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Editor’s Note Shahla A. Grewal

effects and laser eye surgery. Dear Reader, I am pleased to present to you the second publication of Brock Health! The purpose of this academic publication is to enhance the peer-to-peer educational experience and to inform the student body of current health research. This magazine covers a wide range of topics from public health issues to treating cancer because health care these days is taking more of a multidisciplinary approach. It is through this manner that we can achieve the best health results for the community. We have several great articles in this publication including the feature article by Kristie Newton who writes about the private and public health system in Canada and debunks the myths surrounding the issue and the negative effects of a two tier system. There will be a follow up in the next publication in March 2011, arguing the other side of the two tiered system. Kinesiology major, Brittany Ferren writes about spine health and what students can do to prevent back problems. We also have a new addition to the magazine called ‘Master’s Highlight”, where a student pursuing his Master’s degree at Brock, Ryan Alexander, shares his research experience for those interested in pursuing graduate studies. We also have other interesting articles such as academic doping, students taking Adderall to increase their academic performance without realizing the harmful side


This publication could not have materialized without the numerous people who have worked so hard to bring it to you. Brock Health has many new faces this year with more and more people wanting to get involved. First and foremost I would like to thank Brock Health’s managing editor Phuc Dang, for her very hard work; everything from bringing the crazy editor-in-chief’s ideas down to reality, managing Brock Health’s 20+ members, and ratifying Brock Health as a club. I would also like to thank Brock Health’s ‘everything guy’ Scott Alguire for his amazing work on the cover, layout design and website. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to Brock’s University Student Union (BUSU), especially VPSS Kenneth Truong, for funding this publication for the 2010/2011 academic year and Madelyn Law for her very generous donation to Brock Health. I would also like to thank Dr. Kelli-an Lawrance for her enthusiasm and support for the project and her invaluable advice. Unfortunately Jackie Robb will be leaving Brock, I would like to wish her the best of luck with her new job and thank her for all her help she has given to students.

Brock Health Team Editor-in-Chief Shahla A. Grewal Managing Editor Phuc Dang Layout Design Scott Alguire Editorial Board Yumna Ahmed Nida Ahmed Stephanie Bryenton Brittany Ferren Lindsay Russell Eliza Beckett Kristie Newton Hassan Khalid Singha Chanthantham Steve Demetriades Shirin Pilakka Michael Carrigan Vicky Horner Graduate Editors Gregory McGarr Rebecca MacPherson Lauren McMeekin Whitney Brown Secretaries Chrysta Everett Eliza Beckett Health Seminar Series Stephen Demetriades Shirin Pilakka Photographer Emily Loveday

Volunteers do not necessarily have Webmaster the time; they just have the heart. Scott Alguire ~Elizabeth Andrew Faculty Consultant Kelli-an Lawrance (PhD)

Contents • Laser Vision in Your Future?

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• Master’s highlights

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• Spine Health in Post Secondary Students

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• Mrs. Jackie Bean, Advisor Message

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• To Detox, or Not to Detox

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• Faculty Spotlights

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• Oh Canada, the True North Strong and... Overpriced?

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• Alzheimers Prevention: Vrai ou Faux?

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• Academic Doping Drug of Choice: Adderall

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• Having Trouble Catching Zzz’s Lately?

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• Anti-diabetic Drug Metformin at the Forefront of Ther-

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apeutic Cancer Research • Sickly Sweet... The truth behind artificial sweetners

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• Cut out the Take-out How to Eat Healthy on a Student

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Budget • Catharsis: Letting it out

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• John Hay PhD - Professor Research

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• Hot Headlines!

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• References

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• Brock Health Team

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November 2010 - Issue 2


Laser Vision In Your Future? Singha Chanthanatham

As fascinating as it would be for me to be talking about the ability to shoot a laser out of one’s eyes, this article actually discusses the increasingly popular laser eye treatment procedure many people consider as a form of permanent vision correction. Actually, the procedure involves the lasers directly aimed into the impaired eyes to correct the shape of its cornea, usually by vapourizing the tissue with ultraviolet light1. Gradually, this helps bring the operated eye to a prime state of vision, or even better. Many questions cloud the decision-making process for the treatment, like the uncertainty about the safety and effectiveness as well as the longevity of the results. Another setback is that it can only treat mild to moderate cases of erratic corneal shapes, so those with a severe case may still be out of luck.

rections even more precise1. Once reshaped, the opened flap is replaced and allowed to heal. The whole process is very short, taking approximately 10 minutes for both eyes. Depending on the procedure performed, the postoperative eye can take anywhere from one day to two weeks to heal. The chances of complications are very rare, but there have been occurrences of post-operative corneal flap dislocations. One man was struck nine years after his surgery by the paw (Photo credit: Olivier of a dog. His flap became folded and It Voisin/ ultimately falls into the reneeded to be surgically removed; a sponsibility of the individual looking bandage contact lens was then applied to improve their vision for the greater with topical medication. His vision good… of his/her eyes. returned to normal with no complications as well2. So, while there is a potential for the corneal flap to become If you would like to dislodged, this obstacle can be fixed know more informarelatively easily. tion and more about the risks of Laser eye In terms of efficacy, one study treatments, visit Health found that using iris recognition softCanada’s website for ware in the LASIK machine improved a quick fact page and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity links to Canada’s Ophin the patient, and lowered the amount thalmological Society of errors. Patients were given a proceand Medical Associations dure using the software in one eye and Journal. no software in the other. Overall, the results showed that the group with the software had better results than the control group3. While this improves the chances that the surgery will be more accurate and successful, there are still risks that arise from any surgery.

There are two commonly found types of laser treatments in Canada, PRK (Photo Refractive Keractectomy) and LASIK (Laser Assisted in situ Keratomileusis). There are also variation procedures called LASEK and Epi-LASIK. The varying differences, in these otherwise similar procedures, account for the types of equipment used to remove the corneal flap, accuracy of tissue removal and efficiency of healing. The common concepts with all procedures are, first, that a thin layer of the cornea is temporarily lifted to expose the tissue to be reshaped. Thus, with new software comes great responsibility. Ensuring Secondly, a computer guides all questions that need to be asked are the Excimer laser to remove small, asked and answered will only help in sometimes specific, amounts of cor- avoiding complications and improvneal tissue to correct the vision. To ing the likelihood of satisfaction. increase the accuracy, surgeons sometimes use Wavefront technology to map the eye in order to make the cor3

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Master’s Highlight how motor proficiency influences this relationship. “When manipulating data, you are the only person in the world who is discovering new knowledge at that moment.” Ryan highlights the fact that pursuing graduate studies allows you to take learning into your own hands and steer research into areas of personal interest. Ryan Alexander graduated in 2009 with a Bachelor of Arts in Community Health and a minor in the French language. He continued his studies by pursuing a Master of Science in Applied Health Sciences. His involvement in extracurricular activities such as the PHAST study and SNAP was what made him realize that graduate studies were best suited for him.

He also encourages anyone considering a Master’s to contact potential supervisors so that there is an open line of communication, as this can often influence your success as a graduate student.

Ryan’s next step in his career is to continue applying his research and practical skills within the area of health promotion. He is currently employed in the division of Chronic Dis He began noticing that both ease and Injury Prevention at Niagara his physical activity levels and his Region Public Health. marks were improving and this peaked his interest in researching the When Ryan isn’t busy workrelationship between these factors in ing on his research project and parta 3rd year project. Ryan explains that time position, he enjoys playing flag “every course counts,” which is truly football and cheering on his #1 team, evident since this project set the stage Go HABS Go! for his Master’s research investigating

November 2010 - Issue 2

HOT HEADLINES! “Mice robbed of darkness fatten up; time of day can affect calories’ impact” by Janet Raloff – summarized by Shirin Pilakka A new study indicates that when it comes to weight management, the timing of dining is pivotal-at least in rodents. Mice whose environments were lightly illuminated during nighttime encouraged them to eat about half their meals compared to those which ordinarily ate about two-thirds of their food during their active nighttime activities. Since mice normally play and forage at night, those whose environments were illuminated were unprepared to efficiently burn the incoming calories. Consequently, they gained more weight and had bigger adipose (fat) pad sites as sampled by the researchers, suggesting that the increased body mass reflected increases in white adipose tissue. While the authors of the study point out that rodent’s circadian rhythms may not be relevant to humans, they maintain that when eating during naturally dark periods, the food might encounter a sleepy metabolic system. A slow metabolic system may leave some calories unburned and then store the residual as fat. When you eat is as important as what you eat.


