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for teacher co-ordinators on resources in both countries was supplemented by training by the software provider (face to face in the case of Ethiopia and online in the case of Afghanistan). Principle 4: Self-access implementers can contribute to the development of resources, and need support to enable them to do this In Ethiopia, over a four-year period, almost all teaching staff undertook the Cambridge CELTA (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) qualification. This process is ongoing in Afghanistan. The impact of CELTA as an in-service training tool is dramatic and leads to a very significant increase in the quality of teaching. At the same time, a number of areas for development were identified in Ethiopia at the post-CELTA stage, including the capacity to design and produce tasks and materials – Block’s (1991) ‘Do It Yourself’ materials design. Trainees identified that locally produced materials were necessary a) to target local cultural contexts and users’ backgrounds and b) to widen access to a range of authentic military-oriented materials. Course planning aimed to expose trainees to a range of more effective and less effective tasks (in particular, reading tasks). Input was included on the technicalities of ensuring tasks were appropriate for particular levels, had clear aims and were well presented. Principle 5: Effective self-access development requires support for and development of the problem-solving and evaluation skills of stakeholders The process of development needed some difficult questions to be asked and challenges to be identified and solved. Near the beginning of the programme, trainees were asked to identify current strengths and areas for development for operations and these were returned to throughout the training. It was as important to discourage specific groups of stakeholders from ‘passing the buck’ (and a measure of blame) to other stakeholder groups and to focus on trainees working to find realistic solutions. The course aimed to develop an atmosphere of honest, objective and constructive evaluation, and provide opportunities for participants to raise issues and discuss the challenges they themselves perceived.

Impact of CPD: achievements Impact on stakeholder beliefs and attitudes Ninety-six per cent of CPD trainees in Ethiopia (100 per cent in Afghanistan) rated training as very effective and of high quality (one or two lone sceptics remaining to act as a reality check). A significant aim of the training had been to provide an opportunity for trainees to reconsider their beliefs and attitudes regarding the relative responsibilities of teachers and learners, the importance of choice and learner autonomy, and the practical application of these to self-access. It is always difficult to quantify shifts in teacher beliefs although useful evidence can be gathered through accessing the views of participants, direct observation and analysing feedback from users. Participant self-reports were collected through questionnaires and one-to-one interviews. Trainees were quite articulate in describing how their opinions had changed and were able to revise their perceptions of their own roles:


|  The house of ‘do’s’ and ‘don’ts’

Innovations in the CPD of English language teachers  
Innovations in the CPD of English language teachers  

The publication, edited by David Hayes offers global perspectives on the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of English language teach...