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Welcome to the 8th edition of PrISM! Issue 8 May/June 2009

Global Warming We are all being constantly being told to recycle our rubbish such as: tin cans, glass and plastic bottles and paper. But what if we stop recycling? What will come of the Earth? What will happen to all of us? Global Warming is constantly happening, every minute of every day of every year. The effects maybe very minimal over the course of a year, however when the years build up the effect of Global Warming becomes apparent. Changes in temperature, rainfall and wind force averages go up and in places the weather becomes chaotic. Droughts, floods and hurricanes can happen all over the world with weird and unpredictable weather. This is a diagram of the mean temperatures of the last century.

However many scientists believe that our current phase of warming is due to the Sun’s natural cycle of activity and argue that the Earths temperature fluctuations follow this far more closely than man made carbon emissions. The effects of global warming have been sensationalised in recent feature films such as the Day after Tomorrow and Clover field. Maybe these films are more accurate than you think and could happen to the World any time soon, on the other hand these films could be way off and could never happen to us, but would scientists take that chance. So, global warming needs to drastically slow down so the next generation of people don't have to suffer the consequences of our mistakes. People need to start saving power and stop using fossil fuels and keep recycling more and more things so the fossil fuels don't have to be kept being used.

It is one of the most troubling prospects that will face the world in the up and coming years. Global warming may be caused by fossil fuels being used more often in today's society, so we are constantly running out of the fuels and if we keep using them up as we do there is only around 30 years left, so by 2040 we may have no fossil fuels to burn. However the development of biofuel in cars can play a big part in saving these fuel in later years.

By Joel Cotterrel, Kristian Ormandy and Patrick McMillan

Cold Fusion One man came up with an idea for each house to have its own fusion reactor which would supply the house with unlimited heat. This is a picture of what he wanted in each house. The prototype is only about 40cm long.

by Dale Brown Cold fusion is where you get unlimited heat and energy from a reaction. The picture on the left shows one type of cold fusion reactor in a small scale. It has water and potassium carbonate in the bottom and has electricity running through it. Below is a sketched model.

Yet some people have made generators which some day could power entire cities. They are huge metal donut shaped objects where atoms are heated up to about 300million degrees and they fly around the inside of the donut shaped machine at such speeds that when they hit other atoms they generate energy. This is how, one day, all our homes could be powered. Cold fusion is also what happens in the core of the Sun, that’s how it gets its heat.

Pupils Of the Month These Pupil are the Pupils who have excelled in Science this month, well done to all of you! Year Year Year Year

7 - Matthew Hughes 8 - Madison Guilding 9 - Jade Corbin 10 - Alice Bloor

Please see Mr Downing for a Prize!

Make a Gyroscope Tie one end of a long piece of string to the middle of a matchstick. Pull the other end of the string up through the hole in the centre of an old-fashioned vinyl record (so the matchstick is centred underneath the hole). Try to swing the record backwards and forwards like a pendulum in smooth, even movements. Now give the record a spin. What will happen when you try to swing the record again? Test your hunch. •

Why? The simple answer is that the record has something called gyroscopic inertia, the same thing that stops a toy top from falling over while it spins. To a scientist, gyroscopic inertia is the property of a rotating object to resist any force which would change its axis of rotation. Once the record is set spinning at an angle perpendicular to the string, it will resist any forces (such as gravity) that try to change that angle. By the way, I have tried doing this with several Barry Manilow records, and they just don't swing at all.

Does this remind you of riding a bicycle? (It should!)

Patrick Moore Sir Alfred Patrick Caldwell-Moore (CBE, Hon FRS, FRAS) is a writer, broadcaster and amateur astronomer. He was born in Pinner, Middlesex in 1923. He developed his interest for astronomy at the age of six and was elected to the British Astronomical Association at 11. When world war two broke out Moore lied about his age and joined the RAF. He received his flight training in Canada, where he met Albert Einstein and Orville Wright. During the war his only known romance ended when his fiancée, a nurse, was killed when a bomb fell on her ambulance. After the war Moore moved to Selsey in Sussex, where he constructed a telescope in his back garden and began to observe the moon. He was fascinated by the subject and is now acknowledged as a specialist in lunar observation; he was one of the first observers of transient lunar phenomena, short-lived glowing areas on the surface of the moon. On 26 April 1957, at 10:30, in a landmark event in Moore’s career he presented the first episode of ‘The Sky at Night’. Since then he has presented every episode of ‘The Sky at Night’, ex-

cept July 2004, where he had a severe bout of food poisoning, from eating a contaminated goose egg. On 1 April 2007 a semi-spoof edition of the program was produced portraying Moore as a time lord, to commerate the 50th anniversary of the program. In 6 May 2007 there was a party held in Moore’s garden at his home in Selsey attended by many amateur and professional astronomers. This was a worthy honour for a great man who achieved so much and his enthusiasm and exuberance have inspired many astronomers. He is thought to have popularised astronomy and is the longest serving TV presenter ever.

By Elliot Bessel and Dan Jones

Competition Time!!

Name the Science teachers from the childhood photos. 1st correct answer to Mr Downing wins a prize If you have any articles you would like to submit to next months issue please hand them to Mr. Downing. To access the website: • Visit the temporary website at (will soon be changing to • Login with Username—Brine Leas, and Password—Prism.

Edited by : Michael Wilkinson, David Vernon, Articles By: Dale Brown , Joel Cottrell, Kris Ormandy, Patrick McMillan, Elliot Bessel, Dan Jones Website by: Jack Warrington, Joe Cozens

Prism Magazine Issue 8  

Prism the Pretty Interesting Science Magazine produced by Brine Leas School Science Students.