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revisTa Para ProFesores Y esTUDianTes De inGlÉs

level B1–B2

Free For Teachers

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Magazine For English Language Teaching And Learning

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¡Haga sus clases de inglés aún más divertidas con la revista BRIDgE!

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1 TeaChers’ seT Por CaDa 15 sUsCriPCiones

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“It must to study be nice like this .” “On the I’m not other hand, sure learn so you would much.”

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tion Sept.i

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UNA CARTA DE CONVERSACIÓN LAMINADA

“I think this is pro an exp bably ensive private school .”

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Casey Aubin Phillip Solis dge © Bri House hing

Publis

“The cla ssroom differe looks ver y the tea nt from ours, but ching loo ks similar .” “This somewh must be ere war m.” “Both of these cla have des ssrooms ks.”

2.8.2018

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CD CON EJERCICIOS, JUEGOS Y CANCIONES

UNA REVISTA ADICIONAL


Contents 4

ISSUE Race, Ethnicity andNationality

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HISTORY Presidential CVs

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ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES What Have the Scottish Ever Done for Us?

learning english can be fun, you know…

10 FILM Game of Thrones: Who Will Survive? 11

SURPRISING FACTS It’s Not What You Think!

12 ENVIRONMENT Climate Changes 14 HOUSING Unusual Houses 15 GEOGRAPHY New Zealand 16 TECHNOLOGY Beyond Human 17 PUZZLES Mind Benders, Shakespeare’s Corner 18 COUNTER-CULTURES Graffiti 20 MUSIC BTS 22 LANGUAGE Speaking About Money 23 SPORT Climbing 24 LITERATURE The Picture of Dorian Gray 28 TEST B1 Listening, Language in Use, Speaking, Writing 32 TEST B2 Listening, Language in Use 35 WORDLIST Dictionary

Key to Icons CD Listening on cd TF Extra materials in the Teachers’ File w

Extra materials online Bridge

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B2 issue

Where Are You From? Race, Ethnicity and Nationality

“Where are you from?” might seem like a simple question, but it isn’t always an easy one. For example, if you are born in Brazil, and your parents are Brazilian, and you look the way that people expect Brazilians to look, then it might seem easy to simply say, “I am Brazilian.” But if someone is born in London, has a British passport, light brown skin, and one Vietnamese parent and another who is Nigerian, their answer might not be quite so simple. Ancestry1 and family heritage2 are an important part of identity and the way people interact with the world. Three of the most common categories that people talk about are race, ethnicity and nationality. There can be lots of similarity and overlap3 among these words, and even experts in sociology or language don’t always agree on their exact meanings. But we can still talk about some of the general differences between them.

the country in your Passport

Nationality usually refers to where you were born, or in some cases where your parents were born. It is often used as a legal or technical category: your nationality is the country given in your ID card or passport. This is very similar to the concept of legal citizenship4. Citizens often have special rights, like the right to vote; they can also have special responsibilities, such as doing military service. It is possible for someone to have dual5 citizenship, such as someone with both a British and a New Zealand passport. Nationality can have a broader meaning in a few other contexts (= situations). Many Americans who were born in the US still describe their nationality as the place that their ancestors came from – an American citizen, for example, might say they are

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half-Italian or a quarter Japanese. Because most US citizens are not Native Americans, knowing where your ancestors came from is like a national pastime (= hobby).

the color of your skin

The word “race” usually refers to physical appearance, specifically to the color of someone’s skin. Some examples of racial

descriptions include black, white, Asian, Hispanic and mixed race. The phrase “people of color” (or POC) has also become popular in recent years to describe anyone who is not white.

Language and culture

While race describes physical differences between groups and cultures, ethnicity


DIscUss Look at the following quotes about race and identity. Which do you most agree with? Are there any that you disagree with?

“I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character (= who they are).” Martin Luther King, Jr. (political activist)

CAN YoU CHANgE YoUR RACE?

In 2015, a US woman named Rachel Dolezal made headlines with an unusual perspective (= point of view) on race. Dolezal grew up with two white parents (who have Czech, German and Swedish roots) and a white brother in a very conservative family in Montana. As a young girl, she had blonde hair and white skin. When Dolezal was 15, her parents adopted a Haitian baby and three African American children. As she got older, Dolezal started braiding7 her hair, wearing traditional African clothing, and using makeup to darken her skin. Dolezal later married an African American man and went to Howard University, a historically black college·, to study art. When the university tried to take away her scholarship8 after the first year, she sued9 them for discriminating10 against her – for being white. Later Dolezal began teaching African American studies in Washington State and became the president of the local NAACP,

refers to a shared culture, including language, ancestry and beliefs. For example, a person living in Europe may share cultural traditions with East African or Latin American societies. Some countries are made up of multiple ethnicities. For example, Spanish speakers in the United States may eat similar foods, have common traditions, and feel connected even if they come from a variety of different countries. Other examples of ethnic groups include indigenous tribes6 (such as those in the US, Canada, New Zealand and Australia), the Pakistani population in Britain or a community with Italian roots living in the US. Auburn Scallon (USA)

Glossary*

social construct – something that is defined by society, not biology (e.g. class)

an organization that fights against racial discrimination. When people asked, she told them she was black or mixed race. But Dolezal lost her job and most of her friends in 2015 when some reporters found her parents in Montana and published a story about her past. In 2017, she still told the newspaper The Guardian, “Calling myself black feels more accurate than saying I’m white.” Dolezal now says that she is trans-black, and that race is not biological but a social construct*. She argues that she feels more comfortable saying that she is black. Her critics, however, say that her lying about race is wrong. They argue that she hasn’t had the lifetime of discrimination that comes with being black, and that as a white woman she has the choice to look darker, but that someone with darker skin doesn’t have the same choice to become lighter. What do you think?

CUlTUre P INT Some universities in the United States, called historically black colleges and universities (or HBCUs), were established before 1964 specifically to serve the black community. Today any student can apply to these schools, but the majority of students are still African American. These include Howard University in Washington DC, Spelman and Moorehouse Colleges in Georgia, and Xavier University in Louisiana.

“We are never racist against somebody who is very far away. I don’t know any racism against the Eskimos. There must be someone who is different from us – but is living close to us.” Umberto Eco (author) “You might feel like, ‘well I don’t hate black people so I’m not a racist’, but you benefit from racism. You might not even realize the opportunities that you have, because you haven’t been deprived of certain things because of the color of your skin.” Dave Chappelle (comedian and actor)

“No human race is superior (= better); no religious faith is inferior (= worse than another). All collective (= describing everyone in a group) judgments are wrong. Only racists make them.” Elie Wiesel (author) “If someone believes they are limited by (= struggling because of) their gender, race or background, they will become more limited.” Carly Fiorina (businessperson and politician)

Still confused? Scan the QR code (or go to goo.gl/i6i8a7) to watch a fun YouTube video about race, ethnicity, nationality and jellybeans.

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Lesson Lesson ActivitiesTF TF CD Track 9 CD TF Tracks 1–4 Plan Plan 1 1 B1–head B2 historY

w does it mean anything if a president worked in an unusual job in his youth? Maybe not, but all three of the men listed in this article have their faces immortalized8 on Mount rushmore, along with george Washington.

Presidential CVs WHAT THEY DID BEFoRE THE WHITE HoUsE Patrick Phillips (USA)

The most powerful position in the US is president. The job comes with rather nice accommodation, a private plane and lots of other cool stuff. You get to travel and meet interesting people, and you can even invade a country or two if they make you angry.

Poorer than a sportsman?

To be honest, the money isn’t really as great as you would think. American presidents get paid about $570,000 a year. Sure, it sounds like a lot, but big movie stars make much more money, as do leaders of large corporations. The minimum salary in the National Hockey League is $650,000 a year, which means that the worst player in the NHL makes more money than the president.

How to Become a President

So how does a person become president? There are only two rules: you have to have been born in the United States, and you have to be at least 35 years old. Other than that, there are no other job requirements. It

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doesn’t matter if you are a career politician or a farmer, if you are 35 or 85 – you can be president of the United States. But no one is born president. Before reaching the highest office in the country, all presidents had jobs, like other Americans. You would think most presidents were in politics before they entered the White House, and that is true. In fact, only one president, Donald Trump, never served in any public office before becoming president.

store before entering politics, and Jimmy Carter was a peanut farmer. Ronald Reagan was a movie star. But some presidents had more colorful lives that took them into and out of many different types of job.

