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How to create an innovative solution of light emitting inspired by nature?

Bruno Zingone August 2012


Acknowledgements

Thanks to Coventry School of Art and Design and all tutors, especially Karen Bull and Clive Hilton. I would like to also thank my parents, my cousin Marco Chino, all my friends and Catherine Taylor for their help and the support.


List of Figures

Figure 1. Conceptual framework (Author’s Own Picture)

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Figure 2. CAMP Woodpecker Axe (Rockwood 2008)

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Figure 3. Motorola i560 (Rockwood 2008)

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Figure 4. Fast Skin (Speedo 1996)

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Figure 5. Firefly (Marlene 1978)

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Figure 6. Skyphos (Smolíková 2011)

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Figure 7. Philips Bio-Light (Philips 2011)

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Figure 8. Field of light (Munro 2012)

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Figure 9. Table 6 Togetherness (Author’s Own Data)

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Figure 10. Table 9 Magic (Author’s Own Data)

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Figure 11. Table 8 Safety (Author’s Own Data)

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Figure 12. Table 3 Sensations Map (Author’s Own Data)

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Figure 13. Camping scenario sketch (Author’s Own Picture)

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Figure 14. Sketch shapes bio-inspired (Author’s Own Picture)

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Figure 15. Sketch lightning shapes (Author’s Own Picture)

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Figure 16. Sketch Cave Story (Author’s Own Picture)

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Figure 17. Use of the device (Author’s Own Picture)

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Figure 18. Light colours proposal (Author’s Own Picture)

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Figure 19. Light proposal shape 1 (Author’s Own Picture)

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Figure 20. Light proposal shape 2 (Author’s Own Picture)

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Figure 21. Render lighting device proposal 1 (Author’s Own Picture)

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Figure 22. Render lighting device proposal 2 (Author’s Own Picture)

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Table of contents

0. Abstract

6

1. Introduction

8

2. Conceptual Framework

10

3. Biomimicry and Bioluminescence

11

4. Relationship between people and light

15

5. Scenario

18

6. Conclusion and Outcomes

19

7. Reflective report

27

8. List of References

29

9. Appendices 9.1 Appendix I. Copy of Questionnaire

32

9.2 Appendix II. Questionnaire Results

34

9.3 Appendix III. Copy of Ethics Checklist

38

9.4 Appendix IV. Copy of poster

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9.5 Appendix V. DVD with report and poster


0. Abstract

This project has as first aim to research about how to create an innovative solution of light emitting inspired by nature. The objectives are to find how nature produces light and to identify the relationship between people and light. Nature is a big source of inspiration and there are different ways to be inspired from it. The discipline that studies the best ideas from nature to solve human problems is known as Biomimicry. Several designers use Biomimicry for their projects. Analyzing the use of light in nature it’s been analyzed the ability of many groups of organisms to produce light. This phenomenon is called Bioluminescence. The most notorious bioluminescence organisms are fireflies, jellyfish and bacteria. To find the response of people to light a questionnaire has been used in order to get feedback directly from the users. The questionnaire considers the relationship between emotions and light. The result of the questionnaire leads to the choice of the light effects. To demonstrate the several possibilities to apply the findings, the outdoors has been chosen as the setting. Camping represents the perfect scenario that combines outdoor activities, social experiences and different uses of light. Examples of the various uses of light could be people gathering around a camp fire, lighting up a path, creating a safe and magical atmosphere and for exploring nature.

The final result from the research is a guide line to design an innovative solution of the use of light in outdoor and camping scenarios inspired from Bioluminescence. The outcome is a family of light sources extracted from a matrix of design opportunities. These devices take inspiration from the camping life and from the experience of the camp


fire. They suggest aggregation between people and create a safe and a magical atmosphere. Bioluminescence it is been used also as technology. Bioluminescence organisms produce a special protein called Luciferase and if this is combined with oxygen it begins to emit light (Baldwin 1996). This protein can currently be produced in laboratories such as Sigma Aldrich (Sigma-Aldrich 2012). It can be used to create a glowing liquid in order to emit suggestive light effects and this technology represents an innovative solution of ecofriendly light sources.


