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Brophy Journal of Science

Science Innovation and Research Team JANUARY 12TH, 2017

Economic Sabeetage If colony collapse disorder continues to spread, there will be comprehensive economic consequences

A Scientific Look Synthetic Carbon The Zika at Cannabis Fixation Virus

Advancements in the Paralytics’ Movement


ECOLOGY & AGRICULTURE

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) What are the ramifications if the United States agricultural industry fails because of colony collapse disorder? BY ERIC LIN ’19

Colony collapse disorder causes entire colonies of bees to perish, wreaking widespread economic havoc, as bees are responsible for approximately one-third of all crops that humans consume. (Image: Pyro-Energen)

If you’re a worker bee, you’re only concerned with your menial duties: retrieve pollen, feed larvae, build cells, clean cells, repeat. Bees have survived for 120 million years doing just that. You don’t have time to worry about the climate change, new pesticides, infectious agents, or increasing monoculturalism. However, these seemingly minor issues have recently become a major problem for honey bees around the world. Bee populations are rapidly declining, and people need to be made aware of the issue.

phenomenon, under many names, has occurred throughout the history of apiculture, it was officially renamed CCD in 2006 in conjunction with the drastic decrease in western honey bee colonies in North America. While no single cause for CCD has gained widespread acceptance among the scientific community, there are several proposed causes. Many beekeepers agree that : a combination of multiple factors contributes to the ever-growing problem of bee population decline.

In the U.S. alone, since the number of honey-producing colonies peaked in 1950, they have decreased from about 5.5 million colonies to 2.5 million colonies. During the year spanning from April 2015 to April 2016, according to a preliminary survey, beekeepers suffered a 44.1% decrease in total number of honey bee colonies. This is an increase of 3.5% over the 2014 - 2015 study year, which reported a 40.6% loss. Clearly, honey bee colonies have been in rapid decline. This decline is due to a phenomenon called colony collapse disorder (CCD), in which the majority of worker bees in a colony disappear and leave behind the queen, a supply of food, and nurse bees to care for the remaining immature bees. While this

One such factor is the application of chemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fertilizers on agricultural fields. Although the purpose of these chemicals is to promote plant growth and eliminate harmful pests, they can be equally toxic to beneficial insects as to the target species. Specifically, these chemicals have been found to impair honey bee reproduction, eliminate nectar sources, and deplete nesting materials. Systemic insecticides, such as those used in seed coatings, enter the plant’s vascular system and travel all the way to the flowers, which can potentially expose toxins to non-target pollinators. The most prominent systemic insecticides belong to a group called neonicotinoids, which contain

neurotoxins that affect the insect’s central nervous system. According to various studies, effects of neonicotinoids include loss of sense of direction, impaired brain metabolism, and mortality. As recently as 2016, an insecticide targeting Zika-carrying mosquitoes left millions of honey bees dead in South Carolina. Evidently, pesticides are a major, if not the most harmful, factor that contributes to the CCD phenomenon. Pathogens and immunodeficiencies are also plausible causes for CCD. The Varroa destructor, an external parasitic mite, originated in Asia and is now a global threat to agriculture. This parasite feeds on the blood of bees and spreads from hive to hive, destroying colonies within three years. This mite is known to carry bacteria and viral diseases such as deformed wing virus, an RNA virus that affects pupa development. The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is another honeybee pathogen that causes a high mortality rate in foragers, affecting the colony's development and eventually leading to collapse. Along with these deadly pathogens, immunodeficiencies play a role in CCD as well. Exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides have been found to significantly weaken honey bees, causing high mortality and stress. In a recent study, it was found that honey bees exposed to high levels of pesticide residues became infected with Nosema ceranae much earlier than those in low-level pesticide environments. Clearly, various pathogens have a major impact on honey bee colonies’ overall health and cause these colonies to be more susceptible to pesticides as well as other pathogens. continued on page 3…

(Image: Michelle Fone)