Lawyers, soldiers, Movie stars

Outside of politics, the most popular job for future presidents was lawyer. Of the 45 presidents, 26 were lawyers. Soldier was another popular job, with 22 presidents being former soldiers or sailors. America loves generals (successful ones, anyway), and nine have been elected president, including George Washington, the first president. Some presidents, like Trump, George Bush and his son, George W. Bush, were businessmen. Some worked in education, including Woodrow Wilson, who was the president of Princeton University. Harry Truman owned a men’s clothing

I should have played hockey.


thomas Jefferson

Abraham Lincoln

Jefferson (1801–1809) was the third president and also the author of the Declaration of Independence. When he wasn’t busy helping to found• the United States, he was one of the most brilliant thinkers of his era. Jefferson had many interests, including botany1, architecture and writing. He designed his own home, called Monticello, which many consider to be an architectural masterpiece, in the state of Virginia. But that’s not all. Jefferson was famous as a gourmet chef and for his knowledge of wine. His writings covered such things as farming, philosophy and linguistics. He spoke at least seven languages. He even invented a new word in English: to belittle, which means to make someone feel unimportant. Jefferson’s best invention is used today in offices all over the world: he invented the swivel chair2. Where would we be without it?

Lincoln (1861–1865) is famous for being the president during the American Civil War. He is one of the most popular presidents, and you can find his picture on the American five-dollar bill and one cent coin. Lincoln was one of the presidents who was a lawyer, but he was so much more. His first job was as a bartender, serving beer and whiskey to farmers in the state of Indiana. Later, in Illinois, he and a partner opened a grocery store. He also ran his local post office. Lincoln was probably the only president who was famous for being a wrestler3. In small towns in the US local boys would wrestle each other while their neighbors made bets on who would win. The winning wrestler would get a share of the money. Lincoln was known as the best wrestler in the area. No matter if it was wrestling or presidential elections, Abraham Lincoln was unbeatable4.

Roosevelt (1901–1909) had the wildest life of any president in history. He was born into a rich family in New York City, but he

was very sickly as a child. To make himself healthy, Roosevelt decided to lead a very physically demanding life. He took up boxing and other sports. Roosevelt built a ranch in the state of Wyoming and raised cattle. He loved being a cowboy, and was able to ride and use a lasso5 very well. He also hunted bears and other large animals in the US, and even went to Africa for big-game6 hunting. He wrote three books about hunting. In 1898 the US declared war on Spain. At that time Cuba belonged to Spain, and the US felt the island should be independent. Roosevelt quickly organized a volunteer unit of cavalry7, and called them the Rough Riders. The Rough Riders became famous in the Battle of San Juan Hill, where they defeated the Spanish soldiers. Of course, Roosevelt was the first up the hill, and he became a war hero. Roosevelt was an extremely popular president, and the teddy bear• was named after him. But after being a cowboy, big-game hunter and war hero, the job of a president must have seemed a bit dull.

Language Point•

Bre vs Ame

theodore Roosevelt

Be careful to not confuse the verbs to find (find – found – found) and to found (found – founded – founded). To find means to discover something. (I’ve found somebody’s keys in the grass.) To found means to bring something into existence. (This town was founded in 1900.)

CUlTUre P INT Teddy is a form of the name Theodore. Theodore Roosevelt was a bear hunter, but on one hunting trip he refused to shoot a bear tied to a tree because he found it unfair. A cartoon of this incident inspired the expression teddy bear.

clothes shop (BrE) x clothing store (AmE) colourful (BrE) x colorful (AmE) grocer’s shop (BrE) x grocery store (AmE) neighbour (BrE) x neighbor (AmE)

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B1 english-speaking Countries TF

Activities

Inventions You Can’t Live Without

Karen Cryer (SCOT)

whaT have

Perhaps what springs to mind when you think of Scotland are bagpipes, kilts and the Loch Ness monster. It’s true that all three of these lovely things are Scottish, but Scotland has contributed to society in many different ways over the centuries. Let’s find out what this little country in the north of Great Britain has given the world.

cloned sheep A team of scientists at the Roslin Institute near Edinburgh, led by Professor Sir Ian Wilmut, set out to improve methods in genetic modification. Their research led to the birth of Dolly the Sheep in 1996. Dolly is famous in the scientific community because she was the first mammal1 to ever be cloned from an adult cell2. We won’t go into the science behind all this here, but it was a huge breakthrough3 because before Dolly people didn’t think it was possible. Thanks to Dolly, there have been many further advancements4 in science and medicine. And here’s a fun fact, totally unrelated to science: the most famous sheep in the world was named after the American country singer Dolly Parton.

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the ScottiSh

ever Done For Us?

Antibiotics Alexander Fleming is one of the most famous Scots. This is because his discovery, penicillin, revolutionised5 the world of medicine. Fleming was a biologist and pharmacologist6 who discovered penicillin completely by accident. After a month’s holiday, Fleming returned to work in his laboratory and realised that he had left a sample of bacteria out. He noticed that mould7 had grown on the bacteria. On closer inspection (= when he looked carefully), he realised the mould had destroyed the bacteria it touched. Believe it or not, this opened the door to the antibiotics that doctors now prescribe8 every day. Thanks to this, most infections are now no longer life-threatening.

the telly One of the biggest inventions of the 20th century, the television, was invented by a Scot. John Logie Baird demonstrated the first working television in 1926, and went on to set up his very own television company. He was also the first person to transmit television (= send a TV signal) to the USA and to demonstrate the first colour television. So next time you’re sitting down to watch your favourite series, remember that you have Scotland to thank!

the Phone Could you live without your phone? Well, we have Alexander Graham Bell to thank for this handy (= useful) little device. Okay, he didn’t invent the mobile phone, but he did provide us with the first-ever telephone way back in 1876. Bell was fascinated by speech and worked tirelessly9 throughout his life developing communication for the deaf. In fact, he discovered the technology behind the telephone while working on a device to help deaf people to communicate. Alexander Bell went on to found the Bell Telephone Company a year after patenting his invention – and the world of communication was changed forever.


Protection Against Rain Scotland is widely known for being extremely wet and rainy, so it’s no wonder that the inventor of the raincoat originated (= came from) there. Charles Macintosh was an inventor who was trying find a use for waste products from gasworks11. With some experimentation, he developed a waterproof fabric12 and went on to start a company that produced raincoats. With that, the first ever “mackintosh” (a raincoat) was introduced to the world. Up until then, to be caught in the rain meant being soaked through13. British people still call raincoats “mackintoshes” or “macks” to this day.

the Pedal Bicycle Kirkpatrick Macmillan was a blacksmith10 who wanted to find a way to get from point A to point B faster. He developed the now very familiar pedal bicycle in his workshop in 1839. That first bicycle was extremely heavy and difficult to control, but Macmillan still managed to cycle 14 miles in less than an hour – an amazing achievement at that time. He never thought to patent his invention and other people soon saw the potential and copied the design. Macmillan, however, had no desire (= didn’t want) to make money from the bicycle and was happy to live his quiet life in the country.

Hypnosis It might make you think of silly TV shows or finding out about past lives, but people visit hypnotists to quit smoking and for therapy as well as for entertainment. And that’s thanks to the first person to really study hypnosis, a Scottish surgeon14 and physician named James Braid. At the time, hypnotism was called “animal magnetism”, and was mainly regarded as15 just a kind of magic show. Baird realized it could be useful. By experimenting on friends and family, he improved the techniques and learned how to use hypnosis to ease pain and illness in his patients. He became the first ever practising hypnotherapist and is still seen as “the father of hypnosis” today. He also coined (= invented) the word “hypnosis”.

A Gamers’ Favourite David Jones is a Scottish game programmer who created one of the most famous games ever played – Grand Theft Auto. A cult classic, still much beloved today, Grand Theft Auto first became available to the public in 1997. Jones wanted to create a “living, breathing city” and combine it with one of his greatest passions – cars. It was different from other games that had come before, because instead of killing the bad guys, the player was a bad guy! Grand Theft Auto paved the way* for a whole new generation of computer games.

Glossary*

to pave the way for sth – to make something else possible

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B1– B2 FilM

Game of Thrones

war

Contain ninG! for sea s spoilers so Game o ns 1–7 of f Thron es

Danger Zone

In Game of Thrones, nobody is safe. The show is notorious1 for killing off its cast no matter how loved (or hated) they are. It’s best not to get too attached2 – one moment your favourite character might be making a new alliance, the next they are getting their face chewed off 3 by dogs or having their throat cut at a wedding. As the eighth and final season of this worldwide TV phenomena returns to our screens, we ask the question: Who will survive?

