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Portfolio By Brittany Harvey 11/30/15

Brittany Harvey Portfolio Table of Contents Journal entries Opinion of teaching science 1 Opinion of teaching science 2 Natureography 1 Natureography 2 Scienceography 1 Scienceography 2 Animal Prediction

Observations/ Library Research Appreciating Nature (1 sitting in grass at WSCE, 1 at home, 1 at night) Observing Nature (picture/paragraph detailing plant life in summer, fall, winter) Who is Science? Science Today Samples from the Field

Activities/Labs Grab Bag Measurements Microscopes

Colors of Nature Colors of Nature Dichotomous Key Sweet Treats Sweet Treats Dichotomous Key Owl & Mouse Helping Hands Natural Selection Pasta Fat Layer/Blubber Bags Build A Bug (The Great Race) Spider Enzyme Nocturnal Animals/Are You My Pup? Cell Division Flipbook Egg Osmosis DNA Magnets Protein Toobers Base Pairing Practice Doing Your Lessons in Blood Pipecleaner Babies Zork Inheritance Traits BINGO A Generation of Traits A Recipe for Traits Senses Lab Bones Lab Muscles Lab Science Standards/Activities Tennessee Science Standards Sample Standards Summary Sheet

Standards *Technology based **Inquiry based Standard 1 - Cells 1.1 – 0107.1.1 Do you want to build an Owl?** Brittany Harvey 0007.1.1: Pinecone Turkeys—Kaley Parvin 0207.1.1: Plants and Animals—Samantha Taylor, MacKinzie Kitts, Katie Sargent, Lauren Madon 0307.1.1: Fix-A-Flower—Kasey Vaughn 0407.1.1: I Am Made of Building Blocks—Laura Stanton 0507.1.1: The Cell—Kaitlyn Martin *1.2 – 0107.1.2 Let’s Magnify our Lives! Brittany Harvey 0107.1.2: Indoor Nature Walk, Make Your Own—Kimberly Slayton Standard 2- Interdependence 2.1 – 0107.2.1 Scavenging for the Living and Non-Living. Brittany Harvey 0007.2.1: Living and Non-living—Lauren Madon 0107.2.1: Living and Non-living Activity—Samantha Taylor 0207.2.1: Where is Your Home?—Bethany Spoone 0307.2.1: Living vs Non-Living—Brittanee Collins 2.2 – 0007.2.2 Match me up! Brittany Harvey 0007.2.2: Five Senses Sorting Game—Katie Sargent 0207.2.2: What Living Thing Am I?—Jennifer Bowling 0307.2.2: Stackable Food Webs—MacKinzie Kitts** 2.3- 0207.2.3 Lean on me! Pinterest

*2.4 – 0607.2.4 BIOMEans pick me! 0607.2.4: B-I-N-G-O—Hollie Lamb

Standard 3 - Flow of Matter and Energy 3.1 – 0007.3.1 Plant Survival 101. Brittany Harvey 0007.3.1: Plants & Animals With vs. Without—Hannah Lawson 0107.3.1: Find Your Match—Hannah Lawson and Brittanee Collins 0207.3.1: Inside the Mouth of an Herbivore, Carnivore or Omnivore—Lauren Martin 0307.3.1: Time to Eat---Where Do I Go?—Cassandra Norvell 0407.3.1: Grow Your Own Bean Plant—Suzannah Mason and Brittaney Woods 0507.3.1: Food Chain Links—Katherine Lewis, Katelyn Inman, Laura Stanton 3.2 – 0407.3.2 Tom and Jerry Brittany Harvey 0407.3.2: The Hunger Games—Siarha Jinks and Ashley Newell Standard 4 - Heredity **4.1 – 0207.4.1 What makes me Different from you? Brittany Harvey 0007.4.1: Butterfly Pasta, From Egg to Animal, Flower Lift Cycle Flip Chart—Amanda Drinnon 0107.4.1: Life Cycle of a Butterfly—Brittany Woods 0207.4.1: The Butterfly Cycle/My Froggy Friend—Suzannah Mason 0307.4.1: Life Cycle of A Pasta Butterfly & Plant Life Cycle—Megan Fugate, Kaitlyn Martin, and Kennedy Morgan 0507.4.1: Easter Egg Punnett Squares—Hollie Lamb and Bethany Spoone **4.2 – 0007.4.2 Can you help me find my Mommy? Brittany Harvey and Kasey Vaughn

0107.4.2: Are You My Mother?—Katherine Lewis

0207.4.2: Frosty’s Genetics—Megan Fugate 0507.4.2: Life as a Narf—Katelyn Inman

Standard 5 - Biodiversity and Change **5.1 – 0007.5.1 Shall we Compare? 0207.5.1: Habitat Bingo—Cassandra Norvell, Kimberly Slayton, Jennifer Bowling 0507.5.1: Animal Kingdoms—Ashley Newell 5.2 – 0107.5.2 The Land before Time. 0107.5.2: The Fossilization Game—Siarha Jinks 0307.5.2: Thriving, Threatened, Endangered, or Extinct—Amanda Drinnon and Lauren Martin

Field Trips /Integrated Assignments Nature Walk Notes ZooMobile Write-Up 1 ZooMobile Write-Up 2 Zoo Scavenger Hunt Zoo Write-up

Journal Entries

Opinion of Teaching Science 1 If I was told that instead of doing my dream job I would be teaching Biology my excitement for the job would not change. Throughout school, science and math were always my favorite subjects. When it gets down to these particular subjects in school, there are so many ways to teach them. I have always loved how in either subject you can come up with any activity to explain and help students learn that particular field of information. Not only does the teacher enjoy watching their students have fun learning, those students enjoy school and do not even realize they are obtaining information. I would try to pull from every activity every science teacher has used to teach me the subject and project it to my students. A teacher should not bore their students to death to make them learn because their attention span will find itself elsewhere. I would be more than excited to work as a teacher in science and would choose this course over any other class there is.

Opinion of Teaching Science 2 After going through a semester of learning more about science, my opinion has only changed for the good. Watching all these fun activities you can do with science make me even more excited to teach kids about science. I love when teachers make science fun and with all of these activities you can use to teach this course, I look forward to showing kids that science can be fun. My opinion about teaching science is that it is something that everyone should enjoy doing because of it being such an easy class to teach. Having this class has only made my thoughts of being stuck teaching science only better.

Natureography 1 A Hunting Trip with my Dad It was a tradition that my father and I always did during deer season. We would lay everything out that we needed the night before that way it was ready to go when we were up and ready come 5:30 the next morning. When everything was packed up and ready to go, we headed up to my dad’s uncle’s farm to get settled down before the deer were up and moving and before the sun began to shine. The morning was really cold and there was frost everywhere. My dad and I pulled the truck up to the barn and parked beside of it so we could sit in the truck and watch the field around us. As morning began to break, my eyes began to scan the field we were in and the fields around us. My father looked over at the barn, and there sitting on the barn was an owl. As I was trying to lean over and see it, something caught my attention. It was light enough to see but it was not bright enough to make out what I was looking at. My heart began to race and my breathing started to become heavy. I whispered to my dad excitedly that there was a deer in the dip of the field on my side. With my rifle in my hand, I began to slowly roll down the window and twist my body to face the deer. Trying not to be seen made it hard for me to get twisted around and get my gun outside the window. While I was trying to turn, my gun hit the window seal and made a noise. My body froze and I became nervous that this deer was going to run off. While trying to do this, the sun was peeking more over the hill making it easier to see and I knew it was a buck. The noise did not spook the deer and after looking around, he went back to eating. I got my body situated in the seat and my gun where I needed it to be and began laying my cross hairs on this beautiful buck that I was going to have as a memory and a trophy to hang on my wall. I took a deep breath, held it, and squeezed the trigger. The deer began running up the hill and I looked at my dad and with a worried look, I said I missed it. However, when I turned back around, there was my deer laying on the hill side dead. With excitement I ran over and was surprised to see that it was a six point buck. My dad and I drug it over to the truck and he handed me the knife to begin pulling the guts out. Once I was done, we loaded the deer up and headed to the hunting store to check it in and get my picture made with it. It was a trip I will never forget.

Natureography 2 A Trip to Cades Cove We were all ready for our trip to Cades Cove the next morning. Planning had been going on for over a month and my entire family was going. With everyone asking off work during the week, we were ready to be getting our stress free day started. We set our alarm clocks for 6:30 and planned on meeting at the cutout around 7:00. Once everyone had breakfast and was buckled in, we were on our way to Cades Cove. We arrived around 9:00 and all piled up in one vehicle to start the loop. We came to the first trail and walked up to one of the old cabins that belonged to a man who lived there many years ago. Checking out each aspect of how the cabin was built made our minds begin to think about how living used to be like during that time period. We continued around the loop and stopped at two other different churches of different religion. The land and scenery was so beautiful with mountains circling long, flat fields with tall grass and wooded areas that stretched on forever. As we came around one of the curves, we seen people pulled over to look at the animals they had spotted. Our eyes began to scan the area and we finally seen a group of deer. One of the deer was an eight point buck that had a massive body and a tall set of horns followed but a small four point and a couple of does. While standing there, they kept getting closer and paid no attention to us and showed no signs of fear. We finally all piled back up in the truck and continued around the loop. We passed many fields with deer that were far off from the roads, and even watched them play around and run in circles with one another. We pulled into the settlement they have placed there near the gift shop, grist mill, barns and corn cribs, and a place to make molasses. It had just so happened that the weekend we were going down was one of the weekends they were showing how to make molasses with horses. My daughter, who is fixing to turn one, got so excited to see the horses there and began trying to make the noises they do. After checking each piece they had there, we bought a souvenir for my daughter and started back on the loop. We passed more groups of deer and even had one walk in front of the truck as if she had the right of way. Once we came to the end, we all pulled over to the picnic area and sat down to talk about our trip and have chips and sandwiches. When we were done, we packed up our extra stuff, put our trash in a bag and headed back to the other vehicles to drop everyone off and head back home.

Scienceography 1 Gallbladder Surgery During the second semester of my junior year of high school, I began to start having stomach problems. I was not able to keep food in my stomach very long, when I would eat my stomach would cramp, and I was not able to use the bathroom. After a couple of weeks of going through this, I made an appointment to see the doctor. They laid me back on a table and began pressing in on different parts of my stomach to see if it hurt to do that. Once she pressed in a spot on the right side of my stomach, it sent a sharp pain through my stomach. The clinic doctor then made me an appointment with the pediatrician out town and gave me a slip to have an ultrasound done to check. When the pediatrician seen me, he done the same thing the other doctor had and the sent me to get my blood took. After they took my blood, they sent me back to the room where they do ultrasounds. The ultrasound tech had me lay back and pull my shirt all the way to right below my chest. She then put this cold blue gel on the right side of my stomach and began checking my gallbladder on a screen. She would have me hold my breath, or roll over. It felt like she was pushing this stick all the way through my body. After she finished, I was sent home and the ultrasound pictures were sent to the doctor. I came back within a week and they provided me with the news that I did not gallstones, but I was going to have to schedule an appointment with the hospital to have a HIDA scan done. After a week, I went to the hospital to have my blood work done and had fasted the night before. They laid me down on this table and placed an IV in my arm that would inject the liquid for the scan to be completed. I spent an hour laying on the table underneath an x-ray type machine and even fell asleep. Once I was finished, they sent me home and told me the results would be in within a week. When I received the results, they told me that my gallbladder was not working properly and I was going to have to have it removed. I met up with the doctor who was going to complete my surgery and he gave me a date and time, how the surgery was going to take place, and the preparation I was going to have to do. When I came in that morning for the surgery after fasting, they gave me a gown, checked my blood pressure, and then had me lay down to put the IV in. The nurse I had had trouble putting the IV in and had to call in someone else. The nurse shoved the IV into my hand with no remorse and I was told I had quit breathing because of the pain. The nurses then came in and took my in the back to prep me for surgery. They gave me a drink to calm my nerves but it did not work. They had to inject some medicine in me before I cold calm down. As they were prepping me, they asked me my name and why I was there to make sure I understood. They wheeled me in a cold room and switched me to another table. They placed heart monitors on my chest and back, strapped my arms down, and then placed a mask over me to put me asleep. The first time I woke up, I was scared and was told that I fought the nurses. The second time I woke up, they were wheeling me to my recovery room. When I saw my mom and dad I started crying. The nurses made me lay there until I could eat jello and drink powerade, and then go to the restroom. After I completed everything required of me, they said I was able to go and then gave me a sheet to tell me what I needed to do at home until I healed. As I was putting my clothes on, I became nauseous and light-headed and felt as though I was going to pass out. I was told that I had went pale white and the reason was because my blood pressure had dropped due to all the morphine they had to give me. They laid me back in the bed and raised the foot of the bed up to where my feet were above my head, and told me to take a nap. When I woke back up, they checked everything and said I was ready to go home now. They brought a wheelchair in and rolled me to

the car. The pain was not unbearable but I did have to take medicine for it and I slept the entire day away. Six weeks later I was healed with no problems.

Scienceography 2 Cesarean After waiting patiently, with some minor trouble, for over 40 hours on Pitocin, my doctor decided that I was not going to progress anymore and my daughter was going to be delivered via Cesarean. I had already had my epidural in so the anesthesiologist switched out the fluid for that with a spinal block. The fluid used for the spinal block was very cold once it entered my back. He gave me a few minutes and came back and began poking and prodding my stomach to make sure that I could not feel anything. Once he was assured that it had worked, he gave me a cup with some nasty liquid in it to keep me from getting nauseous as they were doing my surgery. As they were prepping my husband for the cesarean, they were wheeling me into a room where the surgery would be completed. They placed a cap on my head, heart monitors on my chest and back, and placed me on the cold operating table. They pinned my arms down so that I could not move and placed a sheet across my body just right above my chest. My husband was finally allowed in my room and was able to sit down beside my head and hold my hand. They began the surgery and my husband and I sat there talking about different things to keep my mind off of what was going on. All was fine until my spinal block seemed to not be working as well anymore. I began feeling things when they pulled my daughter out. I was so excited to see her, however, they showed her only to my husband and then took her away to weigh her and check her health. Then the pain begun. I could feel them pulling each layer together and sewing them back up. I looked over to my anesthesiologist and very calmly told him I could feel it and it was hurting. He offered to give me some more medicine but told me it would make me very drowsy. Knowing that I wanted to see my daughter to whom I had yet to see, I asked him how much longer it would be. He looked over the sheet and told me I would have just a couple more minutes of unbearable pain. I told him that I could take it and tried to keep talking to my husband to distract my mind. These techniques worked. The anesthesiologist came over to me and rubbed my head to show that he was there to help and my husband now had Paisley and leaned her over just enough for me to finally see her beautiful face and her head full of hair. The doctor had finally completed putting and the cover was removed. The nurses began wiping me off and cleaning me up. However, the hurt was not over. The nurse who cleaned me up took both her hand and pressed down on my stomach to try and help message it back to normal shape. Although she was helping, it hurt, and my husband and the anesthesiologist grabbed my hands as I was going to grab her and held them until she was done while trying to calm me down. Once she was done, I rolled over to let the anesthesiologist pull my epidural out and they switched me back to me bed. They rolled me back into my room and I was finally able to hold my daughter. My recovery went very well and they told me the last layer of skin could have went without stitches due to the anatomy of my body. I was able to walk within 12 hours of surgery and did not have to have any pain medication. My six weeks visit went well and I was able to go about my life.

Animal Prediction In the year 2050, I imagine everything to be technology based. Everything will be run by or done by technology. Therefore, my animal prediction will be about a cow and what adaptation it will have developed come that year. I predict that by that year cows will not be messed with by humans as they are now. In conclusion, they will need to be able to still be fed without taking time out of a person’s day. Leading to my prediction that they will know how to push buttons to use technology so that they can feed themselves. Technology may even be progressed enough in that the cow will get fed twice a day and the technology will know it due to an ear tag scanner that will be place on the feeder. When cows feel like it is their time to feed, they walk over to the feeder and push a button with their nose so that the amount of feed they will be provided with will pour out into the feeder. This will allow the cows to eat feed when they need it and will allow humans to avoid taking time out of their day to run out and feed every night. Cows will be able to feed themselves with their adaptation of learning to use technology in the simplest form for them.

Observations/ Library Research

Appreciating Nature WSCC While sitting in the grass at a 5 year old level, I began to take in things that a child at this age would. As I was sitting there, I began to hear many different sounds such as different types of bugs, cars driving, people talking, doors closing, horns honking, and a drone flying overhead. I then used my sense of vision and could see the people talking, the trees and grass where the bugs where hiding, buildings, the cars that were driving by, the drone I heard overhead, the sun and even the sneaky little bugs. I could smell the air blowing by that carried the smells of food and perfumes. In addition, I could feel the texture of the grass and the heat from the sun. The senses of a five year old is ignored as we get older and we never really pay attention to our surroundings. At Home Sitting at a five year old level at home is completely different. I heard sounds that I did not here at the school. I heard things such as different farm animals, dogs, and birds. I could see trees, powerlines, animals, dirt, and different types of bugs. I could smell the smells of animals and fresh air from the river across the hill. I felt the dirt underneath me with sticks and rocks that were mixed in with it as well as the heat coming from the sun. Being in different areas really affects what your senses can recognize. At Home at Night Your senses seem as if they are heightened at night. When it comes to what I seen, it was mostly darkness and stars. The moon was barely there making it hard to see anything. My hearing though seemed to pick up more. I could hear crickets, coyotes, dogs, animals laying down getting settled in for the night, and even some big trucks from the main highway. There was even calls from animals that are unheard during the day such as owls and small rodents. My smell seemed to heighten as well. I could smell the moisture in the air and the smell of food flowing from inside the house. It almost felt as though I could feel the darkness around me and the temperature change from warm to cold. It even seemed that the ground felt different than it had before. Everything changing made it seem that darkness has an effect on your senses and your surroundings.