1. Introduction

This Project starts by analyzing the research question: “How to create an innovative solution of light emitting inspired by nature?” Nature is a big source of inspiration and there are different ways to be inspired from it. The discipline that studies the best ideas from nature to solve human problems is known as Biomimicry. There are several samples of products inspired by Biomimicry such as the Camp Woodpecker Axe designed by Franco Lodato as its name suggests, its curve of the spine is inspired from a woodpecker (Rockwood 2008). Furthermore, the structure of the Motorola i560 with alternating hard and soft layers it is inspired by the lobster’s tough outer shell (Rockwood 2008) and additionally, the Fast Skin suit designed by Speedo based on the scales of shark by reducing water friction (Speedo 1996).

The proposal is to take inspiration from nature sources that produce light. Many groups of organisms produce light including fungi, bacteria, jellyfish and fireflies. They produce light as a signalling system and possibly as a defence mechanism. This phenomenon is called Bioluminescence. Bioluminescence is source of inspiration in shapes and lights effects which are extremely pleasing to the eye also in the technological way to produce light and in the way to create magical and suggestive atmospheres.

The Czech designer Katerina Smolíková uses Bioluminescence as inspiration for the shape of her chandelier Skyphos (Smolíková 2011). Philips uses the Bioluminescence technology for a new concept of bio-light powered by a biological technology that uses bioluminescent bacteria to create ambient light effects (Koninklijke Philips Electronics 2011). The British artist and light designer Bruce Munro creates Experience Longwood


Garden, an evocative and imaginative field of light inspired by fireflies using optical fibre (Munro 2012).

The relationship between people and lights has been investigated in order to evaluate different ways of using lighting and how different kind of lights influences the mood. It has been researched about the effects of lighting on people and spaces and the role of the light in seasonal affective disorders. To find the response of the people to light it has been created a questionnaire that considers the relationship between different emotions and sensations with lights and ways to use it. The result is a map of emotions that people feel in relation to different lights. To demonstrate the several possibilities to apply the findings, the outdoors has been chosen as the setting. Camping represents the perfect scenario that combines outdoor activities, social experiences and different uses of light. Examples of the various uses of light could be people gathering around a camp fire, lighting up a path, creating a safe and magical atmosphere and for exploring nature. Designing for camping scenario involves considering aspects such as portability, flexibility, self-sufficiency and ecology.

The final result from the research is a guide line to design an innovative solution of the use of light in outdoor and camping scenarios inspired from Bioluminescence. The outcome is a family of light sources extracted from a matrix of design opportunities. This device suggests aggregation between people and creates an atmosphere of safety and a magical environment in line with the result of the analysis of the relationship between people and light. The technology is also inspired from a near future use of the bioluminescence to create an innovative solution of eco-friendly light source.


2. Conceptual Framework

Question

How to create an innovative solution of light emitting inspired by nature?

Objectives

Methods

Analysis

How Bioluminescence is used in the nature?

Library research online documents and magazines

Critical comparison of data

What is the relationship between people and light?

Research, questionnaires and interview.

Matrix of how light influence the mood

Library research online documents and magazines

Comparison with previous data

Technological use of Bioluminescence

Conclusion

A guide line to design an innovative solution of light emitting

Figure 1. Conceptual framework (Author’s Own Picture)

The Research question is: “How to create an innovative solution of light emitting inspired by nature?”

The Research Objectives are: -

To find how Bioluminescence is used in the nature To identify the relationship between people and light To identify what is the technological use of bioluminescence

The Design Objectives are: -

To create an innovative way to use light in outdoor and camping areas as result of an investigation of the relationship between people and light.


3. Biomimicry and Bioluminescence

Biomimicry is a new discipline that studies nature's best ideas and imitates these designs and processes to solve human problems. Throughout history nature has solved many of the problems we are currently facing, for example a leaf is studied to invent a better solar cell. (Benyus 2007)

There are several samples of products inspired from Biomimicry like the Camp Woodpecker Axe designed by Franco Lodato. As the name of this axe suggests, it was Figure 2. CAMP Woodpecker Axe (Rockwood 2008)

inspired by a woodpecker, the best example of a hammer in nature. Centring the shaft under the axe head and adding a slight curve to the spine, the axe was pitching downward, like the bird's beak, rather than pick at near right angle to the shaft (Figure 2). The result was more balanced and efficient (Rockwood 2008).

Another case of product inspired from nature is the Motorola i560. It is made alternating hard layers of polycarbonate and soft layers of a rubber like plastic just like the lobster’s tough Figure 3. Motorola i560 (Rockwood 2008)

outer shell is made of hard and soft layers of chitin combined with calcium carbonate (Figure 3). This provides the Motorola i560 with a high standard of durability, shock


and dust resistance, vibration and temperature variation (Rockwood 2008).