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eybee populations have been declining in warmer southern boundaries, a phenomeCCD has been linked to climate non indicative of their ancestral limitations change as well. The most obvious impact of warm thermal tolerances and evolutionary climate change has on bees is its reduction of origins in cool Palearctic conditions. Their their food source, flowering plants. Climate inability to respond to thermal changes unchange has stunted flower development and derscores the idea that bees are susceptible nectar production and in turn affects coloto climate change. nies’ ability to sustain themselves. Extreme A fourth possible cause of colony weather events, which occur as a result of collapse disorder is malnutrition. Nutritional climate change, have been affecting honey stress has been found to be partly responsibee populations as well. In regions that are ble for bee population decline in over 50% of receiving more rainfall, it is difficult for bees cases. Many U.S. beekeepers substitute high to provide food for their colonies because all fructose corn syrup (HFCS) for natural, selfof the pollen is washed away. At the other made honey as a food source for the bees in extreme, in prolonged drought, flower envi- order to maximize profit. Natural honey is ronments begin to dwindle, again making it speculated to have hormonal and enzymatic difficult for honey bees to find food. Based effects that help fight off parasitic threats on ecological modeling and regional analand viruses; HFCS, in contrast, weakens the yses, researchers have also predicted that honey bee’s immune system. Another probthe optimal thermal range for honey bees is lem contributing to malnutrition is many climbing northward. In other words, an inhoney bees’ monoculture diet. As the agricreasing number of environments to the culture industry continues to expand, farmnorth are shifting into a temperature range ers continue to fill vast areas with a single suitable to honey bees; however, environtype of crop. As a result, instead of receiving ments to the south are becoming too warm. food from a healthy variety of sources, they This widening gap is an urgent problem behave a single food source. cause bees have failed to respond to these thermal changes and are “lagging” in their Pesticides, pathogens, climate northern expansion. At the same time, hon- change, and malnutrition are considered the

NEUROSCIENCE & BOTANY

Is Marijuana Dangerous? What does science say about the drug? BY JOESEPH GILLIGAN ’19

four main causes of CCD. However, there are a variety of other factors, including pollution and infiltration by Africanized bees. Loss of genetic diversity due to selective, industrial agriculture has also shown to affect colony health. By using only a few breeder queens to produce queen bees, U.S. beekeepers increase the risk of their colonies inheriting both diseases and susceptibility to diseases. All of these factors contribute to the increasing problem of CCD. Clearly, the drastic decline in honey bee populations caused by colony collapse disorder is a major issue in North America and worldwide. If bees continued to die at the current rates, there would be serious consequences, especially for the world’s agriculture industry. In 2000, in the United States alone, bees accounted for $16.4 billion worth of produce. Approximately onethird of all crops that we eat depend on bees to pollinate them. Bees are essential to the survival of humankind, but as their populations decline and ours continue to grow, there could be catastrophic effects. This is why my science fair partner Hugh Campbell ‘19 and I have decided to research possible solutions to CCD. We intend to publish our findings in the next edition of BJS, so stay tuned!

In addition, for teens and adolescents, dopamine also affects brain function, impacting basic brain function and memory retention. Mothers who smoke marijuana while pregnant negatively affect their child’s brain development in a manner similar to alcohol. Marijuana has also been called a “gateway” to other drugs. This means that although one may not become addicted to marijuana, you have a higher chance of being offered more powerful and addictive drugs like heroin or crack. Another development in recent years has been the fact that the concentration of THC in Marijuana has dramatically spiked, going from 1 percent and 4 percent to 7 percent, leading to more overdoses.

In light of recent votes in Massachusetts, Maine, and California, all of which legalized the use of recreational marijuana, many people are asking: what is marijuana and what does it do to the body? Well, marijuana is a drug derived from the hemp plant Cannacontinued on page 7… bis Sativa. It is commonly smoked or inhaled but is sometimes consumed in baked goods. When smoked, marijuana has effects similar to tobacco, including the introduction of carcinogens into the lungs and irritation through the presence of chemicals like ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. When consuming the hemp plant, a drug called Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is absorbed into the bloodstream, causing ones heart rate to increase by 20-50 beats per minute. This change lasts for around 3 hours and increases susceptibility to heart attacks. When the THC reaches the central nervous system, the brain begins to produce large levels of dopamine. Dopamine is a drug that gives one a serene, happy feeling. Despite how it may feel, this is probably the worst effect because it leads to a plethora of physiological health problems. The feeling of happiness one gets from high levels of dopamine can lead to depression, anxiety, and addiction. No specific ingredient in marijuana has addictive properties, but people become addicted because they get hooked on that giddy feeling. The above image is a photograph of Cannabis Sativa. (Image: Salon Magazine)