Observing Nature

Morning glories in the late summer/fall are very bright and full of life. These flowers bloom really early of the morning and goes away by the middle of the day. The flowers are any color from blue to pink, purple, and even white with lines of color through the middles of them. They are a vine type plant that can grow anywhere and love to grow up things. The bushes are very full with green leaves and makes you feel happy.

Morning glories in the winter are not as pretty as they are in the fall. The flowers no longer bloom and the vines are all dead and turning brown. The leaves have fallen off and the bushy look they once had is no longer there. The vines are breaking off and falling off the fences. The flower is not as pretty as it usually is and is sad.

Who is Science? Alexander Graham Bell An invention that I could not live without would have to be the telephone. The reason being is because the telephone is what helps me keep in touch with me family since I do not live around them. It especially helps when I am alone and just need my mom to talk to when I need to get something off my mind. The telephone also helps me keep in touch in case something has happened to someone or something bad is going on. Nowadays we have cellphones to use when we are on the road, but none of these things would have been possible if Alexander Graham Bell would not have introduced his invention. Alexander Bell was born March of 1847 in Scotland. His father was a professor of speech elocution at the University of Edinburgh who also wrote and published book about speech. Bell did not do well academically but he loved science and even built a de-husking machine for his family’s wheat mill when he was only twelve years old. At fifteen he moved to London, England with his grandfather who homeschooled him and brought out the best in him. While there he even earned money teaching elocution and learned the Latin and Greek languages. The inventions just seemed to start. At sixteen, Bell and his brother tried to build a talking robot but built a windpipe and a realistic looking head. However, when you would blow air through this windpipe, the mouth could produce a small amount of words that could be recognizable. He spent the next few years teaching elocution and improving his own education. Although he moved around, he still continued his research on sound and speech up until he grew sick and poor in health to which he then returned home to his family. After losing his siblings, he and his family moved to Canada where he learned the Mohawk language and put it in writing for the first time. At twenty-five, he opened up a school of vocal physiology and mechanics in speech in Boston, Massachusetts and at age twenty-six, without a university degree, he became a professor of vocal physiology and elocution at the Boston university school of oratory. While moving between the UK and North America, he had this desire to create a machine that would reproduce human speech. After learning at age nineteen about a German scientist who was carrying out work that was similar to his, he began trying to read it and failed. After trying to just follow the diagrams, he mistook the scientist’s information and thought that he had already created something to turn sounds of speech to electricity and he from there he believed that his dream could be done. Bell had his first patent written in the UK in 1875 and after it went through, he applied for one in the US in 1876 after fighting many lawsuits and in the summer of that same year, he was able to transmit telephone voice messages over long distances. After Western Union turned down the offer to buy his patent, Bell started his own telephone company and it became very profitable. Bell lived a long life creating many other inventions and

financially supporting others up until his death at the age seventy-five in Nova Scotia due to complications with diabetes. He was survived by his wife and two daughters and on the day of his funeral, all phones were forced to stay silent in his honor. Without this inventor’s crazy idea, I would not be able to stay in touch with my family when I wanted to. He changed my life by giving me the chance to still talk to my family without having to drive to where they are at. He also changed my life by helping me keep in touch and up to date on tragedies that have happened within my family.

Science Today

The Kissing Bug The kissing bug is a bug known for biting people on the face to eat their blood and leave a parasite behind. This bug is normally found in Central America and New Mexico but has found its way up into the U.S. recently due to climate change according to experts. The CDC stated that Chagas diseases, which is what is caused from the parasite, attacks the tissue and muscles of your body and leads to major health problems. The CDC also stated that you can have the disease for a while before noticing any symptoms and one of the major symptoms noticed is sudden death. CDC had reported everyone to make sure there are no ways this bug can get into your house because they are not for certain where these bugs have made it to. This news in science affects me because this bug could make its way to where I live and hurt my family or myself. This bug could harm my loved ones and could infect them with the Chagas disease. This article has helped me to know what to look for and make sure that there are no ways this could come into my house if I do see them.

Samples from the Field My Daughter Paisley

My daughter Paisley is fixing to turn a year old on November 25, 2015. She has been walking since she was 10 months old, loves to climb things, and has 11 teeth. She is almost 3 foot tall and is 99 percentile because of it. She loves Mickey Mouse Clubhouse. Is already showing her own personality and is such a daddy’s girl. She loves cows and tractors and just being outside. This little girl is my pride and joy to whom I wouldn’t take the world for.

Brittanee Collins 

Brittanee’s sample from the field was her dog Molly. She told us that Molly was a blue heeler and beagle mix who absolutely loves her pink pig and green duck stuffed animals. She told us that Molly loves being outside playing and is two years old. Katelyn Inman 

Katelyn’s sample from the field was her pet dog Zeus whom she received as a gift on her 18th birthday. She went on to say that Zeus was a Bishon Frise, which is a type of French dog, and was about 2 or 3 years old. She mentioned that Zeus has bad allergy problems which cause him to have red feet and mouth and how he has had surgery to remove 14 of his teeth due to infection. Kasey Vaughn 

Kasey introduced us to Gus Gus the hamster as her sample from the field that she has had for about 6 months now. She told us that he likes to follow her around on his ball and run on his wheel while everyone was asleep. She also talked about how he likes cupcake like treats specifically for him and likes to take two and stuff them in his mouth, Jennifer Bowling 

Jennifer’s sample from the field was her pet cat Louie. She told us he was 4 months old and that she had taken him in a couple of weeks ago. She mentioned how he was supposed to be an outside cat but was attacked by a neighborhood cat and is now kept inside. She went on to say that he loves to catch and eat mice, and that he likes to sleep in the bed with people.

Samantha Haffer 

Samantha’s sample from the field was her mom and her grandmother, She told us that both of them have had surgeries due to benign tumors they have had removed that is hereditary. She stated that her grandmother has had two surgeries and it has only worsened her Alzheimer. She also told us that her mom has only had one and now has a steel plate in her head. Hollie Lamb 

Hollie’s sample from the field were her mother’s baby button quails. She told us that her mom keeps them in a huge fish tank to which she has made them their own little habitat. She compared the baby quails to the size of bumble bees when they first hatch and can still fit in the palm of your hand when they are fully grown. Megan Fugate 

Megan’s sample from the field was her nephew Easton who had been born prematurely by a month and a half and had to stay in the hospital due to a cleft palate in his throat. She told us about how when he ate it would come out of his nose and it took him awhile to get used to anything until he had his surgery to fix it. She said that Easton is now a healthy little four year old boy. Ashley Newell 

Ashely’s sample from the field was her pet dog Loki. She told us that her family received him as a Christmas gift that was placed on her porch with a bow around his neck. She talked about how he was the only male puppy out of all ten and how he is a very big dog now. She even mentioned that he is a great escape artist when it comes to getting out of his cage. Siarha Jinks 

Siarha’s sample from the field was her pet cat Cuddles. She told us that when cuddles was younger, a dog took her back legs off and now she does not have any. She went on to say that Cuddles can still run and jump around, but has a hard time on hardwood flooring. Cuddles likes to eat and will even sit in her food bowl as she is eating. Kaitlyn Martin 

Kaitlyn’s sample from the field was he trip to Africa over the summer for a mission trip. She told us that the palm trees were huge out there and that it was very warm. She told us that while she was there, she slept in tents around the church. Kathleen Sargent 

Kathleen’s sample from the field was her trip to Guatemala for a mission trip. She talked about how they were located around active volcanoes the whole trip she was there. She talked about how her job was to teach VBS and how they had separate buildings for men and women at the church. Laura Stanton 

Laura’s sample from the field was her trip to Florida. She told us that that was something her family done together every summer. She showed us pictures about the time she went to the aquarium and about how she loved playing around with one of the turtles there. Hannah Lawson

Hannah’s sample from the field was a set of deer horns. She talked about how her whole family hunts and it was a family tradition. She went on to say that that was the skull from her first deer she killed and how she has already killed her limit on bucks this year. Bethany Spoone 

Bethany’s sample from the field was an x-ray of her brain. She told us she had to have an MRI in sixth grade because she was diagnosed with epilepsy. She told us she has two types of seizures which is uncommon and she wanted them called spasms. She even said she has to have an EEG every year. Katherine Lewis 

Katherine’s sample from the field was her brother’s dog Roscoe. She talked about how he is just a mixed breed and loves to chase his tail and has made it numb. She also talked about how he chooses what toy he likes to play with and loves to take all his toys to her dad for him to throw them all. Kennedy Morgan 

Kennedy’s sample from the field was her brother Dalton. She told us that her brother was diagnosed with Epilepsy. She said he had his first seizure on his seventh birthday after his party was over. They thought that it was red dye or early onset diabetes without taking tests. He hasn’t had a seizure in 5 years and could tell you he was fixing to have a seizure. He is now no longer on any medicines for the seizures. Amanda Drinnon 

Amanda’s sample from the field was her puppy Toby. She told us he is 6 years old and is a Yorkie that weighs about 5 pounds. They have had him as soon as he was old enough to be taken away from his mom. Lauren Martin 

Lauren’s sample from the field was bearded dragons that her boyfriend has. She told us he had only had one until it had babies. She told us that he sales them to the pet store. She said he digs them out of the sand and places them in incubators so that they hatch. She told us that they eat any types of greens and crickets, and come from Australia. Brittany Woods 

Brittany’s sample from the field was about her kidney disease called minimal change disease. She told us that her kidneys does not filter proteins right. She has had it for 6 years and is on her last treatment that could cure it and if it does not work, she has to live with it. Kimberly Slayton 

Kimberly’s sample from the field was her three kids Skylar who is 11, Jamey who is her stepson, Lydia who is 7, and Blayze who is 2. She told us that all have different fathers. Suzannah Mason 

Suzannah’s sample from the field was her cat Luna. She told us that the cat showed up at her house and was abused and skinny when they found her. It took her a month for them to put collars on her and get her to come inside the house. She said she is now fat and happy, and sneaks into the food. Lauren Madon

Lauren’s sample from the field is her little sister Reagan who is four. She told us that there is a big difference in ages between her and the girl before her. She told us that she spends a lot of time with her and loves her. Cassandra Norvell 

Cassandra’s sample from the field was a baby squirrel that she had for a day. She kept him in a box with a towel and named him squirrely. She found him in her driveway and fed him in the syringe. Mackenzie Kitts 

Mackenzie’s sample from the field was her dogs Bullet and Dixie. She told us that Bullet was a rescue dog and he is an American Pitbull terrier. When she found him she was with a friend getting chickens and found him with his brother and sisters being poorly mistreated. She took them all in and nourished them back to health and kept him and sent the others to good homes. She told us he is 65 pounds or more and is still growing. Bullet got his name from chewing a bullet box the first night they had him. Her other dog is Dixie who is a Pitbull and rat terrier mix. And finally she got the last dog Darrla from the same place she got bullet and rehomed the other two.

Activities/ Labs

Grab Bag Topic:  Introductory or Five Senses Materials:  Brown paper bags  Miscellaneous objects (edible or nonedible) Instructions:      

Put objects in a bag Seal the top up Distribute to every kid Make sure to explain that they cannot open the bag Ask them to figure out what is in the bag by feeling, shaking, or smelling the object After a few minutes, ask the kids to tell what they think is in the bag



In this exercise you will become familiar with the various units used for measurement in the biology laboratory. Biologists use the International System of Units, SI, which is a metric-based system. Table 1.1 lists the units that will be used in your biology exercises. Table 1.1 Sl Units Physical quantity Name of Unit Mass Gram Length Meter Volume Liter Temperature Celsius

Symbol g m L or l C

Many times the measurement will require the use of prefixes to show values larger or smaller that Sl base unit. Table 1.2 lists the prefixes that will be used in your biology exercises.

Prefix KiloCentiMilliMicroNano-

Table 1.2 Sl Prefixes Symbol Factor 3 k 10 , or 1000 c 10-2, 0.01, or 1/100 m 10-3, 0.001 or 1/1000 10-6, 0.000,001  or 1/100,000 n 10-9, 0.000,000,001 or 1/100,000,000

Example Km, Kg cm mm, ml m, l nm

Practice Metric Conversions Since the metric system is based on units that differ from each other by factors of 10, we will review how the decimal position moves when converting within metric units. When converting large metric units into small metric units move the decimal to the right by the number of 0’s in the smaller unit prefix. You are in effect multiplying in units of 10. Example: convert 12.0 grams (larger) to milligrams (smaller), milli equal 1000, move decimal 3 places to right, 12,000.0 mg. When converting small metric units into larger metric units move the decimal to the left by the number of 0’s in the smaller unit prefix. You are in effect dividing in units of 10. Example: convert 12,000.0 mg (smaller) to grams (larger), milli equal 1000, move the decimal 3 places to the left, 12.0 grams

Assignment 1 – Dimensional Analysis Convert the following: 0.35 meter = ______ cm = ______ mm = ______ m = _______ nm 748,000 L = ______ mL ______ L 350 mg = ______ g = ______ kg 2.5L = ______ mL = _______L 0.01 kg = ______ g = ______ mg Additional “Practice” can be found in the Metric System on General Biology I Laboratory Study Disc. Excel is required to utilize this link.

Assignment 2 - Measuring Length, Area, and Volume Activities 1.

Length Using the meter stick, measure the following items to the nearest unit shown below: Length of your foot = _________ cm = ________ m Your height = _________ cm = ________ m


Area Using the meter stick, measure the following items to the nearest unit shown below: Laboratory tabletop

Length = ___________ cm Width = ___________ cm

Area of the laboratory tabletop = ________ cm X ________ cm = ________ cm2

Floor tile

Length = ___________ cm Width = ___________ cm

Area of the floor tile = _______ cm X ________ cm = __________ cm2 3.

Volume Using the mm ruler, record the width, length and height of the block provided. Determine the volume of the block.


Width _______ mm = ________ cm Length _______ mm = ________ cm


Height ________ mm = ________ cm The volume of this block in: _________cm3 (cc) = ________ml (cm x cm x cm = cm3 also called cubic centimeter, cc)

Assignment 3 - Measuring Mass Activities 1.

Determine the weight of the block provided. Block weight = __________g


Determine the density of the block provided.


Block density = __________g/cm3


Would this block float in water? (Water density = .9965g/cm3 at room temperature)

Assignment 4 - Measuring Liquid Volume Activities Become familiar with the following containers used to measure volume:

Graduated Cylinder . I used a _____________________ 1.


Erlenmeyer Flask

Weight of __________________ prior to adding water _______g Weight of __________________with 50 ml of water ______g Experimental weight of 50 ml water _______g Actual weight of 50 ml of water _______g


Which instrument was the most accurate? 2.

Could you have predicted this reading? Certain units in the metric system are identical with respect to a standard reference such as water.

1ml = 1g = 1cm3 H2O H2O H2O


Using this information, how could you determine the volume of a sphere such as a marble or a golf ball?


What is the volume of the bolt provided?

Assignment 5 - Temperature Conversions C = F - 32 x 5/9

F = C x 9/5 + 32

Practice conversions: 1.


78 F = _______ C,

9 C = ________ F


Use the thermometer to determine the temperature in Celsius of each of the following: Ice bath = ________ C Room air = ________ C Boiling water = ________ C Note: See “Temperature” slide in The Metric System on the General Biology I Study Disc.



The study of living organisms often involves observing structures too small to be seen with the naked eye. A system of magnification had to be developed if biologist were ever going to learn about these small structures as well as single cell organisms that are also too small to be seen with the naked eye. The Compound Light Microscope is the most common magnification system used in the biology laboratory. Images can be magnified up to approximately 1000xs with the compound light microscope. The compound light microscope utilizes two magnifying lens, the objective lens and the ocular lens. Other systems of magnification such as the transmitting electron microscope and scanning electron microscope are utilized for more detailed study of cellular materials at much greater magnifications than possible with the compound light microscope but these will not be used in your lab. For less detail, depth and low power magnification but with the larger field of view, the dissection microscope may be used in lab.

Assignment 1 - Getting to Know the Compound Light Microscope Become familiar with the following parts and their function by examining your microscope and see photo on Biology Lab Study Disc. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Ocular lens top-most lens that your eye looks through. Magnifies 10xs. Body tube narrow tube that supports the ocular lens Nosepiece revolving part to which objective lens are attached Objective lens typically 4x, 10x, 40x magnifying lens in the general biology lab 4x scanning power 10x low power 40x high power 5. Mechanical stage support slide while viewing and allowing easy slide movement 6. Iris diaphragm lever located underneath stage regulating light intensity to slide 7. Condenser located above diaphragm to concentrate light to slide 8. Arm supports body tube, used to carry microscope 9. Base support, always place hand under when carrying microscope 10. Coarse adjustment larger knob that raises or lowers the stage or body tube depending on brand of microscope, use with 4x or 10x objectives 11. Fine adjustment smaller knob that provides final, optimum positioning of specimen for viewing. 12. Light source lamp located in base What is the total magnification? Total magnification is the magnification of the ocular lens times the magnification of the objective lens being used (4x, 10x or 40x). If the 10x ocular lens is used with the 4x objective lens, then the object being viewed will be magnified or enlarged 40 times

10 x 4 = 40). Fill in the blanks in Table 2.1 using the ocular and objective lens on the microscope you are using.

Ocular Lens

Table 2.1 Objective Lens

Total Magnification

10x 10x 10x

4x 10x 40x

_________x _________x _________x

Assignment 2 - Viewing a Prepared "e" Slide 1. 2. 3. 4.