Cersei Lannister

Jon Snow

By the end of season 7, Cersei is Queen of the Seven Kingdoms, having killed her husband, her daughterin-law and her husband-to-be. However, all her children are now dead and her brother (and lover) Jaime has abandoned her. Although Cersei has agreed to a truce4 with her enemies, it is all part of her plan – she intends to betray5 them all. We learnt last season that she is pregnant and that makes Cersei more dangerous than ever.

Jon has already been killed once, stabbed8 to death by his own ‘brothers’ of the Night’s Watch. But even that wasn’t enough to keep a good man down! With the help of the Red Woman, Melisandre, he came back to life to lead the fight against the White Walkers. Will season 8 finally be the end of him though?

PREDICTION: DIE. Cersei has lost everyone she loved and is

already cheated death once, but we have a feeling that he won’t survive again. Heroically sacrificing10 himself for his queen seems a good way for Game of Throne’s favourite bastard to go out.

(Lena Heady)

isolated. Although she still has the monster Gregor Clegane to protect her, it won’t be enough. Could it be her brother Jaime who returns to deliver the final blow*?

Daenerys Targaryan (Emilia Clarke)

The Mother of Dragons has lost one of her ‘children’, but two dragons is still pretty good, right? She also has a giant, loyal army, a powerful alliance with Jon Snow and the North and the brains of Tyrion Lannister. There are not many humans who can defeat her, but her biggest battle lies ahead – with the undead Night King.

PREDICTION: DIE. Daenerys has survived being burnt alive, attacks from warlocks6 and insurrectionists7 and the cruelty of her own brother so she’s pretty tough! Her fire will be too strong for the ice of the Night King and she will return to sit on the Iron Throne. 10

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(Kit Harington)

PREDICTION: DIE. Jon is honest and honourable9 and has

Tyrion Lannister (Peter Dinklage)

Tyrion is arguably11 Game of Thrones’ most beloved character, but as we know, that is no guarantee he will stay alive. Tyrion is Daenerys’ most trusted advisor, so he appears to be safe for the time being. However, some bad advice he gave meant she lost some faith in him. Will he fall far enough out of favour12 to risk losing his life?

PREDICTION: DIE. People (including his own family) have been trying to kill Tyrion all his life and nobody has succeeded yet. He is smart and brave enough to still be standing come the end of the final episode.

Glossary*

to deliver the final blow – to kill someone


B1 surprising FaCts

IT’s NoT WHAT YoU

T H I N K!

EYEPoPPINg* PRICEs

A Twitter user asked “What’s something that seems obvious to people in your profession, but that most people misunderstand?” The tweet quickly went viral. Here are some of the facts we learned that surprised us. How many are news to you?

The reason popcorn prices are so high is because cinemas make very little money from ticket sales. Most of the money goes back to the movie studio.

Paul Farrington-Douglas (UK)

PL A N o N s ’ T THA

T

Fungi3 are not plants – they are closer to animals than anything else. What’s more, the bit you see (the mushroom) is just the reproductive4 structure. Thinking that a mushroom is the whole fungus is like pointing to a flower on a tree and saying “here’s the whole plant”!

No green glow

Nonsense in Movies

You can’t really knock somebody out11 with a blow12 to the head and have them wake up basically fine an hour later. Either you hurt them very badly (you give them a life-threatening concussion13 or break their skull), or you just make them angry.

Nuclear glow1 is typically blue, not green (sorry, The Simpsons is not scientifically accurate). People mistakenly think it is green because that was the colour of radium and phosphor watch dials2 from the first half of the 20th century.

Fresh Air on a Plane

The air you breathe on a plane is fresh air from outside. It is compressed5 to raise the nitrogen6/oxygen7 levels. It is very cold when it comes in (around -50° Celsius) so it is sent around the hot section of the jet engine8 for heating.

Animal Lover

It’s All “Handmade”

Robots for sewing don’t exist. Most clothes are made in factories, not on a sewing machine at home, but every single piece of clothing is made by hand by a person.

About 97 % of known animal species are invertebrates9, mostly insects and arachnids10. Saying “I love all animals except the bugs” is like saying “I love all plants except the ones that make flowers”.

Dubbing Animations

In cartoons, the voices are usually recorded first. The animation is done afterwards.

Glossary*

eye-popping – so impressive or shocking that it makes your eyes pop

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B1– B2 enVironMent CD

Track 5

Climate Change What Does It Mean for Life on Earth?

the world is warming – and most of the extra heat (more than 90%) is going into the oceans. ocean warming has many effects, including dying coral reefs1, melting ice and stronger hurricanes•.

Drowning cities?

You’ve probably heard that global warming is causing the sea levels2 to rise. There are two reasons for this. Firstly, sea water expands (= gets bigger) when it gets warmer. It doesn’t expand by much, but there’s a lot of water in the sea. Most of the rise in sea levels we have had so far is because of this effect. Sea levels will rise a lot more as the ice melts in the Arctic and Antarctic. In the end, they could be tens of metres higher. But this is a slow process: your children might see seas that are a metre higher than today. Even this will make many coastal3 areas very dangerous. In recent years, the rise in sea levels has been a few millimetres per year. That doesn’t sound like much, but it’s a huge amount of extra volume4 (because ). When huge the oceans are big). storms like hurricanes blow the water up onto land, that extra volume suddenly matters a lot. The water can cause severe (= very serious) flooding and destroy coastal communities. Island communities such as the Maldives are particularly in danger.

Dying coral

Coral reefs are very important. Up to 25% of all species living in the sea are found there. Reefs also protect the land from storms, so losing them will put our cities in danger – especially when combined with rising sea levels. Coral reefs have been made over millions of years by tiny animals. The hard walls of coral are made by a colourful animal that is fixed in one place (= cannot move from the place). This animal, called a polyp, shares its tiny home with

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microscopic algae5. The algae change sunlight and carbon dioxide6 into food to feed the polyp, and so the two organisms keep each other alive. Many corals can only live within quite a narrow temperature range7 (20–28°C) in warm, shallow (= not deep) tropical seas. If the sea water gets warmer than normal, the algae die and the coral loses its colour and turns white. The polyps starve8 without algae and so the coral reef dies.

no Material for shells

One of the main greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide. Until a few years ago, scientists were puzzled

(= confused). There was more and more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, but still not as much as they expected. Then they found the reason. A lot of the carbon dioxide was going into the oceans – the oceans absorbed 25–50% of it. So, global warming has not been as bad as scientists expected. Good news, right? Wrong. Seawater naturally contains a lot of a mineral called calcium carbonate9. This mineral is destroyed by carbon dioxide. Animals like shellfish* and corals build their hard homes from calcium carbonate, so when this mineral is destroyed, they


and the oceans cannot survive. These chemical reactions are also making the oceans more acidic10. It’s a small change so far, but it is serious for oceanic life. Experiments have shown that sea organisms are damaged by even small changes in the acidity of the water.

Food Web in Danger

All the creatures in the oceans are part of a complex “food web” (the system of who-eats-whom). At the bottom are the plankton (tiny plants and animals that float in the water). They are eaten by small fish, which are eaten by larger fish, which are then eaten by top predators such as some whales and dolphins. If part of the food web disappears, the whole system can be in trouble. Many of

ble to be a sea ice t d r e e fo n Beau ea r s pola r b r sea ls. in the e pola r th ) a d fo a t of C a n to hun (= got clined a (north h a s de s e a a re n ye a r s o 0 ti opula e last 1 th in b ea r p % 0 r) by 4 a ice is a of s e sma lle the a re g each yea r. e s u a bec elt in d by m reduce

the effects of warming seas are unknown, but ecosystems are already changing. And, of course, they suffer from many other human-caused problems, such as over-fishing (= fishing too much) and pollution.

scary Weather

We know that a changing climate will affect the weather, but it is difficult to say exactly how (because weather is very complex). However, for around two decades11 climate scientists have been predicting an increase in extreme weather such as storms, rain, wind, snow and drought12. In the last few years, there has been an increase in extreme weather – exactly as predicted. Because of global warming there are likely to be more cyclones•. This is because of the way these storms are made. They form over warm ocean waters near the equator13. The warm, wet air over the ocean rises up. As this air moves up, there is less air left near the surface of the ocean. Cooler air is pulled in from the area around. This air also warms and rises, and more cool air is pulled in. The air moves faster and faster, and builds into a cyclone. A cyclone is like a giant engine that takes its energy from warm, wet air. Increased ocean temperatures mean more fuel for the engine, so warming means more and bigger cyclones. Nigel Haward (UK) Paul Farrington-Douglas (UK)

sCienCe P INT Hurricanes and typhoons are the same. What they are called depends on where they are. Hurricanes are found in the Caribbean and north-east Pacific. Typhoons are in the Far Eastern seas. The scientific term for this type of storm is cyclone.

global Warming

Life on earth depends on gases in the atmosphere called “greenhouse gases”. These hold the heat from the sun so that it warms the planet instead of disappearing back into space. Without these greenhouse gases the earth would be icy and there could be no life. However, more greenhouse gases mean higher temperatures. Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. Because of the fossil fuels that we burn for energy (coal, oil and natural gas), large quantities of carbon dioxide are being released into the atmosphere – and temperatures are rising as a result. Life can evolve (= slowly change) to be able to deal with changing temperatures, but only when the change is gradual. A temperature change of one degree in a couple of decades might seem slow, but in fact it is very, very fast. You might have heard that scientists are not sure about global warming. It isn’t true: 97% of climate scientists say that global warming is happening and that human activity is the main cause.

