and redundancies in the system. The triangular segment point in an up-down arrangement, but when put together, they

form a continuous upward motion. The digital outcome is generated by inputing the curve algorithm into the system. The logic generates a form that adapts to the site conditions by dividing the surface into tessellations but this did not have the redundancies found in the physical system. The second issue addresses the contemporary response to urban ecology in architecture. Over the last decade or so, there has been a real danger that the widespread adoption of sustainable codes and government policies has become a straitjacket for designers - an imposition rather than a productive force. This project regards Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pollution and waste as having â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;generative potentialâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. We investigate the generative potentials of the mass-produced popsicle stick to be employed in the project as a base matter or material.

(Above) Physical Model


S TAT E O F T H E A R T P R O J E C T

Hybrid Biostructures << Studio: Architectural Association Emtech. << Publication: Hybrid Biostructures, Emergent Technologies and design 2012

DESIGN DATE 2012

What is this project about? The Hybrid Biostructures project is about exploring the material possibilities of concrete to enable the construction of complex geometries. The fluidity of concrete as a material, coupled with the flexible workability of its forming process, has lead to innovations in architectural design throughout history. The aim of this dissertation is to go beyond current practices of using concrete in the built environment to enable the construc-

(Above) Assembly Method (Facing) Physical Model Detail

Why have I selected this project? tion of complex geometries analogous to the coherence of structures found in nature. State of the art materials related to concrete construction, and cutting edge computer simulations are utilized in the research, creating a constant feedback loop between qualitative analogue prototypes and information-rich computer models.

I have selected this project because it is an example of what architects call a â&#x20AC;&#x153;New Structuralismâ&#x20AC;?, where the Design Engineer prioritising the materialisation of the project (Read more at AD Magazine 2010, The New Structuralism, Issue 80, p15). In my project, a combination of digital and analogue form finding methods with construction aware thinking can generate innovative tectonics and spatial qualities for the gateway brief.


S TATE O F T H E A R T P R O J E C T


S TAT E O F T H E A R T P R O J E C T

Hybrid Biostructures << Studio: Architectural Association Emtech. << Publication: Hybrid Biostructures, Emergent Technologies and design 2012

DESIGN DATE 2012

How does this project advance architectural discourse? This published thesis project from Architecture Associationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Emtech program is a proponent of design-engineer collaborative method. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Design Engineeringâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is a highly interactive medium for collaboration between architects and structural engineers. The approach has developed new models for the design of structures of geometric complexity that challenge orthodox methods of structural engineering. As a result, a series of processes have evolved which define a new relationship between the formal models of the architect and the materializing processes of the engineer.

(Above) Voronoi distrubution of layout Facing) Explanation of tensile structural system

Why is this project relevant to the gateway brief? In this project, the form finding techniques in an interactive digital modeling environment support the design process by giving continuous feedback to the designer, allowing the designer to integrate structural principles into the creation of form rather than to structurally optimize the finished form at the end of the design process.

This project is relevant because the ability to accommodate material considerations early in the design process is crucial to be able to create an innovative, collaborative, and cost efficient installation for Wyndham. As evidenced by this precedent, this design process appears to be an excellent model of design collaboration and is ultimately relevant to the successful completion the requirements of the Gateway brief.


S TATE O F T H E A R T P R O J E C T


S TAT E O F T H E A R T P R O J E C T

Artificial Clouds << Studio: Asadov Architecture Studio << 2014 Winter Olympics Competition 2010 Aerospace Architecture Competition

COMPLETED 2010

What is this project about? Asadov has designed a performance-based system of modules called Clouds, which float about the ground surface. The arrangement of these clouds form covered foot spaces and interesting spacial effects. This project was the competition winner for the 2014 Winter Olympic complex in Sochi, Russia. The structure of Clouds, consists of aluminium skeletons fitted by a membrane fabric, divided into a number of compartments. Rigid connections between “clouds” stabilize their vertical movement and give stability to the whole structure. The structures are reachable by means of platform-boats, available

on each module, and are connected to the ground via wire cables. The Clouds actively cooperate with environment. (1) It can provide a cooling effect. Sets of rain funnels accumulate moisture in the lower parts of the cloud modules, which later ‘rain’ down to the ground surface below, or can be an alternative source of a firefighting. The solar elements integrated into the top layer of the modules, develop the necessary electric power for self-support, and illumination in the evening. The structure is also particularly innovative, incorporating separate air turbine modules within the ensemble.