One of the most famous samples of product inspired from Biomimicry is the Fast Skin suit designed by Speedo (Figure 4). It’s based on shark scales. It has been observed that the reason for the ability of sharks to swim fast is in the design of their scales that reduce water friction. In this way Speedo designed its suits to help the swimmers swim faster (Speedo 1996).

Figure 4. Fast Skin (Speedo 1996)

Looking for a source of inspiration in nature, the ability of fireflies to emit light was attractive. Also their light effects are very fascinating. This phenomenon is called Bioluminescence. There are many groups of organisms that produce light; the most common are fungi, bacteria, Figure 5. Firefly (Marlene 1978)

jellyfish and fireflies (Figure 5). There are also many kinds of insects, worms, marine micro-organisms and particular types of fish. They produce light as a signalling system and possibly as a defence mechanism (Marlene 1978 : xiii).


Bioluminescence has shapes and light effects that are extremely pleasing to the eye and are very inspiring in visual design. It is also possible to use Bioluminescence as a source of inspiration in the technological way to produce light and in the way to create magical and suggestive atmospheres.

Several designers used Bioluminescence as source of inspiration. Kateřina Smolíková’s Skyphos Chandelier is

Figure 6. Skyphos (Smolíková 2011)

inspired by the shapes and by the light effects of deep sea luminescent organisms (Figure 6). It combines the gracefulness of a jellyfish with a glass structure and LED lighting. Kateřina Smolíková has received the Outstanding Student Design Award for the project (Smolíková 2011).

An example of intriguing project is the Philips Bio-Light (Figure 7). It is an experimental ambient light that uses the Bioluminescence as inspiration for a new way to produce light powered by a biological technology. The concept explores the use of bioluminescent bacteria, which are fed with methane and composted material. Alternatively the cellular light array can be filled with fluorescent proteins that emit different frequencies of light (Koninklijke Philips Electronics 2011).

Figure 7. Philips Bio-Light (Philips 2011)


The British artist and light designer Bruce Munro creates the Experience Longwood Garden (Figure 8). It is an evocative and imaginative field of light. Inspired by the atmosphere that creates the light of the fireflies, Munro placed an installation of optical fibre in the midst of nature to create a suggestive environmental light effect. (Munro 2012)

Figure 8. Field of light (Munro 2012)


4. Relationship between people and light

It has been investigated the relationship between people and lights in order to evaluate different ways of using lighting and how different kinds of light influence the mood. It has been researched about the effects of lighting on people and spaces and also, the role of light in seasonal affective disorders. Light creates the atmosphere for each situation, for example sad, romantic and magical. In addition to the aforementioned, light can also guarantee health, safety and enjoyment affecting our impression of the space. Lighting designers work on the visual quality, aesthetics and the art of lighting using up to date technical knowledge.

Light needs to be designed for each situation. The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) studies light and its effect on people and spaces. IESNA studies says that many lighting designers divide light in layers such as: the light that gives a clear vision enough to guarantee safely; the general lighting or ambient lighting to set a mood; and the visual interest something that adds a touch of magic or something to stimulate the user. Light affects the behaviour of people using the space. Main examples are to help visibility, aid orientation and guide people down a bright path. Brightness can focus attention facing wall luminance is a preference. Lighting can also affect body position (Rae 2000).

Light is often responsible for health disorders. Seasons with total or partial absence of light or in some cases with too much light can cause Seasonal affective disorder (SAD). SAD is a type of depression that tends to occur at the same time each year, usually during the winter. The exact cause of SAD is not fully known, but it is thought to be linked to reduced


exposure to sunlight that usually affects some of the brain's chemicals and hormones. Symptoms of SAD are the following: a change in mood, a lack of interest in life, being less active than normal and sleeping more. It is thought that SAD affects around 2 million

Togetherness 30

1

25

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20

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15

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6

0 1

people in the UK and more than 12 million people across Northern Europe. SAD can

2

3

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6

7

8

9

7

Figure 9. Table 6 Togetherness (Author’s Own Data)

affect people of any age including children.

Magic

The symptoms are most likely to appear in 30

someone aged between 18 and 30 years old (NHS 2012).

