362 ISS An Inconvenient History: the Green Movement
Semester Two, 2017 School of Humanities, Coventry University.
Contact Details Module leader: Brett Sanders Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Office: GE 132 Telephone: 02476 888 8692 Office Hours: Wednesday 13:00-14:00 Thursday 13:00-15:00
Welcome The ‘environment’, or, more accurately, the natural world, is the only physical entity that we all share in common. Regardless of race, ethnicity, nationality, gender, sexuality or any other form of identity, we are all dependent on the planet’s natural resources to survive. In addition, the air that we breathe, the water that we drink, and the soils and oceans from which we derive our food are affected by the way in which we, as a species, interact with it. There are, of course, natural phenomena that affect climates and the acidity of soils, for example. However, we are now, or have been since roughly 1950, in a new geological epoch – the Anthropocene. This represents the scientific realisation that humanity has had, and is having, an impact on the natural world which will be visible in sediments and rocks in millions of years. The acceleration of humanity’s ability to augment the natural world, particularly since the Industrial Revolution, has resulted in growing alarmism about anthropogenic environmental change. Indeed our relationship with the natural world has often been depicted as the issue of the twenty-first century. Only a few months ago, in November 2016, the Paris Climate deal come into force after the European Union, Canada, Nepal and India all formally ratified the deal. The latest ratifications mean that 73 nations accounting for nearly 57% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions are fully committed to the process of tackling climate change by keeping a global temperature rise (this century) well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius. In order to understand current environmental discourse we must analyse and appreciate the cultural filters that our predecessors viewed the world through. Only then can it is possible to accurately assess the emergence and development of the social movement of environmentalism. We will then, over the next 10 weeks be considering the history of ideas towards the natural world, assessing the two key waves of environmentalism; the first wave of (roughly) 1850-1960 and the second wave starting in the 1960s. We will also be discussing how this social movement has had a global impact whereby from 1972, there has been a global environmental debate via the United Nations, expressed most evidently via the Earth Summit meetings. The difficulties
in reaching binding agreements, the concept and debate about sustainable development, as well as the formation and development of NGOs such as Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth are also key components of our discussions. The study of the environmental movement offers a unique insight in to the evolving debate surrounding global governance, development and the relationship between humanity and nature. I hope you enjoy the module, Brett
Module Aims The aim of this module is to critically analyse the emergence and evolution of environmental ideas and movements in Britain and America since the turn of the twentieth century. The module traces the conservation movements from the 1890s and examines their transformation following the expansion of the consumer society after the Second World War into new environmental movements during the 1960s and 70s. They arose at a time when industrial civilisation became so powerful, exerting increasing challenges to the natural world upon which humanity depends for its survival. The environment has since become a prominent part of the political agenda; it has become widely perceived as a battle for a living planet. Exploring the emergence of new types of activism and components such the concept of environmental justice, the module also draws attention to the changes from domestic to global environmental movements in the 1980s including the growing issue of global warming in our most contemporary context. In essence, the module will analyse how ecological ideas surrounding, for example, wilderness preservation, conservation, population control, the DDT controversy, nuclear energy and climate change have been incorporated into environmental discussions, social movements and the global political debate.
Intended Learning Outcomes Students who successfully complete this module will have an enhanced understanding of: • The various ways of political thinking about the environment since the late nineteenth century • The debate between conservationists and preservationists • The emergence of ‘new environmentalism’ • The emergence of the discourse on sustainable development • of the agenda of other parties • The development of environmental protest and environmental movements • Environmental Justice and Ecological democracy • The political responses to global environmental issues
Key Texts Guha, R. (1999) Environmentalism: A Global History. London: Pearson
Zelko, F. (2013) Make it a Green Peace. The rise of countercultural environmentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Lectures and Seminars Lectures will be on Wednesdays, 11:00- 13:00 in GE204. The seminars will be on Fridays, 11:00-13:00. They will be based on the reading listed below and be divided between group discussions, individual and group presentations, video and documentary analysis.