QUiCK CheCK

Glossary*

shellfish – sea creatures that live in shells

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B1– B2 housing CD

Track 6

TF

Lesson Plan 2

Small Home, Floating Home, No Home? UNUsUAL HoUsINg

communal Housing

Also called “cohousing”, the modern communal living movement started in Denmark in the 1960s and now more and more people around the world are interested. Instead of living in completely separate family homes, people have their own private rooms, flats or even houses, which surround a communal (= shared) space such as a kitchen or meeting hall. They share responsibilities such as cooking and childcare, and benefit from lower costs of living and deeper friendships.

With the growing global population and improvements in technology, people around the world are beginning to think outside the box* when it comes to housing. Here are some different types of homes that reach beyond the borders of the classic flat or family home. Molly Emmett (USA)

tiny Homes

A tiny home often has just one room that combines the functions of several rooms in an ordinary house. For example, the kitchen might be on one wall of the living-room space, which might also contain a pull-out or lofted bed2. These living spaces are best suited for one or two people, and some can be attached to an already-existing house. Tiny homes are part of a movement3 to live more simply and with less stress. In the US, the average house costs $188,000. The average tiny home costs $23,000. That means life without a mortgage4.

Digital nomads

What if the future of housing is to not have a house at all? There is a worldwide community of modern nomads who have no fixed (= permanent) address and travel from place to place instead. They value ideas and experiences more than money and things, and must be minimalists, living with only what they can carry from place to place. They often work online, doing jobs that can be done from anywhere. Because this lifestyle is very low-cost, though, they don’t need to work eight-hour days. The book that inspired the digital nomad movement is called The Four-Hour Workweek. Sounds pretty good to us.

Mobile Homes

Houseboats

Houseboats have been around for a while, but they are getting more attention now for their design upgrades. Hamburg in Germany has a growing community of these floating homes with sustainable*, creative and eye-catching designs. Other places, like Amsterdam, have long been famous for small, bright and eco-friendly boats on the canals. In Seattle in the US, the houseboats look more like small houses on top of the water, built next to docks and connected to their neighbors by boardwalks1.

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In the US, most people associate mobile homes with trailer parks – low-cost, sometimes run-down5 communities with a bad reputation. However, some architects are trying to change this idea. They have created compact, yet spacious6, homes that can be transported to the buyer’s location by truck. Instead of the run-down communities, these architects want to create affordable (= not very expensive) and stylish trailer parks in urban areas.

Glossary*

to think outside the box – to think creatively, using new ideas instead of traditional ones sustainable – causing little or no damage to the environment so that it continues for a long time

Bre vs Ame

neighbour (BrE) x neighbor (AmE) travelled (BrE) x traveled (AmE)


B1 neW Zealand

Land of Lava

and sunken ships NEW ZEALAND’s RANgIToTo IsLAND

Rangitoto Island. It has a lovely sound, doesn’t it? It probably makes you think of palm trees and coconuts, but it should make you think of lava and eruptions1 of fire, instead. Rangitoto Island is New Zealand’s youngest volcano, though today it is dormant (= sleeping).

Views and Lava caves

The island was created about 600 years ago in a series of volcanic eruptions. It is close to New Zealand’s largest city, Auckland, and it’s five and a half kilometres wide, so it is impossible to miss if you have a view of the harbour. The island itself is a scenic reserve (= an area of natural beauty). You can visit it by ferry, which takes only about 20 minutes from Auckland, so it makes an ideal day-trip. There are spectacular views from the top of Rangitoto.

CUlTUre P INT Snorkelling means swimming while using a snorkel (= a tube that you hold in your mouth to help you breathe when your face is underwater). Scuba diving is swimming underwater with special breathing equipment.

Rangitoto is mostly made of lava. You can see interesting lava tubes there – tunnels created by the flow of liquid lava. The largest tubes are like caves, and you can even walk through some of them.

sky Blood

the longest lava tube is about 50 metres long.

The name Rangitoto means “sky blood” in Maori. It refers to a historic battle between two Maori tribes2. The full name in Maori is Te Rangi i totongia te ihu a Tama-te-kapua’ (good luck saying that!) which means “the day the blood of Tama-te-kapua’s nose flowed”. Tama-te-kapua was a leader of one of the tribes.

is because ship captains would leave any drunk sailors from their ship there without alcohol. This gave the drunk sailors time to get sober4 before they got back on the ship for their next journey.

Prisoners and Drunk sailors

Who Lived there?

There is a lot of interesting history to the island. For example, prisoners were used to work on the island in the 1920s and ’30s. They built roads and a track to the top of the mountain. There is a bay on the island called Wreck Bay. This became a kind of graveyard3 for ships. Between 1887 and 1947, many shipowners whose boats were getting old and unsafe either sank them there or just left them in the bay. There are at least 13 such ships still remaining. They can be explored by scuba diving• or snorkelling•. Another bay on the island, Islington Bay, was also called Drunks Bay in the past. This

Although nobody is allowed to live on the island now, there used to be a few bach communities. A bach is the New Zealand word for a holiday home. These types of homes were typically very basic; some were built from materials taken from the ships. The bach communities were actually illegal, and the people were eventually moved. However, the baches have been kept and are now a kind of museum. During the Second World War the island was used as a base5 to defend against the possibility of an attack by Japan. There are still bunkers6 that you can visit. Jackie Fox (NZ)

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B2 teChnologY CD

Tracks 7–10

BEYoND HUMAN?

When Losing a Limb Doesn’t Mean Losing a Life

“the leader of the Bionic age”: Biomechatronics pioneer hugh herr.

A prosthesis• is an artificial replacement for a missing body part. It can be as simple as a storybook pirate’s wooden leg, or as complex as a robotic hand controlled by a computer that works together with signals from the brain.

t

he oldest prosthesis we’ve found, a wood-and-leather toe, was on a 3,000-year-old ancient Egyptian mummy*. It was surprisingly advanced, and the science of making prostheses• didn’t get much better until the 20th century. Change today is fast, though. Now we’re getting near to the point where human-engineered body parts could equal the ones made by millions of years of evolution.

the climber

One important figure in this story is the former rock climber Hugh Herr. Herr’s legs were amputated after a mountaineering accident. This was in the 1980s, when the idea of a prosthetic• body part being better than a natural body part was pure science fiction. Herr refused to accept the idea that his athletic life was over. He worked on his prostheses himself, designing and redesigning them until they were even better for climbing than his old legs and feet. “My closet looked really funny,” he jokes today. “You didn’t see shoes, you saw all these bizarre limbs and feet everywhere.” Herr became the first amputee* to perform at the same level as able-bodied* athletes.

Miracles – at a Price

Today Herr is a university professor and a superstar in the new field of

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biomechatronics (“the combination of biology, mechanics, electronics and control”). Biomechatronic prostheses work like natural body parts. Sensors detect electrical signals in the nervous system. A computer interprets the signals and sends them to motors. The motorized “muscles” move when you think about moving, just like real muscles. The technology is amazing. Unfortunately, it is also very expensive. The most sophisticated* designs exist only as prototypes, costing millions of dollars to develop and build. And even the ones you can buy cost tens of thousands of dollars.

no Disability

But although biomechatronics are still out of reach for almost all amputees, there are more basic prostheses that are miles ahead of anything seen in the past. In some cases they come from amputees who are working

Glossary*

limb – a leg or an arm mummy – a dried and preserved body, especially connected with ancient Egypt amputee – a person who has had a limb removed for medical reasons able-bodied – not handicapped by physical injury sophisticated – complicated and technologically advanced

Walk like an egyptian: experiments have proved that the “Cairo toe” was a practical aid to walking.

to get back to their former activities, like Mike Schultz, a professional snowboarder who lost his leg after a boarding accident. Schultz has made a specialized sports knee that can be used for sports from snowboarding to water-skiing to horse riding. Like Hugh Herr in the 1980s, Schultz wanted to return to the sport that took his leg. Thanks to his invention, he’s back on the slopes and winning medals. Paul Farrington-Douglas (UK)

Language Point•

Prosthetic [prɒsˈθetɪk] is an adjective (a prosthetic knee). A prosthetic body part is a prosthesis [prɒsˈθiːsiz], and the plural is prostheses [prɒsˈθiːsiːz]. Why? Because it’s Latin. There are several Latin words in English that have an –is ending. Some of the most common are basis, crisis, diagnosis, hypothesis, oasis and thesis. These are made into a plural by changing the –is to –es.


