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thinking, planning and practice with children, young people and colleagues throughout each phase of their teaching lives. (Day, 1999: 4) Consistent with this definition, a very broad view of CPD is taken for this volume, encompassing activities ranging from formal, ministry-sponsored in-service teacher training and development programmes for many thousands of teachers, to small-scale individual initiatives focusing on personal development. The scope of CPD thus runs from the structured to the unstructured, from the sector-wide to the personal. It responds to different needs at different phases of a teacher’s career, and is undertaken for different reasons and purposes at different times. CPD is truly lifelong learning. CPD assumes increasing importance as demands on teachers continue to increase in most school systems, in what Hargreaves (1994) called ‘the intensification of teaching’, a phenomenon in which ‘rapid shifts in the nature of work ensue from, among other factors, government-driven waves of ‘reform’ and ‘restructuring’.’ (Zipin, 2002: 2). This intensification has not lessened in the 20 years since Hargreaves named the phenomenon and it has inevitably resulted in constraints on professional development, as Day et al. (2006: 123) found in a study of teacher effectiveness in England: Teachers across all professional life phases felt that heavy workload, a lack of time and financial constraints were important inhibitors in their pursuit of professional development. These ‘inhibitors’ are commonplace, as are the demands on teachers for constant professional renewal, which argue for more rather than less opportunity for professional development in their working lives. The OECD (2011: 17) notes that ‘those who are now teaching [are required to] adapt to constantly changing demands in order to prepare students to play their part in societies which seem to be evolving at a faster rate than ever before in human history’. From a policy perspective, CPD is seen as central to improvements in the quality of teaching and learning in schools worldwide (Ingvarson, Meiers and Beavis, 2005; Muijs and Lindsay, 2008). From a personal perspective, as papers in this volume will show, CPD is critical in providing teachers with the means to cope with the increasing demands placed upon them by external forces while maintaining their individual capacity to take control of their own learning and to transform their educational practice. The challenge of providing opportunities for CPD in a country as vast as India is the focus of the first chapter. Emma-Sue Prince and Alison Barrett describe how British Council India has been working collaboratively with a number of state governments (Assam, Bihar, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Punjab) to support CPD for teacher educators as well as teachers in both their language teaching skills and their English language proficiency. Whether large-scale, state-wide cascade programmes or more restricted direct trainer and teacher development programmes with limited numbers of participants, all of the initiatives have dual aims of practical development of immediate relevance for those involved and long-term capacity building within the system so that states are better able to

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|  Overview

Innovations in the CPD of English language teachers  
Innovations in the CPD of English language teachers  

The publication, edited by David Hayes offers global perspectives on the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) of English language teach...