Obtain a microscope slide labeled "letter e." Plug your microscope in and switch on. Rotate the 4x objective into the viewing position, feel the objective click into place. With maximum distance between the 4x objective and the stage, place "letter e" slide, with the tail of the "e" pointing toward you, between the mechanical stage clips. 5. Move the slide to center the "e" over the light source while looking from the side. 6. Open the iris diaphragm, if necessary, for additional light. 7. While looking through the ocular lens, turn the coarse adjustment knob so that the slide is brought closer to the objective lens. Continue until the "e" or part of the "e" becomes visible. The slide may need centering again before continuing. 8. Turn the fine adjustment knob to bring the "e" into sharper focus. 9. How has the orientation of the letter "e" changed when viewed through the ocular lens compared to the orientation of the "e" on the slide? 10. Move the slide to the right while viewing the "e". Which way did the "e" move? 11. Move the slide away from you while viewing the "e." Which way did the "e" move? This is called INVERSION, referring to how objects appear upside down and backwards when viewed through the microscope. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Center the "e" in your field of view. Rotate the 10x objective into place. View the "e" now. How has the field of view changed? Rotate the 40x objective into place. View the "e" now, you may need to slowly move the stage to see any part of the "e." How has the field of view changed now?

As the magnification increases, the diameter of the field of view decreases. For this reason, as you change objective lens to increase magnification, the object you wish to view must be centered in the field of view.

Assignment 3 - Determining Field Size 1.

Place a plastic metric ruler on the microscope stage over the light area. Viewing through the 4x objective bring the mm division marks on the ruler into focus. Move one mark to the side of the field of view and then determine the size of the field by counting the number of mm across. Estimate fractions of a mm by tenths. Scanning field (total magnification 40x) = ________mm


The approximate field size at higher magnification can be determined once the field size at a lower magnification has been determined using the following: Field mm (scanning) x total magnification = Field (higher power) x total magnification (higher power). Field mm (higher power) = Field mm (scanning) x total magnification total magnification (higher power)

Determine the approximate diameters of the field of view in m for your microscope and enter in table 2.2.

Objective Lens

Table 2.2 Total Magnification

Diameter of Field in m

Scanning Low Power High Power

_________x _________x _________x

_________ m _________ m _________ m

Assignment 4 - Estimating Size of Objects 1. 2. 3.

Obtain prepared slide labeled "Volvox." Focus the slide under low power. Estimate the % size of the organism relative to the diameter of the field. Is the organism approximately 25%, 50% or 80% of the diameter of the field? Multiply the estimated % of the organism by the diameter of the field in m to estimate the size of the organism in m. Example: 0.25 x field in m - est. size in m. Record results in table 2.3. Table 2.3 1. Diameter of field (See Table 2.2) 2. Relative size 3. Size of organism (lines1x2)

_________ m _________ % _________ m

Assignment 5 - Depth of Focus - Which thread is on top? A change in magnification not only affects the diameter of the field of view but also affects the depth of focus. Depth of focus decreases as magnification increases. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Obtain a slide labeled "colored threads" which will have 3 different colored threads. Center the threads over the light. With maximum distance between the nosepiece and stage, click the 4x objective into place. Using the coarse and fine adjustments focus on the filaments of the threads. Move the slide to where two threads intersect. Turn the fine adjustment so that the thread moves away from the objective lens. Stop when the thread is just out of focus. Now slowly bring the threads back into focus.

Which colored thread came into focus first? This is the one on top at this intersection. Thread on top at this intersection _______________ 9.

Move to another intersection and repeat steps 6-8 above.

Which colored thread came into focus first? This is the one on top at this intersection. Thread on top at this intersection ________________ Now you should be able to tell which colored thread is on top, in the middle and on the bottom. Top ________ Middle ________ Bottom ________

Assignment 6 - Preparing a Wet Mount 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


Obtain a clean glass microscope slide and coverslip. Place a drop of water and proceed to step 3 or a drop of the sample on your slide and proceed to step 4. Add your specimen to the water drop. Hold one edge of the coverslip to one side of the drop and lower the coverslip to cover the material. If done carefully very few air bubbles will appear. Beginning with the scanning objective, locate the specimen and bring into as sharp of focus as possible. Center the specimen in the field of view and move to the 10x objective. Slowly rotate the 40x objective into place. Be sure the 40x objective does not touch to slide! After the 40x objective is in place observe the image remains somewhat in focus. This microscope is parfocal, meaning that the image remains nearly in focus as you move from one objective to another.

7. Draw your specimen in the space provided below.

4X View 40X


Assignment 7 - Finishing up and Storing the Microscope 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Rotate the 4x objective into place. Clean all lenses with lens paper only. Put cover, if available, over microscope. Pick microscope up with one hand on arm and one hand under base. Return to the storage cabinet. Return all materials to the designated location in the lab. Clean your work area for the next lab students.

Colors of Nature Topic: 

Dichotomous Key

Materials Needed:   

Half of an egg carton Paint or markers Plants or flowers to match the colors

Instructions:     

Pass out a half of an egg carton to each student Tell them to color each square a different color with paint or markers depending upon the texture of the egg carton Then tell them to find something in nature that is the exact color of the square and put it in it Make sure to tell them that if it is a flower, to wait until the day you are bringing it in so that the flower does not shrivel up Once they have turned it in and it has been graded, have them create their own dichotomous key

Colors of Nature Dichotomous Key

1. The object is a flower…………………………………………………………go to 2 The object is not a flower…………………………………………………….go to 3 2. The flower is a bright color…………………………………………go to 4 The flower is white………………………………………………White Morning Glory 3. The object is a living………………………………………………..go to 5 The object is nonliving…………………………………………….Coal 4. The flower is yellow……………………………………………….Dandelion The flower is blue………………………………………………….Blue Morning Glory 5. The object grows out of the ground…………………………………Grass The object come from plants and trees……………………………...Red leaf

Sweet Treats Topic: 

Dichotomous Key

Materials:  Candy of different types  Sandwich bags Instructions:      

Hand each kid a bag of candy Pass out the paper you made with the dichotomous key Tell the kids to start with one and figure out which way they need to go depending on the type of candy Do a couple examples with them to show them how to do the activity Tell them not to eat the candy until the dichotomous key is complete Once all the kids are finished, go over the answers to see if they got their activity right

Owl & Mouse Topic:  Predator/Prey Interactions and Energy Need Materials:  Squishy Nerf Balls  Blindfolds (Brand New)  Tiny Paper Wads  Candy for reward Instructions:        

Find a wide space to play Pick a volunteer to play the owl Explain that everyone else must be the mice and have to sit down on the floor and must get up to get the paper wads around the owl that is their cheese Place the blindfold over the volunteers eyes Give them 2 nerf balls and explain they have two tries to hit the mice on any part of their body as they try to get food Pick one person at a time to get a paper wad and go back to their spot without getting hit (If they make it back, they get candy) If the volunteer hits the mice, they get candy Give a new blindfold each time another player comes up to be the owl

Helping Hands Topic: 

Mutualism or Symbiotic Relationship

Materials:    

Stuffed Animals or Foam circles folded over and glued Bandannas Velcro Ankle Bands Poker Chips

Instructions: 

Tell the kids to pick a partner and decide who will be the Ferocious Feeler and the Noseeum.  Give each person a poker chip and tell them that that will be their home.  Place all your stuffed animals and foam circles all over a table and tell the kids that that is their food and they have to take it back to their home  Split them into two sides and let one side go at a time  Tell the Ferocious Feelers have to stick the hands behind their head and the Noseeums will be blindfolded  Then tell the kids to place their poker chips around the table which will be their coral reef so many feet away  Make sure you state the rules that they can only take one piece of food at a time and they cannot run  The first round the kids will be on their own to gather their food and when it is all gone, they must have at least 8 to live  Whoever has that or more will get candy  The second round, they will be paired with the partner with a Velcro band around their ankle  State the rule that if their band comes apart they will experience coral bleaching and die  Tell them to place their poker chips together to share a home  Place all the animals back on the table and let the kids try to gather their food with 12 being the least they can get to survive  Whichever group gets the right amount or more, they will win candy Repeat the same instructions with the other side

Natural Selection Pasta Topic: 

Natural Selection

Materials:  

Bowtie or Spiral pasta of different colors Bags with 25 pieces of one color for each color

Instructions:       

Take you class outside and have them stand side by side in a line around a grassy area Tell them the first round they must go and select one piece and go back to their spot Tally up the colors to see which one was gathered the most Throw the pasta back into the center On the second round, they must try to gather as many pieces of pasta as they can in one minute Once that minute is up, they must go back to their spot and separate each color and tally how many of each color they have Combine all the tallies to see how many piece were left in the grass

Comment: Great cross curriculum with Math

Fat Layer/Blubber Bags Topic: 


Materials:  

Gallon Ziploc Bags Lard or Crisco

Instructions:      

Fill Ziplocs bags with different amounts of Lard or Crisco Flip another Ziploc bag and place it in the other bags to lock the bags so stuff does not get in or get out Make one bag that is just the bag to be your control Make sure to state that they should not get the top of the bag in the ice water or the experiment will not work Put them in groups or partners Bring a bucket of ice water and time how long they have their hand in the bag to see how the higher amount of lard in the bag makes it less likely for them to feel the cold ice water through it

Build a Bug (The Great Race) Topic: 

Millipedes and Centipedes or Insects

Materials  

Students Lots of room

Instructions:       

Split the class in half Go to a place where they will have lots of room Go over the information about Millipedes and Centipedes and how many legs they have per segment Make one half of your class be the Millipede and put them in pairs back to back and then in a line with the rest of the group Make the other half be the Centipede standing in a line with their arms on the shoulders of the person in front of them Once everyone is lined up and calm, walk so far away from them and have them race to you without breaking apart to see which group can reach you first Let the kids race as many times as they like as long as you have the time

Spider Enzymes Topic: 


Materials:      

Bathroom cups Straws Cut in Half Gallon of water Green or Yellow Powered Gatorade Measuring Cup Sugar Cubes

Instructions: 

            

Mix Gatorade powder with water before class with the mixture being more water than power *can put in beaker with the name spider enzyme across to make kids believe it is really from spiders Pass out a cup and a straw to each kid in class Tell them that spiders have a circle mouth with and that they suck up their food Drop one sugar cube into each cup and tell the kids that the cube is a fly and to use their straw to pull the whole cube into their mouth Tell them that spiders use an enzyme that they digest into their food to make a drink out of their food to eat Pour the mixture into the cups until it covers the sugar cube Tell them that it takes a while for the enzyme to break the bug down so they have to wait until it is dissolved While waiting for the enzyme to digest the “fly”, you can make a spider out of your students Pick four volunteers to be the legs of the spider and have them stand back to back with a partner and the two groups stand side by side Pick one volunteer to be the pedipalps and the fangs with their arms bent up and the hands bent over to be the fangs of the spider Place a hat on the volunteer who is the fangs and pedipalps that has Velcro dots all over it to place googly eyes wherever you choose Finally, pick a volunteer to be the spinnerets in the back holding a piece of string Send the kids back to their seats and have all the students check their cups to see that their “fly” has dissolved into their enzyme Tell the kids to take their straw, if they want, and pull their food through it Have the kids throw their straws and cups away

Are you my Pup? Topic: 

Animal Senses

Materials:    

Different types of smells Same type of containers Different noise makers Blindfolds

Instructions:              

Have the containers paired with the same label so that they have the same smell Pair the kids up so that one will be the parent and the other can be the pup Give each pair a container with the same smell and a noise maker that makes the same noise Take the kids outside to have plenty of room Make them line up across from each other and place the blindfolds on them Mix the kids up on one side so that they are not straight across from each other Before you start, make sure to state the rules that they cannot run Tell the kids to go and try to find their partner and the first group to find each other can win candy If you cannot play the long version, there is a short version you can play The materials are containers you cannot see through, such a mini m&m containers and objects to put down in there Number the containers with the numbers not matching Have a piece of paper with the pairs that match Pass out the containers to the kids and them to shake it to hear their noise Once everyone has a container, tell them to go and find their match As they find their partner, they come to you to check to see if they got it right and they get candy

Cell Division Flipbook

Egg Osmosis

Egg Osmosis Terms  Diffusion: The movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.  Osmosis: The diffusion of water  Passive Transport: Results from the random motion of molecules causing a net movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration; no energy expenditure  Active Transport: Use of a plasma membrane carrier protein to move a substance into or out of a cell from lower to higher concentration; requires energy expenditure  Solute: Substance that is dissolved in a solvent, forming a solution  Solvent: Fluid, such as water, that dissolves solutes  Isotonic solution: A solution with an equal concentration of solute and solvent  Hypotonic solution: A solution with a lower concentration of solute, a higher concentration of solvent  Hypertonic solution: A solution with a higher concentration of solute, a lower concentration of solvent Eggs possess a selectively permeable membrane. Therefore some materials may pass through while others cannot. Materials  egg  300 mL distilled white vinegar  300 mL light corn syrup  300 mL distilled water  600 mL beaker  Parafilm  Spoon  Balance  Weigh Boat Hypothesis: Altering the solute concentration will result in a change in the weight and appearance of the egg. Procedure Day One 1. Obtain a beaker and label with group name (name decided upon by group members), egg, balance, weigh boat. 2. Place weigh boat on balance and zero balance. Place egg in weigh boat and find weight of egg. Record on Table One. 3. Pour 300 mL distilled white vinegar into 600 mL beaker. Place egg gently into vinegar. Cover the beaker with Parafilm. Let sit for 24-36 hours. This process will remove the shell from the egg, exposing the selectively permeable membrane.

Day Two 4. Place weigh boat on balance and zero balance. 5. Using spoon, gently remove egg from the vinegar and place into weigh boat. Be careful with egg from this point on—It is VERY fragile and will burst easily. Record weight on Table One. 6. Rinse 600 mL beaker until clean. Gently place egg into beaker. 7. Pour 300 mL corn syrup into beaker, covering egg. 8. Cover beaker with Parafilm once more. Sit aside for 24-36 hours. Day Three 9. Place weigh boat on balance and zero balance. 10. Using spoon, gently remove egg from the corn syrup and place into weigh boat. Be careful with egg—It is VERY fragile and will burst easily. Record weight on Table One. 11. Rinse 600 mL beaker until clean. Gently place egg into beaker. 12. Pour 300 mL distilled water into beaker, covering egg. 13. Cover beaker with Parafilm once more. Sit aside for 24-36 hours. Day Four 14. Place weigh boat on balance and zero balance. 15. Using spoon, gently remove egg from the distilled water and place into weigh boat. Be careful with egg—It is VERY fragile and will burst easily. Record weight on Table One. Table One Weight (g)


Day One Day Two Day Three Day Four Questions 1. What material was passing through the selectively permeable membrane? 2. Was this an example of passive transport or active transport? 3. What was the hypotonic solution used? 4. What was the hypertonic solution used? 5. Did the egg swell in the hypotonic or hypertonic solution? 6. Did the egg shrivel is the hypotonic or hypertonic solution?

DNA Magnets Topic: 


Materials Needed: 

DNA magnets

Instructions:    

Take each magnet and break it apart into the two pieces and mix them up Give every student a nucleotide Tell them to figure out what nucleotide they are and find their pair to match them Once they have matched, slide them on the stand to make their own strand of DNA

Protein Toobers Topic: 

Protein Folding

Materials Needed:   

17 Thumb tacks Pill bottle 4 foot Toober

Instructions: 

See attached

Base Pairing Practice Topic: 

Base Pairs

Materials:     

Balloons String Index Cards Black Marker Candy

Instructions:      

Write base pairs on an index card and give one to each student Place the other index cards with their pair on a table mixed up Have the students go and find their pair to their card Then have balloons with an index card attached on another table with the strand of RNA that will tell them what their codon will be Then have each student write their codon on the board with the person with the start one to go first and the person with the stop to go last until all codons are written Finally give the students a piece of candy for completing their pairs correctly

Doing Your Lessons in Blood Topic: 

Blood types/ Genetics of the blood

Materials:  

Two paper clips Pipe Cleaners

Instructions:   

  

Hand out two paper clips with either a blue or orange pipe cleaner on it or one that is clear to each child Tell the kids that if it has blue it is type B, orange it is type A, or if it is clear it is type O Tell the kids to pick one person to be the other parent to the first two kids and that to create their kids, they will take turns mixing their own blood types up in their hands so the other one can pick one of the hands to find out what blood type they received from each parent Once they each pick one blood type from the other, tell them to figure out what blood type it is and write it out in form of how the blood type is Tell the kids to then pick another person to be their baby momma and repeat the process to create two more kids and turn in the paper when they are done. Type A- IAIA or IAi ; Type B- IBIB or IBi ; Type O- ii ------ Make sure write these up and explain to the kids before completing the activity

Pipecleaner Babies Topic: 

Genetic traits

Materials Needed: •

White pipecleaners: autosomes –

Long chromosome pair •

Lt blue bead: blue eyes (Recessive)

Black bead: dark eyes (Dominant)

Short chromosome pair •

Orange bead: dark hair (Dominant)

Yellow bead: light hair (Recessive)

Colored chromosomes: sex chromosomes –

Pink pipecleaner: X chromosome •

Ivory bead: Normal blood clotting (Dominant)

Purple bead: Hemophilia (Recessive)

Blue pipecleaner: Y chromosome

Instructions:   

Each student will have their own DNA of pipecleaners They will pair up with a partner and flip a coin to see which trait their kid got and do this to make two babies The students will then pick another partner and do the same thing writing down what each of their children had

Zork Inheritance Topic: 

Genetic Traits

Materials Needed:  

Plastic Bags Different colored paper with letters printed on it (lowercase of upper to represent Heterozygous dominant, Homozygous dominant, or recessive)

Instructions:   

Hand each student a bag with the letters and have them place the side by side and flip a coin to see which letter they end up with Then have them pair up with a partner that has the opposite sex of what they do and put their letters together to see what their gene looks like Once they have placed all their letters together, have them find what their gene led their zork to look like and have them draw it and color it out on a piece of paper



BACKGROUND: A long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away, a great race of beings lived on a planet called ZORK. The inhabitants were known as Zorkonians. They are made up of 10 basic genes (unit) that code for their appearance. Each one of these genes is made up 2 alleles (traits). With this in mind, there are 1,024 different possible combinations for their appearance! This is called their phenotype or their physical appearance. If we look at their genes, there are 59,049 different combinations of the alleles! This is called the genotype or genetic makeup. Remember that we use letters for the alleles that control the genes and one letter or allele is inherited from each parent. You will be using Zorks, who use the same genetic principles as a pea plant, to see how genes are passed on and inherited. You will be using Punnett Squares to do this. Here are some things to help you. You must understand these concepts and terms! I will use traits from the table on the next page as examples. Phenotype: The physical appearance or what the gene makes an organism look like. Examples would be two eyes, yellow hair, and green lips from a zork. 1. Dominant: The trait that is shown the most. Example: Green hair is dominant over yellow hair. 2. Recessive: The trait that is hidden. In this example: yellow hair. Genotype: The genetic makeup of an organism. We use letters for the genotype. Remember that you need to look at the genotype to see what the phenotype will be. Example: There is a Gene or unit for hair color in a zork. The alleles or traits (individual genes) for hair color would be yellow and green. There are 2 alleles for each gene and we use letters for each allele. The capital letters are the dominant alleles and the lower case letters are the recessive alleles. Gene Hair color

Allele 1. Green color = G 2. Yellow color = g

1. Heterozygous: The term used for different alleles. There is always one dominant and one recessive allele. Example: Gg. There is only one possibility for this! 2. Homozygous: The term used for having the same alleles. This will be either 2 dominant alleles or 2 recessive alleles. Example: GG or gg. There are 2 possibilities for this! Please refer back to this to help you as you work through this assignment. You will use the table on the next page to complete the problems that follow. Everything you need is in the table! The following are the traits of a Zork, which we will use to study genetics. You will be studying one family. Be sure to read each problem carefully, because in each case the information is built upon the previous problem.