1

25

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To find the response of the people to light it has been opted for a practical approach. In

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Figure 10. Table 9 Magic (Author’s Own Data)

this way is has been created a questionnaire to get feedback directly from the users. This questionnaire considers the relationship between emotions and lights and it has a low ethic risk (Appendix III). It is structured in two questions. The first question is about observing nine different lights present on the questionnaire and it asks which sensation is felt for each of the light in question. The second

Safety 30

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0 1

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Figure 11. Table 8 Safety (Author’s Own Data)


question mentions nine words about sensations and the way the light is utilized. It also asks the users to associate each of them to the light considered most appropriate (Appendix I).

The aforementioned questionnaire has been submitted to 26 people. The results of the questionnaire show that the orange and the white lights were chosen from the majority of the people as lights that provide a sensation of togetherness (Figure 9). The white light is also the most chosen for reading, eating and exploring. The pink light is the most chosen for the sensation of magic (Figure 10), the green light is the most chosen for the sensation of safety (Figure 11) and it also represents a very relaxing light (Figure 12) (Appendix II). happy 70 60 50 relaxed

40

excited L1

30

L2

20

L3

10

L4

0

L5 L6 L7 L8 L9

sad

angry

nervous Figure 12. Table 3 Sensations Map (Author’s Own Data)


5. Scenario

To demonstrate the several possibilities to apply the findings, it has been chosen camping as the scenario. Camping represents the perfect scenario that combines outdoor activities, social experiences and different uses of light. Examples of the various uses of light could be gathering around a camp fire, lighting up a path, a safe and magical atmosphere and for exploring nature (Figure 13).

Figure 13. Camping scenario sketch (Author’s Own Picture)

Designing for a camping scenario also involves considering aspects such as portability, flexibility, self-sufficiency and ecology.


6. Conclusion and Outcomes

The final result from the research is a guide line to design an innovative solution of the use of light in outdoor and camping scenarios inspired from Bioluminescence.

The outcome is a family of light sources extracted from a matrix of design opportunities. These devices take inspiration from the camping life and from the experience of the campfire. They suggest aggregation between people and create a safe and a magical atmosphere. The inspiration has been acquired from the soft and organic shapes of Bioluminescence organisms, in particular jellyfish and mushrooms (Figure 14). These shapes also suggest a tactile experience of a soft and ductile material like rubber or silicon.

Figure 14. Sketch shapes bio-inspired (Author’s Own Picture)


It is also possible to use Bioluminescence as technology to produce light. Bioluminescence organisms produce a special protein called Luciferase and if this is combined with oxygen it begins to emit light (Baldwin 1996). This protein can currently be produced in laboratories such as Sigma-Aldrich (Sigma-Aldrich 2012). It can be used to create a glowing liquid in order to emit suggestive light effects and this technology represents an innovative solution of eco-friendly light sources (Fig. 15).

Figure 15. Sketch lightning shapes (Author’s Own Picture)

The life stages of the light are designed as a process that is an active part of the user’s experience. The way to turn on the light represents the first stage. Then it starts and intensifies until it reaches the optimal intensity. As it approaches the final stage it slowly dims until it turns off. The life of light has been depicted with a storyboard called Cave Story where a prehistoric cave man is the protagonist. Cave Story starts by showing a cave man walking to a cave carrying a big piece of meat and some wood. Once he is in the cave he starts to turn on a fire while striking some stone and then he starts to enjoy the fire using it to warm himself up. When the fire starts to increase he uses it to cook his


dinner. In the following scenes we can see the fire slowly diming down while the cave man enjoys his food and relaxes until he falls asleep when the fire turns off (Figure 16).

Figure 16. Sketch Cave Story (Author’s Own Picture)

The self-sufficiency of this technology also represents a key point for the application in outdoor and camping scenarios. These aspects are emphasized by the ability of these devices to be filled up with water directly on the place of use and be emptied after use in order to reduce the weight in aid of the portability. In this way the empty device can also be easily folded and stored in order to guarantee a high standard of flexibility and usability.

In order to use this device it is enough to fill it up with water and add the capsule that dissolving in water releases the bioluminescence protein that makes the water glow in different colours (Figure 17 and Figure 18).


