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involvement contributed to the success of implementation and provided stakeholders with a sense of ownership. In cases where stakeholders were less involved in design and where procedures were relatively top-down, change was much slower or did not happen. In Ethiopia, for example, participants were originally provided with a needs analysis document rather than being given the opportunity to design their own (although they later revised the document) and it took time and effort to ensure that it was being used. In Afghanistan, CPD included design of the process, at first in small groups and then reaching a consensus on what needed to be included. Although the design process took time, once the document had been completed (see Appendix 1), it was quickly translated into Dari and Pashto, the users’ first languages, and processes were implemented. Innovation needs the involvement and commitment of all stakeholders If innovation is to be successful, it needs the awareness of all stakeholders, not only those working directly with learners. The support of the military administration, based on a working knowledge of what teacher co-ordinators were trying to do, was essential not only to ensure that processes could be put in place but also to remind personnel what should be in place and to monitor change. CPD for militaryappointed IT support not only raised awareness but also gave an important but easily overlooked stakeholder group a sense that they too were valued. In Afghanistan, programme managers, teachers, co-ordinators and military counterparts have increasingly come to feel part of one team working for a single purpose. Innovation needs to be ‘joined up’ As Fullan (2007: 93) says, problems in educational initiatives often arise not because innovation does not happen but because there are ‘too many disconnected, episodic, piecemeal, superficially adorned projects’ and an ‘endless cycle of initiatives’. The projects described here were relatively small scale, which had the advantage of meaning it was easy to inter-relate different strands of the projects. Participants were able to make connections between the CPD for self-access and other courses they were involved in, such as testing and classroom methodology, and the impact of one CPD programme fed into that of others. Innovation needs to be accompanied by support for critical-thinking skills A conscious aim of CPD was to help participants critically evaluate systems and challenges and find solutions. At times, the sequencing of the course seemed to take on a natural progression of its own: once a consensus of agreement had been reached on autonomy and choice, trainees were curious as to how this could be put into practice in practical terms and this brought us logically to systems and procedures required for effective self-access. Throughout CPD, over time, participants matured and developed as people, interacted more and more effectively, and grew in range and depth of perception. Opportunities for stakeholders to develop in this way would obviously benefit any innovation.

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|  The house of ‘do’s’ and ‘don’ts’

Innovations in the CPD of English language teachers  

The publication, edited by David Hayes offers global perspectives on the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of English language teach...

Innovations in the CPD of English language teachers  

The publication, edited by David Hayes offers global perspectives on the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of English language teach...