Date of Lecture
Subject of Lecture
Lecture One 25/01/2017
Introduction to the module and a historical overview of the Green Movement
Lecture Two 01/02/2017
The roots of environmentalism; romanticism, preservation and conservation
Lecture Three 08/02/2017
Reading for Seminar We will be watching ‘A Fierce Green Fire’. This film provides an excellent overview of what the module will be covering.
Guha, R. (1999) Environmentalism: A Global History. London: Pearson 1-62 Listen to: BBC Radio 4 ‘In Our Time’ Thoreau and the American Idyll: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00glr78
‘New Environmentalism’; the Guha, R. (1999) Environmentalism: A Global History. genesis of an anthropocentric London: Pearson 63-98 green Lambright, W. (2005) Environment: The Case of Ozone Depletion. Washington DC: NASA Chapter 16 - NASA and the Environment: Science in a Political Context http://history.nasa.gov/sp4801-chapter16.pdf Listen to: Exploring Environmental History: podcast 14, ‘Silent Spring at 50’ http://www.environmentandsociety.org/mml/silentspring-50
Lecture Four 15/02/2017
The ‘Prophets of Doom’, 1968-1972.
This lecture will be on a different day – I will update you on the change.
Ehrlich, P. (1968) The Population Bomb. Rivercity: Rivercity Press Extract: http://staff.washington.edu/jhannah/geog270aut07/r eadings/population/Ehrlich%20%20Population%20Bomb%20Ch1.pdf Hardin, G. (1968) The Tragedy of the Commons. Science (162) 3859 1243-1248 http://www.mcleveland.org/Class_reading/Hardin_Tr agedy_of_the_Commons.pdf Watch: Paul Ehrlich: Avoiding a collapse of civilisation: Our chances, prospects and pathways forward. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8mEMxDRU9Q
Lecture Five 22/02/2017
Popular culture, Disney, and the anthropomorphises of nature
Del Mar, D. (2006) Environmentalism. Harlow: Pearson, 61-81 (ebook available from the Library catalogue) Murray, R. and Heumann, K. (2015) The Sentimental Disney Cartoon Cemented the Myth That Man and Nature Can’t Coexist http://www.zocalopublicsquare.org/2016/04/19/how -bambi-hoodwinked-american-environmentalists2/ideas/nexus/
Lecture Six 01/03/2017
Back-to-the-land movements; Environmental Justice
Brown, D. (2011) Back to the Land. The Enduring Dream of Self-Sufficiency in Modern America. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 202-226 (ebook available from the Library catalogue) Shrader-Frechette, K. (2006) Environmental Justice creating equality, reclaiming democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3-21 (ebook available from the Library catalogue)
Lecture Seven 08/03/2017
The historical evolution of environmental groups and activism
Zelko, F. (2013) Let’s make it a Green Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3-33 Carter, N. (2007) The Politics of the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 143-168 (ebook available from the Library catalogue: there are two versions in the library – choose the 2001 version)
Lecture Eight 15/03/2017
Environmental ethics; green political thought
Carter, N. (2007) The Politics of the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 11-46 (ebook available from the Library catalogue: there are two versions in the library – choose the 2001 version) Blewitt, J. (2014) Understanding Sustainable Development. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 39-53 (ebook available from the Library catalogue)
Lecture Nine 22/03/2017
Lecture Ten 29/03/2017
Stockholm 1972 and United Nations Environment Programme; green goes global
Guha, R. (1999) Environmentalism: A Global History. London: Pearson, 138-146
The birth of ‘sustainable development’: Brundtland, Rio ’92 and Kyoto
Carter, N. (2007) The Politics of the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 203-237 (ebook available from the Library catalogue: there are two versions in the library – choose the 2001 version)
Shabecoff, P. (2003) A fierce green fire. Washington: Island Press, 177-199 (ebook available from the Library catalogue)
Elliot, J. (2013) An introduction to Sustainable Development. London: Routledge, 1-57 (ebook available from the Library catalogue) Listen to: Podcast 59: A sustainable common future? The Brundtland Report in historical perspective: https://www.eh-resources.org/podcast-59/
Seminars 1. Introduction We will be watching A Fierce Green Fire – the first feature length documentary about the history of the Green Movement. Questions to consider: What made you choose this module? What connects you to the Green Movement? Do you consider yourself an environmentalist?