(Above) Day Render (Facing) Night Render


S TAT E O F T H E A R T P R O J E C T

(Above) Day Time Render

Why is this project relevant to the Gateway brief? This project is relevant because like the Gateway brief, this is a public installation. A critical and central part of the project lies in its ability to engage with the site. In Asadovâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s proposal water plays a critical and central part. Rainfall and ground temperature is carefully monitored and directed, with reactions of the structure for cooling effects. Water also provides a stimulating and refreshing sound, running over a variety of textured surfaces and changes of level. With regards to how modules should be read, the manipulation of light and shade, breeze, and rainfall in a pleasing manner can also allow similar looking modules to be differentiated. We aim to find such a coherent engagement with the site in the Gateway brief.


S TAT E O F T H E A R T P R O J E C T

(Above) Day Time Render

How does this project advance architectural discourse? This project is an enquiry into what public architecture can be. Public architecture of today is not like the landscaped estates of the 18th century; land that was partitioned off for the appreciation of all but the smallest ruling elite. Today they are very much for public consumption. An article titled New Architectural Horizons in AD Magazine 2007, Issue 77, p.17, the physical landscape should be a “portrait” and an “autobiography, reflecting our tastes, our values, our aspirations... in a tangible, visible form”. Asadov’s Cloud design reflects the realities of the site by using patterns to have environmental, material and structural performance in a single design system, simultaneously reflecting and control the identity of the site.


Computation as Architecture


DESIGN TASK

P. 23

EXPRESSION OF INTEREST Using suggested readings and independent research present the unique innovations presented by contemporary computational design techniques. Integrate into the Expression of Interest proposal.


C O M P U TAT I O N I N A R C H I T E C T U R E

Computational Design << What is computational design? Why should a gateway installation in Wyndham use a computational design process?

BENEFITS & PRECEDENTS

Introduction The current transition from Computer Aided Design (CAD) to Computational Design in architecture represents a profound shift in design thinking and methods. Representation is being replaced by simulation, and the crafting of objects is moving towards the generation of integrated systems through designer-authored computational processes. New computational paradigms have a profound influence on architecture. They

borrow relevant principles from the domains of mathematics and computer science, developmental and evolutionary biology, system science and philosophy, establishing a new discourse for computational design thinking in architecture. (Adapted from Computational Design Thinking, Achim Menges and Sean Ahlquist, September 2011)

Benefits of a computational process Computational design in architecture is process-based and its emphasis is on material performance rather than representation. The computational techniques such as algorithms are used as a tool in assisting architects in the generative process. The architect, or design engineer, is still the decision maker, and develops the parameters of input data. The design involves a â&#x20AC;&#x153;top-down process of form making and a bottom-up logic of forming findingâ&#x20AC;? (Neil Leach, Digital Morphogenesis, p.34). The result is a more homogenous design process, optimized for construction from the beginning, where material performance and construction-time optimization is not merely an afterthought.

As more architects adopt computational design methods, some argue that parametricism is the great new style after modernism. Digital architecture has shifted its architectural processes into computational parametrics. This section shows how this new style is explored and tested through projects which reveal digital expressions and processes.