Allele T t G g E e F f H h L l W w N n R r B b

Dominant/Recessive Genotype Phenotype Heterozygous Homozygous Trait Tall Dominant TT,Tt Tall Tt TT Short Recessive tt Short tt Green Green Dominant GG,Gg Gg GG hair Hair Yellow Yellow Recessive gg gg hair Hair One Eye Dominant EE,Ee One Eye Ee EE Three Three Recessive ee ee Eyes Eyes One Dominant FF,Ft One Fang Ff FF Fang Two Two Recessive ff ff Fangs Fangs Two Two Dominant HH,Hh Hh HH Horns Horns One Recessive hh One Horn hh Horn Purple Purple Dominant LL,Ll Ll LL Lips Lips Green Green Recessive ll ll Lips Lips Two Two Dominant WW,Ww Ww WW Wings Wings No Recessive ww No Wings ww Wings One Leg Dominant NN,Nn One Leg Nn NN Two Recessive nn Two Legs nn Legs Green Green Dominant RR,Rr Rr RR Skin Skin Yellow Yellow Recessive rr rr Skin Skin Thick Thick Dominant BB,Bb Bb BB Eyebrow Eyebrow Thin Thin Recessive bb bb Eyebrow Eyebrow

Vanderbilt Student Volunteers for Science Winter 2007 (Revised 1/17/07) Adapted from Reebops lesson, Girls and Science Camp

Purpose Using the ideas and concepts introduced from ZORK GENETICS and MORE ZORK GENETICS, students will put those ideas into practice in this assignment and will give students a visual representation to aid in their understanding of basic Mendelian genetic principles. Both of the above assignments should be completed before doing this activity. Students will need to refer to the ZORK GENETICS activity table for a list of the alleles which will be needed for this activity.

Background Interestingly, zorks make good tools for the investigation of meiosis. Students will “create” baby zorks given genotypes that they determine by selecting paper chromosomes. Each cell in all living organisms contains hereditary information that is encoded by a molecule called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). (Show students the model of DNA) DNA is an extremely long molecule. When this long, skinny DNA molecule is all coiled up and bunched together it is called a chromosome. (Show students the picture of a chromosome) Each chromosome is a separate piece of DNA, so a cell with eight chromosomes has eight long pieces of DNA. A gene is a segment of the long DNA molecule. Different genes may be different lengths. Each gene is a code for how a certain molecule can be made. The molecules produced by the genes can generally be sorted into two different types: ones that run the chemical reactions in your body, and ones that will be the structural components of your body. How an organism looks and functions is a result of the cumulative effect of all the molecules. Any organism that has “parents” has an even number of chromosomes, because half of the chromosomes come from the “father” and the other half from the “mother.” For example, in plants, a pollen grain is the “father’s” contribution and an ovule is the “mother’s” contribution. These two cells combine to make a single cell, which will grow into a seed (the offspring). Humans have 46 chromosomes. The chromosomes sort into 23 pairs. One chromosome in each of the 23 pairs is from the person’s father, the other from the person’s mother. Since chromosomes come in pairs, genes do too. One gene is located on one member of chromosome pair, the other gene is in the same location on the opposite chromosome. The gene “pair” is technically referred to as a gene, as both members of the pair code for the same trait. A gene can consist of a variety of different forms, but only two forms are ever present per gene (one from the mother, the other from the father). The two different gene forms on the pair of chromosomes may be identical or different. The different forms that comprise a gene are called alleles.

Materials (for 30 students)     

Colored pencils 15 sets of trait strips (20 strips in each set) “How to Draw Zork Parts” (in sheet protectors) 30 Zork Worksheets 1 DNA model

  

1 picture of chromosome Copy of each student’s ZORK GENETICS assignment Colored modeling clay (optional for extension activity)

Information Each partner should each have a set of different colored chromosomes. (It does not matter who gets which color, as long as each person has a different color.) Tell the students that:     

One set of strips represent the chromosomes from the mother (female) zork. The other set represents chromosomes from the father (male) zork. Each STRIP represents a CHROMOSOME. Each strip has a letter, – either uppercase or lowercase. The uppercase letters represent a DOMINANT form of the trait and the lowercase letters represent the RECESSIVE form. Each PAIR of letters codes for a TRAIT (or, scientifically, an ALLELE). A DOMINANT trait will be present if the UPPERCASE letter is present. A RECESSIVE trait occurs only when BOTH lowercase letters are chosen. The traits are sorted so that they are matched into same sized pairs and same letters of the alphabet. You should have 10 pairs of same size strips (chromosomes whose letters code for traits) for both the male and female. Students will need to have their ZORK GENETICS assignment for the table of alleles (traits).

Experiment Tell the students to take the longest pair of one color of chromosomes (male) and the longest pair of the other color of chromosomes (female) and place them FACE DOWN on their desks so that they cannot see the letter. (Since the strips I added are not colored on both sides, have one student select males, and another females.) WITHOUT TURNING THE CHROMOSOMES OVER, pick one chromosome of the longest size from one color, and pick one chromosome of the longest size of the other color. Put these in the middle as one new pair. 

Your partner will take the remaining pair for his/her zork baby.

Continue doing this, taking one from each pair from longest to shortest. You and your partner should end up with ten new traits; each pair is one color chromosome and one of the other color chromosomes (strip). Turn over the chromosomes that remain on your table. These represent a new "baby" zork! On the DATASHEET, record the letter found on the first color of chromosomes in the Male Gene column. Record the letter found on the second color of chromosomes in the Female Gene column. Be sure you copy the letters exactly, uppercase or lower-case. THIS IS IMPORTANT! After filling out the DATA SHEET, return all chromosomes to their proper bags.

   

Determine the GENOTYPE by combining the 2 letters. o Determine if the trait is dominant or recessive. Record the PHENOTYPE for each characteristic, using the KEY and TABLE from the ZORK GENETICS assignment. Record this on the Zork Worksheet. Now color and add parts to the baby zork. EXTENSION: You can get colored modeling clay from any hobby store or toy store. I have students make 3D models of their zorks and take pictures with a digital camera to display around the room. This may be used as an alternative for students who do feel comfortable drawing their zorks.

Zork Worksheet Data Sheet Male Gene





Female Gene (2nd color)


Tall/Short (T/t’s) Hair (G/g’s) Eyes (E/e’s) Fangs (F/f’s) Horns (H/h’s) Lips (L/l’s) Wings (W/w’s) Legs (N/n’s) (D/d’s) Skin (R/r’s) Eyebrows (B/b’s)

Analysis/Questions 

Compare your zork to other zorks around the room. What differences and similarities do you see?


How do you explain all of the differences, even though the zorks all had the same set of parents?

Traits Bingo Topic: 

Genetic traits

Materials Needed:  

Bingo boards Paper markers or candy markers

Instructions: 

See attached

A Generation of Traits Topic: 


Materials Needed:   

Cups Small pom-poms Crayons

Instructions: 

See attached

A Recipe of Traits Topic: 

Genetic traits

Materials Needed:    

Colored paper Paper bags Tape Activity Sheets

Instructions: 

See attached

Senses Lab

Exercise 9 SENSORY PERCEPTION The objective of the following assignments is to increase your awareness of the senses that you daily use in reading a textbook, driving your car, stopping for a red light, listening and watching for a train and eating a pizza.

Assignment 1 - Blind Spot Determination In a previous lab (exercise 5) the sheep eye and the human eye model were examined. Remember the optic disc or “blind spot”? This is the region of the retina where blood vessels and optic nerves enter or leave the retina. No photoreceptors (rods and cones) are located here thus the term “blind spot.” Your brain usually fills in this blank area and you don’t notice it. In the following procedure you will discover your “blind spot.” Procedure for Blind Spot Determination 1. Hold figure 6.1 about 50cm (20 in.) in front of your eyes. 2. Cover your left eye and focus with the right eye on the cross. You will be able to see the dot as well. 3. While continuing to focus on the cross, slowly move the figure toward your face until the dot disappears. Have your partner measure and record the distance from your eye to the figure at the point where the dot disappeared. This is the point that the dot has moved on your blind spot. 4. Continue to move the figure closer to your face. 5. Does the dot reappear? Why? 6. Locate the blind spot in your left eye in a similar manner, but focus on the dot and watch for the cross to disappear. Figure 6.1

+ Assignment 2 - Eye Dominance Determination Just as you may favor using your right or left hand, you may also favor using your right or left eye since most people have a dominant eye. Ever wonder why you always use a certain eye while viewing a specimen through a monocular microscope? Many studies have been done in sporting activities such as golf and baseball to determine what affect eye dominance has on performance. Most baseball players have been dominant right eyed and right handed. The highest batting average hitters have been either cross dominant or lack dominance. In the following procedure you will determine your eye dominance.

Procedure 1. Extend your arm and with both eyes open visually center your thumb on an object several feet away. 2. Close one eye. Is your thumb still centered on the object? Reopen the eye. 3. Close the other eye. Is your thumb still centered on the object. The eye which remained more directly centered on the object is your dominant eye. If the thumb remained centered with both eyes, you are central-eye dominant. Questions 1. Do you have right, left or central dominance? 2. Compare your eye dominance with your hand dominance. Assignment 3 - Near Point Determination The shortest distance from your eye that is required to bring an object into sharp focus is called the near point. The shorter this distance, the greater the elasticity of the lens and ability of the eye to accommodate for changes in distance. Elasticity gradually decreases with age thus the near point gradually increases with age. See table 6.1. From table 6.1, how close would a typical 60-year old person have to hold this page to their face to bring the words into clear focus? A condition called presbyopia is due to this loss of elasticity of the lens and lack of accommodation.

Age 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Table 6.1 Age and Near Point Near Point centimeters 9 10 13 18 50 83 100

inches 3.5 3.9 5.1 7.1 19.7 32.7 39.4

Procedure for Near Point Determination 1. Hold this page in front of you at arm’s length. Close one eye, focus on a word on this page. 2. Slowly move the page toward your face until the image is blurred. 3. Move the page away until the image is sharp. 4. Have your partner measure the distance between your eye and the page. 5. This distance is the near point for that eye. 6. Determine the near point for the other eye by repeating the above steps. Record your Near Point determinations below: Right eye = _______________cm Left eye =_____________cm How does your near points compare with your parents? How do near points affect what you do and see?

Assignment 4 - Afterimage Demonstration Images that continue to be “seen” by your brain after you have closed your eyes or turned your head are called “afterimages.” In this procedure you will demonstrate afterimages. Procedure 1. Place a black sheet of paper and a white sheet of paper a short distance apart on your lab table. 2. Place a bright blue index card on the black paper. Stare at the card intently for 30 seconds. 3. Quickly shift your gaze to the white paper. Record your observations. 4. Repeat with the yellow card and record your observations. 5. Repeat by placing the blue card on the white paper first and shifting your stare to the black paper. Observations:

Assignment 5 - Astigmatism Determination Unequal curvature of either the cornea or the lens prevents light rays from being focused with equal sharpness on the retina, resulting in a condition called Astigmatism. In this procedure you will use the astigmatism chart to determine if you have this condition. Procedure for Astigmatism Determination 1. Turn to Figure 6.2, the Astigmatism Chart. 2. Cover one eye and focus on the circle in the center. 3. If the radiating lines appear equally dark and sharp, no astigmatism exists. If some of the radiating lines appear lighter in color than lines on the opposite side, then astigmatism exists. 4. Test the other eye by repeating the procedure. Right Eye: ______________

Left Eye:____________

Assignment 6 - Visual Acuity Visual acuity refers to the sharpness of a visual image in a standardized testing procedure. The Snellen Eye Chart (Figure 6.3) is usually used to measure the visual acuity. The Snellen Eye Chart has several lines of letters each of which you should be able to read at a certain distance. The size of letters on the first line are such that you should be able to read at 200 ft. away. Letters on line 8 are tall enough to be read at 20 ft. If you can read line 8 of the chart from 20 feet then your visual acuity is 20/20. Normal acuity is considered 20/20 or an acuity value of 1. Nearsighted (myopic) eyes have acuity values of less than 1, for example 20/40. Nearsighted people focus the image in front of the retina while farsighted people focus (hyperopic) the image behind the retina.

Procedure Visual Acuity 1. Stand 20 feet from a Snellen eye chart. 2. Cover one eye and read the letters that your partner points to on the chart. Begin at the top of the chart and work your way down. 3. Record the number printed next to the lowest row of letters correctly read. That number is the farthest distance that a person with normal vision can read the letters in that row. For example, if the number is 30, then the person has 20/30 vision, meaning that the person can see at 20 feet what a person with normal vision can see at 30 feet. 4. Test the other eye. 5. If you wear glasses or contacts, test your eyes with and without. Record your Visual Acuity results as:

Right eye =

20 (standard distance from chart) ____ (line you can see at 20 feet)


Left eye=


Assignment 7 - Color Blindness Determination Color blindness refers to a color vision deficiency most often due to a deficiency of red and green sensitive cones. People with this usually inherited deficiency have difficulty distinguishing shades of red and green, thus the name red-green color blindness. A person totally color-blind sees everything as a shade of gray. Color blindness is more common in males because it is sexlinked and males have only 1 x chromosomes. Procedure 1. Obtain the Ishihara Test Book. 2. Your partner will hold the test book about 30 inches from your face. 3. As your partner turns each page, you will have 5 seconds to give the number in each mosaic. 4. Your partner will record your responses. Colorblind? __________________ Assignment 8 - Hearing Loss Determination Hearing loss can result from either nerve deafness or conductive deafness. Nerve deafness is caused by injury to the sound receptors or neurons which transmit impulses to the brain. Often injury is the result of exposure to loud sounds. In conductive deafness sound vibrations never reach the inner ear due to damage to the eardrum or other structures of the middle ear. Conductive deafness is usually correctable by surgery or hearing aids. You will use the Rinne Test to distinguish between nerve and conduction hearing. Rinne Test Procedure

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Obtain a tuning fork. Your test partner must plug one ear with cotton and be sitting. The test partner is to indicate by hand signals when the sound is heard or not heard. Strike the tuning fork against the heel of your hand. Never strike the tuning fork against a hard object! Hold the tuning fork 7-10 inches away from the ear being tested with the edge of the fork pointing toward the ear. Listen for sound. As the sound fades, have your test partner indicate to you when the sound can no longer be heard. At this point place the base of the fork against the temporal bone behind the ear. Does the sound reappear? Compare your results with table 6.2. Table 6.2 Rinne Test Results SOUNDS Away from ear On temporal bone Interpretation

Left Ear: __________________

yes reappears Normal hearing


yes no Nerve deafness


no reappears Conduction deafness

Right Ear: ___________________

Assignment 9 - Touch Receptor Distribution Determination What is the density of your touch receptors? Does the density vary with different locations on your skin? These are some of the questions you will answer in this assignment. Pointed dividers will be used to stimulate two touch receptors in your skin. For you to perceive two simultaneous stimuli as separate sensations, the stimuli must be far enough apart to stimulate two touch receptors that are separated by at least one unstimulated touch receptor. Procedure 1. Obtain a pair of dividers. A metric ruler will also be required if one is not built-in to the divider. 2. Your test partner must close his or her eyes during the test. 3. Touch his or her skin with one or two points of the divider. 4. Your test partner reports the sensation as either one or two. 5. Start with the points of the dividers close together with the partner reporting a one point stimulus. 6. Gradually increase the distance between the points until the test partner reports a twopoint stimulus. 7. Record this distance between the two points in Table 6.3 as the two-point threshold. 8. Use the above procedure to determine the minimum distance giving a two-point sensation on the following: a. inside of forearm b. back of neck c. palm of hand d. tip of index finger

Table 6.3 Area of skin 2-point Threshold Inside of forearm back of neck palm of hand tip of index finger Which areas are least sensitive? What is the significance of the differences in sensitivity? Assignment 10 - Taste Receptors Determination Receptors for taste, taste buds, are located on very small projections, papillae, on the upper surface of the tongue. There are only four basic types of taste receptors: sweet, sour, bitter and salt. Groups of taste buds are located together on the tongue and are not uniformly distributed on the tongue (See figure 6.4). You will determine the distribution of the four basic types in the following procedure. Materials 1. 8 cotton swabs 2. 8 tissues 3. 2 paper cups 4. beaker of distilled water 5. 10% sucrose (sweet) 6. 10% sodium chloride (salt) 7. 10% vinegar (sour) 8. 5% quinine sulfate (bitter) Procedure 1. Obtain the above materials 2. Have your partner blot the upper surface of the tongue with the tissue and stick the tongue out. 3. Place several drops of the sucrose solution on a cotton swab. Swab the tip of the tongue. Do not let the test partner withdraw the tongue into his/her mouth! Can the partner detect a sweet taste? Is there any difference in taste after withdrawing the tongue? 4. Have the test partner rinse his/her mouth with water, blot the tongue and stick it out as before. 5. Repeat step 3 except now swab an area where taste buds for sweet should be absent (refer to figure 6.4). 6. Use the above procedure (2-5) to determine the distribution of taste receptors for salt, sour and bitter swabbing areas shown in figure 6.4 for specific type of taste buds.

