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upazilla level cluster meetings. In their meetings, alongside considering the same content as the primary teachers, they also reflect on their management responsibilities and how to create supportive and reflective learning communities within their schools. In participating secondary schools, head teachers come together quarterly to discuss and reflect on the building of supportive structures within their schools. All the teachers felt that EIA had brought positive changes in their classroom teaching and that the students were very aware of these changes and were now much more engaged in the classes than they had been prior to EIA. A number of the teachers were specific in saying that prior to EIA their teaching was considerably more teacher-centred (although they did not use this term) but their lessons are now far more activity based with the students being far more involved. In Rajshahi Boys School, another EIA teacher, Arif, stressed that he ‘never’ taught in the way he does now before EIA and his teaching partner Zahir demonstrated how his students were far more active now. He described how in the past the students rarely talked or even raised their hands: ‘Before I used to lecture the students and they were afraid of me; now they love the classes and speak actively.’ Zahir implied that EIA had made his work easier in that he no longer has to ‘talk so much’. He now elicits the answers and ideas from his students. Evidence for the teachers’ claims of active classrooms was certainly present in all observed classes, to a greater or lesser degree. Even taking into consideration that the observer’s presence may have encouraged students and teachers to be particularly active, it was clear that such activity, along with many of the techniques embedded in EIA (such as pair and group work) were established as routines and students now expected and clearly enjoyed using English productively in the classes. When an observer spoke to one class after the lesson, students were vociferous in saying how much they now loved their English classes. A number of the students said they particularly liked the use of audio in the class – and this was stressed too by several of the teachers. It is also notable that non-EIA teachers had also noticed the positive changes in EIA classes for learners. One of these, for example, in the school in Rajshahi, said: ‘In the past the teacher would just go and lecture. Now the students get more help from him.’ Particularly noticeable to non-EIA teachers was the use of audio in classes and the student involvement as a result. Mohamed and Zahir felt that the productive use of the speaker (audio) and mobile phone was the key difference between EIA and programmes that had preceded it. Zahir was specific in saying the ‘audio is the most helpful form of support.’ Mohamed stressed how the audio had increased the engagement of the students: ‘When they listen to the audio they are very much attentive, but when they listen from my mouth they are not.’ Mohamed also pointed out that the variation in models of pronunciation was very useful. All the teachers spoke positively of the usefulness of the video, and some of them specifically demonstrated activities that they had found and copied (or adapted) directly from the video clips. As an example, Arif was specific in saying that some activities in his observed lesson came from the video in module four. Ayesha, who said she watched the teacher development videos every day (and liked the video English in Action in Bangladesh |

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Innovations in the CPD of English language teachers  

The publication, edited by David Hayes offers global perspectives on the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of English language teach...

Innovations in the CPD of English language teachers  

The publication, edited by David Hayes offers global perspectives on the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of English language teach...