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VIROLOGY & PUBLIC HEALTH

Student Researcher Works to Help Solve Zika Crisis Khurana has worked with Zika models and the virus’s genome in hopes of understanding the intricacies of the flavirus. BY ROHIT KHURANA ’19 The Zika Virus is an impending global emergency, with hotspots in Central and South America, and upbringings in MiamiDade County, Florida and American Samoa. First identified 1947 in Uganda in the Rhesus monkey, Zika is a mosquito-borne flavivirus similar to the Dengue virus. People who contract Zika virus experience the following symptoms: mild fever, skin rash, muscle and joint pain, red eyes, malaise, or headache. Although symptoms are relatively mild, if contracted in pregnant women, symptoms extend to the unborn fetus, with birth defects such as impaired cognitive function and microcephaly, a disease that causes unusually small heads in infants. Zika is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito, as well as sexual contact with one who is infected or general contact with an infected body’s fluid. Although a vaccine has not been developed, researchers at the Wyss Institute as well as Arizona State University have devised a reliable paperdiagnostic test that could detect the virus in monkeys. Traces of the Zika Virus are believed to be found in the blood, and thus real time reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (rRT - PCR) is a ready diagnostic test in labs. In addition, Zika virus RNA can be detected in the urine for a longer period of time when compared to most bodily fluids (around 14 days), so this is a main aim for researchers today. Similarly, Cerebrospinal Fluid may be tested for the presence of anti-Zika IgM antibodies by an ELISA test, a procedure that detects levels of antibodies in the blood. However, due to the backlog of people wanting to get tested by the aforementioned mechanisms, in addition to the time it takes for the rRT - PCR cycle to be finished, it usually takes a month for

The above image is a three dimensional model of the Zika virus. (Image: Visual Science)

people to be notified of their results. This has far-reaching consequences, since Zika virus is only detected in bodily fluids for around 14 days. In order to improve on this time limit and create an easy to - get exam, a paper - diagnostic test was created, and it has shown promising results. The test involves a gene editing system found in bacteria known as CRISPR - Cas9, which is able to find and cut out a specific nucleotide sequence in a large genome. Once the sample’s RNA sequence has been identified, it is amplified in a mixture of enzymes and primers, a process known as PCR. A drop is administered on a paper disk comprised of cellular components complementary to Zika protein sequences; if positive, the disk would change color, similar to home pregnancy test. It is a big advancement in the race against Zika, and can help diminish the backlog of people waiting to know if they contracted the virus. Small steps can be taken to reduce the chance of acquiring Zika virus. Some suggestions from the CDC include using bug spray on clothing, and for pregnant women, wearing long pants and a jacket to ensure no part of the skin is exposed to the air. These actions, and many more outlined in the CDC’s guidelines for Zika virus, can drastically reduce Zika’s spread before the release of the paper test.

The above image is a model of the cryo-EM structure of the virus. (Image: RCSB PDB)

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Above is part of a graphic representation, which shows some of Khurana’ s work with the protein blast sequence of the Zika virus (Image: Rohit Khurana)


ATMOSPHERIC & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Combatting Global Warming: Synthetic Carbon Fixation How scientists are using photosynthetic processes as novel approaches in the fight to stop global human-caused climate change. BY ALEX NOORI ’19 At the present moment, one of the major dilemmas facing the entire word is global warming, caused primarily by carbon dioxide buildup that results from the burning of fossil fuels. Yet the issue is by no means unsolvable, as scientists have been attempting to convert carbon dioxide efficiently into more usable forms of carbon. Plants naturally do this through the Calvin cycle, or carbon fixation cycle, in photosynthesis, where light powers the conversion of carbon dioxide into carbohydrates such as glucose, which is carried out through the use of the RuBisCo enzyme. However, the process is relatively slow due both to the rate-limiting Mcd reaction and carbon dioxide’s general non-reactivity. The US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute overcame the slow reaction speed by reverse engineering an alternate reaction pathway for carbon fixation. They synthesized ECR enzyme variants and isolated those with the highest carbon fixation activity as the most active ECRs were capable of fixing carbon nearly 20 times faster than RuBisCo. Ultimately, the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute believes that implementing artificial or genetically modified organisms photosynthesis is a likely future to combat the global climate change problem. To do so, scientists will have to become better at identifying the genes coding for carbon fixing enzymes (such as those for ECR), using DNA synthesis as the means to, in the short run, prevent global warming, and in the long run, solve a great potential of other environmental problems. NEUROSCIENCE & HEALTH