Spine Health

In Post-Secondary Students Brittany Ferren

Statistics Canada acknowledges back pain as one of the most common chronic conditions in Canada, stating that four out of five adults will experience back pain in their lifetime.6 In 1990 alone, direct medical costs for low back pain were greater than $24 billion!5 The American College Health Association found that back pain was the most frequent health problem experienced by college students, accounting for 47% of 42,879 students surveyed that year.2 In a recent study done by Gilkey and colleagues (2010), 91% of the college students studied reported themselves in good health or better but 38% of them still reported having back pain in the last school year. Out of those 38%, only 19% sought any medical attention. From these facts, it’s obvious that back pain is a significant problem, but what specifically causes back pain? How can it be prevented and/or treated?


What is at the root of all this back pain? As university students, we spend most of our time in class or sitting and doing homework. Sitting for long periods of time flattens out the lumbar portion (low back) of your back; which puts more stress on your spine.4 It has been found that height and body weight (overweight), poor posture, as well as weak abdominal muscles can also cause flattening of the lumbar spine and increase your risk of developing chronic low back pain.7 In particular, slumped posture was found to be detrimental to spinal alignment and respiratory function by compressing the organs and impeding diaphragm movement.3 Surprisingly, psychological factors can also cause back pain. These factors can include: psychosocial characteristics (social anxiety), emotional stress, and feeling hopeless, overwhelmed, exhausted, very sad, and depressed.2 It seems like most – if not all – of these factors explain exactly how most university students feel at one point or another. Society dictates most of these psychological factors to be what is ‘expected’ of university students. What can be done to prevent/ treat back pain? If you are sitting down for long periods of time, try to get up and stretch your legs for at least a minute every half hour. When you are sitting, it is important to distribute your weight as much as possible. Use your legs as support and, use a chair where the back rest slopes forward while working at a desk, and one that slopes backward while in lecture.5 Be conscious of your posture at all times, try to pack your bag as light as possible and try to avoid using non-traditional backpacks (tote bags, purses, etc.). Don’t get too stressed out; there are counsellors, therapists,

and doctors all available right in the university, so find help if you’re not feeling like yourself. All of these preventative techniques will help, but what if you are still having back pain? Heat always feels good on sore backs, but it doesn’t help in the long-run. Ice the affected area for 15 minutes on/15 minutes off. It will decrease inflammation as well as help the repair process. For more severe back pain, you can go to a massage therapist and/or a chiropractor. Your student health plan even covers some/all of the costs!

Five Ways to Pass! CHSC 3P19 according to Vicky 1. Read and re-read your text! 2. Don’t fall behind or else your 3 exams will creep up fast! 3. Start ahead on your presentation & ask for clarification on any questions you may have 4. Find a study partner; sharing your expertise on your presentation topic is useful 5. Pull out important tables of different drug functions and properties, put them up around your study area and/ or agenda so even when you have a few minutes, you can glance at them (it can become a lot to memorize all at once!)

Chiropractic Myths – Answered by Dr. Pat Maddalena, HKin, Chiropractor Myth 1 - Spinal adjustments hurt

• 85-90% of adjustments feel good because it restores motion in the joints, relaxes muscles, and releases endorphins

Myth 2 - Spinal adjustments are dangerous

• Any kind of physical treatment has its risks, but that’s the reason why chiropractors go through and continue to go through such extensive training throughout their careers

Myth 3 - Adjustments only treat back pain

• Most chiropractors are trained to treat any musculoskeletal problems; many chiropractors train to treat all types of athletes

Myth 4 - Adjustments are expensive

• Many practices will have student pricing, and on average, physiotherapist visits are 25% more expensive than a regular chiropractic treatment

Myth 5 - An adjustment isn’t an instant fix

• It depends on the severity and condition of the issue(s). If you come in for an adjustment in pain, it will most likely be relieved by the end of the visit. As a preventative measure, you visityour dentist multiple times a year even when there’s nothing wrong. A chiropractor should be thought of in the same sense. Maintaining spine health is always important and chiropractics is a preventative AND treatment measure for back painsame sense. Maintaining spine health is always important and chiropractics is a preventative AND treatment measure for back pain

Mrs. Jackie Bean Advisor, Goodbye Message

Phuc Dang and Vicky Horner

Although Jackie has been a CHSC academic advisor for a short time, her enthusiasm and dedication has certainly impacted many students. Whether you have a question about course selection, career paths, or you just need to sort through some everyday stresses that come with a student lifestyle, you could count on a quick response to your email. Jackie is a shining example of how involvement in Brock can steer you into your career, often without even realizing it. During her undergraduate degree in Community Health, she was involved November 2010 - Issue 2

in activities such as the inaugural Community Connections team, Smart Start, Student Development Centre, and the Non-Academic Discipline Panel to name a few. After graduating, and working with Canada Border Services Agency for nearly a year, she couldn’t resist the offer to pursue the job opportunity she’d always wanted. “Advising has allowed me to do a little bit of everything”, Jackie explains (which is something many of us hope for in a job!). Her experience has helped her confirm that working within student affairs is a passion she will continue to pursue at Lakehead University.

During her two years in this position, she emphasizes how exciting it has been to interact with students, see them grow and help them succeed in any way possible. “I’m really going to miss everyone. This has been the best two years. I wish you all the best!”


To Detox or Not to Detox? Yumna Ahmed Lose seven pounds in a week, rejuvenate your body, and maximize health benefits. Sound familiar? These phrases are heard time and again by North Americans and are associated with an increasingly popular trend known as detoxification. Detoxification is defined as “the process of eliminating the build-up of wastes and toxins from the body, often accomplished with fasting, adhering to specific diets, colon therapy, vitamin therapy, chelation therapy, and hyperthermia”1 All detoxification plans claim to flush toxins from the body but what is the rationale behind detoxification?

Benefits of detoxification diets are more related to changes in individual’s habits rather than physical benefits. These diets encourage healthy eating, drinking more water and encourage people to think about the food they are consuming.3 Yet the true question is still evident, do detox programs work? According to Dr. Crowe, although individuals feel better after a detox diet, this effect has little to do with the elimination of toxins.3 An individual who begins to eat healthier by drinking less alcohol and caffeine, drinking more water etc. will feel better. This is an important outcome as one’s mindset leads to im Detoxification is not a new proved feelings of health and higher concept, and the reasoning “behind energy levels.3 these cleanses is as old as human history”.2 Due to the promises of Further, the restrictive naweight loss and improved health de- ture of detoxification diets resulting toxification has grown in popularity. in a lower calorie intake leads to deDr. Crowe writes that industries are creased bloating, headaches, lethargy, claiming the body’s toxins are present and weight loss. 3 However restricting due to poor diet, alcohol, food addi- ones diet through detoxification can tives, caffeine as well as pollution. 3 result in dehydration, dizziness and However according to Berg “natural malnutrition. As for losing weight, chemicals in our foods are thousands Elisabetta Politi, a nutrition director of times more potent than additives”. of the Duke Diet & Fitness Center 4 Despite several discrepancies in the notes that “fasting slows the metaboscientific literature many choose to lism, which makes it a poor method of follow a detox program. long-term weight loss”.2 Cordaro, a medical officer with the Food and Drug Administration speaks against detoxification and states “the whole concept is irrational and unscientific”4. Healthy foods contain toxins and our bodies have developed a system to neutralize and clear these toxins out. When comparing the body’s natural method for eliminating toxins to detox little evidence indicates that a detox diet is more beneficial. 7