Precendent Project: Brandon Williams/Studio Rocker, Expression of Code, 2004 What is this project about? Brandon Williams attempts to create complexity from simple rules in his ‘Expression of Code’ project. Here, he is able to transform a straighforward 2D surface into a surface and structure. Modes of transposition between points determine how the abstract code, consisting of As and Bs, becomes surface and structure. What is unique and innovative about this project? This project shows how parametrics are particularly useful for modelling the geometry of complex building forms. A generic parametric code governs the twists and turns of the structure. This particular chosen mode of transposing code into its expression is just one of many possibles. Any code’s expression is thus always just one of an infinite set of possible realisations. We just have realised the incompleteness of realisation. Thus computation allows for the emergence of form and space independent of such traditional constraints, and thus allows us to arrive at alternative formal and spatial conceptions, which decode and, at the same time, recode architecture. Name a contemporary digital design technique used here. Here the designer uses a technique called In-determinancy. Instead of working on a parti, the designer constructs a generative system of formal production, controls its behavior over time, and selects forms that emergy from its operation. How will you employ a similarly innovative approach to the Gateway brief? This approach allows for much variation in the design, giving rise to new possibilities, i.e. the emergent form. The formal complexity is intentionally sought out, and the choice of emergent forms is driven largely by the designer’s aesthetic and plastic sensibilities.


Brandon Williams/Studio Rocker, Expression of Code, 2004


Scripting in Architecture


DESIGN TASK

P. 61

EXPRESSION OF INTEREST Select one project that expresses contemporary scripting/ programming cultures and defend/ critique the authorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s design philosophy. Integrate into the EOI proposal.


S CR I P T I N G I N A R C H I T E C T U R E

Scripting in Architecture << What is programming/scripting? How has the architectural paradigm shifted following an increased usage of scripting design processes?

DEFINITION & PRECEDENTS

What is scripting? Scripting can be taken to mean computer programming at several levels. For the novice dabbling at the more accessible end of the user spectrum, scripting is the capability offered by almost all design software packages that allows the user to adapt, customise or completely reconfigure software around their own predilections and modes of working. At its most demanding for the emerging connoisseur, scripting can refer to higherlevel computer programming where, in the ‘open-source’ environment, ‘libraries’ of func-

tions can be combined with preconfigured routines (algorithms) as a means to produce manufacturer-independent digital design capability.’ At its simplest, therefore, scripting affords a significantly deeper engagement between the computer and user by automating routine aspects and repetitive activities, thus facilitating a far greater range of potential outcomes for the same investment in time.

What is interesting about scripting? With scripting, computer programming becomes integral to the digital design process. It provides unique opportunities for innovation, enabling the designer to customise the software around their own predilections and modes of working. It liberates the designer by automating many routine aspects and repetitive activities of the design process, freeing-up the designer to spend more time on design thinking. Software that is modified through scripting offers a range of speculations that are not possible using the software only as the manufacturers intended it to be used. There are also significant economic benefits to automating routines and coupling them with emerging digital fabrication tech-

nologies, as time is saved at the front-end and new file-to-factory protocols can be taken advantage of. Most significantly perhaps, scripting as a computing program overlay enables the tool user (designer) to become the new tool maker (software engineer). Though scripting is not new to design, it is only recently that it has started to be regarded as integral to the designer’s skill set rather than a technical speciality. (Taken from Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming with Mark Burry)


Example of Scripting in Architecture Maren Klasing, Martin Krcha, Manuel Froeschl and Konrad Hofmann, Compressed Complexity, Masterclass Zaha Hadid (tutors: Zaha Hadid and Patrik Schumacher), University of Applied Arts, Vienna, 2006 (Published in AD, Issue 79)

Patrik Schumacher from Zaha Hadid Architects, uses scripting in his creation of patterns. These patterns are not arbitrary, but have correlations with the types of surfaces he designs and can have numerous possibilities for environmental and structural performance. He writes: articulation is the central core competency of architecture; and designed patterns provide one of the most potent devices for architectural articulation. Schumacher ushers in a new era of parametric architecture in which pattern becomes an innovative and powerful register of articulation, providing amplification of surface difference and correlation, ultimately resulting in dynamic, high-performance ornamentation.