2. The roots of environmentalism Guha, R. (1999) Environmentalism: A Global History. London: Pearson 158 Cronon, W. (1995) Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. 69-90 http://www.williamcronon.net/writing/Cronon_Trouble_with_Wilderne ss_1995.pdf Haila, Y. (1997) ‘'Wilderness' and the Multiple layers of Environmental Thought’. Environment and History (3) 2 129-147 http://www.environmentandsociety.org/sites/default/files/key_docs/ha ila-3-2.pdf BBC Radio 4 ‘In Our Time’ Thoreau and the American Idyll: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00glr78
Questions to consider: Why did the first wave of the green movement emerge? To what extent is environmentalism a response to industrial civilisation? Who are the preservationists and conservationists? What are their similarities and differences? What is meant by the Wilderness?
3. New environmentalism Guha, R. (1999) Environmentalism: A Global History. London: Pearson 63-98 Lambright, W. (2005) Environment: The Case of Ozone Depletion. Washington DC: NASA Chapter 16 - NASA and the Environment: Science in a Political Context http://history.nasa.gov/sp4801-chapter16.pdf McQuaid, K. (2006) ‘Selling the Space Age: NASA and Earth's Environment, 1958-1990’. Environment and History 12 (2) 127-163 http://www.environmentandsociety.org/sites/default/files/key_docs/m cquaid-12-2.pdf Del Mar, D. (2006) Environmentalism. Harlow: Pearson, 82-100 Exploring Environmental History: podcast 14, ‘Silent Spring at 50’ http://www.environmentandsociety.org/mml/silent-spring-50 Questions to consider: What caused the emergence of new environmentalism?
What differentiates it from first wave environmentalism? Who is Rachel Carson, and how significant was Silent Spring (1962)? Why was the Earthrise image so powerful?
4. ‘The Prophets of Doom’ 1968-1972 Ehrlich, P. (1968) The Population Bomb. Rivercity: Rivercity Press Extract: http://staff.washington.edu/jhannah/geog270aut07/readings/populatio n/Ehrlich%20-%20Population%20Bomb%20Ch1.pdf Hardin, G. (1968) ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’. Science (162) 3859 1243-1248 http://www.mcleveland.org/Class_reading/Hardin_Tragedy_of_the_Co mmons.pdf Watch: Paul Ehrlich: Avoiding a collapse of civilisation: Our chances, prospects and pathways forward: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8mEMxDRU9Q
Questions to consider: Who are the key ‘Prophets of Doom’? How do they assess the issue of over-population? What is the Tragedy of the Commons?
What do they say about technology? Why did their prophesies not happen as predicted? How do they defend their predictions?
5. Popular culture, Disney, and the anthropomorphosis of nature http://putlocker4up.com/watch-the-jungle-book-1967-movie-online10968.html Del Mar, D. (2006) Environmentalism. Harlow: Pearson, 61-81 (available online via Locate) Murray, R. and Heumann, K. (2015) The Sentimental Disney Cartoon Cemented the Myth That Man and Nature Canâ€™t Coexist http://www.zocalopublicsquare.org/2016/04/19/how-bambihoodwinked-american-environmentalists-2/ideas/nexus/
Questions to consider: In what ways was the anthropocentric turn in environmentalism reflected in popular culture? How did Disney anthropomorphosis nature? Does this trend continue today? Can humanity and nature live in harmony?