Advancements in the Paralytics’ Movement New technology bypasses broken spinal cord, enables man to walk again. BY KARSON HAWKINS ’19 Due to a diving accident six years ago, Ian Burkhart, a 24-year -old from Ohio, is quadriplegic, meaning he is paralyzed in all four of his limbs. However, a new technology named Neurolife, developed by a group of scientists at an organization called Battelle, has been able to change his paralysis. By implanting a chip into Ian’s brain, scientists have found a way to enable movement in his hands with no assistance from mechanical parts. Neurolife works by bypassing the broken spinal cord. With a chip connecting the brain to a sleeve worn around Ian’s arm, this

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Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Illinois in Chicago recently released a new study, in which researchers used sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into a usable energy source. (Image: Shutterstock)

Meanwhile, at Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Illinois at Chicago, researchers overcame carbon dioxide’s relative non-reactivity by first converting it to the much more unstable carbon monoxide, which can easily be converted into usable fuel such as methanol. Physicist Peter Zapol’s analogy sums this up best: “Making fuel from carbon monoxide means traveling ‘downhill’ energetically, while trying to create it directly from carbon dioxide means needing to go ‘uphill.’ ” To do so, scientists will have to become better at identifying the genes coding for carbon fixing enzymes (such as those for ECR), using DNA synthesis to prevent global warming (in the short tune) and solve other environmental problem (in the long run). The scientists used tungsten diselenide metal flakes as their catalyst rather than an organic enzyme, with the flakes intended to maximize surface area and expose carbon dioxide’s reactive regions. The mechanism, on the contrary, remained much like photosynthesis: an artificial leaf converted photons (light) into electrons and positive-charged “holes” which combined with water to form protons and oxygen; then, the protons, electrons, and carbon dioxide together formed carbon monoxide and water. Overall, the carbon dioxide formed carbon monoxide and oxygen, with the reaction energy-efficient and the metal catalyst able to last over 100 hours. new technology links the brain directly to the muscles and allows a paralytic, solely from thoughts, to control his or her limbs. By interpreting the brain’s neural impulses and translating them to signals that muscles respond to, Neurolife allows movement in previously paralyzed areas. For over a decade, scientists at Battelle gathered data from neural impulses in paralyzed patients’ brains. Four years ago, tests began to be conducted, assessing the feasibility and validity of using such technology on people. The technology was showcased in June of 2014, where Ian demonstrated that he was able to open and close his hand by thinking of it. As time has gone on, he has been able to complete more complex tasks, such as picking up and moving objects. As Dr. Ali Rezai (one of the scientists affiliated with the trials and tests associated with the technology) stated, “We’re showing for the first time that a quadriplegic patient is able to improve his level of motor function and hand movements.” What truly characterizes this study is the progress and improvement in motor skills of paralytics. continued on page 6…


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The first of five scheduled participants in this study, Ian is now doing things like playing Guitar Hero, a video game centralized around motor skills and pressing buttons in rhythm to a song, something amazing for someone who, for years, was paralyzed in his arm. The aim of this project is to spread this technology so that people who previously had very challenged lives can lead more hopeful ones. As Ian stated, “I always did have a certain level of hope, but now I know, first-hand, that there are going to be improvements in This above illustration is an picture of a video feature that shows how the breakthrough science and technology that will make my life better.” technology reads neural signals to help solve paralysis. (Image: Battelle) BROPHY COLLEGE PREPARATORY & THE BROPHY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

