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“RiceBran Technologies connects the harvest to the home by transforming rice bran into premium functional ingredients that feed the world.� - Henk Hoogenkamp


Table of contents Introduction......................................................................................................................................... 9

Chapter 1 Rice Bran: Solutions & Expectations..............................................................................17 Chapter 2 Rice Bran: Requirements & Developments...............................................................41 Chapter 3 The Rice Protein Journey.....................................................................................................55 Chapter 4 Rice Protein explained..........................................................................................................71 Chapter 5 Rice Bran: A Natural Food Ingredient..........................................................................87 Chapter 6 Rice Protein: Soy’s Non-Allergic Alternative..............................................................99 Chapter 7 Non-Soy Vegetable Protein Sources..........................................................................105 Chapter 8 Rice Protein in Formulated Meat.................................................................................117


Chapter 9 Rice Bran: A Natural for Meat Formulations.........................................................131 Chapter 10 Building a Better Hybrid Burger....................................................................................155 Chapter 11 Glutenfree & Rice Bran Protein Solutions..............................................................191 Chapter 12 GMO - Food Security & Sustainability......................................................................205 Chapter 13 GMO - For Profit & Humanity......................................................................................233 Chapter 14 The Society Beyond Meat.................................................................................................253 Chapter 15 Food Lifestyle Paradigms...................................................................................................287 Chapter 16 Sarcopenia & Longevity.....................................................................................................307 Chapter 17 Sodium: Friend or Foe?......................................................................................................321

References.......................................................................................................................................339 About the Author.......................................................................................................................343

Appendices.....................................................................................................................................348


Introduction


Introduction

W

hen it comes to protein, consumers have a lot from which to choose. Rice protein is establishing itself as a valuable functional and nutritional cost-effective ingredient in various food formulations. A good protein has a handful of components: stellar nutrition, great flavor, process adaptability, versatility and performance in more ways than one. Protein derived from all-natural rice bran has all that and more. “Global health is the cornerstone of global prosperity. With billions of people adding more animal protein to their diets – meat consumption is expected to double by 2050. It seems clear that arable land for raising livestock won’t be able to keep up.” Bill Gates, March 2013 – www.gatesnotes.com

For the future of food security, and especially in developing countries where people do not get enough protein, it is essential that a shift needs to take place from too heavy reliance on animals as the primary source. By relying less on an inefficient meat protein-delivery system, instead people should utilize the nutritive value of the world’s four major commodity crops –rice, corn, wheat, and soy. In addition, the thousands of other plant proteins in the world can be further explored for use in the production of meat alternatives and these proteins could fundamentally reshape our food supply for the better. 9


to meet world dietary demands in the future but will also be considered by modern consumers as a more important fiber intake than calorie and sodium reduction. Unquestionably, there is a strong consumer trend that achieving recommended daily fiber intake levels is moving to the number one priority. Geographically speaking, this trend started in the US followed by a strong UK demand while presently moving into mainland Europe.

Rice bran and healthy living Beyond its potential applications in the food chain, rice bran has many bioactive extracts and components that show potential in health foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Peer-reviewed studies have signaled that consumption of stabilized rice bran can contribute to maintaining a healthy lifestyle where glucose regulation, inflammation, and cholesterol become important. Rice bran extracts are also being positioned as natural performance-enhancing supplements to create lean muscle mass for explosive sports, such as power lifting. Increased intake of whole grains and bran, in particular, may reduce the incidence of hypertension. Compelling indications show that rice bran and its fractionated extracts or compounds will move beyond the explorative stage within a few years and develop into nutrition-based products that support healthy and active life styles. Arthritis is especially targeted since it is a debilitating disease that affects one in five adult Americans or about 42 million people. By 2020, that number may reach 60 million, and the European Union will not lag far behind. Rice bran extracts and compounds show in vitro inhibitory activities against the key pro-inflammatory enzymes COX and LOX. Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints that can develop into a chronic condition involving swelling, pain, and restricted movement. Osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis may result from a deregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as COX and LOX enzymes. Dietary chemoprevention is another emerging opportunity for rice bran ingredients. There is a growing body of evidence that dietary rice bran exhibits gastrointenstinal cancer control and prevention. Rice bran 30