It seems a short term detox diet results in fewer health risks. Severe fasting diets and detox pills are not safe forms of weight loss as they result in nutrient deficiencies and should not be followed for a long time. The consequences of living an unhealthy life cannot be reversed in a few days. In summary, the key to feeling healthier and energized is to reduce the amount of negative items in one’s lifestyle and diet, and not detox diets.3

5 Ways to Pass CHSC 2F95 According to Brittany 1) Keep up-to-date with textbook readings; it is an amazing textbook that can be used for many other courses as well

2) Attend every lab: the body part models are the best way to assist in learning the course material

3) There is too much information to study sometimes: ask your TA for help and guidance on how to use your time most efficiently and focus on the right information

4) Review course material at least once a week; the exam will be far too difficult if you try to leave all of the studying and memorization to the last minute


Pick a topic that you are truly

interested in for your lab presentation; your fellow peers and TA will be more interested if you seem really into the topic and completing the assignment will be easier for you as well


PhD, Chair of Community Health Sciences Phuc Dang and Vicky Horner associated with this health issue, as well For the past seven years, Dr. as examining other factors such as nutriTerry Wade’s expertise in sociology has continuously broadened the scope of health studies offered at Brock. As the chair of the CHSC department, which greatly emphasizes the interdisciplinary aspect of health, Dr. Wade’s area of interest highlights the effects of social disadvantages on health status. “Good health is the ability to live the way you want without constraints,” which reiterates the value of researching the reasons why certain groups face certain social disadvantages that others do not.

Alongside colleagues within the CHSC faculty, one of his current projects investigates the relationship between obesity, blood pressure, and childhood hypertension. Dr. Wade’s involvement in this study will integrate his perspective on how the social structure of society is

tion and physical activity.

Mental health, in particular, is an area of research that Dr. Wade continues to explore. His background includes studies in deviance and delinquency as well as adolescence substance abuse and addiction. “As stress increases, mental issues do as well,” again marking the necessity of examining the impact social stresses can have on one’s health. Dr. Wade was quick to clarify that health is not merely the absence of disease, and encourages us to define our own health within the context of our lives. He explains that the definition of ‘being healthy’ is different for all people depending upon the various stages and social issues that are present in their lives.

Regarding the importance of studying health, he adds: “It [health] plays such a central role in people’s lives and most people take it for granted until they don’t have it, we can only prevent disease by knowing what promotes and deteriorates health status.” “Enjoy your time at University but keep in mind why you’re here. Some days are more enjoyable than others, but in the end it is extremely rewarding.” Keep your eyes on the prize and stay healthy Brock!

Madelyn Law BSM, MA, PhD (abd) Phuc Dang and Vicky Horner When Madelyn Law first joined the Brock teaching community in 2002, she began her instructional career in the PEKN department. Her current pursuit of a PhD in health administration, with emphasis in areas such as patient safety and organizational structure, greatly aligns her expertise with the research interests of the CHSC department. Along with a number of CHSC faculty members, Madelyn had an integral role in developing the Bachelor of Public Health program, which is the first of its kind November 2010 - Issue 2

in Canada. It is intended that students pursuing this degree will earn credentials that are more widely recognized, ultimately leading to new career paths. Most recently, in collaboration with Dr. Faught, they developed and implemented the “Supercourse,” which is an exciting opportunity for students to earn a CHSC 1F90 credit during the summer in only two weeks!

In addition to emphasizing the relevance of health studies to any profession, Madelyn offers the following advice to all students: “find your balance, but be 100% engaged in whatever you choose to do!”

Madelyn believes that ‘being healthy’ is maintaining a balance amongst all of life’s stressors. She credits self-reflection as her means of managing the demands of her personal and professional responsibilities.

Madelyn’s ongoing research in the field of health administration is reflected in her teaching style that equally emphasizes teamwork, collaboration, and community engagement. Interestingly, Brock Health share those same values! 8

Oh Canada, the True North Strong and...Overpriced?

A look at the possible privatization of Canada’s Health Care System and its effects on us as Canadians.


“ Canada, the true north strong and free”. These well known words ring true with many Canadians who are very grateful for all the freedoms we have in our beautiful country. However, what would happen if one of our biggest freedoms, our healthcare coverage, was not free anymore?

This universal coverage means that every Canadian is able to receive most medical care without the burden of high costs. In 2010, 80% of Canadians had used the healthcare system and reported being very happy with it2. So, if most Canadians are satisfied with We as Canadians enjoy healthcare Medicare and see room for only a that covers the majority of our needs few changes, why are some people (around 70% of all expenditures 2) set on the idea of privatizing our including immunizations, annual system? checkups, medically necessary surgeries, and cancer treatments, to Privatization already exists in name a few. Also, around 91% of both Alberta and Quebec in the hospital expenditures and 99% of form of private clinics and specialall physicians are covered by the ists at places like the CréMed Clinic public sector. Dental and eye care, which offers annual checkups, pap along with physiotherapy make up exams, and other medical procethe majority of the private spending dures that they can smother past the in Canada1. anti-privatization laws in Canada.

Kristie Newton Introducing a two-tier system into Canada, or the same sort of system as the US, would mean people with the financial resources would be able to pay for their medical care and ideally, those who could not afford it, could take advantage of the public sector. At first glance this seems like a perfect solution, right? Introduce a system that allows both private and public care to Canadian citizens. This, in reality, would be one of the worst decisions ever implemented by Canadians. Why? Because even though the idea of two-tier healthcare looks great on paper it does not function in real life. The perfect example of private healthcare failure can be seen in the United States. People all over the world know Canada for its healthcare system and we are always comparing it to the private system in the United States. There are some pretty common myths created by supporters of an American style system. So let’s see how that two tier system stacks up to ours and who, in the end, is actually better off. Myth number one surrounds the idea of cost7. Supporters of privatization argue that by implementing a two-tier system it will cut down the cost of Medicare for all Canadians; this is far from true. Medicare in Canada is funded through taxes paid by the citizens. In the US, even though anyone who wants coverage must pay private insurance compa-


nies anyway, some of the healthcare costs are also covered by taxes. In Canada per-capita spending for healthcare was around $3,600, while in the US it sat around $6,700. In terms of GDP, this means Canada spent 10.0% while the US spent around 15.0% 3. Now it may be argued that 15% of the State’s GDP is not a huge amount but how is it Canada can provide completely free healthcare services to its citizens with a 10% cut and every American still has to pay ridiculous premiums for any sort of coverage? The US has a GDP of around 14 trillion dollars, so where is this 2 trillion3 going in their healthcare system and why is no one benefiting from it? Canada manages to run almost all of their public system on 200 billion3. Clearly privatization is not the costs present in the United States6. cheaper option for the country at all. In the American private system, The second myth that seems to 48 million citizens have absolutely surround the idea of private health no medical coverage because they care is the lower individual cost cannot afford it, 167,000 Ameriit provides7. This implies that by can’s filed for bankruptcy last year privatizing healthcare in Canada all because they had no insurance and citizens would pay less than they 525,000 filed because they could do now, and that the private sec- not afford the costs of their medical tor would cover some of the public care even after paying for their prisectors costs. The major questions vate insurance7. So it’s safe to say that fuel this belief are “what if you individual cost is not reduced in a don’t get sick? Why pay for every- private sector and since so many inone else’s problems?” This is simple dividuals cannot afford to pay prito answer; what if you do get sick? vately for their care, the private sector would not be covering any of the Other than dentistry, optometry, public sector’s costs. and physiotherapy costs (which are often partially covered by company The third major myth that surbenefits4), the average Canadian rounds a two-tier system is the respends absolutely nothing for their duction of wait times7. Many private coverage out of their own pockets. system supporters argue that by inThis means when we get sick we can troducing a private sector into Canget to the ER, see a doctor, get an ada and “eliminating” those who IV, receive pain killers, stay a night wish to pay for their care, the wait in a hospital and receive a follow up times for those in the public sector visit for $0; this is not the case in the would be drastically reduced. This states. First of all, in Canada, EV- idea is the worst out of them all. It ERY citizen has coverage despite is true that if we could completely their financial situation. Also, Ca- eliminate those who wanted to pay nadian’s do not pay the deductibles, for care the wait times would most co-payments, or other fees that are likely decrease, however this cannot present on top of monthly coverage be done. If people who are paying November 2010 - Issue 2