6. Back to the land-movements; Environmental Justice Brown, D. (2011) Back to the Land. The Enduring Dream of SelfSufficiency in Modern America. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 202-226 (ebook available from the Library catalogue) Lammas Living in the Future: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YaJ5sgppXwE Shrader-Frechette, K. (2006) Environmental Justice creating equality, reclaiming democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3-21 (ebook available from the Library catalogue) Egan, M. (2002) â€˜Subaltern Environmentalism in the United States: A Historiographic Reviewâ€™. Environment and History 8 (1) 21-41
Van Jones - Environmental Justice https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3WMgNlU_vxQ Environmental Justice: Peggy Shepard TED https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zJX_MXaXbJA
Questions to consider: What are back to the land movements? What motivated/motivates people to go back-to-the-land? What do you understand by Environmental Justice movement? What distinguishes environmentalism?
7. The historical evolution of green movements: from the Sierra Club to Earth First! Zelko, F. (2013) Let’s make it a Green Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 3-33 Carter, N. (2007) The Politics of the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 143-168
Questions to consider: What are the differences between the late nineteenth century organisations, and those of the 1960s and 1970s? What were the key factors that led to the creation of Greenpeace? What is the relationship between the environmental, CND, and Civil Rights movements of the 1960s? What is meant by ‘mind bombs’? Are Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth ‘green’ corporations?
8. Environmental Ethics Carter, N. (2007) The Politics of the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 11-66
Blewitt, J. (2014) Understanding Sustainable Development. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 39-53 (ebook available from the Library catalogue: there are two versions in the library – choose the 2014 version) Environmental Ethics: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethicsenvironmental/#Bib
Questions to consider: What is moral extensionsim? What is meant by anthrpocentricism? What is supposedly ‘deep’ about deep ecology? What are deep and social ecology? What are the key themes of eco-feminism? What is meant by Cartesian-dualism?
9. United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm 1972 Guha, R. (1999) Environmentalism: A Global History. London: Pearson, 138-146 Shabecoff, P. (2003) A fierce green fire. Washington: Island Press, 177199 (ebook available from the Library catalogue)
Primary Source: MEASURES UNDER UNITED NATIONS – STOCKHOLM CONFERENCE – 1972 http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/8107/8/08_chapter %203.pdf REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT http://www.un-documents.net/aconf48-14r1.pdf
Questions to consider: What is the significance of the Stockholm conference? What agreements were made? What fault lines in global environmental governance did the conference reveal? What was the People’s Forum?
10. Our Common Future: The birth of Sustainable Development Carter, N. (2007) The Politics of the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 203-237 Elliot, J. (2013) An introduction to Sustainable Development. London: Routledge, 1-57 (ebook available from the Library catalogue)
Listen to: Podcast 59: A sustainable common future? The Brundtland Report in historical perspective: https://www.eh-resources.org/podcast-59/ Primary Source: ‘Brundtland Report’ – the UN’s Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf Questions to consider: What is the definition of sustainable development? What is Agenda 21? How did Our Common Future inform global environmental discourse on the relationship between economic development and environmental considerations? How did the Brudtland report lead the way towards Kyoto and the most recent Paris Climate deals?
Assessment This module is assessed via an essay and an exam. The essay accounts for 50 percent of the final module grade, and the examination also accounts for 50 percent of the final module grade (essay 50%, exam 50%). To pass the module the aggregate of your marks should be a minimum of forty percent, while no one mark should be less than 35 percent. Essay The essay should be approximately 2,500 words and submitted by Friday 10 March 2017. Please submit your essay on the module web via TurnitIn. Your work must be submitted before 23:55. It will be marked and graded via Grademark – your marks will be available two weeks after submission. Answer one of the following questions: 1) Environmentalism emerged as a response to industrial civilisation. Discuss. 2) Assess the roles of John Muir and Gifford Pinchot to the birth of the green movement in the United States. 3) "But man is a part of nature, and his war against nature is inevitably a war against himself” (Carson 1962). In what ways do Carson’s words represent environmentalism’s evolution in the 1960s? 4) How important was the Earth-Rise image captured by Apollo 8 in 1968 to the environmental movement? 5) “A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero” (Hardin 1968). Discuss. 6) Assess the similarities and differences between environmentalism and the environmental justice movement.
