Welcome to the 10th edition of PrISM! Issue 10—November/December
Space Exploration Since man has walked the Earth, he has looked up at the moon and dreamed of landing on it. In the 1960’s one of John F. Kennedy’s speeches said, "I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to earth." Apollo Missions The Apollo program was America’s answer to his speech. Unfortunately the first test mission didn’t even make it off the launch pad due to an onboard fire killing astronauts Virgil "Gus" Grissom, Ed White and Roger B. Chaffee. However on 16th July 1969, the first manned mission to the moon was launched from the Kennedy Space Centre, Florida. named after John F Kennedy. The crew on this famous flight were Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins. On 20th July the lunar module (Eagle) separated from the command module. Collins, alone aboard Columbia, inspected Eagle as it pirouetted before him to ensure the craft was not damaged. There were various warnings and alarms from the Eagle but this was because the memory couldn’t handle the data (it only had the same amount of memory as a mobile phone!) Then Armstrong said the famous words, "Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed." At 02:56 UTC on July 21 (10:56pm UK time, July 20), 1969, Armstrong made his descent to the Moon's surface and spoke his famous line "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind"
In total there were 7 manned missions to the moon but only 6 made it. On the third day of Apollo 13 mission one of the oxygen tanks exploded. The crew had to shut down the command module and program the lunar module to get them back to Earth. However space exploration took a massive leap with the invention of the space shuttle. This was a space craft with one major difference which was a massive problem for previous spacecraft – it was reusable. There were 5: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis, and Endeavour. Challenger disintegrated 73 seconds after launch in 1986, and Endeavour was built as a replacement. Columbia broke apart during re-entry in 2003. The shuttle has a main orbiter a main fuel tank and two other tanks, 1 either side of the main one. Its debut flight was on February 18, 1977. However the flight is due to retire in 2010 with Endeavour making the last flight.
A manned mission to Mars is planned in the near future. The project will cost anything from $20bn to $450bn. The ship would have to be assembled in space because it would be too heavy to take off from the launch pad; it will weigh about 400,000kg. The mission's journey from Earth to Mars would take six to seven months in a spacecraft powered by an advanced cryogenic fuel propulsion system. Johnny May and David Davenport.
Forensic Science Forensics is a science used to solve crime. It is most commonly seen on TV programs such as CSI, CSI New York and CSI Miami. In forensics many different techniques are used. Some of them include DNA, fingerprinting and ballistics.
Fingerprinting Every person has their own unique set of fingerprints. For this reason forensic scientists use fingerprints as evidence because they are so reliable. When you are a suspect in a crime you have your fingerprints and a DNA sample taken. With all of these sets of fingerprints and DNA they put them into a system where they can match samples to ones already on there.
DNA DNA is like fingerprints in the respect that it is unique to the people, but it is so intricate that sometimes some people look like they have the same DNA when they don’t. This is because at the moment DNA testing isn’t accurate enough to always be exact. By Harry Morris and James Worthington.
Pupils Of the Month These Pupil are the Pupils who have excelled in Science this month, well done to all of you! Year 7 - Jodie Hill Year 8 - Yasmin Tang Year 9 - Amber Williams Year 10 - Harriet Griffiths Year 11—Dominique Croshaw Please see Mr Downing for a Prize!
Investigating Bacteria and Preservatives The third glass should be the control A preservative can be used in food to with no preservative. prevent bacteria living and Leave all 3 in a warm place for 2 reproducing, contaminating the food days. and possibly leading to food poisoning. In this experiment you can Which glass is cloudier? Which is the best preservative? investigate what makes a good preservative. Dissolve a chicken stock cube in hot tap water. Pour into 3 glasses. Each must have the same amount. Add 1 tsp of salt to a glass and label it 'Salt'. Add 1 tsp of vinegar to a glass and label it 'Vinegar'.
Isaac Newton's discoveries were so numerous and varied that many consider him to be the father of modern science. A graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge, Newton developed an intense interest in mathematics and the laws of nature which ultimately led to his two most famous works: Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematical (1687) and Optics (1704). Newton helped define the laws of gravity and planetary motion, cofounded the field of calculus, and explained laws of light and colour, among many other discoveries A famous story says that Newton uncovered the laws of gravity after being hit on the head by a falling apple. There is no proof that this story is true. However, his assistant John Conduitt later wrote that Newton had said he was inspired to think about gravity after seeing an apple fall in his garden around 1666.)
Newton was knighted in 1705 and upon his death in 1727 was the first scientist given the honour of burial in Westminster Abbey.
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Michael Wilkinson, , Jack Warrington Joe Cozens