for their care leave the public lines so do some of the public doctors. This leaves the same doctor to patient ratio in the public system; not solving any problems. Furthermore, because people with the financial resources will be paying for things like hip replacements and heart surgeries and most likely still want coverage for immunizations and doctor visits, this could increase wait times with a smaller number of doctors5. Canada’s healthcare service is far from perfect, but a two tier private/ public system is not the answer. By introducing a private sector, national and individual costs will skyrocket and wait times will not be reduced. Canada is a fantastic country, defined partially by its amazing medical system, and removing this will destroy the health equality among Canadian’s that we have worked so hard to achieve. We need to be proud to be Canadian and instead of trying to change what we have we need to invest our energy into perfecting an already amazing system.


Alzheimers Prevention: Vrai ou Faux? Shahla A. Grewal In light of the ever-aging baby boomer generation, there is more and more fear and hype brewing with regards to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many families are facing heartbreaking challenges as their loved ones are diagnosed with AD, a disease which inevitably annihilates the very self. As a result many are searching for ways to prevent, if not eliminate this disease. People begin believing claims that herbal medicine like Ginkgo Biloba will prevent AD (for the record there is no association to decreasing risk of AD, neither helps nor harms2). However, a cure seems a bit out of reach at the moment, so as of late the focus has been on prevention. First, a little background on AD; there are two major types, familial (genetic) which accounts for 15-20% and sporadic cases, which account for the other 80%2. There is no single “cause” of Alzheimer’s, but instead an accumulation of risks that eventually surpass a threshold and start killing off neurons in the brain2. It is important to note that there are many other forms of dementia as well. Dr. Brian Jeynes from Brock University, whose primary research is AD, believes that the main cause of AD is a dysfunctional blood brain barrier leading to an increased build up of amyloid. He suggests that any future medication should involve allowing more amyloid to get out of the brain. Though currently we do not know the exact function of amyloid however it is clear that it plays a major role in progression of AD.

NIH released a report for prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive decline. The panel reviewed the literature (25 systematic reviews, 250 primary research studies, and 6907 citations) with the aim to determine what prevents AD. The report summarizes the panel’s review of the scientific literature by saying that, “firm conclusions cannot be drawn about the association of modifiable risk factors with cognitive decline or Alzheimer’s disease.”2 However the report did mention a few factors showing an association for AD. Associated with an increased risk for developing AD were things like diabetes, APOE e4 (apolipoprotein E - contains the instructions needed to make a protein that helps carry cholesterol in the bloodstream), smoking and depression. A decreased risk was associated with a Mediterranean style diet, cognitive engagement and physical activity2. Delving deeper into the nutritional aspect, a study led by Scarmeas et al (2006), concluded that people who ate a Mediterranean style diet rich in fruits, vegetables, fish and unsaturated fat were 40% less likely to develop AD than their peers.1 Based on the evidence presented in the systemic review by the NIH panel, it would benefit to engage in more cognitive training (more structured training rather than puzzles) and to consume things like Ginkgo Biloba and vitamin C and E only to encourage overall health as they do nothing to prevent progression of AD specifically2.

So to answer if Alzheimer’s prevention is true or false, the answer In April 2010, an independent is both right and wrong, as the review expert panel organized by the panel stated that there are no hard and 11

fast conclusions about modifiable risk factors however the actions we take still matter (engaging in cognitive training and eating a ‘Mediterranean style diet’. Dr. Jeynes is also in agreement with current research and suggests that some things that students can do to reduce the risk of developing AD would be to stay physically and mentally active, eat a healthy diet, reduce stress and hope that you have “good” genes. There is a lot of information floating around about Alzheimer’s prevention, such that it can be prevented if one starts early enough so the risk can be delayed or eliminated. However, as mentioned by the panel review it is largely false, There is a silver lining in that there are a few things we can do to better protect ourselves as mentioned in the article. I am not one to be pessimistic so I do hope, despite current research, that we learn more about this disease and how it can be better dealt with in the near future. So with that I leave you with the following quote “Many of the great achievements of the world were accomplished by tired and discouraged men/women who kept on working.” - Unknown

Academic Doping

Drug of choice: Adderall Hassaan Khalid

Almost everyone these days is looking for a quick fix, everything from weight loss pills to pills for feeling good after a ‘bad day’. Also, it doesn’t help that competition amongts students is increasing, leading to some students quite frequently looking for ways to get one over their fellow classmate

Some ambitious students (making up to about 25% of the undergraduate student population at some North American Universities1) are now resorting to pharmaceutical help to boost their GPA’s and party even harder in the face of good study habits and regular attendance at lectures failing to give them any real edge over their just-as-smart classmates. Their drug of choice is Adderall. This drug is used to treat people with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) characterized by extremely short attention spans alternated by compulsive hyperactivity2. But is this drug use really worth it?

ifestation of abusing this drug is the supplement. development of a schizophrenia-like Five Ways to Pass! psychosis3. Indeed doctors have obMATH 1F92 served that Adderall can induce such by Chrysta Everett schizophrenia-like in some users with as little as four weeks of use5. Re1) Work in groups and comcently, a 20 year old man was brought pare answers while working into St. Joseph Medical Centre, NY on assignments for suffering a heart attack when he mixed alcohol with non-prescribed 2) Go to the math help cenAdderall4. Other risks include sudden tre when working on assigndeath, stroke, coma (if taken within ments or studying weeks of taking anti-depressants)3 and high blood pressure6. 3) Use old assignments and tests for practice questions Students are taking on these the exams usually have risks because Adderall, due to its similar questions mechanism of action on neurotransmitters, intensifies concentration 4) Go to lectures! Examples and promotes wakefulness4. If that’s done in class are much mostly what Adderall has in stock for easier to understand than in us students to help us with our studthe textbook ies along with side effects such as headache, stomach ache, insomnia, 5) If you don’t understand decreased appetite, nervousness and the material, don’t be dizziness3, we have to ask ourselves scared to ask for help! :) if taking this drug is really worth it. Afterall, what good is wakefulness when it’s accompanied by a headache and dizziness? Interestingly, in one study of adderall users, 75% of the students said the drug did not really help them get better grades so they discontinued its use5.

Adderall is classified as a controlled substance belonging to the amphetamine class of psychostimulants3. It works by increasing the concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine in the extraneural space in the brain by blocking their reuptake into the presynaptic neurons3. It is classified as a controlled substance because it can cause extreme psychological dependence and has serious withdrawal symptoms like extreme fatigue, depression, serious insomnia, and hyperactivity. The most significant man-

In the quest for perfection, today’s students find it increasingly hard to resist the urge to rely on pharmaceutical help to do better in school. But only a little research elucidates the fact that this drug does not necessarily guarantee higher grades. Not only that, but it carries several serious risks associated with prolonged use that can have major, long term impacts on ones health. I don’t know about you, but I would rather stick with a healthy diet, exercise, regular studying and perfect attendance to get my A’s. Okay, maybe a multi-vitamin

While competition does lead us to better ourselves, sometimes too much of it can cause us to enter risky behaiour and engage in unethical practices like abusing drugs in the name of being better.