B1– B2 puZZles CD

MinD BenDers

Megan LeBoeuf (USA)

Planting Trees Chloe and Dylan are celebrating Earth Day by planting some new trees near their town. But they must be careful about where they plant them: if there are too many trees too close together, they won’t grow well. They’re starting out by planting some oaks. They want to plant eight of them, but oaks need a lot of room, so they’re using a grid to map where they should plant. There must be two empty spaces in each row, each column and each of the longest diagonals (top left to bottom right, and bottom left to top right). Draw the trees on the grid.

Track 11

SHAKESPEARE’S CORNER

Auburn Scallon (USA)

This bit of romantic wisdom is shared in a conversation between Olivia, a rich, beautiful woman, and Viola, a young woman pretending to be a man, in Shakespeare’s comedy The Twelfth Night. Olivia is used to men falling in love with her and is not used to being on the other side of the equation*.

PLAy: Twelfth Night “Love sought* is good, but giv’n* unsought is better.” Guess the meaning: A Don’t go looking for love or you’ll never find it. B You’re most likely to fall in love when you least expect it. C Love is best when it happens naturally and by surprise. * on the other side of the equation – on the opposite side; sought – looked for; giv’n – given

Grammar in a Modern Context Write the irregular past tense of the present form. Then fill the past tense form into the collocations below. e.g. to seek = sought to buy

______________________________

to fall

______________________________

to feel

______________________________

to find

______________________________

to grow

______________________________

to think

______________________________

to write

______________________________

Michelle and Sean 1 __________ up together

On another patch of land they’re planting some fruit trees, which don’t need quite so much space. They are planting twelve trees this time, and there should be one empty space in each row, each column and each of the long diagonals. Draw the trees on the grid.

in the small town of Hood River in Oregon. They never 2 _____________ that they would fall in love. After school, Michelle 3 _____________ a job in the UK and moved away. One year later, she 4 __________ a message to Sean, just to say hello. They started chatting. After a month, he 5 _____________ a ticket to Birmingham to visit her. They had spent lots of time together as friends, but now something 6 _____________ different. One year later, they were married. They love to tell the story about how, after spending their whole lives in the same town, they finally 7 ______________ in love in England.

s

solutions on the Cd and in tF.

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17


B1– B2 Counter-Cultures TF

Activities

BoMBinG The CiTy

GraFFiTi as CoUnTer‑CUlTUre They are a community that only come out at night. You don’t know their faces or their real names, but you have probably seen their work on the walls. They are hunted by the police and often hated by parts of society, but that doesn’t stop them from making their mark1. whether you call them artists or vandals, graffiti writers are everywhere, and have been for a long time.

From Scratches to Spray Cans

The word “graffiti” comes from the Italian word “graffiato” which means “scratched”. Graffiti scratched onto walls has been found in ancient Roman, Greek and Egyptian cities – often just names or messages about love or politics. One of the first recorded examples of graffiti was giving directions to a nearby brothel2! However, it was not until the birth of hip-hop that a real counterculture grew up around graffiti, using the aerosol spray can.

Any writers who were caught were treated as criminals.

MCing, DJing, B-Boying and Writing

When hip-hop emerged in New York in the late 1970s, it was made up of four main elements: rapping (MCing), turntablism (DJing), breakdancing (B-Boying) and writing (graffiti). Like the lyrics, music and dance of hiphop, writing was a type of competition – a way to show how you are different and better than other artists. From simple tags, the graffiti grew to be bigger, more colourful and more elaborate3 as different crews (= groups) fought for dominance of the streets. And it wasn’t just on the walls. Graffiti-covered subway trains became an iconic image of the time. Local government adopted a zero-tolerance policy – any writers who were caught were treated as criminals. This meant that all writers were united by Works of famous a common enemy, and english street graffiti moved from being artist Banksy often just a part of hip-hop to comment on politics being a culture of its own. and social issues.

The Language of Graffiti

Like many counter-cultures, graffiti writers invented their own terminology. The names of writers or crews spray-painted on public property became known as “tags”. A “throw up” or “throwie” was a more detailed tag. The act of spraying many tags or throw ups across a wide area became known as “bombing”. Large, complex paintings with many colours and effects that took a long time to do were called “pieces” (short for


in a Bomber’s own Words… To most of us, a lot of graffiti is just vandalism. But what does it mean to the taggers and bombers themselves?

“It’s about recognition, street fame. Some do it out of a need to destroy and bring chaos as their response to stress and hardship. Others do it for the game and the recognition it’ll bring them. Others do it for the art aspect. Everyone has their reasons, but it’s always about getting noticed. Tags don’t get you up (= add to your street fame) much, though – go big (= create something great) or go home.” (AZONER) “I enjoy seeing graffiti in the streets, so for me it just seems right to hit up spots (= paint graffiti somewhere) for others to look at. It’s not about vandalizing stuff. It’s about doing art and having a lot of fun. Being recognized.” (ASER) “It’s about getting your name up there, getting people to speak about you. The more difficult a place your throw up or tag is, the more respect you will get. Yes, of course, it’s vandalism and these crappy (= very bad) tags and bad throw ups, mine included, can make the area look worse. But we don’t care about it. We just want the name up everywhere as much as possible.” (VOIS)

“masterpieces”). They earned more respect if they were in a difficult to reach place.

not Just from a Can

Although the spray can remains king, writers have developed many other techniques. Stencils4 have become a popular way of making graffiti that is quick and easy. Many graffiti artists feel that this is cheating, however, as it requires less talent and skill than traditional methods. Even so, artists

Read Subway Art by Henry Chalfant and Martha Cooper (about the New York City graffiti movement in the 1970s and 1980s) Wall and Piece by Banksy (the best of Banksy’s work)

Watch Exit Through the Gift Shop (a film by Banksy about writers in America) Style Wars (a documentary about early 1980s hip-hop culture with an emphasis on graffiti) Graffiti Unlimited (a graffiti simulation app)

@ visit woostercollective.com streetsaresayingthings.com (websites with graffiti from around the world)

like Banksy have popularised it greatly. Stickers and posters are also used to make street art. And these days some artists are rejecting the toxic chemicals used in spray paint and prefer greener alternatives like moss5 that can be attached to walls to grow into a living work of art.

into the Mainstream

It didn’t take long for graffiti to enter galleries. Some writers see this as a natural step in graffiti being accepted as an art form and a way for talented graffiti writers to make some money. For many within the culture, though, this form of graffiti doesn’t count. They argue that the illegal nature of graffiti is part of what gives it value. Graffiti is certainly big business today. Large companies like McDonald’s, MTV

and Coca-Cola have all used it to promote their products. At the same time, graffiti is increasingly recognised as legitimate art, and many cities provide special walls or areas where graffiti writers can create pieces legally. Areas like Hosier Lane in Melbourne and the John Lennon wall in Prague have become tourist attractions. Despite their real identities remaining unknown, artists like Banksy, David Choe and Eduardo Kobra have become art superstars, with their best known pieces selling for millions of dollars. However, for every Banksy there are thousands of unknown writers, throwing their tags up on walls and fighting a running6 battle with the authorities trying to stop them. Love them or hate them, graffiti writers are never going to disappear. Liam Peach (UK) Bridge

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Activities CD Track 9 TFTFActivities – B2 MusiC B1 B1head

TF

Lesson Plan 1

w

Ts B e A r new t he le s? t B ea

THE WORLD’S

BIGGEST BOY BAND

Since the 1990s, K-pop has been spreading across much of Southeast Asia in the so-called Korean wave – and now the Korean wave is breaking over Europe and America. You might not know the K-pop girl groups like Dreamcatcher and GFriend, the boy bands like Wanna One and Seventeen, or soloists like Sunmi or Hyuna. But you certainly know PSY, whose “Gangnam Style” is one of the best known songs worldwide. And if you care about modern pop, you’ve quite likely heard of BTS, the biggest boy band in the world today.