“For architects and artists like Karl Chu, Kostas Terzidis, George Liaropoulos-Legendre, Mike Silver and CEB Reas, scripting is the means to develop their own design tools and environments. According to Kostas Terzidis: ‘By using scripting languages designers can … transcend the factory set limitations of current 3-D software. Algorithmic design does not eradicate differences but incorporates both computational complexity and creative use of computers.” -AD Magazine, Issue 76, p.26


“Towards the end of the 1990s, new possibilities of patterning were discovered by applying the technique of texture mapping on to warped nurb surfaces, and such effects were achieved on built projects by projecting video images on to curvilinear surfaces, or by embedding digital display systems within the surfaces... The technique of texture mapping has since been replaced by scripting, and mapping only survives as an initial short cut to test or illustrate effects that are then to be implemented by scripts.” (Taken from AD Magazine, Issue 79, Patterns of Architecture, p.33)

Design Philosophy In the left image, the deployment of facade relief accentuates the surface conditions. The pattern correlates and enhances the three-dimensional shape rather than constituting an arbitrary application. The relief exploits light/shadow effects. A strong emphasis on correlation is a hallmark of parametricism. The articulation by means of correlative surface differentiation is free to take on any relevant dataset of the overall spatial construct within which the respective surface is situated. Significant correlates might include the underlying primary structure. The surface articulation might correspond to structural flow-lines or stress distribution. Correlates might further include the apertures that are set into the surface. Patterns might accentuate apertures, a surface might be made to correlate with the furnishings within a space, and the expected pattern of occupation might also be utilised as a dataset driving a corresponding surface differentiation. A sophisticated setup should be able to cater for multiple datasets simultaneously. The designer’s philosophy points to a search for a deeper meaning in the design process, whether it be in finding structural meaning or in conforming to sociological space.

Relevance to Gateway Brief Patrik Schumacher’s research hopes to achieve a greater meaning between patterns and form, and is against arbitrary textures mapped onto surfaces. In a similar vein, my work can hope to probe further into using a design process appropriate to residents of Wyndham City, in which their culture, habits and environment can be used to provide greater meaning for the structure I design, and in doing so, create a structure that residents can sympathise, recognise, and identify with.


Research Project


DESIGN TASK

P. 39

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Documentation of design development process, research into precedents, rationalisation of grasshopper definition for construction, physical model experimentation,


PRECEDENTS FOR MID-TERM

Precedents << The following are three projects that express dynamism and use simple rules to express complexity.

PRECEDENTS

Streaming House by Paul Minifie RESEARCH BACKGROUND CAT scan data is often visualised using a three-dimensional grid of discrete data, known as an isosurface. The Streaming House project questions if a parallel technique could be explored using a video stream, which has a similar form of data as an isosurface. A video stream of Mies van der Roheâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s modernist architectural form, the Barcelona Pavilion, is taken as a starting point on which the prototypical experiment can occur. RESEARCH CONTRIBUTION This project by Paul Minifie employs the isosurfacing technique as a novel means of generating new architectural form from Miesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; seminal work. The resulting project provides a contemporary re-examination of this historic architectural work, and demonstrates an innovative and precise architectural design technique. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE It was selected for inclusion in Convergence: Hotspots Melbourne at the 2004 Architectural Biennale Beijing. The Streaming House has been published twice in leading Australian journal, the Architectural Review, as well as through international recognition in books including 10 x 10_2 100 Architects 10 Critics published by Phaidon Press and in Built Diagrams edited by Ilka Ruby, Andreas Ruby and Philip Ursprung.