Late Work All work submitted after the submission deadline without an approved extension will be given a mark of zero. A late submission grade of zero is better than a non-submission, however, as a late submission may allow you to re-sit the coursework. No submission at all will result in an automatic failure of the module, no resubmission entitlement, and potentially the termination of your whole course. You should note that short deferral (extension) of up to three calendar weeks may be given for genuine "force majeure" and medical reasons. (Please note that poor time management, theft, loss, or failure to keep a back-up file, are not valid reasons for an extension). The short deferral must be applied for on or before the submission date. You can apply for a short deferral by submitting an Examination/ Coursework Deferral Application Form. Application Forms along with the supporting evidence should go to the relevant Student Support Office, for undergraduates. For a longer delay in submission a student may apply for a (long) deferral. Academic staff can not sanction extensions â€“ only the student support team are able to do so.
The final element of the moduleâ€™s assessment is an exam. This will take place during May. The precise date and venue of the exam will be available closer to the time, on the publication of the exam timetable on the University website. The exam is of three hours duration, in which time you will be asked to answer two equally weighted questions. The exam is unseen.
Assessment criteria Class
Class II : I
90 – 100%
In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, an outstanding answer that could hardly be bettered. High degree of understanding, critical/analytic skills and original research, where specified. Outstanding in all respects.
80 – 89%
In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, the answer will demonstrate an excellent level of understanding, presence of clear description, critical/analytical skills or research, as appropriate.
70 – 79%
Answer entirely relevant to the assignment set. Answer will demonstrate clear understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. There will be evidence of wide-ranging reading and/or research, as appropriate, beyond the minimum recommended. Answers will be written/presented in a clear, well-structured way with clarity of expression. At level 3, evidence of independent, critical thought would normally be expected.
65 – 69%
Answer demonstrating a very good understanding of the requirements of the assignment. Answer will demonstrate very good understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. Answer will be mostly accurate/appropriate, with few errors. Little, if any, irrelevant material may be present. Reading beyond the recommended minimum will be present where appropriate. Well organised and clearly written/presented.
60 – 64%
Class II : II
55 – 59%
50 – 54%
A good understanding, with few errors. Some irrelevant material may be present. Well organised Some and clearly written/presented. reading/research beyond recommended in evidence.
Answer demonstrating a good understanding of relevant theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Some reading/research beyond that recommended may be present. Some errors may be present and inclusion of irrelevant material. May not be particularly well-structured, and/or clearly presented. Answer demonstrating a reasonable understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Answer likely to show some errors of understanding. May be significant amount of irrelevant material. May not be
well-structured and expression/presentation may be unclear at times. Class III
45 - 49%
40 – 44%
An understanding demonstrated, but may be incomplete and with some errors. Limited use of material with limited reading/research on the topic. Likely to be poorly structured and not wellexpressed/presented. Irrelevant material likely to be present. Basic understanding demonstrated, with some correct description. Answer likely to be incomplete with substantial errors or misunderstandings. Little use of material and limited reading/research on the topic in evidence. May be poorly structured and poorly expressed/presented. Some material may be irrelevant to the assignment requirements.
35 – 39%
Some relevant material will be present. Understanding will be poor with little evidence of reading/research on the topic. Fundamental errors and misunderstanding likely to be present. Poor structure and poor expression/presentation. Much material may not be relevant to the assignment.
30 – 34%
Inadequate answer with little relevant material and poor understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. Fundamental errors and misunderstandings will be present. Material may be largely irrelevant. Poorly structured and poorly expressed/presented.
20 – 29%
0 – 19%
Clear failure to provide answer to the assignment. Little understanding and only a vague knowledge of the area. Serious and fundamental errors and lack of understanding. Virtually no evidence of relevant reading/research. Poorly structured and inadequately expressed/presented. Complete failure, virtually no understanding of requirements of the assignment. Material may be entirely irrelevant. Answer may be extremely short, and in note form only. Answer may be fundamentally wrong, or trivial. Not a serious attempt.
Banded Marking Under the banded marking scheme, your work will conform to the grading system below.