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What Is K-pop?

South Korean K-pop isn’t a genre but a music industry. Entertainment companies like BigHit, JYP, SM and YG Entertainment are all continually producing countless new K-pop groups and soloists – and in Korea, music lovers stan* the companies. Many companies buy songs from western producers and don’t care about the genres at all, though a lot of the music sounds like what we would describe as pop or EDM*. Rather than focusing on genre, though, they do “concepts” such as cute, sexy or hip-hop. In the western pop scene, pop stars have backup dancers – the stars themselves

don’t dance, or at least they do not perform the whole show. For K-pop it’s a must. The stars, called “idols”, must perform very demanding dance routines at the same time as singing. Another difference is that K-pop puts a lot of importance on fan culture, with tons of concerts and performances, fan communities, and “real” meet-and-greets (not just “pay-and-hey”•). K-pop idols are very close to their fans. K-pop gets a bad name because the production companies often care more about looks than talent. Many of these idols can’t even sing well. But, as in pop music


B1 head CD

Track 9

TF

Activities

TF

Lesson Plan 1

w

Songs for Everyone

Bts started in 2013. the band has seven members: rM, Jin, suga, J-hope, Jimin, V and Jungkook.

everywhere, there are many talented artists in the mix as well.

the Light of the youth

In South Korea, their name is 방탄소년단 (Bangtan Sonyeondan, literally “Bulletproof Boy Scouts”). Everywhere else they are BTS, which stands for “Beyond The Scene”. Unlike most K-pop bands, they compose, produce and write their own music. In fact, Koreans say that they don’t do K-pop, but “Han music” (true Korean music). They are seven very talented young men who work hard every day and deserve the hype* they’re gaining. They practice dancing for 5–12 hours a day. They upload their dance practice videos to their YouTube channel, BangtanTV.

:) FUN FACT

English-speaking interviewers usually talk to RM, the band leader, and all because of a US sitcom. RM’s parents bought him the complete Friends box set (all 236 episodes) and he watched it first with Korean subtitles, then with English subtitles, and then with no subtitles at all. By the end, he could speak English fluently. It’s not a method that would work for everyone, but he does have an IQ of 148.

the Bts Breakout

BTS were already big in Southeast Asia, but 2017 saw them break out* in the western world. They had their first top-100 single* in the US, they became the first K-pop group to perform at the American Music Awards, and they were named as one of Time magazine’s 25 most influential people on the internet. In 2018, BTS became the first Korean band to perform at a US stadium, and all 40,000 tickets sold out in under 20 minutes. They became the world’s second-biggestselling live performers (with Ed Sheeran in the top spot). The music video for the song “Idol” got 56 million views in 24 hours, breaking a record previously held by Taylor Swift. The BTS film Burn the Stage: The Movie broke the US record for most successful cinema musical production.

Artistry

BTS songs and videos – and recently even short movies and stories – all fit together in a fictional “universe”. BTS fans, known as ARMYs, are trying to figure out the real storyline by following the clues in their music videos. These often lead into unexpected places, such as historical paintings, old myths and books by Hermann Hesse (in the song “Blood Sweat & Tears”) and Ursula K. Le Guin (in the song “Spring Day”). The main characters in the storyline are the boys themselves. They all want to stay young and to be together forever, but it seems they have done something wrong and they need to repair the damage in the world. Jin, the oldest band member, is mainly shown with a camera, watching and filming the rest of the boys. ARMYs think that he travels through time or across dimensions*, trying to save the boys by intervening* in

Glossary*

BTS sing and rap in Korean, their mother tongue. Their music is very diverse. Do you like pop? Listen to “Run” or “I Need U”. Do you like hip-hop? Listen to “Mic Drop”, “Cypher pt. 1–4” and to the mixtapes each of the rappers has recorded separately. Do you prefer R&B? Listen to “Stigma”, “Rain” or “Singularity”. Are you more of an EDM person? You need to hear “Blood Sweat & Tears”, “Euphoria” or “DNA”. Ballads? Try “Spring Day”. BTS make music in every genre for everyone.

history, but he ends up failing every time – if he fixes one problem, he creates another one in a different dimension.

not Just the Music

Ever since their debut in 2013, BTS have been focused on providing messages of comfort for young people. Their lyrics are meaningful, talking about people’s lives and struggles, about fighting your fears, staying strong and never giving up. Their message is that you must love yourself first, as only then can you spread and get love: their motto is “Love yourself, love myself, peace.” They have even been invited to speak at the UN*. Paul Farrington-Douglas (UK)

CUlTUre P INT A meet-and-greet is an event where an artist or band meets fans and talks to them. Often it is just an extra way to make money – fans pay to queue up and get a quick selfie, and that’s all. It’s just pay-and-hey (as in, “Hey there, thanks for coming, next please”).

hype – when something is stan (noun and verb) – (internet advertised in the media a lot slang) (to be) a very dedicated fan in order to attract everyone’s (from an Eminem song, “Stan”, interest about an obsessive fan) to break out – to achieve success EDM – electronic dance music single – one song marketed on its own

dimension – a different version of our universe to intervene – to get involved in a situation in order to improve it UN – the United Nations

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21


B1– B2 language TF

Activities

Big spenders and Penny-pinchers sPEAKINg ABoUT MoNEY

Money. It makes the world go round, they say. It’s a good servant but a bad master. It can’t buy you happiness (but it can rent it for a while). We need money every day, so it’s not surprising that we have a lot of expressions and sayings connected to money. Paul Farrington-Douglas (UK)

THE CAsH IN YoUR PoCKET “Money can’t buy life.” Bob Marley (musician)

If you have no money, you might say you’re broke, skint (an old spelling of skinned) or perhaps a bit short. These expressions are especially used when you’re just temporarily out of money,, and you might ask a friend to lend you a few quid (British pounds) or bucks (American dollars). The opposite is being flush,, which means you have more money than normal. If you’re really looking forward to spending that extra cash, you could say it’s burning a hole in your pocket. You might treat your friends to something nice – a meal in a restaurant, say – or go on a spending spree in a shopping centre. Just because you’re feeling in the money, money though, doesn’t mean you should spend it all at once.

RICH AND PooR

“If you want to know what God thinks of money, just look at the people he gave it to.” Dorothy Parker (poet) Some people are born with a silver spoon in their mouth, which is another way of saying they are born into money. Of course, not everyone who is loaded (rich) got their money from their parents. Some people go from rags to riches (from being poor to being rich) through hard work or good luck. Others, sadly, are far from rich. Instead they are always hard up (have very little money). People who are poor as a church mouse can find that they live from hand to mouth. That’s often because they have no job or because their job pays peanuts. In such a situation, it can be hard to make ends meet (to have enough money to live on), even if you tighten your belt and live as cheaply as you can.

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sPENDINg IT

“Whoever said money can’t buy happiness simply didn’t know where to go shopping.” Gertrude Stein (writer)

You could say that something expensive costs a pretty penny or even that it costs an arm and a leg. If it’s something you really need, maybe you could ask your relatives to chip in and help you pay for it. Be sure that you’re not paying too much, though – you don’t want to pay through the nose and get ripped off (something with a higher price than it is worth is a rip-off, the opposite of a good deal or bargain). Think about whether you can get the thing you want for a lower price. Sometimes there are dirt cheap alternatives to branded goods, for example. Or you might be able to get it for a song (very cheaply) if you buy it second hand.

YoU CAN’T TAKE IT WITH YoU

“Money can buy you a fine dog, but only love can make him wag his tail.” Kinky Friedman (singer) Money doesn’t grow on trees, so you shouldn’t pour money down the drain, and it’s good to save something for a rainy day. But at the same time, it’s nice to splurge on an expensive treat from time to time, and it feels great to help a friend who is strapped for cash (without money at the moment). Some people scrimp and save and never spend a penny. There’s no joy in being a penny-pincher or skinflint (a person who doesn’t want to spend any money). After all, as the saying goes, “you can’t take it with you when you die”.