(Above) Streaming House


Splitscanning Technique by Daniel Crooks RESEARCH BACKGROUND Crooksâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s visual metaphor of the expanding body absorbingly evokes the dissolution of the self and the will in identification with the chi, the breath of life; the achievement, one may say, of an internal distance. RESEARCH CONTRIBUTION Static No.12 (seek movement in stillness) is a video project made by Melbourne-based artist Daniel Crooks. It reflects the slow and graceful movements of tai chi exercise into a vivid installation, making the motion visible. The body movement spreads horizontally across the screen, and the stop motion effect remapped the presentation of time. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE Static No. 12 was selected for inclusion as part of the part of the Biennale of Sydney in 2010. His work is often featured in publications and exhibitions throughout Australia, Europe, Asia.

(Opposite) Static #9

(Above) Static #12


Homeostatic Facade System by Decker Yeadon RESEARCH BACKGROUND Homeostasis is the natural phenomena in plant or animal organisms wherein they constantly regulate their internal conditions through any number of actions. Human sweat is an example of humanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s homeostatic response to a high level of heat gain. The aim is to invent an intelligent facade that regulates itself in the same responsive ways organisms do on a systems and processes level. In doing so the project provides a more viable alternative to similar light management facades like that of the Institut Du Monde Arab which was plagued with mechanical failure from day one. RESEARCH CONTRIBUTION Decker Yeadon has devised a new double-skin glass facade system for large buildings. Whereas the current model of curtain wall double skins has a simple air cavity embedded with louvers, this system hosts an advanced shading system that includes mechanisms modeled after muscles enabling the system to automatically regulate heat loss and heat gain. RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE It was selected for inclusion in Form Magazineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s November/December 2011 publication, along with other innovative building facades including the GEOtube by Faulders Studio, Tower Skin by LAVA, and Pixel Building by Studio 505.


(Opposite) Changing environmental performance under different lighting conditions

(Above) Image of the building facade


How We Design: Matrix and Selection Process


How We Design: Matrix and Selection Process (1) We used the CUT definitions provided to obtain a list of possible designs. (2) We arranged these designs into a matrix of two axis: unpredictability (non-linear processes) and geometric complexity. (3) We then selected a design with which to perform further tests.


Refining the Design Process

Step 1: Design through Making

Step 2: Refining the Definition to Mimic Results

Experimentation through a manual overlaying of 2D images to attempt to mimic the effects of the overlaying shadows of the voronoi project.

Based on the weekly grasshopper tutorials we now h knowledge to be able the tweak the definition to ma ing needs. Previously the definition only gave birth to Then we distorted the grid of control points via data whereby the rotation data was supplied by the light/ arbitrary image. We selected a picture which would d structural breakdown in the best way possible.

Reasons behind the choice of material Further testing was about how the complexity could be shown in the model. As we are simulating complexity by using line patterns, we decide to use printing on transparent sheets/tracing paper, which could show the patterns clearly while helps with the layering. The base was made of mount board which established the layering system. Semi-transparent sheet was placed between lights and pattern sheets to defuse the light. In general, the materials were chosen carefully to enhance the spatial quality and subtlety.

Geometries generated by the definition


had sufficient atch our chango rigid structures. driven rotatation, /dark values of an demonstrate the

Step 3a: Further development of Concept We develop a metaphor for evolution in order to better describe the capabilities of the definition. The layering technic contributes to the presentation as a way to show a process, in our case, the deconstruction and reunion of species. From bottom to top, the wall defined pattern deconstruct to unsystematic placement, and then rebuilt itself again. The whole process reflect our idea about evolution and life cycle of basic species. In the mean time, a three dimensional space was constructed by those layers, in a sense, a visual representation of the life in time.

Step 3b: An Evolutionary Solver By connecting 6 numeric sliders to the Galapagos component, we embed geometric qualities into the genome. This means that different species generated will have different resultant geometric shapes. Galapagos picks the best options from this pool (above) in order to match our set criteria.