November 2010 - Issue 2


Having Trouble Catching Zzz’s Lately? Nida Ahmed and Shirin Pilakka Kramer: “[de Vinci] slept only 20minutes every 3hours. Now, that works out to 2 ½ extra days that I’m awake per week, every week. Which means, if I live to be eighty, I will have lived the equivalent of 105 years.” -Seinfeld Sleep; the one thing that we all love and crave but sadly sometimes unable to get, especially being university students. Sleep has many benefits on overall health by helping the body to recover and rejuvenate after a day of physical and mental activity. Research shows sleep restores the nervous system; helps improve memory, and regulates mood and emotional adjustments 1. Around 6-8 hours of sleep every night keeps an individual healthy and alert for their early morning lectures. However, there are factors that sometimes interfere with healthy sleep pattern such as: stress, working late on a project, hormonal changes or even a sleeping disorder. Some of these factors (stress, working late) are all too common in the lives of university students and are the main reasons for their sleep deprivation.

deals with the biology of the body itself. Our bodies contain specialized proteins, cytokines, which help regulate sleep and contain sleeppromoting substances known as sleep factors2. When these sleep factors cannot function properly, insomnia and inability to fall asleep at a preferred time results. In individuals who are sleep deprived, the concentration of the neurotransmitter dopamine rises in the brain4. This increase can lead to alertness and wakefulness, but also negatively affects memory and learning4 making it hard to concentrate, especially in class. Matthew Walker of the University of California, Berkeley stresses, “Sleep almost prepares the brain like a dry sponge to soak up new information.”4

Individuals who have an unhealthy sleeping pattern experience daytime sleepiness, irregular actions during sleep, insomnia and inability to fall asleep at preferred times2. These symptoms depend on the history and health of the individual. Furthermore, people with recreational drug and alcohol use, and prescription medication may be There are treatments to help at a higher risk of developing sleep- regain a normal sleeping pattern. ing disorders. Common treatments include medi A large part of how we sleep cations such as Benzodiazepines; 13

sleeping pills that help with insomnia by lessening the amount of anxiety the patient feels during daytime5. Antidepressants, such as Trazodone (a sedative) help with insomnia and falling asleep at the preferred time5. Where medication fails, other forms of treatments that can be prescribed by the physician include increasing amount of sleep at night and providing daytime treatments that make the patient more awake5. Through these options, the individual can maintain a healthy sleep pattern and therefore a healthy overall well being and good quality of life. Like Cosmo Kramer, we are all attempting to find the balance between a healthy sleep pattern and increasing our quality of life.

cer tumorgenesis. His team treated mice with Metformin for a 13 week period after the mice were exposed to a nicotine-derived nitrosamine (NNK), the most prevalent carcinLindsay Russell ogen in tobacco and a known promoter of lung tumorigenesis. Their al of regular cancer cells2. Sequen- results revealed a reduced tumour tially, the stem cells would also be burden (grow and regrowth) in the responsible for tumor re-growth or Metformin-treated mice by 40 to 50 relapse. Metformin along with the percent1,5. doxorubicin treatment of cancerous tumor cells obliterated both regular Further, Dennis and colcancer cells and cancer stem cells3. leagues evaluated the effects of Metformin on a series of biomark Further, mice being treated ers for lung tumours and found that with doxorubicin alone had a re- it inhibited mammalian target rapacurrence of tumor growth where as mycin (mTOR), a known tumour mice treated with both medications promoter in the lungs, by decreasshowed no signs of tumor regrowth ing serum insulin levels and IGF-1. in over a 3 month period. This find- Dennis’s experiments determined ing is indicative of the unique result a reduced lung tumour load by 72 of the action of Metformin2,3. percent5.

Anti-diabetic Drug Metformin at the Forefront of Therapeutic Cancer Research What may have started out as a commonly prescribed diabetes medication has now seemingly made a name for itself in cancer research. Metformin has been on the market for 15 years as the primary drug to fight insulin resistance and curb hyperglycaemia experienced by persons with type-2 diabetes. Recently however, this drug has found a new place in medicine specifically as a potential therapy for certain types of cancers. An upcoming publication in the American Association for Cancer Research reveals compelling results in mice studies that Metformin as a potentially effective cancer treatment. In this study, breast tumour cells grown in mice were treated with a drug cocktail containing doxorubicin (a highly potent and widely used cancer drug) and Metformin2, 3.

The mechanism by which metformin may illicit its tumor suppressing effects is not entirely understood. Some popular theories have pointed to the dependency of cancer cells to glucose in order to thrive and withstand the body’s natural defenses; Metformin may be depriving the cancer cells of Alone, doxorubicin has this much needed glucose. Another proven to be highly effective in kill- theory is that this drug affects the ing regular cancer cells, but regular immune system, and may help the cancer cells are believed not to be body fight off tumor recurrence1. involved in reoccurrences of tumour growth. Current theories point Further studies point to the to cancer stem cells, which differ effects Metformin has on IGF-1 from regular cancers cells in that (insulin-like growth factor) which they control the growth and surviv- is seen in increased levels in diabetic patients along with increased serum insulin levels5. Metformin decreases insulin and IGF-1 levels in the blood stream and some scientists suggest that this reductive effect may have a profound effect on tumor growth as it could potentially slow or inhibit tumor progression1,4,5.

Currently, most studies are geared towards Metformin’s possible cancer fighting effects on diabetic patients who are at higher risks of certain types of cancer than the general population. It seems that this drug may play more of a role in reducing tumour re-growth in patients with severe insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. It will be years before further studies indicate a definitive role for Metformin as an adjunct to chemotherapy; thus far, this anti-diabetic drug is strictly indicated for diabetes and insulin resistance only. Nevertheless, the future of medical research regarding this particular anti-diabetic agent as a cancer suppressor could potentially change the lives of many and bring new hope to cancer victims globally1.

A recent study led by Phillip A. Dennis, M.D., Ph.D., senior investigator in the medical oncology branch of the National Cancer Institute, revealed promising results with Metformin and lung canNovember 2010 - Issue 2


Sickly Sweet...

The truth behind artificial sweetners Kristie Newton

One of the biggest cautions surrounding diets today is the consumption of sugar. There seems to be a developing fear of consuming this very common substance and like any health threat, multiple substitutes and so called “solutions” have popped up all over the place. However, unlike some health warnings, a fear of sugar consumption is not completely unwarranted. In the last thirty years our sugar consumption has increased 20% to between 22 and 30 teaspoons a day. That’s between 350 and 450 calories when the recommended amount is around 150 calories1. This huge increase in sugar consumption has led to many health problems such as an increase in obesity, heart problems, and diabetes1.

So what is the problem with these fantastic substances that sweeten without fattening? According to Janet Hull, all of the main sugar substitutes we know, like SPLENDA® (sucralose) and NutraSweet/Equal® (aspartame), are very dangerous for our health because of the chemicals they contain2. NutraSweet/Equal® contains methanol, and the so called “harmless” improvement over NutraSweet/ Equal® known as SPLENDA®, contains chlorine. Both chemicals which have have negative effects on your health1.