B1- B2 sport

FRoM BoULDERs To MoUNTAINs

Matthew James Burt (UK)

s

weat is pouring down my face, my legs are trembling, arms aching: I feel just like Sylvester Stallone hanging on by two fingers in the movie Cliffhanger. Climbing is a sport both men and women can do equally well, and with many types of climbing available it is something that most people can try. If you visit a local climbing centre, an instructor will show you the basic skills, and you can rent all the necessary equipment, so all you need is some courage. Later on, you can buy equipment such as climbing shoes, a harness, carabiners and a good rope.

climbing Disciplines There are many types of climbing, which use different skills. Climbing routes are graded (numbered) according to difficulty.

g N I B R E M I o L C F N o Y R E V E

inDoor CliMBinG is available all year round and is a great way to practise your skills safely. Indoor climbing competitions use coloured climbing holds3; climbers stick to one colour as they climb and try to reach the top.

sPorT CliMBinG uses planned routes with permanent anchor points1 (such as metal bolts2 fixed in the rock face). This makes the climb much safer and allows climbers to try more extreme skills such as climbing very fast or using more gymnastic moves.

BoUlDerinG is a good choice if you are afraid of heights. A boulder is a large rock that’s not very high, and in bouldering you move around the rock rather than up it, improving your speed and strength. Bouldering is great for beginners as you only need a pair of climbing shoes and crash mat (= a special mattress you can land on safely), but it can also be extremely challenging. You can try it indoors or out.

TraDiTional CliMBinG is climbing on natural rock faces. It is also known as Alpine climbing, but it doesn’t need to be in the Alps. Places with sandstone4 rock are often preferred for less-experienced climbers because there are more natural holes to hold onto (though there are also routes that will test even the most experienced climbers). You need full equipment for traditional climbing as it can be high up and the surface of the rock unpredictable, but for many climbers this is the best type of all. It is a wonderful way to enjoy beautiful natural surroundings, and the euphoria when you reach the top is hard to beat.

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B1 literature CD

Tracks 12–13

TF

Activities


B1 test CD

Tracks 14–18

Exercises on pages 23–34 are excerpts from several tests. Please note that the numbers don’t follow any particular order.

LisTening You will hear people talking in four different situations. For questions 21–24, choose the correct answer: A, B, C or D.

23 What costume will the boy wear at the party? A costume inspired by…

21 What does the girl say about her sports activities at present? A B C D

22

28

fairy tales detective stories horror stories Greek legends

She has returned to running. She is a member of a sports club. She goes to a swimming pool twice a week. She prefers team sports to individual training.

Where will the students get the book for the exam? A B C D

A B C D

They’ll buy it on the internet. They’ll buy a second-hand copy. They’ll download it from the internet. They’ll borrow it from the museum library.

Bridge

24 At what time will the talk about “how to start a company” begin? A B C D

At 8.30am At 10am At 1pm At 3pm


B1 test

Language in use Just a Bottle of Water In the following text, fill in gaps 1–10 with one word. Use only words that have some grammatical function. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Example: (00) – of Do you buy a bottle

become a natural part of the soil and the water. That

0

water every

time you’re thristy? A healthy drinking regime is important but it

1

become quite common to

buy water in plastic bottles instead of drinking tap water. Central Europe has a lot of water resources and Slovakia

2

is

of the countries with the best

quality of tap water in the world so there is no need to buy bottled water. A plastic bottle takes

6

body. That can hardly be good for

us, so how can it be good for nature? Separating and recycling can’t really help solve this problem because the amount of rubbish we throw away

7

day is too high and it is impossible

to recycle all of it. Also

8

recycling

process often damages the environment even more and

3

least

also produces waste.

500 years to decompose, but most plastics take even longer. PET bottles (made with Polyethylene Terephthalate) never degrade. A bottle of water is relatively cheap so it’s easy

4

buy,

but what takes you five minutes to drink will stay for thousands of years as a useless piece of plastic in a landfill. Also, scientists have found that there is already so

5

means that with everything we eat or drink, plastic enters

plastic in the world that it has

If you need to carry a bottle of water with you, you can either reuse an old one or, even better, buy a special one exclusively for tap water. A big part of the natural world has

9

damaged already but the good

thing is that we can all do something about it. We can start by understanding that what is not good for us can’t be good for the earth. There is

10

better way

to protect nature than respecting it.

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B1 test

sPeaKing social events student’s Task sheet

4A

In Part Four of the exam, you and the examiner are going to talk together. Imagine the following situation: There are English exchange students at your school and you would like to go to a cultural event with them. You are going to talk about it with your English teacher. First you should choose an event, and then talk about the details. The examiner will start the conversation. The following ideas and pictures 4A–4C may help you:

4B

— type of event — when — how much to spend — how to get there — what to wear — other

examiner: sample Questions • Have you thought about what we could do with the exchange students yet? • Do you think that ________ will be interesting for them? • When do you suggest going there? • What are you going to do about tickets? • What if other students from our school would like to go as well? How shall we get there? • What shall we wear? • So, what have we agreed on?

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4C


B1 test

WRiTing Your schoolmate Ronald is going to move to Ireland. You want to tell your Irish friend Hilary about it. Write an email using 120–150 words in which you: • say why you are writing • describe your schoolmate Ronald • say what you have experienced with him • explain what his moving means to you

Sample email Dear Hilary, I have some news for you. Ronald and his parents are moving to Ireland next week. Do you remember him? He’s that big ginger guy with the freckles all over his face who asked you on a date last year. You won’t believe it, but since you went back home he has moved his attention to me. He’s been writing loads of love emails and texts full of romantic nonsense. I just can’t believe how stubborn, stupid, silly, dumb and idiotic he is when it comes to running after girls. I really can’t wait to see him leave because I’m completely fed up with his behaviour. Love, Sarah

WRiTing Last weekend your school celebrated an important moment in its history. You want to tell the readers of the English section of your school website about the event. Write a news item using 60–70 words in which you: • give basic details about the event • describe the programme of the event • explain what was best about it and why

SAMPLE NEWS ITEM

150 and still young

On April 25th there was a queue in front of the Secondary School of Engineering. This was because our school was celebrating its 150th anniversary. From the morning, visitors could admire our modern classrooms and workshops. In the evening they could come to a dance party. That party was the best part of the day as the older generations of students celebrated happily with the young ones.

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B2 test CD

Tracks 19–20

LisTening a Humble genius You will hear a story about the scientist Isaac Newton. For statements 1–7, choose the correct answer: A, B, C or D. There is only one correct answer for each question. You now have two minutes to read the questions.

1

Young Newton lived with his grandmother, because: A his mother died when he was three years old. B his parents weren’t married. C his father died before he was born. D his mother got married to another man.

2

As a student, he had to work in a canteen: A because he didn’t have a scholarship. B to gain his scholarship. C to avoid working on a farm. D because he wanted to.

3

In addition to his great intellect, he was: A very skilfull. B good at farming. C a very good student. D very sociable.

4

After finishing university, he: A became a professor of mathematics. B started to work on a farm. C refused to be a member of Parliament. D studied philosophy.

5

What did he think of literature? A He enjoyed philosophy. B He admired the invention of print. C He published books about religion. D He didn’t like to read.

6

Why is his telescope so important? A He constructed it all by himself. B It is the model for most of today’ss telescopes. C It was the first telescope ever. D Albert Einstein used it.

7

What was his major inspiration? A An apple in the school canteen. B The work on his mother’s farm. C Being a member of Parliament. D Studying nature and other scientists’ work.

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B2 test

Language in use More Than Just a Piece of Cloth Read the text below and fill in gaps 1–10 with one word. Use only words which have some grammatical function. There is an example at the beginning (0).

What is the first thing that comes

0

or something else. And the remaining 38 per cent? They

7

mind when you hear the word “Scotland”? We might have

often say that by not wearing

plenty of jokes about Scots being penny-pinching, but still,

under a kilt, you prove that you are a true Scot. Isn’t it

for most people it would be the bagpipes and the famous,

funny that in some cultures, you prove yourself a man

8

ever-so-cool kilt.

wearing a garment that actually

makes you vulnerable in a way? The history of this garment goes as far back

1 mean that it

the 16th century. But that doesn’t looked the way it

2

Nowadays, especially

9

the form

of a female skirt, the kilt is very popular, and tartan,

does today. The original piece of clothing was much bigger

the pattern used in kilts, too. Very frequently, famous

and was worn across the left shoulder, resembling a cloak.

designers include them in their collections and very

There was no tailoring involved and a belt was used to secure it at the waist. It was specific to the Highlands and

10

the tartan or the kilt itself

becomes a must for the season.

not worn in the rest of Scotland.

In the 17th century, a new style appeared. The kilt

3

smaller, basically conserving

only the bottom part of the original one. That’s when it

4

to resemble the kilts worn today.

The tailored kilt and its accessories have remained popular

5

since and it was even chosen for

the Highland regiments of the British army.