Figure 17. Use of the device (Author’s Own Picture)

Figure 18. Light colours proposal (Author’s Own Picture)


Figure 19. Light proposal shape 1 (Author’s Own Picture)


Figure 20. Light proposal shape 2 (Author’s Own Picture)


Figure 21. Render lighting device proposal 1 (Author’s Own Picture)


Figure 22. Render lighting device proposal 2 (Author’s Own Picture)


7. Reflective Report

The start of this project coincides with the start of my master’s degree in Industrial Product Design. Although this is not my first experience studying abroad, this is my first experience studying at a British University. My first thought is surely for all the people that have been next to me guiding and encouraging me, such as my tutors, my friends and colleagues from university and my friends and relatives that were close even if from distance. When I started this project I didn’t know where exactly it would lead me to. Writing a dissertation in English has been a very challenging experience at times. I started the project by choosing a Research Question. I knew that this decision would affect the path of the entire project, that’s why I chose to orientate it to nature as a source of inspiration. Many times during my studies, I was fascinated by nature and I found it in art and design several times. I feel that nature has a special power, we are part of it and in some way we have to give it back something. In my project while looking for sources of inspiration I was fascinated once again from nature discovering new kinds of beauty and shapes. During these studies I have without a doubt learned to look at the results of the research from a more objective point of view. I have also learned that there are different kinds of data and some are more reliable than others, furthermore some data is irrelevant. A main step is in fact learning how to identify them. To this end, this project has surely amplified my way of thinking in a critical and creative way. The possibilities to compare each other with people that have different nationalities and backgrounds is in fact truly inspiring and fascinating. It was the first time that I have needed to create a questionnaire. I had an intriguing task of taking to various types of


people and discovering different points of view was an extremely valuable experience. When observing the results of the questionnaire, sometimes they were very similar and at other times contrasting which made the project even more fascinating. I am very satisfied about the result of my project in terms of overall work as in the design outcomes that represent an elegant goal in shapes and design. They also represent my progress in all design phases and the improvement of my skills. The end of my project also coincides with the end of this master’s which has been an incredible experience. This is an important goal for me, but also a boost of enthusiasm and a new starting point for my career in design.


8. List of References

Banger, B. (1976) Nature as Designer. London: F. Warne & co.

Benyus, J. (1997) Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature. New York : Morrow

Benyus, J. (2007) The Biomimicry Institute [online] 9 May available from < http://biomimicryinstitute.org/about-us/ > [9 May 2012]

Baldwin, T. O. (1996) Firefly luciferase: the structure is known, but the mystery remains Texas : Current Biology Ltd

Debrie, B. (1974) Design Lessons from Nature New York: Watson â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Guptill Publications

Koninklijke Philips Electronics (2011) Bio-light [online] 20 December available from <http://www.design.philips.com/philips/sites/philipsdesign/about/design/designportfo lio/design_futures/bio_light.page> [20 December 2011]


Marlene, A. (1978) Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence. London : Academic Press

Munro, B. (2012) Field of light [online] 10 June available from < http://www.fieldoflight.co.uk > [10 June 2012]

Neill, W. (1993) By Nature's Design. Pat Murphy and Paul Doherty

NHS (2012) Seasonal affective disorder [online] 25 May available from < http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/seasonal-affectivedisorder/ > [25 May 2012]

Powers, A. (1999) Nature in Design. United Kingdom: Conran Octopus

Rae, M. (2000) IESNA Lighting Handbook New York : Illuminating Engineering Society of North America.

Rockwood, K. (2008) Biomimicry: Nature-Inspired Designs [online] 14 May available from < http://www.fastcompany.com/magazine/129/ > [14 May 2012]


Rosenthal, N. (1993) Winter Blues New York : Guilford Press

Sigma-Aldrich (2012) [online] 23 August available from < http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/ > [23 August 2012]

SmolĂ­kovĂĄ, K. (2011) Skyphos [online] 21 December available from < http://smolikova.freepage.cz/skyphos/ > [21 December 2011]

Speedo (1996) Speedo Fast Skin [online] 25 May available from < http://www.speedo.com > [25 May 2012]


Appendix I Questionnaire: lights and emotions. Question 1: For each of the lights on page 2 circle the emotion that you feel. The middle point on the line is a balanced emotional state. The centre of the diagram shows “none” which represent an indifferent or emotionless mood. L 1:

L 2:

L3:

L 4:

L 5:

L 6:

L 7:

L 8:

L9

Question 2: Associate to each of the following sensations and ways to use the light from page 2 that you consider more appropriate. Sensation of:

Way to use:

togetherness

………. ( eg: L 1 )

adventure

……….

safety

……….

magic

……….

reading

……….

eating

……….

exploring

……….

illuminate a path

……….

signal a location

……….