Bones Lab SKELETAL SYSTEM The major structural elements of the skeletal system are bones. Bones play an important role in determining the size, shape and movement of many animals. Bones also have an important role in metabolic processes such as storage of chemicals and production of red and white blood cells. Protection of vital organs may also be an important function of the skeletal system as in the case of the rib cage protecting the heart and lungs. In this exercise you will study bones of the human body. Photos of the bones are located on the CD Study Disc in the Bones Presentation. The skeleton has two divisions Axial (head, thorax and spine) and appendicular (appendages and girdles). Assignment 1 – Long Bone Structure Examine a long bone locating the following: 1. Spongy bone 2. Compact bone 3. Central cavity Which of the above structures contains the red bone marrow? Which of the above structures contains the yellow bone marrow? Assignment 2 – Articulated and Disarticulated Skeleton Examine the assembled human skeleton as well as the loose collection of bones and identify the bones listed below: 1. Skull a. Frontal Bone – forehead region b. Parietal Bone – top and upper sides, behind frontal c. Temporal Bone – sides d. Occipital Bone – back e. Zygomatic – cheeks and lower border of eye sockets f. Maxilla – upper jaw g. Mandible – lower jaw h. Eye Sockets 2. Ribs – 24 bones 3. Sternum – Breastbone 4. Vertebral Column a. Cervical Vertebra – 7 bones in neck b. Thoracic Vertebra – 12 bones in upper back c. Lumbar Vertebra – 5 bones in lower back d. Intervertebral Disk e. Sacrum – fused vertebrae






f. Coccyx Individual Thoracic Vertebrae a. Spinous Process b. Transverse Process c. Articular Process d. Spinal Foramen e. Body f. Facet for Rib Shoulder a. Clavicle-collarbone b. Scapula-shoulder blade Arm a. Humerus – upper arm b. Ulna – longer of two bones in forearm, on side of little finger c. Radius – shorter of two bones in forearm, on the side of thumb d. Carpals – eight bones in wrist e. Metacarpals – five bones in the hand f. Phalanges – finger bones Pelvic (Hip) Girdle a. Sacrum – back part of pelvic girdle b. Coxal – 3 bones below fused i. Ilium – uppermost and largest part ii. Ischium – lower, strongest part, directed slightly posterior iii. Pubis – anterior to ischium Leg a. Femur – thigh bone b. Fibula – slender of two bones below knee c. Tibia – shin bone, larger of two bones below knee d. Patella – kneecap e. Tarsals – seven bones of ankle and heel f. Metatarsals - five long bones of foot g. Phalanges – toe bones

Muscles Lab SKELETAL MUSCLES AND ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES Assignment 1 - Locating Muscles on Arm Model Muscles to Know on Arm Brachial Deltoid Biceps Brachii Triceps Brachii Supraspinatus Brachioradialis Assignment 2 - Locating Muscles on Leg Model Muscles to Know on Leg Model Tibialis Anterior Biceps Femoris Gluteus Maximus Sartorius Achilles Tendon Gastrocnemius

Quads: Vastus Medialis Vastus lateralis Rectus femoris Vastus Intermedius Semitendinosus

Assignment 3 - Head, Neck and Trunk Muscles on Human Torso Model Muscles to Know on Human Torso Model Frontalis Pectoralis Major Orbicularis Oculi Intercostals Orbicularis Oris Rectus Abdominus Masseter Latissimus Dorsi Sternocleidomastoid Serratus Anterior Trapezius External Oblique

Assignment 4 - The Knee Model Structures to Know on the Knee Model 1. Femur 2. Tibia 3. Fibula 4. Patellar Ligament 5. Lateral Meniscus (me-NIS-kus)

6. Medial Meniscus (me-NIS-kus) 7. Patella 8. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (KROO-se-ト》) 9. Posterior Cruciate Ligament (KROO-se-ト》) 10. Tibial Collateral Ligament 11. Fibular Collateral Ligament

Science Standards/ Activities

Standards Summary Sheet Standard 1 **Do you want to build an Owl?  

GLE 0107.1.1 Recognize that living things have parts that work together. This activity teaches students that living things have parts that work together by allowing the students to build something out of different pieces. This shows them that the smaller pieces made the whole when they all come together, and it gives them a snack to eat. *Let’s Magnify our Lives!  

GLE 0107.1.2 Use tools to examine major body parts and plant structures. This activity allows students to use magnifying glasses to look at their major body parts as well as their neighbors to compare the look. It also allows the kids to look at plant structures and see how different they look with just their eyes compared to using a magnifying glass.

Standard 2 Scavenging for the Living and Non-Living.  

GLE 0107.2.1 Distinguish between living and non-living things in an environment. This activity takes the students outside to hunt for living and non-livings things. The students pair up with a partner and try to find five things that are living and five things that are non-living and then we go over them in class. Match me up!  

GLE 0007.2.2 Know that people interact with their environment through their senses. This activity lets the kids match up the word with the picture that goes along with the word. Then it lets the student see how they use them in their everyday life when the give examples of what the favorite things are to eat, smell, hear, touch, and look at. Lean on me.  

GLE 0207.2.3 Identify basic ways that plants and animals depend on each other. This activity allows the students to work together to figure out what goes where when they make their own food chain. Once they created it, someone cuts a spot on it off to show that if one piece disappears anything after it dies. *BIOMEans pick me!  

GLE 0607.2.4 Analyze the environments and the interdependence among organisms found in the world’s major biomes. This activity allows the students to use a computer to look up three different organisms that belong to each of the eight biomes. The students then have to glue them to a poster under the name of the biome they belong to in the order of which they interdepend with one another.

Standard 3 Plant Survival 101.  

GLE 0007.3.1 Recognize that living things require water, food, and air. This activity shows students how not having the things you need to survive will eventually lead you to death. Students will watch two of the same plants over a course of two days to see how much changes when one does not receive what it needs. Tom and Jerry  

GLE 0407.3.2 Investigate different ways that organisms meet their energy needs. This activity allows the students to show what an animal needs to do in order to survive and that if they do not eat, they will die. The students will be divided into cats and mice and go until there is only one winner.

Standard 4 **What makes me Different from you?  

GLE 0207.4.1 Compare the life cycles of various organisms. This activity allows the students to see how different organisms’ life cycles take place in different areas and the different stages that each life cycle takes. The students work on a trifold board and try to figure out where they go and what order each life cycle goes in. **Can you help me find my Mommy?  

GLE 0007.4.2 Observe that offspring resemble their parents. This activity allows the students to take part in a matching game. The students have to figure out which ones are the parents and place them in a column and then place their offspring directly across from them.

Standard 5 **Shall we compare?  

GLE 0007.5.1 Compare the basic features of plants and animals. This activity allows the students to see what plants do, what animals do, and what plants and animals do that are common. You will read the cards in front of the class and they will raise their hands to decide the majority vote on where it should go. The Land before Time. 

GLE 0107.5.2 Recognize that some organisms which formerly lived are no longer found on earth.

This activity allows the students to see how scientists have figured out what used to roam earth that are no longer here by letting them create their own fossils. Students will see how fossils are made and will be able to take them home.

Standard 1- Cells


Do you want to build an Owl? Brittany Harvey GLE Number:  0107.1.1 Description:  Recognize that living things have parts that work together Materials Needed:  Candy corn ( 1 piece for each child)  Reese Cups cut in half ( 2 halves for each child)  Oreos ( 2 for each child)  M&Ms ( 2 pieces for each child)  Brownies cut in squares  Ziploc bags  Gloves  Plates Instructions:             

Place one piece candy corn, a Reese cup cut in half, two Oreos, and two M&Ms in a Ziploc bag for each child and cook, or buy, the brownies the night before Go over how living things have parts that work together Give each child a plate Put gloves on so you do not touch the food Give each child a brownie Next, give each child a Ziploc bag with the other pieces in it Tell the kids that they are going to build an owl First, tell the kids to easily pull the tops off the Oreos and place the crème halves side by side to make the owls eyes Next, tell the kids to place the candy corn with the flat end next to the eyes to make the nose Then, tell the kids to take their M&Ms and place in the crème of the Oreo to make the pupil of the eye Then, tell the kids to take their thumb and make an indent halfway down the brownie on both sides Next, tell the kids to place to the two Reese cup halves in those indents and they have made their owl Review how each little piece came together to make the owl and then let the kids eat it


Brittany Harvey

Kaley Parvin Title: Pinecone Turkeys GLE 0007.1.1 GLE Description: Recognize that many things are made of parts Materials Needed: Pinecones, colorful cure pips, googly eyes, pieces of foam, glue Activity Description: Put the feathers on(pipes), eyes, and nose with glue to make a turkey. They can do any colors they want. Citation: Pinterest

Plants and Animals

Samantha Taylor, MacKinzie Kitts, Katie Sargent, & Lauren Madon GLE # 0207.1.1 GLE Description: Recognize that plants and animals are made up of smaller parts and use food, water, and air to survive. Materials: Flower flip book, crayons, scissors, animal needs worksheet, power points and review game. Activity description: After viewing the power points, students should be able to complete both activities and play the review game. Instructions: 1. Go through both of the power points allowing students to learn about how plants and animals use their different parts to survive. 2. Let them do the animal worksheet. 3. They then need to do the plant flipbook. 4. To do the flip book, they need to color their flowers, cut on the dotted lines on the front of the book, and fill in the blanks inside to describe what those parts do. 5. After all of this is complete, they can play the review game. 6. The review game is made of a poster board that has two sides with the different things plants and animals need to survive.

Fix-a-Flower GLE 0307.1.1 Identify parts of a plant and be able to describe their function. Materials 1. Cut outs 2. Blank Paper 3. Glue 4. Crayons/markers 5. Labels 6. Scissors Instructions Have the students color and cut out the different parts of the plant. They will need to glue down their plants onto the blank page, and have them glue the labels next to their part of the plant. Discussion 1. Which part of the plant grows underground to take in water and nutrients from the soil? 2. What is the part of the plant that grows above the ground and helps hold the plant up? 3. Which part of the plant grows out of the stem and is where the plant makes food? 4. What part of the plant attracts animals and insects to spread seeds for reproduction? 5. How does water from the ground travel to the leaves of the plant?

*Found at

I am Made of Building Blocks Laura Stanton GLE #: 0407.1.1 GLE Description: Recognize that cells are the building blocks of all living things. Materials Needed: Cell worksheet, brain pop video about cells, Velcro sticky dots, pictures of things that have cells (living things) and pictures of those that do not have cells (non-living things), two poster boards. Activity Description: Students should be able to recognize that cells are the building blocks of life and know the basic parts of a cell. Instructions: First, play the BrainPOP video for the students. Next, label one board as “has cells” and the other board as “no cells.” Use an envelope to hold the different pictures of living and non-living things and let students come up and randomly pull out a picture. Let them decide which board it will go on. After that, give each student a cell activity handout and let them fill it out and color the cell picture if they want. Citation: Worksheet activity: BrainPOP Video:

The Cell

Name: Kaitlyn Martin

GLE 0507.1.1

GLE Description: Distinguish between the basic structures and functions of plant and animal cells. Label drawings of plant and animal cells.

Materials: Worksheets from website. Tin cans (altoid/mint tins). Crayons or markers. Glue, you could use Velcro sticky dots too.

Activity Description: Glue or tape the title on the front of the tin. Open up the tin, color the different parts, then glue them in the correct place. After they are glued, take the labels from the bottom of the tins (you can either cut them OR fold them up) and write the correct definition.

Citation: “Got to Teach!: 3D Mint Tin Cell Model.� Got to Teach!: 3D Mint Tin Cell Model. Web. 2015.

13 Oct.


Let’s Magnify our Lives! Brittany Harvey GLE Number:  0107.1.2 Description:  Use tools to examine major body parts and plant structures Materials Needed:  Magnifying glass  Plant parts  White paper  Copies of a flower coloring sheet Instructions:             

Pass out a magnifying glass to each student Tell them to look at their hands using just their eyes. Then tell them to use their magnifying glass to look at the same places of their hand closely to see how it made things look different Have the kids then raise their hand when they have noticed something that is different. Pick different students to tell you what they have found by looking through the magnifying glass compared to looking with just their eyes. Tell the students to even look at their neighbor’s hand to see how everyone’s hand is different than another. Then place the different parts of the plants on the table and tell them to look at them like they did their hand using their eyes first and then their magnifying glass. Make sure to stress not to pick the objects up, shove anyone, or run to get to the table. Once everyone has had their chance to go through and look, have them sit back down and place the magnifying glasses back in the box Pass out one piece of white paper to each student Tell them to use the piece of paper to trace their hand and try to make it resemble their own as if they were looking at it Then pass out the paper with the flower coloring sheet with all the parts labeled that they had saw on the table using their magnifying glass, and color each part. Make sure to tell them to put their names on them and hang them up on the wall to use as their artwork for others to see.

Citation: 

Brittany Harvey

Kimberly Slayton 10/16/15 Individual Presentation GLE 0107.1.2 Use tools to examine major body parts and plant structures. TITLE:

The Plastic Bottle Lens


Getting a better look at living things


Empty water bottle, scissors, marker, water


Have students draw a circle on the part of the water bottle that’s near the neck and has the deepest curve, and then cut it out. Have students hold the little mini cup while you pour a small amount of water into it. Tell students to look through the water at words on paper.


The disc shape you have cut out curves outwards, so is a convex shape. By adding the water the light that passes through is refracted meaning that it is bent inwards, creating a lens effect and enlarging the size of the letters. So you have then created your very own magnifying glass!



Indoor Nature Walk


Getting a closer look at living things


Station 1, sea shells, sand, etc. Station 2, Stones, rocks, etc. Station 3, Any type of plants, grass, leaves, pinecones. Station 4, Bug shells, butterfly wings, snake skin, feathers, etc. Station 5, wood pieces, bees nests, etc. Magnifying glasses. (Oriental Trading $3.99/dozen plus tax)


Set up room beforehand with the different stations. Have students break into groups. Before they get into exploring the items in the stations, have them look at their own nails and skin, and another’s hair and eyes. Then let them explore each of the stations for an allotted amount of time.

“ While the students are exploring share discoveries with them. Encourage the use of descriptive words. Ask questions about textures, colors, shapes, etc. Have students draw one object and include the details seen using a magnifier (Encourage;draw, look, draw, look). Ask questions such as, “How might that help the plant or animal?” and, “What does it remind you of?’” Citation: And myself, the source suggests an outdoor nature walk, I thought an indoor “walk” could add much more variety to what could be seen and explored by the students.

Indoor Nature Walk Station 1 Shed Items:

 Which item did you learn the most about or saw something you hadn’t noticed before using the magnifying glass? Station 2 Sea Items:  Which item did you learn the most about or saw something you hadn’t noticed before using the magnifying glass? Station 3 Stones Items:  Which item did you learn the most about or saw something you hadn’t noticed before using the magnifying glass? Station 4 Seed Items:  Which item did you learn the most about or saw something you hadn’t noticed before using the magnifying glass? Station 5 Shelter Items:  Which item did you learn the most about or saw something you hadn’t noticed before using the magnifying glass?

 Out of all the stations which item did you learn the most about?  Out of all the stations which item was your favorite to look at?