There was a ban on kilts for 35 years

6

the 18th century. This was

the result of the Jacobite rising and the following suppression of the Highland culture. An exception was, however, made for the Highland Regiments. Of course, the passionate Scots disagreed and wore kilts anyway as a means of protest.

During the history of the kilt, an important question has been raised many times: what is the right thing to wear under it? Researchers say that around 55 per cent of kilt wearers use underwear. Around 7 per cent wear shorts

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33


B2 test

Language in use a Mysterious Friend Read the following article about wolves. For questions 1–10, change the word given in capitals at the end of the line to complete the article. There is one example (0) at the beginning of the text. EXAMPLE: (0) – setting The word “charismatic” is often used for describing people. But have you ever thought of an animal this word might be perfectly suitable for?

The wild woods of the Slovak mountains are the

0

where wolves,

0

set

1

friend

these shy and yet fierce animals, live. Very often, their character is perceived in a very

1

negative way and as quite

. The expression “a lone wolf” is very

common. But is it really accurate? The response of scientists is clear: not at all.

In reality, wolves are extremely keen on creating bonds and are very friendly. Probably the strongest feature of a wolf’s personality is its capacity for making emotional

2

to other individuals. Such attachments form quickly and

2

attach

3

and they begin to develop when wolves are just a few weeks

3

firm

4

tend

5

notice

6

survive

7

basic

8

invent

. It is no wonder that so many people

9

friend

with this beautiful and complex animal.

10

old. This results in the formation of the pack as the unit of wolf society. When wolf pups are raised by human beings, this social

5

4

is especially

.

A second characteristic of a wolf’s personality might surprise many people who think of wolves as savage. In reality, wolves have a strong aversion to fighting. This is necessary for their

6

, because a pack wouldn’t function well if

its members were unable to co-exist. Under certain circumstances, however, a wolf can become aggressive,

7

in situations that make it feel insecure or

threatened.

Personal character traits of wolves can vary just as with humans. People who have been in the company of wolves have described some of them as confident, tolerant, generous,

8

, natural leaders, playful, supportive or easy-going.

Wolves are intelligent, not aggressive, and they have the ability to make strong emotional attachments and even form feel such an affinity and

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10

9

connect


[Vocabulary] 11 12 13

Where Are you From? 1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9 10

pp. 4–5

ancestry [ˈænsestri] – la ascendencia heritage [ˈherɪtɪdʒ] – la herencia overlap [ˌəʊvəˈlæp] – tener elementos en común, coincidir citizenship [ˈsɪtɪzənʃɪp] – la ciudadanía dual [ˈdjuːəl] – doble indigenous tribes [nˈdɪdʒənəs traɪbz] – las tribus indígenas to braid [breɪd] – trenzar scholarship [ˈskɒləʃɪp] – la beca to sue [suː] – demandar, llevar al juzgado to discriminate [dɪˈskrɪmɪneɪt] – discriminar

Game of thrones Danger Zone 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12

Presidential cVs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8

p. 10

notorious [nə(ʊ)ˈtɔːrɪəs] – infame, de mala fama to get attached [tʊ ɡɛt əˈtatʃt] – engancharse a algo chew off [tʃu ɒf] – morder truce [truːs] – la tregua betray [bɪˈtreɪ] – traicionar warlock [wɔːlɒk] – el brujo insurrectionist [ɪnsəˈrɛkʃ(ə)nɪst] – el insurgente, el insurecta stabbed [stabəd] – apuñalado honourable [ɒn(ə)rəb(ə)l] – honorable to sacrifice [sakrɪfʌɪs] – sacrificar arguably [ɑːɡjʊəbli] – posiblemente, probablemente to fall out of favour [tʊ fɔːl aʊt ɒv feɪvə] – caer en desgracia

small Home, Floating Home, no Home? 1 2 3 4 5 6

1

It’s not What you think! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

p. 11

glow [ɡləʊ] – brillar watch dial [ˈdaɪəl] – la esfera del reloj fungus (plural: fungi) [ˈfʌŋɡəs, ˈfʌŋɡiː] – el hongo reproductive [ˌriːprəˈdʌktɪv] – reproductivo compressed [kəmˈprest] – comprimido nitrogen [ˈnaɪtrədʒən] – el nitrógeno oxygen [ˈɒksɪdʒən] – el oxígeno jet engine [dʒet ˈendʒɪn] – el motor de reacción invertebrates [ɪnˈvɜːtɪbrəts] – los invertebrados arachnids [əˈræknɪdz] – los arácnidos knock sb out [nɒk] – noquear a alguién blow [bləʊ] – soplar concussion [kənˈkʌʃn] – la conmoción cerebral

2 3 4 5 6

eruption [ɪˈrʌpʃn] – la erupción tribe [traɪb] – la tribu graveyard [ˈɡreɪvjɑːd] – el cementerio to get sober [ˈsəʊbə(r)] – volver sobrio base [beɪs] – la base bunker [ˈbʌŋkə(r)] – el búnker

Bombing the city 1

Inventions you can’t Live Without pp. 8–9 1 2 3

4

5 6 7 8 9 10 11

12

13 14 15

mammal [ˈmæml] – el mamífero cell [sel] – la célula breakthrough [ˈbreɪkθruː] – un avance significante, un adelanto importante advancement [ədˈvɑːnsmənt] – el progreso, el avance to revolutionise [ˌrevəˈluːʃənaɪz] – revolucionar pharmacologist [ˌfɑːməˈkɒlədʒɪst] – el farmacólogo mould [məʊld] – el molde to prescribe [prɪˈskraɪb] – prescribir tirelessly [ˈtaɪələsli] – incansablemente blacksmith [ˈblæksmɪθ] – el herrero gasworks [ˈɡæswɜːks] – la fábrica de gas, la planta de gas waterproof fabric [ˈwɔːtəpruːf ˈfæbrɪk] – la tela impermeable soaked through [səʊkt θruː] – mojado, empapado surgeon [ˈsɜːdʒən] – el cirujano regarded as [rɪˈɡɑːdid æz] – visto como, considerado como

2 3 4 5 6

climate change 1 2 3 4 5 6

7

8 9

10

p. 14

boardwalk [ˈbɔːdwɔːk] – el paseo peatonal lofted bed [ˈlɒftɪd] – el camarote, la cama marinera movement [ˈmuːvmənt] – el movimiento mortgage [ˈmɔːɡɪdʒ] – la hipoteca run-down [rʌn daʊn] – en decadencia spacious [ˈspeɪʃəs] – espacioso

Land of Lava and sunken ships

pp. 6–7

botany [ˈbɒtəni] – la botánica swivel chair [ˈswɪvl] – la silla giratoria wrestler [ˈreslə(r)] – el luchador unbeatable [ʌnˈbiːtəbl] – imbatible lasso [læˈsuː] – el lazo big game [ɡeɪm] – la caza mayor volunteer unit of cavalry [ˌvɒlənˈtɪə(r) ˈjuːnɪt ˈkævlri] – la unidad voluntaria de caballería to immortalize [ɪˈmɔːtəlaɪz] – imortalizar

decade [ˈdekeɪd] – la decada drought [draʊt] – la sequía equator [ɪˈkweɪtə(r] – el ecuador

p. 15

pp. 18–19

to make one’s mark [meɪk wʌns mɑːk] – dejar la marca de uno brothel [ˈbrɒθl] – el burdel elaborate [ɪˈlæbərət] – elaborar stencil [ˈstensl] – la plantilla moss [mɒs] – el musgo running [rʌn.ɪŋ] – ocurriendo en el presente

pp. 12–13

coral reef [ˈkɒrəl riːf] – el arrecife de coral level [ˈlevl] – el nivel coastal [ˈkəʊstl] – costero volume [ˈvɒljuːm] – el volumen algae [ˈældʒiː] – las algas carbon dioxide [ˈkɑːbən daɪˈɒksaɪd] – el dióxido de carbono within quite a narrow temperature range [ˈtemprətʃə(r) reɪndʒ] – dentro de un rango de temperatura bastante estrecho to starve [stɑːv] – morirse de hambre calcium carbonate [ˈkælsiəm ˈkɑːbəneɪt] – el carbonato de calcio acidic [əˈsɪdɪk] – el ácido

From Boulders to Mountains 1 2 3 4

p. 23

anchor point [aŋkə pɔɪnt] – el punto de anclaje bolt [bəʊlt] – el perno hold [həʊld] – el agarre de escalada sandstone [san(d)stəʊn] – la arsenica

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35


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