Aspartame can lead to several different health problems such as endocrine disorders, vision failure, and even mental retardation in babies with metabolic problems. Chlorine, the other option, is a car So researchers started think- cinogen and can lead to various ing, if sugar is such a huge problem forms of cancer. The sweeteners and causes so many dietary prob- mentioned above have also been lems and health risks, why don’t we known to cause digestive problems, come up with a healthy substitute? liver problems, and infertility in That is exactly what they did, in the both men and women2. form of artificial sweeteners. When it comes down to it, We have all heard of arti- you have to ask yourself, do you reficial sweeteners, those fantastic ally want to risk the health problems sugar substitutes that give flavour to associated with sugar substitutes? everything from diabetic chocolate After all, table sugar in moderation to those diet sodas everyone views has no serious health implications. as much healthier than the sugar If you are looking for something filled versions; but are they actually other than the high calorie sugar ophealthy? tion, there are a few natural sweeteners that are safe to use such as The answer to that question Stevia or molasses. is a big NO! There are around 4 calories per gram of sugar and artificial So next time you go to reach sweeteners have around 2.4 calories for the diet cola or the packet of per gram. However, because of their sweetener for that coffee remember, chemical makeup our bodies are sometimes natural is best. unable to break them down. This means they contain no calories and cause no weight gain on their own. 15

HOT HEADLINES! 5 or 15? What nutrients do you want? Summary of Joseph Hall’s Article Five and15 rule for food nutrients coming- Eliza Beckett A new nutrition labeling system is about to hit the shelves. This easy to use system will help Canadians make healthier choices while buying packaged food. The five-fifteen concept can be applied to all nutrients. The term five or “a little” will be given to nutrients below 5% of that value and the term fifteen or “a lot” will be given to nutrients above 15%. This is applicable to nutrients from fiber to saturated fat. Some critics are skeptical and say little has been done to address other issues regarding food labeling such as the “amount” line. Hasan Hutchinson , head of Health Canada’s nutrition policy and promotion office are in agreement that the values could be more confusing and leads consumers to inaccurately measure their ingredient intakes.

Cut out the Take-out

How to Eat Healthy on a Student Budget Eliza Beckett It has become common knowledge that we should consume fruits, vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins in order to stay healthy and receive the proper vitamins and nutrients, but what happens when we go to the grocery store and all those healthy foods are way too expensive for our limited student budgets? I mean, it is much easier and cheaper to order a pizza or make some Kraft Dinner® right?

tant vitamins for your body’s essential functions1. For a healthy snack, try carrots to increase your Vitamin A intake and an oat bran muffin for fibre and magnesium intake. Also, you can try a serving of yogurt for calcium with a granola bar, and banana slices for fibre and potassium1.

Lunch is a vital meal, providing energy used throughout the Well the effects of eating a day. A spinach salad will provide nutrient-deficient diet are probably you with Vitamin K, magnesium worse than you think. By leaving and Vitamin E intake. Along with out the essentials, your school work the salad, switch to whole grain and overall well-being are probably bread with natural peanut butter to suffering1. What if it was possible to obtain a serving of meats and altereat well on a student budget? Well natives1. I am here to tell you it is possible and very realistic! The long-term benefits of eating well now will be worth it and pay off in the end. The first step is to cut out the take-out! These options are always high in simple carbohydrates and fats, not to mention the dent in your wallet they can make. A week of eating take-out and fast foods can set you back about $100-140. Yikes! Also get off the booze cruise! It is typical in university to consume alcohol, however, this offers no nutritional value, just empty calories. This is also where most students tend to spend their money.

Interested in joining the Brock Health team? Contact us at: A healthy dinner that is affordable would consist of a lean grilled chicken breast with a serving of cooked sweet potato and cooked mixed vegetables. This dinner will provide healthy protein and fats essential for the body and fibre from the vegetables (Berdanier, Zempleni). This meal plan will only cost an affordable $70-90 a week. So eating healthy is very possible and an effective way to save money.

A healthy breakfast that will provide the required daily nutritional values and meet Canada’s Food Guide requirements may include orange juice, an apple, and Cheerios® with skim milk. This meal will provide Vitamin C, fibre, Vitamin D and calcium, which are all imporNovember 2010 - Issue 2


Catharsis: Letting it out Michael Carrigan

Aristotle defined catharsis as “purging of the spirit of morbid and base ideas or emotions by witnessing the playing out of such emotions or ideas on stage”4 so to read a tragic tale or view a tragic play, one is a participant and engaged in the events unfolding. For instance, Bertold Brecht, a German playwright, considered it as a tool for a greater social change. Brecht used absence of consistent action to provoke a feeling of emptiness, build tension, and lead the audience to catharsis, which would make the audience undertake social/political action in order to escape from that feeling of emotional emptiness inside4. Traditionally, catharsis is viewed as a psychological effect, induced after participating in a dramatic tragedy, an effect which induces the purgation of pity and fear, or any negative anxieties. It may also be argued that physical exertion in an aggressive arena may serve as yet another outlet to induce cathartic release.

ity of the situation, to emphasize the magnitude of the cathartic release afterwards. Kearney fittingly notes, “It is what Shakespeare meant, I think, when he spoke of the wisdom which comes from exposing ourselves ‘to feel what wretches feel’. Indeed, these activities are important in the induction of catharsis with regard to supplementing the body’s need for stress relief. If the body does not find release, suppressed anxieties may be problematic to mental and physical health. Freud believed ones’, “psyche was poisoned by repressed fears and desires, unresolved arguments and unhealed wounds.”

As students, stress can become overwhelming at times, exams, essay deadlines, social drama and money concerns all seem to impede a person’s will to relax. Many theories suggest that although venting, the aggressive action done such as hitting a pillow feels good, it ultimately does not provide the long term cathartic release. This may A participant of aggressive be true, however hitting a pillow sports will often face fear or anxi- or any similar action in which the ety in their respective fields- a boxer person exerting themselves does not in a ring, or a lacrosse player on a feel the aggressiveness returned. In field. In addition to the emotional order for a cathartic release to be and psychological stimuli, the per- possible, the individual must expeson is pushing themselves to their rience the harsh aggressive nature physical threshold, creating the ul- of the situation, versus in the case timate trifecta of endurance. previously suggested, that the person is simply exerting themselves Of course, to maintain a instead of being exerted upon by positive atmosphere, this aggressive another party. behaviour is best held in a controlled arena, such as said boxing ring or Through physical endurplaying field. Aggressive sports are ance, it is an outlet in which to debetter for the induction of catharsis posit negative feelings and in turn because they produce an element of purge them from oneself. It is the confrontation, further intensifying mental purification one should prothe psychological strain of the indi- mote periodically, whether they are vidual. The key is to immerse one- conscious of it or not. Like tradiself in the aggression and physical- tional catharsis found in literature, 17

physical catharsis serves as an outlet for the build up of negative emotions. However, physical catharsis is different in that it makes the transition from experience to cathartic release more direct and immediate. Stress release is important to one’s physical and mental health, students should find something they like doing which is aggressive by nature. They will find that by conquering this activity they will have released suppressed negative feelings and in turn will feel liberated.

John Hay PhD - Professor Research

I appreciate the opportunity

to introduce my research in this forum. My interest lies largely in the effect that physical activity has on the health of children, particularly those with chronic disease or disorders. This has resulted in my work having two separated but highly inter-related facets. On the one hand is the measurement of physical activity, while on the other is to develop an understanding of why some children – healthy or otherwise - elect to be inactive. These interests have led to my involvement in a wide range of research teams where my principal role is around issues of physical activity and health or illness. One of the challenges facing medical scientists working with seriously


ill children and their families is that research requires measurement, and medical measurements are often invasive or intrusive. The need to develop a measure of physical activity for children with chronic disease that was reliable and valid but not demanding of the child or family led to the development of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale (HAES). The HAES is now employed internationally and I am a member of research teams investigating the role of physical activity in the lung function of children with cystic fibrosis, of bone development of children receiving steroid therapy as part of their treatment for leukemia, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and renal disease, and of muscle development in children with Crohn’s Disease. In almost every case we have found that physical inactivity leads to poorer outcomes even after controlling for other known risk factors. Here at Brock I am one of the lead investigators in the Physical Health Activity Study Team (PHAST) project. In this research we are interested in understanding the effect of poor motor proficiency on the activity levels of children and the resultant effects on their

Five Ways to Pass! CHSC 3P37

health – physical, social, psychological, and academic. My interest here stems from earlier work probing why some children chose to be inactive and from the development of the Children’s Self-perceptions of Adequacy in and Predilection for Physical Activity (CSAPPA) scale which measures general selfefficacy toward physical activity. The CSAPPA was found to be quite useful in screening for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and is an integral measure in PHAST where we have followed a group of close to 2000 students in Niagara schools for over six years now. We have discovered that children with DCD are at much greater risk for obesity, poor fitness and heart health, poorer psychologic profiles, and lowered academic performance. I look forward to continuing the PHAST study and to helping heighten our understanding of the key role physical activity plays in the health and treatment of children with chronic disease.


according to Singha

1.Go to as many classes as possible…QUIZ! 2.Full 30-min-interview, not necessary but optimal. 3.Make your transcript looks well organized, even if it isn’t. 4.Photovoice counts, pick a good one. 5.Take advantage of the take-home exam article!