Rice Bran: Solutions & Expectations contains a number of colon chemopreventive agents that target multiple key hallmarks and metabolic mechanisms in cancer, and dietary intervention strategies with whole rice bran consumption are warranted for enhanced efficacy. The accessibility, affordability, and availability of dietary rice bran support the strong public health impact potential for novel “phytochemical teamwork” based colon cancer control and chemoprevention strategies. (Department of Clinical Sciences, Colorado School of Public Health.) Steep increases in the number of people affected with arthritis will no doubt develop into a global health issue, not to mention the high costs associated with it. Pharmaceuticals that are currently used to lessen the burden of arthritis conditions are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents like ibuprofen and aspirin. However, prolonged use of these overthe-counter drugs can have negative side effects. Rice bran extracts may turn out to show strong promise for safe and effective nutritional aids that help alleviate the symptoms associated with arthritis. There is little doubt that specially formulated lifestyle foods targeting the growing numbers of arthritis sufferers will become an important new category.

Biorefinery or biofractioning Rice bran is an ideal input raw material for a bio-refinery operation utilizing 100 percent output by valorizing its components. As such, a rice bran extraction manufacturing plant –when in full operation– will have zero carbon footprint. Co-products obtained during rice milling and further processing of rice bran offer practical solutions to a wide variety of applications –particularly rice hulls for use outside the scope of food as well as nutraceutical usage. Rice hulls are an obvious by-product of rice milling and have high fiber content. Current and future usage of rice hulls is only limited by the imagination, but in principle shows potential for applications such as: • A source for fuel conversion as inexpensive energy • Natural filtration medium for fruit juices and organic wines • Carrier for animal pharmaceuticals 31


without a carbohydrate preload. These specially engineered rice protein hydrolysates might even evolve into formulated foods for diabetes T2 patients. Unlocking of the health benefits of vegetable protein and ingredients, such as rice protein and micronized rice bran or rice fiber, has resulted in significant growth of conventional and lifestyle foods worldwide. Rice bran protein satisfies the appetite and gives the body protein, phyto compounds, and dietary fiber without sacrificing taste. Rice protein yielding with fast-acting whey protein peptides, branched chain amino acids and rice protein peptides result in satiety while increasing energy and maintaining or building lean muscle mass. Now that soy protein is losing consumer appeal and popularity, it is likely that rice protein will take its place as the most prominent plant protein source.

Consumers are increasingly aware of the potential role of vegetable protein in supporting: • • • • • • • • •

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Heart health (cholesterol reduction) Bone health (increased bone density) Diabetes T2 management Cholesterol lowering effect Cancer prevention (breast, prostate, colon) Performance nutrition (faster muscle recovery) Weight management (satisfying appetite) Sarcopenia (prevention muscle weakening) Hypertension management (sodium reduction)


Rice Bran: Requirements & Developments Bran comparison table Comparison of phytonutrients and antioxidants found in Commercial Stabilized Rice Bran with those of corn bran, oat bran, and wheat bran

Nutrients (Values/100g)

Stabilized Rice Bran

Corn Bran

Oat Bran

Wheat Bran

Calories

330.00

129.00

345.00

102.00

Moisture (g)

6.00

8.88

8.98

12.20

Protein (g)

*14.50

6.50

17.06

14.31

Ash (g)

8.50

2.17

3.08

5.17

Total Carbohydrates (g)

51.00

80.78

63.98

64.14

Total Fat (g)

20.50

2.02

1.33

3.78

Saturated Fat (g)

3.70

0.32

1.33

0.77

Total Dietary Fiber (g)

29.00

70.27

10.60

42.52

Soluble Fiber (g)

4.00

10.93

4.97

3.11

Vitamin A, (IU)

0.00

24.75

12.37

0.00

Vitamin C, (mg)

0.00

0.00

4.29

0.00

Vitamin E, Tocols (mg)