Classification Numerical Scale First Class
100 95 90 85 80 75 72
Upper Second Class
68 65 62
Lower Second Class
58 55 52
48 45 42
38 35 30 20 10 0
Assessment Advice It is essential to remember that you are answering a precise question. Both the essay and exam will assess you on how well you responded to this question. As this is the case, it is essential that the whole of your submission is an argument. Do not leave the argument to the conclusion. State exactly what it is you believe right at the start, go on to prove your case paragraph by paragraph, and then sum up this argument in the conclusion. If you do this, using relevant evidence and stating why alternative arguments are incorrect, then you will gain a good mark. In short, analyse rather than describe. Reading through the ‘essay checklist’ below, as well as the following ‘guide to marking criteria’, will make sure you are on the right track. DO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Include a title sheet with your submission. Staple the separate sheets of your essay together Consider exactly what the question is asking. Formulate an argument in direct response to the essay title. Write an introduction that a) outlines your argument clearly, and b) explains how you will prove your case (i.e. how the structure of your essay will be laid out). 6. Refer to other academics’ work which considers the question selected. 7. Group your points into a clear structure. 8. Guide the reader through your essay, stating when you have moved on to a new section. 9. Give examples to back your claims. 10. Write a conclusion that sums up your argument and the evidence used to support it. 11. Reference your essay fully and correctly. 12. Provide a bibliography. 13. Use the spell check.
14. Make a copy of your essay before submission. 15. Collect your essay once it is marked. This is the only way to learn from past mistakes/triumphs.
DO NOT 1. Write an introduction that indicates you have not yet made up your mind about an answer to the question. 2. Write an introduction that does not leave the reader with a map of how your essay will be laid out. 3. Be descriptive. 4. Make unsubstantiated statements (back all your points with evidence). 5. Leave stating your argument to the conclusion. 6. Reference incompletely. 7. Write the essay the night before.
Coventry University Faculty of Arts & Humanities 362ISS An Inconvenient History: the Green Movement
Instructions to candidates Time allowed: 2 hours Answer TWO QUESTIONS All questions are equally weighted
You may take this question paper away at the end of the examination: please keep it in a safe place for future reference.
1. Assess the similarities and differences between the preservationists and conservationists in the United States at the turn of the twentieth century. 2. How have Radical Ecologists sought to resolve the perceived ecological crisis? 3. How do you account for the emergence environmentalism’ in the 1960s and 1970s?
4. How important was the Earth-Rise image captured by Apollo 8 in 1968 to the environmental movement? 5. How did the ‘Prophets of Doom 1968-1972’ (McCormick 1989) assess the issue of overpopulation? 6. How did the publication of the The Limits to Growth (1972) influence the debate about ecological limits and development. 7. How important was the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior in 1985 to the growth and development of Greenpeace? 8. Assess the significance of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment at Stockholm in 1972 to the environmental movement? 9. How significant was the publication of Our Common Future in 1987 to the discourse on sustainable development? 10. What are the achievements of the global sustainability gatherings between 1972 and 2012?
References and Bibliography are different, and sometimes need different treatment. References are the material which you have directly referred to or quoted from in your writing. They should always be listed in alphabetical order of author's last name. • Books: Author's last name, initial(s) or first name(s), (ed.) if he/she is the editor rather than the author, date of publication, title of book, place of publication, name of publisher. e.g. Barrass, R. (1982) Students Must Write, London, Methuen. The title of the book should be underlined or italicised. • Articles: Author's last name, initial(s) or first name(s), date of publication, title of article, title of journal, details of journal, volume, part, pages, etc. e.g. Barrass, R. (1993) Students Must Write, Adults Learning, vol. 6, part 4, pp45-78. The titles of the journal should be italicised or underlined. • More than one author: If there are between one and three authors, cite them all as they appear on the book or article. e.g. Coe, N. Ryecroft, R. and Ernest, P. If there are more than three, cite the first one and then put 'et al' (which means 'and others'). e.g. Coe, N. et al • When you mention a source of information, e.g. a book, article or report, you must reference it correctly, with author's name and date in brackets at the end of the sentence. e.g. (Allen 1989) • If you have read four books which all say the same thing, you can refer to them collectively in date order in your text:
e.g. As many writers (Smith 1989, Jones 1990, Matthews 1990, Ihenacho 1992) have said, the opposite is sometimes the case.