L 1:

L 2:

L 3:

L 4:

L 5:

L 6:

L 7:

L 8:

L 9:


Appendix II Questionnaire lights and emotions: Results Results data for Question 1: “For each of the lights on page 2 circle the emotion that you feel. The middle point on the line is a balanced emotional state. The centre of the diagram shows “none” which represent an indifferent or emotionless mood.” Each light has been represented by a number preceded by the letter “L” (Eg: L1, L2, etc). For each emotion has been assigned a value of 2. For the middle point has been assigned a value of 1. For each “none” position has been assigned a value of 2 (Table 1). The results from Table 1 has been converted in percentage for each light (Table 2) and then transferred in the graphic (Table 3).

L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9

L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 L6 L7 L8 L9

happy 2 5 5 7 13 12 5 12 9

happy 3,8 11 14 15 28 27 11 26 18

excited 14 3 3 11 21 2 3 10 5

excited 26,9 6,5 8,3 23,9 44,7 4,5 6,7 21,7 10

angry 12 2 2 1 0 0 2 1 0

nervous 14 6 0 2 3 5 10 9 4

sad 0 0 0 5 2 5 6 3 2

relaxed 4 22 22 8 0 14 9 7 16

angry nervous 23 26,9 4,3 0,5 5,5 0 2,2 4,3 0 6,4 0 11,4 4,4 22,2 2,2 19,6 0 8

sad 0 0 0 10,9 4,2 11,4 13,3 6,5 4

relaxed 7,7 47,8 61,1 17,4 0 31,8 20 15,2 32

none 6 8 4 12 8 6 10 4 14

total 52 46 36 46 47 44 45 46 50 Table 1

none total 11,7 100 30,1 100 11,2 100 26,1 100 17 100 13,7 100 22,3 100 8,7 100 28 100 Table 2


happy 70 60 50 40

relaxed

excited L1

30

L2

20

L3 10

L4

0

L5 L6 L7 L8 L9

sad

angry

nervous

Table 3 Results data for Question 2: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Associate to each of the following sensations and ways to use the light from page 2 that you consider more appropriate.â&#x20AC;? For each vote has been assign a value of 1 (Table 4). The value from Table 4 has been converted in percentage (Table 5) than transferred the relatives graphics for each sensation and way to use (From Table 6 to Table 14).

L1: L2: L3: L4: L5: L6: L7: L8: L9:

Togetherness

Adventure

1 5 0 0 5 1 1 8 8

7 4 2 2 3 1 3 4 0

Safety 0 7 4 0 2 4 1 3 5

Magic 1 2 6 11 2 6 5 3 7

Reading 0 0 0 1 2 0 2 1 20

Eating 1 1 3 5 5 0 3 10

Exploring Illuminate a path 0 1 3 4 4 1 3 2 3 5 6 5 2 0 3 9 5

Signal a location 9 3 1 5 1 6 4 Table 4


Togetherness Adventure L1: L2: L3: L4: L5: L6: L7: L8: L9:

3,4 17,2 0 0 17,2 3,4 3,4 27,6 27,6

Safety

26,9 15,4 7,7 7,7 11,5 3,8 11,5 15,4 0

Magic Reading Eating Exploring

0 26,9 15,4

2,3 4,6 14 26 4,6 14 12 7 16

7,7 15,4 3,8 11,5 19,2

0 0 0 4 8 0 8 3 77

3,6 3,6 10,7 0 17,8 17,8 0 10,7 35,7

30

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Magic

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Table 7

Safety

2

3,4 17,2 0 3,4 20,7 13,8 Table 5

30

Table 6

1

Signal a location 31 10,3

Adventure

Togetherness

1

0 10 13 10 10 20 6,7 0 30

Illuminate a path 3,8 15,4 3,8 7,7 19,2 19,2 0 11,5 19,2

7

8

9

Table 8

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Table 9

7


Reading

Eating

100

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80

2

60

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40

4 5

20

6 0 1

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7

40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 1

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Table 10

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Table 11

Exploring

Illuminate a path

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Table 12

Signal a location 35

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Table 14

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Table 13



How to create an innovative solution of light emitting inspired by nature?