Final Notes about our Concept It is a good fit for the gateway project because it can not only indicate a change of region, but also refer to society and history, as well as raise respects to life. The metaphor of evolution can also apply to the development of human society: as more and more cooperation going on between people, a better society is created. Rules (math function) and cooperation (intersection) makes Werribe city (pattern) a proper functioning society. The city has a significant immigration history. The place was originally occupied by aboriginal people. They formed a nice social network themselves (first pattern). Nevertheless, the arrival of immigrates broke the harmony of their society and a conflict happened between aboriginal people and immigrates that destroyed the original social network (explosion). But with time goes on, the conflict reduced. With efforts from both aboriginals and immigrates, the social network grows and finally become the current Werribe city (reposition the lines to become the new pattern). Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more, this design can help raising respects to life. People should always respect for life especially in highways. With mistakes from careless drivers, numbers of life have lost under car wheels. With the metaphor relates to the evolution process, as well as the life circle in nature, the design shows that life is admirable and should be respected. Overall, the project communicates to people. It shows a relation to ornamentation of architecture history in which patterns and decorations of a building are created to have historical, religious or philosophical meanings. By using digital technology, e.g. grasshopper, the generation process of the design becomes much easier. Repeating jobs such as adding points by math functions, accumulating lines and basic geometries can be accurately done by the computer calculation and processing. We can easily produce various patterns according to our intension and choose the better ones from them to develop further. Furthermore, it is much easier to change the design in computer as we can simply change input data or processing rules for the computer to generate new designs. Learning Outcomes The members of my group had some basic experience with grasshopper for an Ex-lab course in 2011. Now after looking at precedent Case Studies and trying to mimic and build them, we have a better understanding about the possibilities and the limitations of the technique and the design process. For example, we understand Galapagos in grasshopper produces very similar looking (boring) examples, and we have to continue working on more exciting outcomes. Also, we tried to produce the physical model on perspex, but the material was both too expensive and was hard to see the progression of patterns because the material was so thick, it made the structure blurry.


Design Proposal


DESIGN TASK

P. 68

PROPOSAL FOR GATEWAY Documentation of design development process, research into precedents, rationalisation of grasshopper definition for construction, physical model experimentation,


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Derive Geometry << The design progression in the design proposal segment is split into two categories: Derive Geometry, and Optimise Design for Construction.

PART .01 OF DESIGN// DERIVE GEOMETRY

2D GEOMETRY VIA GALAPAGO

Derive Geometry// We ch of the definition and cho lines which are connecte an Image, rotation from c

B RYA N C H U N G x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

. 01

Y SELECTION OS

.02

2D GEOMETRY IS EXTRUDED UPWARDS TO 3D FORM

.03

3D FORM IS MANIPULATED VIA DATA DRIVEN ROTATION

hose a 2D geometric pattern based on the Galapagos evolutionary solver in Grasshopper 3D. This allowed us to adapt the “Genome”, and “Fitness” Values oose a pattern based on Least Intersection of lines. Then we extruded this design vertically by adapting the definition in Grasshopper, extending vertical ed from control points of the geometric pattern. Then we experimented with different types of Data Driven rotatations: rotation based on data taken from curve, graph etc. This gave us more control over the outcomes of the design. The diagram above shows this progression.

B RYA N CHUNG x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Rationalise for Construction << The design progression in the design proposal segment is split into two categories: Derive Geometry, and Optimise Design for Construction.

PART .02 OF DESIGN// RATIONALISE FOR CONSTRUCTION

Remap stick lengths to adapt to scale of site

Number of sticks in each type of Joint

REMAP DEFINIT INCORPORATE N

.01

CONSTRUCTION OF SKETCH MODEL

RESEARCH INTO SPAN CONSTRA

Rationalise for Construct updating the grasshoppe calculate and rationalise sticks were simplified to 1

B RYA N C H U N G x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Mathematical Evaluation of stick lengths to simplifiy definition for optimised manufacture . 02

TION TO NEW SPAN . 02

O MATERIAL/ AINTS

.03

OPTIMISE MANUFACTURE THROUGH MATH EVALUATION

.04

NEW 19 TYPES OF STICKS ARE INCORPORATED IN DEFN

tion// Based on the physical model we adapted the scale of the material members to fit with material constraints. We remapped the new stick lengths by er definition to incorporate these changes. Then we did a mathematical evaluation of all possible angles (see table above), from which we were able to our design into 19 different combinations of sticks. This was to reduce the cost and problems with complexity of construction. The different lengths of 14 types with 5 types of joints. Based on those types, 19 combinations could be assembled to produce the overall design.