This shows that you have read the material, but aren't wasting vital words quoting from them all. These books then need correctly referencing in your bibliography.
The Bibliography is the list of material you may have read or referred to but may not have used directly in your work. Some tutors are happy for you to list these in with the references, some want them separate, some don't want them at all. If in doubt, ask. Again, list works in alphabetical order of author's last name. This, and the way you lay out your references, are academic convention and are called the Harvard method which is the preferred method in higher education and should be followed unless you have been told to do it a different way for a particular reason.
Environmentalism timeline 1945 The Second World War ends The United Nations is established 1948 Fairfield Osborn publishes Our Plundered Planet William Vogt publishes Road to Survival 1947 The US Defenders of Wildlife is established The US Marshall Plan for post-war economic recovery is adopted 1949 UN Scientific Conference on Conservation and Utilization of Resources (UNSCCUR) is held in New York Aldo Leopold publishes A Sand County Almanac 1951 The US Nature Conservancy is established US President Truman establishes the Paley Commission to examine future supply of natural resources 1952 The great London smog kills an estimated 12,000 people The Paley Commission publishes Resources for Freedom report 1953 The Keep America Beautiful campaign is established The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II takes place in London 1954 The UK Beaver Committee concludes levels of air pollution can no longer be tolerated Food rationing ends in the UK 1955 First UK Independent Television channel (ITV) is launched 1956 UK adopts its first Clean Air Act 1957 A fire occurs at Britain’s Windscale nuclear power plant 1958 US economist J. K. Galbraith publishes The Affluent Society 1961 World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is established Agent orange – a chemical herbicide – is used in the Vietnam War 1962 Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring 1963 USA adopts the Clean Air Act 1964 USA adopts the Wilderness Act 1965 USA adopts the Land and Water Conservation Act Ralph Nader publishes Unsafe at Any Speed 1966 Kenneth E. Boulding publishes his essay ‘The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth’ In the USA, The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau is broadcast The International Union for Conservation of Nature publishes its first Red Data Book on endangered species 1967 US Environmental Defense Fund is established Torrey Canyon oil spill occurs off the coast of Cornwall
1968 Apollo 8 mission produces first images of the Earth from space A biosphere conference is held in Paris Garrett Hardin publishes ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’ Paul Ehrlich publishes The Population Bomb 1969 Friends of the Earth is established An oil slick occurs at Santa Barbara Cuyahoga River fire occurs USA adopts the National Environmental Policy Act 1970 Natural Resources Defense Council is established The first Earth Day is held in the USA Don’t Make a Wave Committee is established to protest against nuclear testing in Canada MIT’s Study of Critical Environmental Problems publishes Man’s Impact on the Global Environment report The UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution is established 1971 The Founex Report identifies the link between development and environment Greenpeace is established The US State of Oregon’s Bottle Bill becomes law The Environmental Defense Fund wins a court order forcing the US federal government to consider a national DDT ban Keep America Beautiful launches the US ‘Crying Indian’ campaign Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen publishes The Entropy Law and the Economic Process Barry Commoner publishes The Closing Circle Friends of the Earth launches its first UK protest against non-returnable bottles 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment is held in Stockholm The UK-based magazine The Ecologist publishes ‘A Blueprint for Survival’ First US Earth Day takes place on 22 April Club of Rome publishes The Limits to Growth James Lovelock develops his Gaia hypothesis Barbara Ward publishes Only One Earth USA adopts the Clean Water Act 1973 E. F. Schumacher publishes Small is Beautiful Murray Bookchin publishes Post-Scarcity Anarchism USA adopts the Endangered Species Act The US Ecology Center launches a recycling demonstration project in California 1974 UK adopts the Environmental Pollution Act 1975 Vietnam War ends RAMSAR Convention (wetlands) and CITES (wild animal trade) come into force 1976 Seveso disaster occurs in Italy, producing a dioxin cloud