March 2010 - Issue 1


Hot Headlines! To Ban or Not to Ban… Summary of Lesley Ciarula Taylor’s Article Half of panel urges ban on popular diet pill – Eliza Beckett In September, the debate was out on the popular online diet pill Meridia. Half of the panel reported to the U.S. Federal Drug Administration that the drug should be banned while the other half wants increased warnings. Harsher rules such as, only specially trained doctors should prescribe it were suggested. This review was in response to a study from the New England Journal of Medicine which found that 28% of patients were at risk of a non-fatal heart attack and 36% were at risk for a non-fatal stroke. In March 2002, Health Canada conducted a review of Meridia due to reports of adverse reactions including increased blood pressure and heart rate, eye pain and hemorrhage. Health Canada considers the drug safe. Aspirin ‘helps protect against bowel cancer’. Bowel cancer is the third most common cancer by Nick Triggle – summarized by Stephanie Bryenton With such extensive experiments and discoveries in our health world, scientists have actually been theorizing about whether or not an aspirin tablet could have such a result of reducing and preventing a human from being diagnosed with bowel cancer. Professor Peter Rothwell, who is a lead researcher founded that the daily tablet reduces the risk of bowel cancer by 24% and reduced the probability of an individual dying from bowel cancer by 35%. It seems to be a controversy on whether taking a daily dose of aspirin to be considered a positive affect on an individual due to the 19

long term side affects, but consider- it, there is no shame in trying a pill ing such a small dose, the side ef- like Wellbutin or surgery like Lapfects would be hypothesized to be Band. as minor as the common nose bleed or maybe some small bruising. 5. Once you’ve made it, don’t slide backwards, join a support group to Even with this in mind, the keep you on track. idea of a daily dose of aspirin to reduce your chances on developing Bionic legs enable paraplegics to bowel cancer seems to be worth- walk – Summary of Alex Horkay by while. Professor Peter Rothwell Kristie Newton ends his findings by saying “There is a small benefit [to taking a daily Bionic skeletons, or exodose of aspirin] for vascular disease skeletons, are the newest technoloand now we know a big benefit for gies to help paraplegics walk again. this cancer. In the future, I am sure it Berkeley Bionics unveiled their will be shown that aspirin helps pre- newest prototypes, the eLegs, last vent other [types of] cancers too.” week. The device has crutches and sensors that allow the right and left Use your brain, not a pill bottle, to legs to move forward based on artihelp you lose weight - Mehmet Oz ficial intelligence. At first the eLegs and Mike Roizen. Summarized by will be available at rehab centers Kristie Newton and are meant for patients under 220lbs and 6’4”. Even though some diet pills have been FDA approved, there is a They are worn over regular way to use your brain to diet smart clothes and have a backpack like and lose that weight. Weight loss is structure with velcro straps. Howmore complicated then just eating ever, eLegs are not for everyone, less and exercising more. People they could help people with ALS, need to find a way to get over the MS, polio, stroke victims and rehab humps and past the road blocks of patients, since the patient needs to dieting and there are five brainy have enough upper body strength to ways to do it. get out of a wheelchair. The eLegs may also help patients have more 1. You’re going to slip sometimes so access to nature and places where try keeping cut up veggies and fruit wheelchairs have trouble. Interon hand in the fridge. This will pro- views with patients have showed vide you with quick healthy snacks varying opinions, and even though when those cravings hit. the be-all end-all would be a cure or paralysis, bionic skeletons look like 2. Insist on eating delicious healthy a promising technology for the fufood, this will make eating healthy ture. much easier and impress your taste buds at the same time. 3. A half hour walk is great exercise but it won’t make up for 23.5 hours of sitting, pull up the stationary bike while you watch TV and make it a new habit. 4. Ask for medical help if you need

To Detox, or Not to Detox by Yumna Ahmed

(1) Hunt SL, Simon SL, Wisocki P. An examination of physical health and coping styles associated with symptoms of general1) Northwestern Health Sciences University. (October 2010). Retrieved from liveNaturally/gloss.html 2) Springen, K., & Kuchment, A. (2008). Diet trick: Stop eating. Newsweek, 152(18), 71-71. 3) Crowe, T. (2010). Diets, weight loss and detox diets. Nutridate, 21(1), 2-4. 4) Berg, F. M. (1997). Detox with pills, fasting. Healthy Weight Journal, 11(3), 56.

Having Trouble Catching Zzz’s Lately? by Nida Ahmed and Shirin Pilakka

1.Lee, Elliott Kyung, and Alan B. Douglass. “Sleep in Psychiatric Disorders: Where are we Now?” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 55.7 (2010): 403-12. Print. 2.Chokroverty, S. “Overview of Sleep & Sleep Disorders.” Indian Journal of Medical Research 131.2 (2010): 126-40. Print. 3.Roepke, Susan K., and Sonia Ancoli-lsrael. “Sleep Disorders in the Elderly.” Indian Journal of Medical Research 131.2 (2010): 302-10. Print. 4.Saey, Tina Hesman. “Dopamine Fends Off the Zzzzz’s.” Science news 174.6 (2008): 11-. Print. 5.Renger, John J. “Overview of Experimental and Conventional Pharmacological Approaches in the Treatment of Sleep and Wake Disorders.” Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 8.11 (2008): 937-53. Print

Academic Doping: Adderall 1.McCabe, Sean E., John R. Knight, and Christian J. Teter. “Non-medical Use of Prescription Stimulants among US College Students:prevalence and Correlates from a National Survey.” Society for the Study of Addiction 99: 96-106. Print. 2.J, Biederman. “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder: a Life-span Perspective.” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 59.7 (1998): 4-16. Print. 3.Shire, Inc. One Dose Daily Adderall XR. Wayne: Shire US, 2010. Print. 4.Jiao MD, Xiangyang, Sonia Velez MD, Jennifer Ringstad MD, and Valerie Eyma MD. “Myocardial Infarction Associated with Adderall XR and Alcohol.” Journal of American Board of Family Medicine 22 (2009): 197-201. Print. 5.Surles MD, Lara K., Harold J. May PhD, and Joseph P. Gary MD. “Adderall-Induced Psychosis in an Adolescent.” JABFP 15.6 (2002): 498-500. Print. 6.Nissen, MD, Steven E. “ADHD Drugs and Cardiovascular Risk.” The New England Journal of Medicine 354.14 (2006): 1445-448. Print. 7.Pandina, Ph.D, Robert J., Daniel M. Ogilvie, Ph.D, and Georgia Kouzoukas. The Illicit Use of Non-Prescribed Adderall among College Students. Thesis. Rutgers University, 2007. Print. FDA_Page.html 4. Hinshaw SP. Treatment for children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In: Kendall PC, editor. Child and adolescenttherapy: cognitive-behavioral procedures. 3rd ed. New York: Guilford; 2006. p. 82-113. 5. Wolraich ML, Wibbelsman CJ, Brown TE, Evans SW, Gotlieb EM, Knight JR, Ross EC, Shubiner HH, Wender EH, Wilens T. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among adolescents: a review of the diagnosis, treatment, and clinical implications. Pediatrics 2005 Jun;115(6):1734-46. 6. Lilienfeld SO. Scientifically unsupported and supported interventions for childhood. Pediatrics. 2005 Mar;115(3):761-4. 7. Chronis AM, Chacko A, Fabiano GA, Wymbs BT, Pelham WE Jr. Enhancements to the behavioral parent training paradigm for families of children with ADHD: review and future directions. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2004 Mar;7(1):1-27.