Standard 2- Interdependence


Scavenging for the Living and the Non-Living Brittany Harvey GLE Number:  0107.2.1 Description:  Distinguish between living and non-living things in an environment Materials Needed:  Copies of paper with a column labeled living and another column labeled non-living  Clip boards Instructions:  

Place one sheet of paper on a clipboard the night before Put the students in groups of two and pick one person in each group to be the one to write the information down  Have the students line up beside their partner and follow you outside to the side of the school  Make sure to tell the students to not run and to be quiet  Once outside, have the students gather around you and tell them that they have to find 5 things that are living and 5 things that are non-living and when they find those, to come back to you  Make sure the students know where there boundaries are that they cannot cross and to not run around  After the rules have been stated, let the kids go and find their objects  When everyone is finished, walk back into the classroom and have the students raise their hand to tell you one of the things they found that was living and write each answer on the board  Then have them repeat the same process for the non-living and go over why each object was placed in each group. Citation: 

Brittany Harvey

Living and Non-Living Lauren Madon GLE 0007.2.1: Recognize that some things are living and some are not. Topic: Living and Non-living. Materials: Activity print out and worksheet found at, scissors, glue Activity Description: When shown pictures of different things, be able to recognize that some of those things are alive, and some are not. Be able to put them into the correct category of living or non-living. Instructions: Cut the pictures, and then sort them into either the living or non-living category. Then, take the tic-tac-toe boards, have one person use the living pictures and the other use the non-living pictures, and play tic-tac-toe with them. This can be done in groups of two or groups of four. Finally, cut the pictures out on the worksheet, and place them in the correct category of living or non-living. Citation: activity by and is found at the link listed above

Living and Non-living Activity

Samantha Taylor GLE # 0107.2.1 GLE Description: Distinguish between living and non-living things in an environment. Materials: pictures of living and non-living objects, Poster board or printouts labeled living and non-living, and a bowl to mix up pictures for students to choose one Activity description: the students will have to decide if the object they picked is living or nonliving and go to the correct place. Instructions: 1. After cutting out the different pictures fold them and place them in a bowl (or something the students can draw one picture out of). 2. Allow each student to draw one paper from the bowl. 3. After they look at their picture they must determine if it is living or non-living and go to the correct poster labeled living or non-living. 4. Collect all pictures and play again if desired. 5. After playing the game, let the students do the worksheet to check their understanding of the game they just played.

Note: You could also use index cards with the names of different objects on them but make sure the students can read them. I just searched online to find enough pictures to ensure everyone would have an object. Citation: pictures and a worksheet Living and non-living labels

Where Is Your Home? By: Bethany Spoone Interdependence GLE 0207.2.1: Investigate the habitats of different kinds of local plants and animals Topic: Habitats Materials: 3-5 Poster boards, Velcro dots, plastic animals/animal pictures, and dĂŠcor items (e.g. letters, streamers, cloth/spray paint, pop-sicle sticks) Activity description: The idea of this activity is to make the children think like the animal that they randomly choose. Each boy or girl can pick an animal once (or how many ever times you would like for them to do it) and then they will go and stick it to the board as to where that animal belongs. After the activity the students must to do a write up about their favorite animal and include facts about their animal, ex. Which habitat they live in, what they eat, characteristics about that animal then have them explain why they chose that animal. Instructions: Take a bowl and put the plastic animals or picture of the animals in there, let each child choose one animal and have them take that animal and Velcro it to the correct habitat. You could let the children do this as many times as you felt like it is a short, fun activity. After they are done to in cooperate reading and writing into the lesson have them write a description about the animal of their choosing. The students write up should include what their favorite animal is and include facts about their animal, ex. Which habitat they live in, what they eat, characteristics about that animal then have them explain why they chose that animal.

Living VS. Non-Living Brittanee D. Collins Presentation day: September 25th, 2015 GLE #: 0307.2.1 GLE Description: Categorize things as living or non-living. Materials: Flash cards, magnets, folder to keep pieces together, metal pans (2 per group), sticky letters to label each pan, and candy for rewards and participation. Activity Description: This activity will need a few items that you may need to go to dollar general or dollar tree to get. You need to get multiple living items and multiple non-living items, what I used for this was at the dollar general they have flash cards to help kids learn their ABC’s, colors, and numbers and they all had different animals and creatures and they also had many miscellanies items like cars, balloons, food, etc. I took the flash cards and I took magnets and glued to the back of each one and that way they will hang on metal pans. I then would have two pans per group and I would label one pan living and one pan non-living and then I would have the pieces of flash cards with the magnets on the back of them and I would have a folder with the pieces for each group in them. This is a good way to make sure you have all your pieces together and you don’t lose any. I would then put the class into 4 or 6 groups and I would have them sort the pieces on the metal pans as living or non-living. This is a good activity to get the kids up and moving and also to get them active with other student in their classroom. Also this activity is teaching them about living and non-living things and categorizing them with their group members. This activity makes them work as a team and also allows them to learn what each item would be categorized as. Citation: Brittanee Collins


Match me up Brittany Harvey GLE Number:  0007.2.2 Description:  Know that people interact with their environment through their environment Materials Needed:  Envelopes  Pictures of things you taste, smell, hear, touch, and see laminated  Words touch, taste, see, hear, and smell typed, printed, and laminated Instructions:   

Place the words of the five senses and a picture to go with each mixed up in an envelope Go over the what the five sense are Hand each student an envelope and have them place the picture next to the word that it belongs to  Tell the students to raise their hand when they are finished and check their answers to see if they are right  Give each child a piece of candy for completing their matching set  Once each child is finished, have them each give an example of something they like to eat, smell, touch, hear, and look at and explain that they use their senses every day of their life to function Citation: 

Brittany Harvey

Five Senses Sorting Game Katie Sargent GLE: 0007.2.2 K

GLE Description: Know that people interact with their environment through their senses

Topic: Identify the five senses (taste, touch, smell, hear, and see) and have them categorize pictures for each sense.

Material: Poster board, pictures, my five senses book, and an envelope

Procedure: Have students come up one at a time and let them select a picture from an envelope and have them match it with one of the five senses.

Time: approx. 5-10 minutes


What living thing am I?

GLE 0207.2.2 Investigate living things found in different places. Topic: figuring out what am I? Materials: What you will need index card, expo marker, and white board names of different animals, research the animals, then find some picture or name of plants do the same for the plants, and insects

Activity Description: have the students to figure the different type of animal and other living things they are in the world. Instructions: have one student to come up in front of the whole class and draw a card. Then act, draw doing anything but say their living thing name that is on their card. The student has act or draw three thing about their living thing. If the class figures out what living thing are you gets a piece of candy. Citation: activity by Jennifer Bowling


Lean on me! Brittany Harvey GLE Number:  0207.2.3 Description:  Identify basic ways that plants and animals depend on each other Materials Needed:  Yarn  Pictures of each level of organism laminated  Hole punch  Scissors Instructions: 

Punch a hole in each laminated picture and tie a piece of string on each individual picture with enough string left over for others to be tied to it other than the first picture and the last  Take the students to a place they will have lots of room  Hand each student a picture tied to a string  Tell the students to work together and place the pictures in a line starting with the plant placing what would eat the one before it right after it  Once they think that is where the picture goes, tell them to tie the two strings together until the last string is tied  Go over how the line should have went and tell them that they built their own food chain  Have all the students to stand back except for two people so that one can hold the beginning and one can hold the end  Give one of the students the scissors and tell them to pick a random spot on the chain and cut the string  Once the string has been cut, show the students that since one piece has been taken out, the other pieces of the food chain fell off and explain that in real life if something went extinct that was needed in the food chain, that everything after it would eventually all die off as well showing that plants and animals depend on each other to survive Citation: 



BIOMEans pick me! Brittany Harvey GLE Number:  0607.2.4 Description: 

Analyze the environments and the interdependence among organisms found in the world’s major biomes Materials Needed:  Computer Lab  Poster Board  Glue  Black markers  Scissors  Printer paper Instructions: 

Take the students to the computer lab and have them find three animals or plants in each of the eight biomes and all three must interdepend with one another  Once they have found three in each, have them place the pictures on a word document and then print them out  After everyone has printed out their animals and plants, take the students back to the room and have them cutout their pictures  Pass out a poster board to each student and a black marker to each student and tell them to make a column for each of the biomes and place the names of them at the top of the poster and their name on the back  Hand each student a glue stick and tell them to glue the three pictures in to each biome according to how the interdependence falls upon each of the organisms  Once finished, have them turn it into you to use as a grade and then hang on the wall Citation:

Hollie Lamb GLE 0607.2.4 Analyze the environments and the interdependence among organisms found in the world’s major biomes. I have made bingo boards that correspond with facts of the 8 major biomes. I am going to use candy to put your marks on the bingo boards. When somebody wins, I am going to make sure all of their answers matches up. If they have animals in their answer, I am going to ask them what those animals need to survive to in cooperate interdependence.


Polar Bear



Buffaloes -40-25°F


Temperate and Tropical Grasslands


Nocturnal Grassland Artic Fox

Biomes Cactus

Permafrost Desert Anaconda Tropical





Black Bear



Savannah 3 Months Cactus

30-60 Inches



Anaconda Temperate Africa



Black Bears

Nocturnal Chaparral

Giraffe Mule Deer


Sahara Desert


Artic Fox






Elephant Tropical Giraffe Prairies


Autumn Cactus Savannah Wildfires



Mule Deer

December and February




Black Bears

Sahara Desert

Permafrost Prairies

Anaconda Artic Fox Coniferous Nocturnal Desert



Artic Fox

-40-25째F Temperate 3 months Savannah Buffaloes 30-60

Inches Temperate and Tropical Grasslands

Mule Deer


Prairies Polar Bear



400 Inches Tropical of Rain

Nocturnal Grassland Wildfires

Desert Anaconda

-58째 F


Questions & Answers The world is made up of __ major biomes. A: 8

Tropical 1.

This biome has high rainfall. A: TROPICAL

2. This animal is a large feline found in the tropical rainforest with orange and black stripes. What are you? A: TIGER 3. This is a large reptile typically found in the tropical rainforest. It does not have any limbs. A: ANACONDA 4.

The Tropical rainforest usually has about ___ inches through the year. A: 400


The tropical rainforest is made up of ___ & ____ vegetation. A: DENSE AND WET

Tundra 1.

This biome is cold and has a short growing season. A: TUNDRA


A tundra always has a layer of ______ about 1-2 feet under the ground. A: PERMAFROST


A large white animal commonly found in a tundra. : POLAR BEAR


The tundra’s average climate is ___. -58 degrees Farenheit

5. The animal is able to survive in the Tundra biome. This animal is very small (about 6 pounds) and has a thick, white, fur coat. A: ARTIC FOX

Savannah 1.

This biome is a grassland with few trees. A: SAVANNAH

2. This animal is the largest mammal on land and is commonly found in a Savannah? A: ELEPHANT 3.

The Savannah is commonly found on what continent? A: AFRICA

4. This is an animal that is known for its’ long neck that helps it reach the tops of trees to eat. A:GIRAFFE 5. The Savannah has two seasons. A dry season and a wet season. During the months of ___ and ____, no rain will fall at all. A: DECEMBER AND FEBRUARY

Coniferous 1. Coniferous forests are made up of ____ trees which grow closely together and can withstand immense cold. A: CONIFEROUS 2.

The average rainfall in a Coniferous Forest is ______. A: 30-60inches


The average temperature in the Coniferous Forest is between ___& ___. A: -40-25

Chaparral 1. This biome is a part of each continent and consists of various types of terrain including mountains and plains. It is often confused with the desert biome because they share many similarities such as both being hot and dry. A: CHAPARRAL 2.

Some common animals in the chaparral biome are coyotes and ____. A: MULE DEER

3. These are very common in the Chaparral biome due to lack of rain and hot temperatures. A: WILDFIRES

Temperate 1. This biome is characterized by having all four seasons including spring, summer, autumn and winter. A: TEMPERATE 2. In the temperate biome, the leaves on the trees change colors and shed in the season of ____. A:AUTUMN 3. The four seasons are very recognizable and usually last around ____months. A: 3 MONTHS 4.

Wolves, coyotes and ______ are usually found in the temperate forest. A: BLACK BEARS

Grassland 1.

______ are dominated by grasses and forbs, and have few or no trees. A: GRASSLANDS


Grasslands are divided into two divisions. A: TEMPERATE AND TROPICAL GRASSLANDS

3. Grasslands are considered a ______ biome. This means it is usually found between deserts and forests. 4.

Grasslands are also known as ______. A:PRAIRIES


These animals are usually found in grasslands. A: BUFFALOES

Deserts 1.

This biome forms due to the low level of rainfall each year. A: DESERT

2. This desert is the largest desert in the world covering over 300 million square miles. A: SAHARA DESERT 3. Many desert animals tend to be ____, sleeping during the day and coming out at night when the temperatures are more tolerable. A:NOCTURNAL 4.

This plant has prickly, spines to help protect animals from eating it. A: CACTI

Standard 3- Flow of Matter and Energy


Plant Survival 101 Brittany Harvey GLE Number:  0007.3.1 Description:  Recognize that living things require water, food, and air Materials Needed:  Two flowers that are bloomed and healthy  Dark room  Window with sunlight  Water Instructions:  

Bring both plants to class and show the students that both plant are healthy and growing Tell the students that in order for them to stay this way they must have food, water, and air  Next tell the students that they will try and experiment to see if the flowers stay the same when you keep one in the closet that will not have sunlight or water and the other in the window where the sun can reach it and water it everyday  After a couple of days, pull the other flower out of the closet and place it beside the other flower in front of the class  Ask the kids if the flowers still look like each other  Then tell them that because the flower did not meet all of its energy needs, it died while the other one that met all of them is still living and healthy Citation: 

Brittany Harvey

Plants & Animals With vs. Without Hannah Lawson Presentation Day: October 14, 2015 GLE #: 0007.3.1 GLE Description: Recognize that living things require water, food, and air. Materials: A pair of laminated pictures of plants and animals (one of the plants alive and one dead, one of the animals healthy and one lacking food, etc.), Velcro sticky dots, two poster boards, and stickers to label the boards or you can just label them with a marker. It would also be a good idea to have some type of candy for reward. What to Have Prepared Before Class: Label one of the boards “With” and the other “Without”. Have a count of how many pictures/pairs you will need to make in order to coordinate with your class. Put the Velcro sticky dots on both the pictures and boards so they can stick them on the boards when they do this activity. Label both of the cards with the same number so they will know if they match correctly. Instructions: Separate the class in half. Give half of the class the pictures of the dead plants and the skinny animals that have been without the water, food, and air. Give the other half of the class the healthy plants and animals. Have them find their partner and discuss why they think each is the way it is. After they have done this have each determine if theirs should go on the board labeled “With” meaning that it has had the required water, food, and air or if it should go on the board labeled “Without” meaning that it has not had the requirements. When they have determined this let them put theirs on the board. Reward with some type of candy afterwards. Citation: Hannah Lawson

Find Your Match Brittanee Collins & Hannah Lawson October 19, 2015 GLE #: 0107.3.1 GLE Description: Recognize that plants and animals are living things that grow and change over time. Materials: Miscellaneous items in a pair, some animals and some plants, and blindfolds. Examples: butterflies, dogs, trees, rabbits, apples, and grapes. Activity Description: Put your class into two groups and pass out the flash cards to the class and make sure that each person in the class has a match, but don’t let the students see each other’s cards. Blindfold students and have them either make the animal sound to find one another or say facts about their plant. Once they have found their match they can then take their blindfold off and discuss with one another how that animal or plant are living things and how they change overtime throughout their lives. Also, make sure this activity has plenty of room. Citation: Brittanee Collins & Hannah Lawson

Inside the Mouth of a Herbivore, Carnivore, or Omnivore Lauren Martin GLE 0207.3.1 for 2nd grade GLE Description: Recognize that animals eat plants or other animals for food. Topic: Identify that an animals eats plants, meat, or both. This activity does that by taking a look at the shape of their teeth to identify what they eat. Material: Constriction paper, pictures of different animals, paper or Styrofoam bowls, candy corn, and chocolate bars. Procedure: Each student is given an animal along with a mouth cut out. Using the supplies of candy corn (K-9 teeth for tearing meat) and flat chocolate bar (smooth teeth for plant eaters) on their tables, they will make the inside of the mouth of the animal they were given. If the animal has candy corn only teeth it is a meat-eating animal. If the animal has chocolate bar only teeth it only eats plants. If the animal has both candy corn and chocolate teeth it is a meat and plant-eating animal. Time: 10-20 minutes Citation: Pinterest

Time To Eat‌ Where Do I Go?

Cassandra Norvell Day Presented: October 16, 2015

GLE: 0307.3.1 Describe how animals use food to obtain energy and materials for growth and repair.

Materials: Poster board, Velcro sticky dots, 4 paper plates, laminated pictures of decomposers, omnivores, carnivores, and herbivores; and foam letters to use for the title. Preparing activity: place the title in correct spot. Glue down or tape down the paper plates so that they will stay on poster when it is held up. Label each plate with decomposers, herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores. Then place five Velcro dots in each plate Activity description: 20 students will have a card with a picture on it they have to decide which plate the picture goes in. Then they have to guess at which group takes more energy to survive.

Citation: Cassandra Norvell

Name: Suzannah Mason and Brittaney Woods Project: Grow your own bean plant. GLE met: 0407.3.1 demonstrate that plants need light and energy to grow and survive. Supplies: Beans, plastic cups, paper towels, and water. And a sunny windowsill to place your plants in!

Instructions: Hand out cups, two beans each, and paper towels. Place your paper towels in your plastic cups then pour a tiny amount of water in them (which the teacher will come around with a bottle of water). Have the children place their two beans in the bottom of their cups and place them in a sunny spot. Throughout the week check on your beans and replace water as needed. By 4-5 days you should have bean sprouts coming out of your cups!

Food Chain Links GLE: 0507.3.1- Demonstrate how all living thing rely on the process of photosynthesis to obtain energy Topic: Flow of Matter and Energy Materials: scissors, construction paper, and tape Instruction: 1. Cut the construction paper into strips, that can be made into rings 2. Divide the class into different some of them are producers, that use photosynthesis, some that eat those producers, some that eat those that eat the producers, etc, 3. Have them make a food chain of which eats which 4. Hang the food chain so that the producers at the top 5. When it is hung up take the scissors and “kill� the producer by cutting it in half, the rest of the food chain will fall because it was relaying on that one part of the chain to function Comments: You could have students draw the different animals or plants that they are Source: Katherine Lewis


Tom and Jerry Brittany Harvey GLE Number:  0407.3.2 Description:  Investigate different ways that organisms meet their energy needs Materials Needed:  Yellow balls  Lots of room Instructions:  

Divide the class into half and make one half cats and the other mice Tell the mice that they must get to a piece of cheese (yellow ball) and make it back to their hole without getting caught by the cats in order to survive  Tell the cats that they are going to be lazy cats and have their eyes closed like they are asleep but have good hearing and will listen for the mice and that if they hear them they chase after them to catch them to survive but can only catch one  Spread the cats around and place the cheese behind them  Have the cats close their eyes and look at the mice and give them the sign to go  Any mouse that makes it back with cheese survives and any cat that catches a mouse survives while the others die and move to the side until you have one winner  The winner will get a piece of candy  You can play this game as much as you want and have plenty of time Citation: Brittany Harvey

The Hunger Games: Members: -

Siarha Jinks


Ashley Newell

GLE 0407.3.2: -

Investigate different ways that organisms meet their energy needs.


