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Dennis’ Sourdough Partners: PA & YJ  5/9/18    

​Question:

​How do leavening agents affect bread?

Hypothesis: 

I think that the flour will help make our sourdough bread rise because it has a fluffy and powdery texture. It’s a great leavening agent that will be consistent  for George’s dad’s sourdough bread. 

   

​ Ingredients:

*½ cup of active sourdough starter   *⅙ cup of water  *½ cup of salt  *1 ½ cup of water  

*2 ¾ cups of all-purpose of bread flour  

Procedure: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Make sure your sourdough culture is active Make the leaven (overnight)  Test that the leaven is ready  Dissolve the salt  Mix the leaven and water  Add the flour  Rest the dough for 30 minutes, or up to 4 hours  Mix in the salt 


● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Begin folding the dough for 2 1/2 hours Let the dough rise undisturbed for 30 to 60 minutes  Prepare 2 bread proofing baskets, colanders, or mixing bowls  Shape the loaves  Transfer to the proofing baskets  Let the dough rise for 3 to 4 hours (or overnight in the fridge)  Heat the oven to 500°F  Transfer the loaves to the Dutch ovens  Score the top of the loaf  Bake the loaves for 20 minutes  Reduce the oven temperature to 450°F and bake another 10 minutes  Remove the lids and continue baking 15 to 25 minutes  Bake another 15 to 25 minutes  Cool the loaves completely 

Nutrients: Flour  Carbohydrates: .25 cups = 3.25 cups 22 grams = Protein: .25 cups = 3.25 cups

.25x = 71.5 x x = 286 grams    .25x = 9.75 

3 grams =

x

Calories: .25 cups = 3.25 cups

x = 39 grams .25x = 325 

100 cal =

x

x = 1,300 calories

Salt   Sodium: .25 teaspoon = .25 teaspoon 590mg

     

   

Results:

=

x

x = 590 milligrams


Before:  


Measurements

Appearance

Smell

1 ½  

moist

wet

5 ½  

powdery

doughy

5 ½  

white

decent


After:            

       

Measurements Appearance 

Smell

Taste

3 ½ in (height)

Light brown

fresh

delicious

7 in (width)

Soft

warm

flavorful

6 ½ in (length)

Fluffy

airy

healthy


YEAST (Control)   Ingredient  

Calculations

Revised Amount

3 Cups   Water 

3/3 = 1 cup    

1 cup

6.5-7.5 Cups All-Purpose  Flour 

7.5/3 = 2.5 cups

2.5 cups

1 Tablespoon   Salt 

1 tbsp = 3 teaspoons/3 = 1 tsp  

1 teaspoon

1.5 Tablespoons   Yeast 

1.5 tbsp = 4.5 teaspoons/3 = 1.5 tsp  

1.5 teaspoons


Height

Width

Length

Before

1 in

4 ½ in  

8 in

Ball  

2 in  

3 ½ in  

4 ½ in

After

2 ½ in

6 ½ in

5 ½ in

   

  Yeast Procedure:   

● Combine all of the ingredients in a large mixing bowl, For first-timers, "lukewarm" means about 105°F.Mix and stir everything together to make  a very sticky, rough dough. If you have a stand mixer, beat at medium  speed with the beater blade for 30 to 60 seconds.  


● Next, you're going to let the dough rise, just let it stay there, covering the bucket with a lid or plastic wrap.  ● Cover the bowl or bucket, and let the dough rise at room temperature for  2 hours. Then refrigerate it for at least 2 hours, or for up to about 7 days.  ● When you're ready to make bread, sprinkle the top of the dough with  flour; this will make it easier to grab a hunk. Grease your hands, and pull  off about 1/4 to 1/3 of the dough. It'll be about the size of a softball, or a  large grapefruit.  ● Plop the sticky dough onto a floured work surface, and round it into a  ball, or a longer log.  ● Place the loaf on a piece of parchment; or onto a lightly greased or  parchment-lined baking sheet. Sift a light coating of flour over the top.  ● Let the loaf warm to room temperature and rise; this should take about  60 minutes or longer.  ● If you're using a baking stone, position it on a middle rack while the oven  preheats. Place a shallow metal or cast iron pan on the lowest oven rack,  and have 1 cup of hot water ready to go. Preheat your oven to 450°F while  the loaf rests.   ● When you're ready to bake, take a sharp knife and slash the bread 2 or 3  times, making a cut about 1/2" deep.  ● Place the bread in the oven and carefully pour the 1 cup hot water into  the shallow pan on the rack beneath.  ● Bake the bread for 25 to 35 minutes.  ● Remove the bread from the oven, and cool it on a rack. Store leftover  bread in a plastic bag at room temperature. 