B RYA N CHUNG x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

(Clockwise, from Left): Drilling holes because lasercut holes were too small Finished holes Sticks seem to float on a suspended acrylic sheet

B RYA N C H U N G x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

(Clockwise, from Left): Learning how to read construction documents Careful assembly of sticks Sticks seem to float on a suspended acrylic sheet

B RYA N CHUNG x MELBOURNE. 2012


Design Speculation << We speculated what the final outcome would be by playing with the exported images in illustrator to create layered chaos and interesting visual complexity.

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Search for Precedents

CONCEPT PRECEDENTS

<< Research into previous works by already successful artists allowed our perceptions of our design to mature, adapt, and innovate.

SELECTION OF RELEVANT PRECEDENTS

Haystack Veil by Philip Beesley This project was relevant because of the way the sticks were overlayed onto the site and also in the way the wooden tripods formed a structural fabric over the site.

Dreams by Lebbeus Wood This project was relevant because it enquired into the spatial and tectonic possibilities engendered by the explosive arrangement of lines.

La Combe, Ellsworth Kelly This project was relevant because the lines start in a geometric fashion but slowly disperse and rotate, creating spatial qualities from simple rules.

B RYA N C H U N G x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

CONSTRUCTION PRECEDENTS

Cartier Foundation by Lebbeus Woods This project was relevant because of the way the sticks were fixed into the ground via a grid structure.

Hypostyle Hall by Stephan Sobl This project was interesting because of the way the sticks were engineered to suspend from the thin ceiling.

Drift by Antony Gormley This project was relevant because of the way the sticks were welded together while still being self supporting and structurally stable.

B RYA N CHUNG x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Construction Analysis Brainstorming the two possible outcomes for the project. Whether the outcome should be lines or layers. <<

.01

CONCEPTUAL ELEMENTS

.02

CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS

MATER

STEEL

HOW MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS INFLUENCE DESIGN

STICKS TIMBER LINES

EXTRUDED PLANES

TIMBER PL

STRING

PLASTIC

TRANSPARENT PLANE

PVC PLANE

LAYERS NONE

CONCRETE SUPPORTING STRUCTURE STEEL

Construction Analysis// W of the design. This diagra that we started with, we

B RYA N C H U N G x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

.03

RIALS

LANES

E

E

.04

.05

.06

METHOD OF JOINTS

METHOD OF ARRANGEMENT

LOCATION

WELD

VERTICAL

ALONG ROAD/ LINEAR/ SITE-A NORTH BOUND

2D PREFABRICATED JOINT/ BOLT/ PLATE HORIZONTAL 3D PREFABRICATED JOINT/ BOLT/ PLATE

INTERSECT

ABOVE ROAD/ SITE-A NORTH BOUND VERTICAL/ MULTIPLE LAYERS

TILE/PLANE

FRAME

HORIZONTAL/ MULTIPLE LAYERS SITE-A SPREAD

CONCRETE BASE

COLUMN ON GROUND

We brainstormed the possibilties of constructing our extruded grasshopper definition. This gave us a lot of choice and variation in the material outcomes am allowed us to better optimise the construction by choosing materials based on ease of construction, weight, effects, and cost. From the two options narrowed our design down to one: using the Lines method.

B RYA N CHUNG x MELBOURNE. 2012


Developing a Label System << Part of our design was to develop a convincing an easily readable labelling system so the project can be swiftly manufactured and assembled.