Science Innovation Research Team (SIRT) Current SIRT student president Sinha explains what SIRT is and describes its three pillars. BY KRISHNA SINHA ’18 Headed by Ms. Cheryl Lenox, our teacher-mentor, we are a student-run research organization made up of active researchers and journalists. Our goal is to inform the public about cutting edge science research in both the global community and the local community here at Brophy College Preparatory. To create a community of zealous researchers who will work for the greater good, the Science Innovations Research Team (SIRT) model is built on three pillars: Information, Interest, and Integration. Information: The Brophy Journal of Science (BJS) is our biannual publication that seeks to inform Brophy about active research both around and within our school community. The BJS includes articles about Brophy students pursuing research, up-to-date scientific breakthroughs, and interviews with professional researchers who are mentoring our peers. By building an informed student body, we can cultivate an interest in the myriad of scientific disciplines available. Interest: With endless innovation, the scientific research possible for an informed student is limitless. It is important that studen ts develop a passion for the scientific research that they plan to pursue. By helping peers find a passion for a scientific discipline, SIRT spreads a critical interest to investigate the problems facing our world. Integration: After helping in thorough investigation and refinement through peer review, SIRT seeks to bring student researchers of various disciplines together to integrate their finding into a meaningful impact on all levels of the community: local, national, or global. The pervasiveness and size of problems like cancer or global warming will not be solved by one person’s findings or results, but by a group of individuals who have integrated their work for the greater good. I am extremely excited for this upcoming semester and hope that you will consider an active role in science, no matter how big or small. Welcome to SIRT and the BJS! BROPHY COLLEGE PREPARATORY & THE BROPHY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

Possible Research and Volunteer Opportunities for Students Below is a list of interesting ways Brophy students can interact with the science world. BY HAYDEN WELTY ’19 TGen 2017 Summer Internship—“Helios Scholars at TGen offers students hands-on internship opportunities unmatched in the field of biomedical research, under the guidance of mentors who redefine the summer experience. Internships are available in laboratory research, computer science and bioinformatics, mathematics and statistics, and research administration. Applications close on February 10, 2017.” You can go to http://tinyurl.com/hgzllse for more information about the program.

Brother Guy Consolmagno, SJ— As the Director of the Vatican Observatory and the President of the Vatican Observatory Foundation, Brother Consolmagno is a leading Catholic scientist. He has written many books, including Turn Left at Orion, Brother Astronomer, Worlds Apart, Would you Baptize an Extraterrestrial?, and God’s Mechanics. We are lucky to have the chance to see him on Sunday, January 22nd, as he will be speaking at the Saint Francis Xavier Parish at 2:00pm. The address is 4715 North Central Avenue, Phoenix, Arizona. The talk will be in Parish Hall D.

Volunteering at Mayo Clinic— “The purpose of the High School Student Summer Volunteer Program is to provide service to Mayo Clinic employees and ultimately to Mayo Clinic patients. While we do not offer opportunities for clinical exposure or shadowing of hospital staff, volunteers do learn about the health care environment through non-patient and patient interaction service assignments.” Go to http://tinyurl.com/hyp2tl8 for more information about the program. continued on page 7 …

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show that when marijuana is used in tandem with radiation treatment, it can actually increase the affects of radiation on the body. AnMarijuana does have some benefits however. The FDA has other use of marijuana of for treatment of epilepsy , some studies approved 2 cannabinoids, or drugs with chemicals similar to that of have shown a significant decrease of epilepsy in patients with one marijuana. Cannabinoids are actually are chemicals related to THC. study showing that 60% of the patients had no epileptic events while Scientists as well as illegal drug manufactures have already began synon marijuana. thesizing dozens of Cannabinoids. These cannabinoids can have very negative effects, several have been known to be fatal. But the body actually produces its own cannabinoid which helps in regulating pleasure memory, thinking, concentration, awareness for time, appetite, pain and the senses. In medicine, there are two main cannabinoids, THC and CBD. The THC cannabinoid helps increase appetite and reduce nausea. The FDA approved THC for use for these purposes. THC can also reduce pain, swelling, and muscle control problems. The FDA has not approved the use of THC for these purposes yet, however. The second cannabinoid CBD does not affect the mind and behavior like THC does. It is being tested for use against reducing pain, inflammation, controlling seizures, and there is a possibility that is might help treat mental illness and addictions. THC and CBD have also been know to be able to help cancer patients. Studies have shown that extracts from marijuana have been known to kill certain cancer cells. Scientists do not know actually how the marijuana differs cancer cells from normal cells because the healthy cells in the surrounding tissue were not damaged at all. They have also been known to be able to reduce many other types of cancer cells, especially very malignant tumors in the brain. Studies also continued from page 6… Secondary Student Training Program at the University of Iowa— “Students who are currently (academic year 2016-2017) in grades 10 -11 may nominate themselves for the Secondary Student Training Program (SSTP), a five and a half week residential summer research program at The University of Iowa. Students will conduct research in a university research group under the guidance of a faculty mentor. Students will also produce a research poster and paper as a part of the program.” Go to http://www2.education.uiowa.edu/ belinblank/students/summer/Classes.aspx? P=SSTP to find more information on how to apply. Stanford Institutes of Medicine Summer Research Program— “The Stanford Institutes of Medicine Summer Research Program (SIMR) is an eight-week program in which high school students from diverse backgrounds are invited to perform basic research with Stanford faculty, postdoctoral fellows, students and researchers on a medically-oriented project. The goals of the program include increasing interest in biological sciences and medicine in high school students, helping students to understand how scientific research is performed, and increasing diversity of students and researchers in the sciences.”