Interdependence/ biodiversity/ predator-prey


Approximate time: -


Materials: -

Paper wads (food)

Instructions: 1. Spread the wads out on the grass away from the students. 2. Have a few students be the carnivores and the rest be the herbivores. 3. The herbivores must race past the carnivores to collect their food and must make it back to their “home.� The carnivores must try to catch (tag) the herbivores. * For ease of calculating, any herbivore that is tagged must freeze next to the carnivore. The carnivore cannot chase anymore for he/she has already obtained enough food. 4. At the end of the round, see how many herbivores and carnivores got something to eat. Comments:


This works best outdoors and is good exercise.


Boundaries need to be set so the herbivores know how far they can run.


Be sure to mention no rough-housing, tagging is okay.


Make sure there isn’t enough wads for every student to demonstrate how they must compete. Also make sure there aren’t as many carnivores as there are herbivores.


An herbivore is out if he/she didn’t collect any food, and a carnivore is out if he/she didn’t catch any prey.

Source: -

Siarha and Ashley

Standard 4- Heredity


What makes me Different from you? Brittany Harvey GLE Number: 


Description:  Compare the life cycles of various organisms. Materials Needed:  Tri-fold poster board  Velcro sticky dots  Life cycle of a plant laminated and cut out  Life cycle of a butterfly laminated and cut out  Life cycle of a frog laminated and cut out  Black Marker  Colored pencils  Big envelope  Piece of paper with instructions on it Instructions: Before Class 

For the life cycle of the plant, used the colored pencils to draw dirt and grass to show that this life cycle takes place in the ground and then draw a circle with arrows going around to show how the life cycle works  Place sticky dots around the circle for each picture of the plant to be placed on  Place the other side of the sticky dots on the picture  For the life cycle of the butterfly draw a big tree to show that it takes place in a tree and then follow the steps that you completed for the plant  For the life cycle of the frog, draw a body of water to show that the frog’s life cycle takes place in the water and complete the steps took with the plant and the butterfly  Place a big envelope on the back of the board to hold all of your pictures in  Then place a piece of paper with the instructions inside the envelope with the pictures as well During Class  

Set the board up somewhere in the room by itself Tell the students as they get finished with their work to go one at a time to play the board and complete it


Then tell the students to use a piece of paper and write down how each life cycle compared to one another in their own way and use take it as a grade or bonus points if they completed the cycles right and gave you a reasonable answer Citation: 

Brittany Harvey

Butterfly Pasta, From Egg to Animal, Flower Life Cycle Flip Chart Amanda Drinnon GLE 0007.4.1 for Kindergarten GLE Description: Observe how plants and animals change as they grow. Topic: Identify that an animals eats plants, meat, or both. This activity does that by taking a look at the shape of their teeth to identify what they eat. Material: Crayons, Scissors, Glue, Orzo Pasta, Shell Pasta, Corkscrew Pasta, Bowtie Pasta, Fastener, See Attached for links to print-outs. Procedure: Each student will get a packet containing each of the sheets in the link below and a zip-lock bag that contains each piece of pasta and a fastener. The students will start out with the “Flower Life Cycle� sheet. With that sheet they will color the bottom picture then cut along the lines to create a flip chart. Secondly, the students will color the butterfly and glue the pasta in the correct order. Lastly, the students will color all of the pieces including the wheel. Then they will cut everything out according to the instructions at the top. Then the students will glue the stages of the frog on the wheel in order. Last, the students will put the fastener in the middle of the wheel to create a life cycle wheel. Time: 10-20 minutes Citation:

The Life Cycle GLE: 0107.4.1 – Observe and illustrate the life cycle of animals Estimated Time: 15 minutes


*The life cycle of caterpillars


*A piece of paper with a circle drawn on it *Construction paper cutouts of a leaf, a branch with a leaf, a tree, and a cloud (or something that represents flying) *Mini marshmallows (a few per student) *Gummy worms (a few per student) *Tootsie Roll Midgies (a few per student) *A butterfly-ish shaped cracker (one per student)


*Hand out the paper with the cycle on it to each student *Hand out all of the candies and cutouts (I would put them in sandwhich bags the day before to make things go quicker.) *Tell the students to match each candy with the cutout it goes to, then put it on the stage of the life cycle it represents *Go around and check everyone's work as they say they're done *When they get them all right, they can eat the candy


*If you can't find butterfly shaped crackers, and snack shaped remotely like a butterfly will work. If your class is small enough, or if you feel nice enough, you can get cupcakes decorated with some kind of butterfly. Citation: Pinterest, revised by Brittany Woods

BIOL1030 Concepts of Biology Individual Project Name: Suzannah Mason Section: GLE 0207.4.1 Compare the life cycles of various organisms. Topic: Exploring the life cycles of a frog and a butterfly. Standard: GLE 0207.4.1 Heredity Grade level: 2nd Date presented: Activity Title: The butterfly cycle, My Froggy Friend. Citation of My Froggy friend: Pinterest

Citation of butterfly life cycle: Pinterest

Activity Description: Butterfly cycle: We will be going over the life cycle of a butterfly, in which you will pass out paper plates, markers, and candies to represent the different stages of the life cycle. Candy Supplies: The small marshmallows are the eggs, the gummi worm is the caterpillar, the tootsie roll represents the caterpillar being all wrapped in a pupa (chrysalis), and then the pretzel

is your butterfly. Instruct the students to draw a line down the paper plate and across the plate so that the plate is divided into four sections. In the first section you will write eggs, then in the next caterpillar, then in the bottom right pupa, then butterfly. Writing may be difficult for some students so you could always have the paper plates already complete, then allow them to put their candies where they go. As you move through the activity talk about how the marshmallows are the eggs and maybe show pictures of actual butterfly eggs, talk about how the gummi worm is similar to what a caterpillar looks like, and so on, while the children place their candies in the different sections. Afterwards they can eat their project! Activity Description: My Froggy Friend: In this activity we will be making a frog, and then putting a poem that describes the life cycle on its tongue. This is a fun activity for the students and they will then have the poem to read to remember the life cycle. First if you do not have green paper plates you will paint or color the top of your plates green. Then proceed; you will take your your sheets of paper with the printed out legs, arms, eyes, and let the students color their frogs body parts, then they will cut them out and glue them to their paper plates. Glue two arms on top and two legs on bottom. Then glue the eyes on the top plate facing frontwards. On the red slips of paper you can have your students write the poem if you were in an older grade or you could still have your 2nd graders write this to help with the language arts skills and practice writing. if not have the poem pre printed on small white slips of paper and have the students glue the white slip onto the red slip this is your frogs tongue. So the students will then glue their frogs tongue on the inside of the plate. The froggy friend is finished! The teacher will now discuss the frog life cycle and go over the poem with the

kids! They will have their frog to pull out and read his poem now to help remember the life cycle of a frog. Supplies: Paper plates (I found green ones at Wal-Mart) but if you can’t the kids can paint or color their plates green. Red strips of paper for the tongue.

By: Kaitlyn Martin, Megan Fugate and Kennedy Morgan GLE 0307.4.1 GLE Description: Identify the different life stages through which plants and animals pass. Activity Description: Life Cycle of a Butterfly-each student will get a worksheet, bag of pasta, and a glue stick. Then we will discuss the stages it will go through and decide what comes first and glue the right pieces of pasta where they go. Continue this process until the entire life cycle is finished. Plant Cycle- Choose six volunteers to come to the board and place the pieces in the correct spot in which they come in order to learn how each part plays and important role in making the flower. Materials: Butterfly Worksheet Pasta Glue sticks Plant Poster board chart Velcro sticky dots 6 corresponding pieces of the cycle (bean, cloud, dirt, water, sun, and flower) Citation: Butterfly: “The Hildebrands: Our Butterfly Popped!” The Hildebrands: Our Butterfly Popped! Web. 9 Nov. 2015. Plant: “Parts of a Plant and Plant Life Cycle.” Mrs. Kilburns Kiddos. 23 Apr. 2010. Web. 9 Nov. 2015.

Hollie Lamb Bethany Spoone

Easter Egg Punnett Squares GLE: 0507.4.1: Describe how genetic information is passed from parents to offspring during reproduction. Danny and Annie have decided they want to have children. They are imagining what their children might look like. Danny has brown eyes and Annie has green eyes. Danny has a genotype for brown eyes Bb and Annie has the genotype for green eyes bb. (brown M&M’s) Danny does not have freckles, but Annie has plenty. Danny’s genotype for freckles is rr, and Annie’s is Rr. (Red M&M’s) ** The big M&M’s stand for the capital letter, and the little M&M’s stand for the lower case letter**

After you open your egg, distinguish your genotype and phenotype.

Eye Color Genotype: __________ Phenotype: ____________

Freckles/No Freckles Genotype: __________ Phenotype: ____________

What’s the percent chance that the child will have brown eyes? ___ What’s the chance that the child will have green eyes? ___

What’s the chance that the child will have freckles? ___ What’s the chance that the child will not have freckles? ___


Brittany Harvey & Kasey Vaughn 11-06-15 Bio 1030-001

Can you help me find my Mommy? GLE Number:  0007.4.2 Description:  Observe that offspring resemble their parents Materials Needed:  Manila Folders  Laminated printouts of animals and their babies  Velcro sticky dots  Envelopes  Are you my mother? book Instructions:  Make columns on the folders with one being the parent column and one being the offspring column and place the pictures in an envelope for each folder the night before the activity  Read the book Are you my Mother? by Dr. Suess before the activity is started  Put the class into groups of four and pass out a folder to each group  Then take the envelopes and pass those to the groups  Explain that they will have to place the parents on one side and then once it is complete, place the parent’s offspring directly across from them  Tell the class that each person gets cards and each must take part in the activity  Then proceed to tell them that the first group to get done successfully receives a prize and then in the end everyone gets a piece of candy for completing the activity

 Go over each picture with your class and let them point out the resemblances they have that make it easy to tell that that offspring belongs to that parent Citation:  Brittany Harvey and Kasey Vaughn

Write Up Katherine Lewis GLE: 0107.4.2- Describe ways in how in which animals closely resemble their parents. Activity: Are You My Mother? Topic: Genetics Materials: Small and Large bird pattern, scissors, feathers (optional), crayons, laminated matching game cards Instructions: Activity 1: Students will begin by playing the matching game. Matching Game Instructions: Divide the students into groups, give each of the groups a set of the card games, have them take turns turning over the cards until they get the a match of an adult animal and a baby animal. Activity 2: Students will get small and large bird patterns.

Students will create the birds that they like.

Assessment: Instructor will ask students to compare and contrast the two patterns. Citations: Darla Lewis, first grade Dandridge Elementary school,

FROSTY’S GENETICS Directions: You and your partner will each flip your own coin to come up with your genotype letters. ***Heads- dominant (capital letter); Tails- recessive (lowercase letter). *** You and your partner will then put your genotype letters together to form a phenotype. The two letters can have three possible

outcomes: homozygous dominant, heterozygous, or homozygous recessive. Partner 1

Trait Height (H/h) Number of Snowballs (F/f) Scarf (S/s) Earmuffs (M/m) Eyes (E/e) Number of Buttons (B/b) Arms (A/a) Mouth (U/u) Nose (N/n) Hat (T/t)

Partner 2





Three Snowballs

Two Snowballs

Blue earmuffs


No Scarf

Four buttons

Black eyes

Two buttons



Purple eyes

Three branches


Orange earmuffs

No Nose

Two branches


No Hat

Key for Phenotypes Tall Short Three snowballs Two snowballs Scarf No scarf Blue earmuffs Orange earmuffs Black eyes Purple eyes Four buttons Two buttons Three branches Two branches Happy mouth Sad mouth Carrot nose No nose Hat No hat

HH/Hh hh FF/Ff ff SS/Ss ss MM/Mm mm EE/Ee ee BB/Bb bb AA/Aa aa UU/Uu uu NN/Nn nn TT/Tt tt

Activity write-up Name: Megan Fugate Title:

Frosty’s Genetics



GLE description: Realize that parents pass along physical characteristics to their offspring. Materials: Data sheet, coins, crayons, a phenotype sheet and key Activity: Students will determine genotype and phenotype by flipping the coin with a partner. After the two find each item they will create their own “Frosty the Snowman”. Citation: Pinterest &

Life as a Narf GLE 0507.4.2- Recognize that some characteristics are inherited while others result from interactions with the environment. With this lesson, the students will be given cards both with inherited traits and learned behaviors. They will create their own creature and have to decide whether or not their creature was breed to survive in said situations or if their learned behavior can possibly save them. Material: cards with multiple inherited traits and learned behaviors. Background information: You are all a member of a species known as Killus narfus, commonly known as the Narfs. Narfs are very intelligent creatures with many amazing abilities. They are about 3 feet tall. They come in a variety of colors, but the two most common varieties are blue and green. They live in rainforest environments. Remarkably, they have the ability to learn skills very much like humans do. It is not uncommon to see them painting or playing basketball. Narfs are typically gentle creatures, but are sometimes fierce when challenged by a predator. Narfs are slow creatures, and they do not migrate unless forced out by unforeseen circumstances. They typically stay in the lower branches of trees. Narfs are omnivorous and will eat nearly anything. They have teeth very similar to human teeth. They prefer fruits from the trees, but can also eat small animals. Small animals are sometimes difficult for them to eat if their teeth are not extremely sharp. Rules of the game: You will draw four inherited traits. These are traits that are part of your DNA and cannot be changed. Once they are drawn, there is nothing you can do about it. For each round, you may also draw one learned behavior. Perhaps this newly acquired skill will allow for survival, perhaps not. A situation will be read to you. Based on the situation, you will have to determine whether you will survive or not. Traits: Inherited traits

Learned behavior Situation 1: Situation 2: Situation 3: Situation 4:

Situation 1:

Would your inherited traits help you survive? (yes or no)


Would your learned behavior help you survive? (yes or no)


Is it likely that you would survive this situation?______________________________________

Situation 2: Would your inherited traits help you survive? (yes or no)


Would your learned behavior help you survive? (yes or no)


Is it likely that you would survive this situation?______________________________________

Situation 3: Would your inherited traits help you survive? (yes or no)


Would your learned behavior help you survive? (yes or no)


Is it likely that you would survive this situation?______________________________________

Situation 4: Would your inherited traits help you survive? (yes or no)


Would your learned behavior help you survive? (yes or no)


Is it likely that you would survive this situation?______________________________________ SITUATIONS (Teacher reads): Situation 1: All is well in the lush green rainforest. All Narfs are enjoying a nice climate and abundant food sources. All of a sudden, disaster strikes! A giant Narf eating monster attacks! The monster is scientifically knows as Killus Narfus and commonly known as the sharp tooth. The sharp tooth is far superior to other animals physically. It is extremely fast and very strong. It can jump high enough to reach the lower branches of trees in a single leap. The sharp tooth, as its name suggests, has very large sharp teeth for its carnivorous eating habits. The teeth look similar to that of a lion. The sharp tooth does, however, have poor eyesight. It can see mostly differences in color, but cannot make out shapes very well. It has an average sense of smell, but impeccable hearing. The sharp tooth does have one major weakness, music. Any music will put the sharp tooth immediately to sleep for long periods of time. Situation 2: Unfortunately, things are not going well for the entire Narf species. Human poachers have been killing Narfs for their incredibly soft fur. Many people enjoy Narf fur coats, or even Narf

skin rugs. The green Narfs have been particularly targeted. The green Narfs have much softer fur. The poachers typically hunt with bow and arrow because guns will draw attention to their illegal poaching practices. Some Narfs have extremely thick skin, which is difficult to penetrate with an arrow. Situation 3: Deforestation practices have been destroying the trees where Narfs live and the fruits that they commonly eat. Some Narfs are able to change food sources, but most Narfs are not fast enough to catch live animals nor do they have sharp enough teeth. Some Narfs have learned to garden and grow food which has allowed for the survival of some, but not the ones that do not know how to grow food. Situation 4: Many trees in the area where the Narfs live have been destroyed. This has caused heavy flooding due to high levels of rainfall. Before, the rainfall would have been regulated by the dense trees and vegetation. This has caused pools of water to form in the area where the Narfs live. Some of these pools can be quite deep, 6 feet or more. There are some food sources available at the bottom of these pools, so Narfs that can dive or swim can easily get this food. Inherited traits (cut out)

Blue Fur

Green Fur

Extremely sharp teeth

Human-like teeth

Sharp claws

No claws

Thick skin

Thin skin

Blue eyes

Brown eyes

Able to digest meat

Unable to digest meat

Long legs

Short legs

Long arms (more than 3-5 ft)

Short arms (3 feet or less)

Webbed toes

Not webbed toes

Large lung capacity (can hold their breath for more than 1 minute)

Small lung capacity (can only hold their breath for less than 1 minute)

Learned Behaviors

Playing Piano



Playing the ukulele




Fencing (sword fighting)

Long distance running

Weight lifting

Playing basketball


Campfire Cooking




Ride a unicycle


Ballet Dancing

Good at Math

Fast reader

Playing guitar


Nun chuck skills

Comments: This could easily be related to math by gathering the information after each situation and putting them into graphs like listed below. Class Data Chart How many What percent of students the class is this? survived? List as a fraction

First Situation Second Situation Third Situation Fourth Situation

Graph Create a bar graph that shows what percent of students survived each of the four situations.