25.61

0.00

0.00

0.00

Thiamin (mg)

2.65

0.10

0.97

0.55

Niacin (mg)

46.87

2.18

1.60

16.49

Riboflavin (mg)

0.28

0.43

0.32

0.49

Pantothenic Acid (mg)

3.98

0.00

0.00

0.00

Vitamin B6 (mg)

3.17

0.00

0.00

0.00

Total Sugars (g)

**8.00

0.50

1.96

2.50

Gamma Ozyzanol (mg)

245.15

0.00

0.00

0.00

Phytosterols (mg)

302.00

ND

ND

ND

Potassium (mg)

1073.00

236.75

655.35

1010.42

Sodium (mg)

8.00

11.43

8.42

7.50

Magnesium (mg)

727.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Calcium (mg)

40.00

13.33

69.58

108.75

Iron (mg)

7.70

1.70

5.29

10.29

Vitamin B Complex

Manganese (mg)

10.60

ND

ND

ND

Phosphorous

1591.00

ND

ND

ND

Inositol (mg)

1496.00

ND

ND

ND

Zinc (mg)

5.50

ND

ND

ND

* Hypoallergenic Protein

** No Lactose

ND: Not Determined

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regions with far less disposable income and significantly different taste preferences is a form of ideological myopia. It is difficult to comprehend why huge amounts of money are spent to promote 100 percent beef patties, when such product purity seems irrelevant for pork, poultry or fish-based foods.

What makes beef patties so special? Fortunately, McDonald’s realized that they would not stop the evolution of healthy, value-priced food choices despite their enormous market share. Now, slowly but surely, vegetable protein-formulated meat products are being introduced system-wide. For example, under the brand name Prosperity, wide selections of specially formulated patties are featured in all of Asia. These products are sold mostly as promotion sandwiches, in which vegetable protein has become a standard choice to optimize formability, nutritive quality, processing efficiency and affordability. While the underlying vegetable protein application philosophy is the same, the formulas are often country-specific. In recent years, textured vegetable protein has found its way into various menu board foods. A word of caution: With textured defatted soy flour as cheap filler, there is always a risk of increasing addition levels that might have a detrimental effect on organoleptic quality. The key is having a solid but flexible infrastructure in place to meet specifications without sacrificing the intrinsic quality that is essential to the brand. Fast food companies now agree that one of the most important dynamics to which they must respond is the need to make available great-tasting, value-priced foods. Hopefully, there will be a continuous dialogue between the franchised fast food and functional protein ingredient manufacturers on a more balanced, harmonized platform so that emerging global issues like demographic changes, health concerns, supply chain management, and renewable resources become intertwined with consumers’ attitudes, preferences, and perceptions. With typical textured defatted soy flour, the question is: Are products based on these ingredients past their prime? Probably yes! The drawback 164


Building a Better Hybrid Burger of negative taste and flavor diffusion in formulated meat products is too formidable to overcome. Affluent customers also have a higher taste expectation, which is probably why the old-fashioned soy products cannot seem to get a strong market following and are often formulated out of the meat products in a growing number of countries. Fortunately, newer extrusion technologies with a deeper knowledge of functional ingredient interactions, can now produce texturized structured fibers and flakes that uniquely simulate lean meat fibers and fibrosity. This new generation of extrusion technology is flexible enough to permit ingredient variety, usually a proprietary blend of soy protein, pea protein, wheat flour, wheat gluten, and rice bran or rice protein. By harmonizing these ingredients, significant flavor, taste and textural improvements can be obtained. These innovative structured proteins extrudates closely mimic meat texture and fibers and –for the first time– can truly replace beef and chicken, generating environmentally sustainable and nutritious foods at major cost savings. These textured protein products elevate product quality and widen application ranges to a whole new level. Manufacturing structured vegetable protein products require knowledge of protein interactions, engineering skills, and a high degree of empirical trial and error determination. Small changes of a single ingredient component can have large effects on product quality. For example, potato flour will not provide protein lamination but will improve fibrosity and texture. The sourcing of soy protein isolate and wheat gluten is especially important since these two key components greatly influence end product properties. Empirically, basic or standard protein quality quite often performs better in structured protein products as compared to highly modified and heavy hydrolyzed versions of soy protein isolates.