The above illustration is a graphic representation of the percent of people in each state who have smoked marijuana in the last month. To the right side of the image, there is a list of the ten states, which have the highest percentage of users. (Image: Statista)

Go to http://simr.stanford.edu/ to learn more about the program and application process.

technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). Individual students compete for scholarships and recognition by presenting the reDana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center—”The sults of their original research efforts at ArizoInitiative to Eliminate Cancer Disparities (IECD) na State University, ASU East Campus (7001 E connects across all seven DF/HCC member Williams Field Rd, Mesa, AZ 85207). institutions to advance DF/HCC’s commitment to reducing cancer disparities. The IECD has many facets, but one primary goal — to elimi- Judges will select students from the morning nate racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic dispari- session to compete in an afternoon final ties in cancer prevention, outcomes, and care. round. These students will compete for an opportunity to attend the National JSHS. Judges will select the top five competitors for this Faculty across DF/HCC Research Programs are honor. 1st and 2nd place will compete as Oral conducting original research projects aimed at Presenters at Nationals. 3rd - 5th will attend understanding and devising solutions to disas observers and have an opportunity to share parities in cancer outcomes. These projects their work in a poster session. A 6th place aladdress issues of access to care, access to clinternate will also be selected so that he/she ical trials, information about screening and can attend in case one of the top five cannot preventive behaviors, smoking cessation, and attend.” genetics, all of which are believed to play a role in the excess cancer-related mortality in In order to compete in JSHS, you have to regisminorities and other underserved populater on their website before March 3rd, 2017. tions.” Other important deadlines are on March 10 and March 15. The symposium will take place Visit http://www.dfhcc.harvard.edu/research/ on Friday, March 17th and Saturday, March cancer-disparities/students/cure-eligibility18th. Along with presenting projects, there is and-application for more information. also an opening dinner on the first night and an awards ceremony on the next, which parArizona Junior Science and Humanities Sym- ticipants can attend. To find more information posium— “Arizona Junior Science and Human- about the symposium, go to http://azjshs.org/ ities Symposium is a prestigious scholarship index.php. To register, go to http://azjshs.org/ program for students (Grades 9-12) in science, register.php.

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BROPHY COLLEGE PREPARATORY & THE BROPHY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