Round 1

Round 2

Round 3

Round 4

Conclusion Questions: 1. Were you able to change any of your inherited traits at all in the game? Why or why not?

2. Were there certain traits that seemed to help you survive better then others?

3. Were there certain situations that seemed easier for the class to have survived then others? If so why do you think so?

4. Was it beneficial for you to be able to draw a new learned behavior for each situation?

5. What is the main difference between a learned behavior and inherited traits?

Standard 5- Biodiversity and Change


Shall we compare? Brittany Harvey GLE Number:  0007.5.1 Description:  Compare the basic features of plants and animals Materials Needed:  Three poster boards  Black Marker  Words printed out of what plants do, animals do, and what they both do, laminated  Velcro sticky dots Instructions: 

Before class make one board animals only, the other board plants only, and the last one both plants and animals  Count how many will be on each board and place that amount of Velcro sticky dots on the posters  Sit the boards up in front of the class  Take one card at a time and read it out loud for the class to hear and then tell them to raise their hand if the think only animals do it, if they think only plants do it, or if they think both plants and animals do it  Do that with all the cards and then check to make sure they were placed in the right spot Citation:

Kimberly Slayton Cassandra Norvell Jennifer Bowling Habitat Bingo Standard 5 Grade 2 GLE 0207.5.1: Investigate the relationship between an animal’s characteristics and the features of the environment where it lives. Materials Needed: Bingo Cards Habitat Tokens – for students Habitat Tokens – to draw from Answer Key Background Information Activity Description: While students play a game of bingo they can learn about the different habitats/biomes and the animals and plants associated with them. Citation:

Bingo cards modified by Kimberly Slayton


The Land before Time Brittany Harvey GLE Number:  0107.5.2 Description:  Recognize that some organisms which formerly lived are no longer found on earth Materials Needed:  Different types of playdough  Different sized small toy dinosaurs  Tray to put the playdough on Instructions:  

Place a tray in front of each child Then pass out two types of playdough to each child stressing that they should not touch anything until you say to  Give each child two different types of toy dinosaurs  Have the kids open one of their playdough containers and place the playdough on the tray  Tell the children to then flatten the playdough out just big enough for the dinosaurs body to fit on with some room left over  Next, tell the children to take their dinosaur and lay it on its side in the playdough and push down really hard and then pull their dinosaur back up.  Tell the kids to notice how it left an imprint in the playdough just like a fossil does and that this is how scientists how figured out what used to be on earth that is no longer found here  Tell the kids to place the footprints of the dinosaur next to it on the playdough and then push it aside  Let them complete the same steps with the second container of playdough and dinosaur to see if the fossils are the same  Set the tray to the side to dry through the day, and send them home with them in bags for the parents to see that they made their own fossils Citation: 

The Fossilization Game GLE 0107.5.2: -

Recognize that some organisms which formerly lived are no longer found on earth.

Topic: -

Extinction/ fossilization

Materials: -

Fossilization cards

Instructions: 1. Choose environment. The game begins with the class or smaller group choosing an environment in which there is a depositional setting such as a lake, pond, stream, river in a forest, or sea floor. 2. Choose roles. Roles that the participants choose for themselves are possible animal or plant inhabitants of the chosen setting. 3. Begin play. When play begins, the children act out their roles, with each one given a turn to make vocalizations or gestures. *They can also interact with each other as they would in their natural environment. 4. "Freeze" and decide the fate of the characters. The students draw cards which tell their fate. 5. Discuss what happened to the organisms and some reasons as to why they might not have survived. Would they have had a better chance at survival if they had different adaptations?

Comments: -

Better if played outdoors


Mention no rough-housing if they want to interact with each other.

Source: -

Brent H. Breithaupt


Thriving, Threatened, Endangered, or Extinct Name: Amanda Drinnon and Lauren Martin Topic: Thriving, Threatened, Endangered, or Extinct G.L.E.: 0307.5.2 GLE Description: Classify organisms as thriving, threatened, endangered, or extinct Grade Level: 3rd Date Presented: Monday, September 28, 2015 Materials: Tri-fold board, paint, pictures of animals, Velcro, envelope, PowerPoint Procedure: Begin by teaching the topic of thriving, threatened, endangered, or extinct animals to the students with the use of the PowerPoint. After the students have a good understanding of the topic tell them about the activity that goes along with it. Open the trifold board and then ask for a volunteer. When a student is chosen let them pick one animal out of the envelope and instruct them to Velcro the animal to its correct habitat. Continue choosing volunteers until there are no more animals left. Time: Approximately 15 minutes Citation: Amanda and Lauren‌/instructional_powerpoint_ppsx

Field Trips/ Integrated Assignments

Nature Walk The nature walk we went on to collect our leaves for our leaf collection was very pretty but very hot. Once everyone was there and signed in the Leaf collecting began. At every tree we stopped at, we were given a little information about the tree and what its purpose was for. We learned that some trees can be poisonous to animals, some have really long thorns, others are used for building, and even some are planted for commercial purposes. We got to pick a leaf, or leaves depending upon if the tree had a simple leaf or compound, off of the tree and take it with us. The sun stayed out the whole time we were there, and you could definitely feel it. When we passed all the trees we could look at it the shade, we were stuck in the sun. The trees were located all over the campus. We spent about two hours looking at different trees but the time flew by. Once we gathered all our leaves, pictures, if we took any, and the information, we went home and placed our leaves in paper towels stacked on top of one another to dry out in order for us to complete our leaf collection. Although the day was hot, it was fun and interesting learning about all the different trees there are just sitting around us.

ZooMobile Write-up Once all the kids were in the gym and seated, the woman from the zoo hushed all the kids and begin telling them that her name was Louise and that she was a worker from the Knoxville Zoo. Before she started her program, she made sure to tell the kids that they needed to be quiet if they wanted to see any of the animals or pet an animal at the end and that if they had the answer to her question, they must raise their hand and not shout it out. Louise brought three different animals and different types of bio facts to present to the kids as she went over the topics she would be teaching the kids. Louise started the program by asking the kids what the five senses were. She made the kids raise their hand and picked different ones to tell her what each of the senses were. The whole time Louise kept an excited voice and used her hand to talk to keep the children’s attention. Once all of the senses were named, she then asked what those senses were used for. After they discussed what each sense was used for, she brought out a picture of an owl to demonstrate about the sense of seeing. Next, she brought out an owl skull to explain the location of its eyes and why they were placed that way. She also asked the kids to explain why owls hunted only at night. Louise told the kids that an owls eyes cannot move but that their head could almost spin all the way around because they have twice as many bones in their neck. The kids then participated in an activity to see how far they could turn their heads. Bucky, the barn owl, was then brought out for the kids to see. Louise went into explaining facts about Bucky such as he was born at the zoo and was now seven years old, how he likes to eat mice, and was a barn owl. She even talked about how he does not hoot and that the kids should not make that sound with him out because hoot owls eat barn owls and it would scare him. Louise then pointed at Bucky’s eyes and showed that they were on the front of his face because he is a predator animal and also explained that he can see up to a football field away and can hear up to two football fields away. Louise then put Bucky away and brought out another animal to demonstrate prey eyes and good hearing. She told the kids that Hugo was a bunny that was born in Germany. First, Louise talked about Hugo’s ears and how them being longer she could hear better and could move them different ways and different directions at one time. She also mentioned that her eyes were on the side of her head because she was a prey animal and needed to see on every side of her. She then asked the kids to listen to her talk and then cup their ears with their hands and listen to the difference when she talked then and how it made it louder. Louise then talked about how Hugo likes to eat lettuce and parsnip and how Hugo sheds her fur when she gets nervous or when the seasons change. Louise then put Hugo back in his cage and asked the kids to tell her what animal has the best sense of smell. She then went on to tell them that bears had the best sense of smell and that they could smell things six foot underground and one mile away. Louise then brought out a bio fact of a hog to talk about the sense of smell and how they use their sense of smell to find truffles that are buried in the ground. She then explained that some animals use their sense of tasting as their source of smell. The animal she brought out to demonstrate this fact was Biff. Louise explained that Biff comes from swamps in Florida, eats rats, is nonvenomous, and is a constrictor. She tells the kids that Biff uses her forked tongue to taste and smell and uses her body to hear things. She states that Biff also has no eyelids or ears. Finally, Louise talks about animals that use whiskers or bristles for touch. Louise pulls out a picture of a snow leopard as an example of an animal that does this to feel things. Louise finished up the program by reviewing the five senses and what they do. She then tells the kids that because they were good

and followed the rules, they could choose to pet the snake or the rabbit but could only choose one. Louise made them raise their hand when she said the animal they wanted and the kids chose to pet Hugo the rabbit. She told them thanks for listening to her and for letting her be there and then told them to line up according to their teachers and as the went out, to pet the animal only using two fingers.

ZooMobile Write-Up 2 Just like the first assembly, Louise made the students sit down and be quiet before she introduced herself. She told them that she was from the zoo and that if the followed her rules, they would get to pick an animal to touch when the left. She told them that she was going to be talking to them about animal adaptations today. She started out by asking them what the four things were that animals needed to survive. She told them to raise their hand and not yell out the answer, and she picked out different students until all four were named. She then asked them what the number one rule was about survival and said that it was “don’t get eaten” and that was why the animals needed their adaptations. She then brought out one of her bio-facts which was the skin of a zebra. She asked the students to raise their hand if they thought it was black with white stripes and then to raise their hand if they thought it was white with black stripes. After everyone answered she then told them that it was actually black with white stripes only the black was actually a dark brown and the white had a yellow tint to it. She told the students that they were marked this way and stayed in groups so that if they saw a predator, it would confuse them because they would not know where the zebra stopped or started. She even mentioned that Zebras had dark skin underneath their hair so they would not get sunburned. Louise then brought out her second bio-fact which was the skull of a tiger. She showed the students the big teeth it had and said that those teeth were used for tearing off big pieces of meat when they ate. She then took a volunteer from the crowd to use as an example to show the students how the tiger bit the meat pieces off. After she sent the volunteer back, she pointed to where the jaw muscles would be located and showed them how big they were and told them they were that big so they could tear the big pieces off. Next, she brought out Hugo the rabbit and told the students that his breed was no longer found in the wild because they were all domesticated and are now bred to be real big so that they can be eaten. After she talked about Hugo, she took five questions from the audience who raised their hand and asked a question pertaining to what she was talking about. She then put Hugo back up and pulled out two feathers and said they belonged to the second biggest winged bird. She asked the students what they thought it was and the told them that it belonged to the Andean Condor whose wings stretch twelve feet long. She told them that Andean Condors eat dead things, have a bald head so that it will stay clean, and poop on their feet to clean them off. Louise then told them that they throw up on their predators to scare them away. Bucky was then brought out for everyone to see. Louise talked about how his ears were hidden

under his feathers and how his breed was known as the ghost owl because they are silent when they fly. She told them not to make any hooting sounds because it would scare Bucky because his predator was hoot owls and how before he flies he will poop so that he is light weight in order to fly. Next was the green turtle shell that was killed illegally and can only be used in science because of game wardens. Louise even mentioned that it was against the law to own a turtle. She then went on to tell the students that sea turtles have a smooth, flat back and that land turtles have shells that are like a box and very rough. She pointed to the thirteen scales on the back of the shell and told them that it was actually made of bone and that the shell was actually the turtle’s spine and ribs. She finally pulled out a really long African snake skin and had one of the teachers come help her hold it out. Louise told the students that a snake’s skin cannot sweat and that it was colored for the desert because that was where it belonged and that it was waterproof. Louise then told the students that she appreciated that they were good and told them that they could vote to either pet the rabbit or the pet snake she had and the snake one. She let each of the students use two fingers to touch the snake as they went by.

Knoxville Zoo Website Scavenger hunt Go to and find the following information. 1. What are the zoo hours? Monday-Friday 9:30-4:30 p.m. Saturday-Sunday 9:30-6:00 p.m. 2. Directions to the zoo. From the north (via Interstate 75): Take I-75 south Take I-275 south toward Asheville Merge onto I-40 east toward Asheville Take exit 392 - Continue straight through the light to Knoxville Zoo Drive Follow the signs to Knoxville Zoo From the south (via Interstate 75): Take I-75 north Take I-40 east toward Knoxville Take Exit 392 - Continue straight through the light to Knoxville Zoo Drive Follow the signs to Knoxville Zoo From the west (via Interstate 40): Take I-40 east to Exit 392 Exit 392 - Continue straight through the light to Knoxville Zoo Drive From the east (via Interstate 40):Take I-40 west toward Knoxville Take exit 392A and merge onto Rutledge Pike/ TN-1/ US-11W Turn right on Knoxville Zoo Drive Follow the signs to Knoxville Zoo 3. How much is parking? Parking is $5 4. What is the general admission for an adult? $19.95 5. Will we be able to see the birdshow in the Forest Ampitheater when we go to the zoo on October 2nd? If so, what times are the shows? If not, when could we see it? No; Shows are on Saturday and Sunday 11:00-2:00 p.m. if the weather allows it 6. What is the zoo phone number? (865)-637-5331 7. Print a School Group Registration form. 2015 - Group Sales Information.pdf 8. How far in advance would you need to schedule a zoo field trip for your 2nd grade class? Two weeks 9. How much would it cost your 2nd graders if they go with the school? How much for the teachers? $11.95 for 2nd Graders and 14.95 for Teachers 10. What are “EdZOOcational programs�? Give two examples of these programs? They are things you can do online without having to go to the zoo to learn. Zooboxes and Virtual Tours

11. What is “Bedtime with the Beasts”? Bedtime with the Beasts is where you go to the zoo after dark and see what the critters do after dark, take tours, and see some animals up close. Finally you get to spend the night at the zoo. 12. What are some of the topics of “Zooboxes”? Amphibians, Coral Reefs, and Rare Farm Breeds 13. How much will it cost to have the Zoomobile Outreach program come to Whitesburg school for 6 programs (2 classroom programs, 2 team programs, and 2 assembly programs)? $615 14. What are 2 Zoomobile Outreach topics available for your 2nd grade class? Scales, Feathers, and Fur. Life Cycles. 15. What is the SSP program? Program at the zoo to manage the population of endangered and threatened species

Zoo Write-Up Our trip to the zoo was a little wet. When everyone got there it was pouring the rain and really cold. After everyone got there that was going to be there, the guy who was going to be talking to us and walking us around the zoo, Steve, took us up to the conference room. He told all the students to sit at the table and the guests to sit in the back. He introduced himself to us and welcomed us to the zoo. He then started talking to us about how the zoo has all different types of activities we as teachers could do with our class when we started teaching. He then went on to explain what those activities were. He told us that the zoo offers an overnight trip which is known as Bedtime with the Beasts which allows the students to stay overnight at the zoo and see the animals as they are getting ready for the night and seeing the animals in the morning when they first wake up, or in some cases go to sleep. He also talked about the requirements that come along with doing these activities such as giving them a notice and filling out all of the paper work before taking the trip to the zoo. He even mentioned that if they did not have anything that went along with what you were teaching, you could give them enough notice and they could come up with something for you. Steve talked about how if you wanted to, you could gather the students up at a certain time and have them listen to the keeper chats talk about anything you wanted to know about that animal. Steve talked about how the zoo was just a 52 acre classroom and anytime you came there you could learn different things. Steve then brought up the Zoomobile and how it is something the zoo does where they come to you if you cannot take a trip to them and they can talk about whatever lesson you are going over. Even how they bring certain animals that can travel to use to go with the lesson as well as the prices it costs to do these and how the school should pay for it. Next, he brought up the zoo’s zooboxes. He told us that they fill these boxes with whatever topic you are wanting to teach and that to get them it requires a $25 dollar deposit that is returned to you after the zooboxes have been given back with everything in them within the two weeks you can have them. Finally he let us do some hands on activities. He handed each table a couple of bio-facts and told us to brainstorm about that organism and come up with cool facts about it based on its looks without guessing what it was. He then had us tell the other students the ideas that we came up with our bio-facts after looking at it and said doing things like this makes learning fun for the kids because kids are very curious. After we were finished with the bio-facts, he had us do our food web activity. Each table represented one part of the food chain and played that part as he made out a story. Everyone had a fun time and laughed at each table as they done their part. Before we went outside, he brought out his monkey-tailed lizard for everyone to see and talked about how animals draw in the children’s attention and makes them listen. It was then time for us to start our nature walk. We first stopped right outside the building and he talked about how heat worked by making us touch a piece of metal and then a piece of wood and tell him which one we thought was colder. He used a laser thermometer and told us that there was only one degree difference between them but they felt different because of the way they each conduct heat. Next he gave us a piece of paper with a word on it that something does, and as we walked to our next location, we had to find something that done what our word was. When we got to our next location, he told us about soil mapping and then had us gather a whole bunch of dirt and things on the ground and put it on a sifter and the shook the sifter on top of another box until it looked like all of it was shaken out. We then had to look and see if we had a bug or anything interesting in the scrap we had left in the other box. My group found a bug and then we put it in a container and used a magnifying glass to see it up close so we could tell what it was. We then dumped all of it out and put the

stuff back into the boxes and walked to the red wolf area. While we were there, Steve told us about the red wolves and how they were almost extinct until they brought them in for captive breeding to increase the pack. Once they had a big number of them, they released them into the Cades Cove area but did not have any luck. They had to bring all of them back in and set them out in different places. Once he was done, he told us thanks for coming and gave us liberty to go and do what we wanted. The zoo trip was fun, I just wish it would have been warmer and that we could have done more things.

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