BAKING SODA (Experimental #1)  Ingredient     3 1/2 cup  all-purpose  flour, plus extra  for dusting   

Calculations     N/A   

Revised Amount


1 teaspoon sugar   1 teaspoon  baking soda 

N/A    N/A   

1 teaspoon salt 

N/A   

1 1/2–2 cups  buttermilk 

  N/A 

 

                 

Height

Width

Length

Before

1 ½ in

7 2/8 in

6 ¼ in

After

3 ½ in

8 in

7 ⅛ in

1 2/8 in

1 ⅛ in

Increase In Vol 2 in     


Baking Soda Procedure 1. Preheat oven to 450 fahrenheit  2. Place flour, sugar, baking soda, and salt into a large bowl and whisk  together.  3. Make a well in the center and pour in most of the buttermilk, leaving  about ¼ cup in the measuring cup. Using a fork, or one hand with your  fingers outstretched like a claw, bring the flour and liquid together,  adding more buttermilk, if necessary. Don’t knead the mixture, or it will  become heavy. The dough should be soft, but not too wet and sticky.  ● When the dough comes together, turn it onto a floured work surface and  bring it together a little more. Pat the dough into a roundabout 1½ inches  thick and cut a deep cross in it. Place on a baking sheet.  ● Bake for 15 minutes. Turn down the heat to 400° and bake for 20-30  minutes more. When done, the loaf will sound slightly hollow when  tapped on the bottom and be golden in color. One way to check if your  bread is done is to use a thermometer. Cook until temperature in center  reaches 195-200 degrees. 

HOMEMADE SOURDOUGH (Experimental #2)


Ingredient

Calculations

Revised Amount

10 cups flour

10/3 = 3 1/3

3 ⅓ cups flour

4 t0 4 ½ cups of water

4/3 | 9/2 * ⅓ = 1 1/2

4/3 to 1 ½ cups of water

3 ½ teaspoons of salt

7/2 * ⅓ = 7/6

¾ cup starter

¾ /3 = 1/4

1 ⅙ teaspoons of salt ¼ cup starter

 

       

Height

Width

Length

Before

2 ½ in

4 in  

5 in  

After

3 in  

7.5 in

6 in


Homemade Sourdough Procedure   ● First you must make the starter for this bread. You mix 1 cup of flour and  ½ cup of water into a bowl after this you cover it with a cheesecloth.  Everyday for a week you take half of the dough and put it in a separate  jar, you then replace the missing dough with another cup of flour and  another ½ cup of water.  ● When you are ready to make the dough you will be baking bring out your  starter, more flour, salt, and water. 


● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●

Take out ¼ cup of starter and put it in a pereate bowl Add 3 ⅓ cups of flour to the bowl  Add 1 ½ cups of water to the bowl  Mix well   Let it rest and ferment for 15- 60 minutes  Add 1 1/16 or a teaspoon of salt  Knead well for 10-15 minutes  Check to see if the dough is kneaded enough by doing a windowpane test   Make the dough into a loaf  Set the oven to 500 degrees for less than an hour  Place your loaf of bread inside of the oven for 1-3 hours at 400 degrees  Ideally your loaf should be 195 degrees when fully cooked 

COMMERCIAL SOURDOUGH (Experimental #3) 

Ingredient    

Calculations

Revised Amount

1/3 cup sourdough  starter   

N/A

N/A

1 scant tablespoon salt 

N/A

N/A

1 - 1 1/2 cup water N/A 

N/A

3 1/3 cup white   flour  

N/A

N/A  

   

Width

Length

Height  

Before  

11

12

1

After  

7

10

1


Commercial Sourdough Procedure​: 1. Mix the sourdough starter, flour, and salt together. Add 1 cup water and then more as needed to make a  moist bread dough.  2. Knead the dough until it passes the “window pane test”  (about 20 minutes): a small piece of dough will stretch  between 4 fingers without breaking thin enough to allow  light to pass through.  3. Shape the dough into a loaf. Place it in a pan, proofing  basket, or on a board. Cover the dough lightly with a  towel and allow the dough to rise for 4-24 hours.  4. Slice an X shape in the top of the loaf with a very sharp  knife or razor blade.  5. Bake at 400°F for 30-60 minutes, depending on the size  of the loaf, until the internal temperature reaches 210°F 


(use a meat thermometer inserted into the bottom or side of the loaf). Cool before slicing.    Conclusion  After a week and a half of baking, the breads we baked turned out  very wonderful. Some had good tastes while others seemed sour.  This is because they were either acidic or basic, based on the pH  scale. As we worked, we had good hypotheses, used biological  leavening agents and chemical leavening agents, such as yeast,  baking soda, flour, etc. and had a great, enjoyable time baking them.  In conclusion, science goes best with baking!     

Come In For A Treat  

Check out this awesome science lab report about baking bread

Come In For A Treat  

Check out this awesome science lab report about baking bread

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