Citations for This Edition of the Brophy Journal of Science Below is a list of the sources the BJS staff used to produce the first edition of the journal. A New Leaf: Scientists Turn Carbon Dioxide Back into Fuel. Science Daily, 30 July 2016. Web. 8 Jan. 2017. <https://www.sciencedaily.com/ releases/2016/07/160730154602.htm>. Conte, Y.L.; Navajas, M. (2008). "Climate change: impact on honey bee populations and diseases". Rev Sci Tech off Int Epiz. 27: 499–510. Dennis vanEngelsdorp; Diana Cox-Foster; Maryann Frazier; Nancy Ostiguy; Jerry Hayes (5 January 2006). "Colony Collapse Disorder Preliminary Report" (PDF). Mid-Atlantic Apiculture Research and Extension Consortium (MAAREC) – CCD Working Group. p. 22. Retrieved 2007-0424. Device Allows Paralyzed Man To Swipe Credit Card, Perform Other Movements. Ohio State University, 13 Apr. 2016. Web. 8 Jan. 2017. <https:// wexnermedical.osu.edu/mediaroom/pressreleaselisting/device-allows-paralyzed-man-to-swipe-credit-card-perform-other-movements>. Engineering a More Efficient System for Harnessing Carbon Dioxide. Science Daily, 17 Nov. 2016. Web. 8 Jan. 2017. <https:// www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161117141233.htm>. Genersch, E., C. Yue, I. Fries, J. R. de Miranda (2006). "Detection of Deformed wing virus, a honey bee viral pathogen, in bumble bees (Bombus terrestris and Bombus pascuorum) with wing deformities". Journal of Insect Pathology. 91: 61–63. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2005.10.002 Gunn, Alan; Bowen Walker PL; Martin SJ (1999). "The transmission of deformed wing virus between honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) by the ectopara sitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud". Journal of Invertebrate Pathology.73 (1): 101–106. doi:10.1006/jipa.1998.4807 Hagopian, Joachim. "Death and Extinction of the Bees." Global Research. N.p., 4 Oct. 2016. Web. 2 Nov. 2016. I. C. Chen, J. K. Hill, R. Ohlemüller, D. B. Roy, C. D. Thomas, Rapid range shifts of species associated with high levels of climate warming. Science 333,1024–1026 (2011). doi:10.1126/science.1206432 pmid:21852500 J. Ellis, Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in Honey Bees(ENY-150), UF/IFAS Entomology and Nematology Department (rev. 09/2013). Kenya. United Nations Environment Programme. UNON. Global Honey Bee Colony Disorders and Other Threats to Insect Pollinators. By Stephane Kluser, Neumann Peter, Chauzat Marie-Pierre, and Pettis S. Jeffery. Nairobi: UNON Ser vices Section, 2010. Print. Oldroyd, Benjamin P. (2007). "What's Killing American Honey Bees?". PLoS Biology. 5 (6=): e168.doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050168/ "Pesticide Information Profiles: Imidacloprid Breaz". Extension Toxicology Network. Retrieved April 7, 2012. Quick Test for Zika Effectively Detects Virus in Monkeys. Science Daily, 6 May 2016. Web. 8 Jan. 2017. <https://www.sciencedaily.com/ releases/2016/05/160506132205.htm>. Steinhauer, Nathalie, Karen Rennich, Dewey M. Caron, Keith Delaplane, Juliana Rangel, Robyn Rose, Ramesh Sagili, John Skinner, James T. Wilkes, Michael E. Wilson, Jeff Pettis, and Dennis VanEngelsdorp. Preliminary Results: U.S. Honey Bee Colony Losses 2015-2016. 4 May 2016. Raw data. USDA-ARS Bee Research Laboratory, Beltsville, MD. Tirado, Reyes, Gergely Simon, and Paul Johnston. Bees in Decline: A Review of Factors That Put Pollinators and Agriculture in Europe at Risk. Tech nical Report. Greenpeace Research Laboratories, University of Exeter. Amsterdam: Greenpeace International, 2013. Print. T. S. Romdal, M. B. Araújo, C. Rahbek, Life on a tropical planet: Niche conservatism and the global diversity gradient. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 22,344– 350 (2013). doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2012.00786.x Wu JY, Smart MD, Anelli CM & Sheppard WS (2012). Honey bees (Apis mellifera) reared in brood combs containing high levels of pesticide resi dues exhibit increased susceptibility to Nosema (Microsporidia) infection. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 109: 326- 329.

BROPHY COLLEGE PREPARATORY & THE BROPHY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE

2017 Brophy Journal of Science Staff The following is a list of students who contributed to the first edition. Hayden Welty ’19— Editor-in-Chief, Page Designer & Head of Layout

Eric Lin ’19—Reporter & Researcher

Krishna Sinha ’18—News Editor of BJS & President of SIRT

Joseph Gilligan ’19—Reporter & Researcher

Rohit Khurana ’19—Science Editor

Karson Hawkins ’19—Reporter & Researcher

Alex Noori ’19—Reporter & Researcher

Mrs. Cheryl Lenox—Faculty Advisor

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BJS Winter 2017 Edition