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The author


About the author

R

ice Protein & Beyond is written in Hoogenkamp’s unique and eloquent style. Although it is never easy to translate his visionary view of technology into layperson’s language, he has succeeded even beyond the depth and detail of his previous 10 books. Along with Henk’s formidable knowledge of food and meat product development, he brings a willingness to challenge the status quo through his thought-provoking essays, books, and presentations. As a passionate student of integrating food science and technology Henk has long spearheaded the use of new functional protein solutions. His trademark “can-do” spirit, combined with his enduring curiosity about how to best create foods that exceed consumer expectations, has been on display for many years and demonstrated all over the world. One example is regionalizing extrusion platforms for structured vegetable protein ingredients applied in hybrid meat products as well as high protein nutri-bars. Henk’s successes in positioning milk protein, soy protein, and rice protein as a strategic ingredient in processed food and meat products across the globe are proofs of the power of his ideas. The grand vision has clearly turned into reality now that world’s largest food service companies are using vegetable protein solutions to provide wholesome

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I - PRORYZA RICE BRAN PROTEIN & FIBER P-35 A natural and ecologically sustainable plant protein ingredient with a balanced composition of premium porteins, complex carbohydrates and heart-healthy oils. Proryza P-35 is a minimally processed great tasting dispersible hypoallergenic protein with high digestibility and a balanced amino acid profile.

BeneFITS oF pRoRyZa p-35 • • • • • •

Nutritious, balanced amino acid profile and high digestibility. Dispersable and favorable functional properties. Consumer friendly, natural, hypoallergenic, non-GMO. Bland flavor, no off-taste or aroma. Sustainable, low to zero environmental footprint. Origin, exclusively made in the US from California rice.

appLIcaTIonS • • • • • • • •

Beverages Sports nutrition Cereal products Nutritional bars Health and wellness Weight management Fortified meals Supplements

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Proryza P-35 is made from the bran layer and germ of brown rice. The bran layer and germ is rich is natural antioxidants, vitamins and minerals.


Appendices

Protein Quality • Proryza P-35 contains all essential amino acids necessary for growth and muscle maintenance. • Good source of branded amino acids (BCAA), including Leucine, which are important for recovery and muscle synthesis after exercise. • High in Arginine, a rate-limiting amino acid for protein synthesis and stimulant for the synthesis and release of active compounds in the body involved in creatine synthesis and the release of growth hormone.

Product Information

Amino Acid Composition (g/100 g protein)

Composition (Typical Values) Protein (6.25xN dry basis)....... 35% Carbohydrates........................... 45% Dietary Fiber................................3% Sugars.......................................... 11% Fat...................................................8% Ash.................................................7% Moisture..................................... <5% Calories (per 100g).....................390 *Although diligent care has been used to ensure that the information provided herein is accurate, nothing contained herein can be construed to imply any representation or warranty for which we assume legal responsibility, including without limitation any warranties as to the accuracy, curmcy of completeness of this information or of non-infringement of third party intellectual property rights. The content of this appendix is subject to change without further notice, specifit use applications and conditions of use are beyond our control, we make no warranty or representation regarding the results which may be obtained by the user. It shall be the responsibility of the user to determine the suitability of products for the user’s specific purposes and the legal status for the user’s intended use of the product.

Alanine.......................................... 7.4 Arganine....................................... 9.1 Aspartic Acid.............................. 10.0 Cystine........................................... 1.6 Glutamic Acid............................ 15.6 Glycine.......................................... 5.9 Histidine....................................... 2.6 Isoleucine...................................... 3.8 Leucine.......................................... 7.6 Lysine............................................. 4.5 Phenylalanine............................... 4.8 Proline........................................... 5.3 Methionine................................... 1.9 Serine............................................. 5.4 Threonine...................................... 3.9 Tryptophan................................... 1.0 Tyrosine........................................ 3.4 Valine............................................. 6.3

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