Spine Health in Post Secondary Students References

1.De Carvalho. D. E., Soave. D., Ross, K., & Callaghan, J. P. 2010. Lumbar spine and pelvic posture between standing and sitting: A radiologic investigation including reliability and repeatability of the lumbar lordosis measure. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 33, Number1, 48-55. 2.Gilkey, D. P., Keefe, T. J., Peel, J. L., Kassab, O. M., & Kennedy, C. A. 2010. Risk factors associated with back pain: A cross-sectional study of 963 college students. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 33, Number 2, 88-95. 3.Lin, F., Parthasarathy, S., Taylor, S. J., Pucci, D., Hendrix, R. W., Makhsous, M. 2006. Effect of different sitting postures on lung capacity, expiratory flow, and lumbar lordosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 87, 504-509. 4.Murrie, V. L., Dixon. A. K., Hollingsworth, W., Wilson, H., &

November 2010 - Issue 2


Doyle, T. A. C. 2003. Lumbar lordosis: Study of patients with and without low back pain. Clinical Anatomy, 16, 144-147. 5.Parcells, C., Stommel, M., & Hubbard, R. P. 1999. Mismatch of classroom furniture and student body dimensions. Journal of Adolescent Health, 24, 265-273. 6.Statistics Canada. (2004, April). Back Pain. Retrieved October 25th, 2010 from: pub/82-619-m/2006003/4053542-eng.htm. 7.Youdas, J. W., Garrett, T. R., Egan, K. S., & Therneau, T. M. 2000. Physical Therapy,80, Number 3, 261-275.

Oh Canada, the True North Strong and...Overpriced? by Kristie Newton

[1] Guyatt, G.H. et al. 2007. HYPERLINK “http://www.” A systematic review of studies comparing health outcomes in Canada and the United States. Open Medicine, Vol 1, No 1. [2] Hussey PS, Anderson GF, Osborn R, et al. (2004). How does the quality of care compare in five countries?. Health affairs (Project Hope) 23 (3): 89–99. [3] Anderson GF, Hussey PS, Frogner BK, Waters HR (2005). “Health spending in the United States and the rest of the industrialized world”. Health affairs (Project Hope) 24 (4): 903–14. [4] Woolhandler S, Campbell T, Himmelstein DU. (2003). “Costs of health care administration in the United States and Canada”. The New England journal of medicine 349 (8): 768–75. [5] Sheldon L. Richman. HYPERLINK “” “A Free Market for Health Care.” From The Dangers of Socialized Medicine, edited by Jacob G. Hornberger and Richard M. Ebeling. Future of Freedom Foundation (February 1994) [6] Nair C, Karim R, Nyers C (1992). “Health care and health status. A Canada--United States statistical comparison”. Health reports / Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information 4 (2): 175–83 [7] Gibson D, Fuller C. The Bottom Line. Edmonton: Newest Press, 2006.

Alzheimers Prevention: vrai ou faux? by Shahla A. Grewal

1) Scarmeas N., Stern Y., Tang MX. Mayeux R., Luchsinger JA. Mediterranean diet and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. Annals of Neurology 2006; 59: 912-921. 2) Williams JW, Plassman BL, Burke J, Holsinger T, Benjamin S. Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease and Cognitive Decline. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 193. (Prepared by the Duke Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. HHSA 290-2007-10066-I.) AHRQ Publication No. 10-E005. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. April 2010. Available online: htm

Sickly Sweet - The Truth Behind Artificial Sweetners by Kristie Newton [1] Liebman, Bonnie. (2010). The Dangers of Artificial Sweeteners. Journal of Nutritional Health, 37(1), 1-8. [2] Hull, Janet. (2005). America’s Sugar Binge. Journal of Total Health, 27(1), 30-32.

3. Wu F, Yang Y, Dougherty PJ. Contralateral comparison of wavefront-guided LASIK surgery with iris recognition versus without iris recognition using the MEL80 Excimer laser system. Clinical and Experimental Optometry 2009;92(3):320327.

Cut out the Take Out by Eliza Beckett

1) Berdanier, C. and Zempleni, J. (2009). Advanced Nutrition: Macronutrients, Micronutrients, and Metabolism. CRC Press. 309-359.

Anti-diabetic Drug Metformin at the forefront of Therapeutic Cancer Research

1) Ben Sahra I. Le Marchand-Brustel Y. Tanti JF. Bost F. Metformin in cancer therapy: a new perspective for an old antidiabetic drug? 2010 May 2010. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 9(5):1092-9 2) Bodmer M. Meier C. Krahenbuhl S. Jick SS. Meier CR. Long-term metformin use is associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. June 2010. Diabetes Care. 33(6):1304-8 3) Hirsch HA. Iliopoulos D. Tsichlis PN. Struhl K. Metformin selectively targets cancer stem cells, and acts together with chemotherapy to block tumor growth and prolong remission. 2009 Oct 1. Cancer Research. 69(19):7507-11 4) Luo Z. Zang M. Guo W. AMPK as a metabolic tumor suppressor: control of metabolism and cell growth. 2010 March. Future Oncology. 6(3):457-70 5) Regan M. Memmott, Phillip A. Dennis. Molecular Pathways: The Role of the Akt/mTOR Pathway in Tobacco CarcinogenInduced Lung Tumorigenisis. 2010 January. Clin Cancer Res. 16:4-10

Photo Credits

1. Cover Photo by Emily Loveday 2. Page 3 - (Photo credit: Olivier Voisin/www.sciencesource. com) 3. Page 5 - swmasterf/project1f/punching2.html 5. Page 7 - 6. Page 9 - 7. Page10 - 8. Page 11 -,,20416288,00.html 9. Pge 12 - 10. Page 13 - 11. Page 14 and 12. Page 15 - 13. page 16 - 14. Page 17 -

Catharsis: Letting it go by Michael Carrigan

1) Kearney, Richard. Narrating Pain: The Power of Catharsis. Paragraph, Volume 30, Number 1, March 2007, pp. 51-66 (Article). Edinburgh University Press. Accessed September 20, 2010. 2) Kearney, Richard. Narrating Pain: The Power of Catharsis. 3)McRaney, David. Catharsis. http://youarenotsosmart. com/2010/08/11/catharsis. Accessed October 28, 2010.

Laser Vision in your Future by Singha Chanthanatham

1. Health Canada. Ottawa, Ontario: Health Canada; c20032007 [updated 2007 February 16; cited 2010 Oct 8]. Available from: 2. Kim HJ, Silverman CM. Traumatic dislocation of LASIK flaps 4 and 9 years after surgery. J.Refract.Surg. 2010 Jun;26(6):447-452.



Yumna Ahmed

Brittany Ferren

Phuc Dang

Scott Alguire

Vicky Horner

Whitney Brown

Michael Carrigan

Gregory McGarr

Nida Ahmed

Singha Chanthanatham

Chrysta Everett

Eliza Beckett

Steve Demetriades

Shirin Pilakka

Kristie Newton

Hassaan Khalid

Absent: Emily Loveday Lindsay Russsell Stephanie Bryenton


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Brock Health - Issue 2  

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