CODES FOR ASSEMBLY ON SITE CODES FOR JOINTS ON FOLLOWING PAGE

Construction Documents: 1- Specifications for Joint and Stick Combinations (Following Page) 2- Labelling chart showing labels on the ground in relation to stick type 3- Process for the excation of the ground, how to dig holes, and how to operate the Microsoft Kinect for 3D projection.


Simplified No. of Sticks and Joints << Simplified: 14 different stick lengths, 5 different joints, adding up to 19 different combinations of stick lengths and joints altogether.

RATIONALISING DESIGN FOR CONSTRUCTION

0.7

0.7-A-1.4

0.8-A-1.6

0.9-C-1.1

0.9-A-1.6

0.8

0.9

1-D-1.1

1-B-1.4

1.0

1.1

1.2

1-A-2

1.1-D-1.2

JOINT(A) 60

J


1.4

1.5

1.1-A-2.2

1.7

1.4-C-1.7

JOINT(C) 35

1.8

1.5-E-1.6

1.2-A-2.4

1.2-B-1.7

JOINT(B) 45

1.6

2.2

1.7-E-1.8

1.6-E-1.7

JOINT(D) 25

2.0

1.8-D-2

JOINT(E) 20

2.4

1.8-C-2.2

2-D-2.2


Remapping New Defn onto Site << The definition was mapped onto the site surface and labelled for construction of the physical model.

SITE PLACEMENT


Placement on Site << The design will be viewed from cars on the road, with the density of the sticks providing surface articulation of the hilly topography.

SITE PLACEMENT


Construction Process << The definition was mapped onto the site surface and labelled for construction of the physical model.

SITE PLACEMENT


Construction Process: 1- SS304 Joints and Timber Poles are fabricated offsite 2- Surveyor locates the start of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;gridâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; 3- Rectangular grid is projected over terrain in order to locate points using Microsoft Kinect software. 4- Markers are placed at each point to mark hole 5- Holes are dug at each marker point, ensuring correct depth and angle 6- Each pole is placed into the holes and filled with crushed gravel backfill and a clay plug to prevent water damage.


DESIGN PROPOSAL

B RYA N C H U N G x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

B RYA N CHUNG x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

Relationship with Site << Over time the design will blend in with the site, breaking in places, shifting with the ground, discolouring, and hiding under weed overgrowth, merging with the site identity.

ARTISTS IMPRESSION

B RYA N C H U N G x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

B RYA N CHUNG x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

B RYA N C H U N G x MELBOURNE. 2012


DESIGN PROPOSAL

B RYA N CHUNG x MELBOURNE. 2012


Learning Outcomes


DESIGN TASK

P. 101

REFLECTION AND LEARNING Reflect on individual progress and included a statement on the plans for future learning and utilisation of acquired competencies.


LEARNING OUTCOMES

Learning Outcomes << What has been learnt during this course, and does the design feel this design been successful?

JUNE 2012

Reflection We started this project with no idea what the outcome would be; with only a few buzzwords, a brief, and a handful of design precedences to spark a design proposal. Now we have so much more. If there is one thing that has been successful in this project, it is the design process. We have been as rigorous as is possible, constantly referring to precedents, doing research and adapting our grasshopper definitions according. This is why there are so many diagrams in this report - but in reality there are easily 20 times the number of informal scribbles on note pads thrown away because the ideas did not work or the outcomes were not interesting. I feel my group’s skill set is reasonably competent. Out of the three of us, two of us

had previous knowledge of grasshopper and the other one learnt grasshopper during this course. During the course that one member has become very proficient after constant adaptations of the grasshopper definition, pushing the boundaries of what is possible. Even after this project’s submission is complete I believe we still very much want to push our project further because our outcome has left us relieved but somewhat underwhelmed. We believe the definition we’ve created, the Fictional Organism, is capable of more. One of the things I wish we had realised earlier is to know when to stop the computational design process and when to dare to break the rules we’ve created. Over the Winter we intend to continue pushing the project to create more interesting outcomes.



Bryan Chung - Studio Air Journal (Final)