USA adopts the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act US Toxic Substances Control Act 1977 UK’s first bottle bank is sited in Barnsley, South Yorkshire 1978 Amoco Cadiz oil disaster occurs near Brittany, France Toxic waste in the Love Canal neighbourhood in New York State is discovered 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear accident occurs in the USA BBC broadcasts David Attenborough’s Life on Earth documentary Emergency clean-up of the Valley of the Drums – a 23-acre toxic waste dump in Kentucky 1980 The Brandt Commission publishes North–South: A Programme for Survival 1981 UK adopts the Wildlife and Countryside Act International Whaling Commission finally bans commercial whaling Miljöpartiet de Gröna is established as Sweden’s first green political party Julian Simon publishes The Ultimate Resource 1982 Residents of Afton, a predominantly black community, protest against the construction of a hazardous waste site in North Carolina 1983 Brandt Commission publishes Common Crisis Times Beach in Missouri is evacuated due to toxin scare 1984 Union Carbide Bhopal disaster occurs in India Friends of the Earth launches its first UK campaign on acid rain 1985 Greenpeace’s Rainbow Warrior is blown up by French Intelligence in Auckland, New Zealand Live Aid concert takes place to raise money for Ethiopian famine 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant explodes in Ukraine UK government accepts link between British air pollution and Scandinavian acid rain Brundtland Commission publishes Our Common Future US United Church of Christ’s Commission for Racial Justice publishes Toxic Wastes and Race 1987 Monsanto undertakes its first GM field trials Economist Robert Costanza and colleagues attempt to value ecosystem services 1988 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is established Miljöpartiet de Gröna is the first new political party to enter the Swedish parliament for seventy years 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill occurs in Alaska Swedish government establishes the Stockholm Environment Institute as an international environment development research institute US Time magazine declares Endangered Earth as Planet of the Year UK Green Party receives 2.2 million votes in the European elections – 15 per cent of the vote
British musician Sting establishes Rainforest Foundation International 1990 UK publishes its first environment White Paper IPCC publishes its first assessment report on the science of climate change UK adopts the Environmental Protection Act 1991 A road protest camp at Twyford Down hits the UK national news 1992 Earth Summit is held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil European Union introduces a voluntary Eco-labelling scheme Anti-consumerist ‘Buy Nothing Day’ is launched in the USA 1994 US President Clinton signs an Executive Order reinforcing civil rights and environmental laws World Bank anniversary celebrations take place in Madrid, Spain 1995 Anti-road protests take place at Newbury bypass in Berkshire, England Greenpeace opposes the deep-sea disposal of Brent Spar oil storage buoy Finnish Greens become the first party in Western Europe to enter a national government 1996 UK Forum for the Future is established 1997 The Kyoto Protocol on climate change is adopted 1998 Veterans of the anti-roads movement and Reclaim the Streets participate in the Global Street Party to coincide with the G8 summit in Birmingham 1999 Protests take place at the Seattle World Trade Organization negotiations 2000 UK Commission on Sustainable Development is established 2001 Terrorist attacks take place on the World Trade Center in New York on 11 September G8 summit in Genoa (Italy) is attended by an estimated 200,000 protestors; security forces shoot dead a protestor IPCC publishes its third assessment report on climate change 2002 UN World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa 2005 Kyoto Protocol on climate change comes into force The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is published 2006 US magazine Vanity Fair publishes a special Green Issue Al Gore produces the Oscar-winning climate change documentary film An Inconvenient Truth The Stern Review estimates the cost of not taking action on climate change 2007 Al Gore holds a Live Earth concert to raise awareness to combat climate change IPCC publishes its fourth assessment report on climate change 2008 UK adopts the world’s first Climate Change Act with a legally binding commitment to reduce carbon emissions UNEP launches a Global Green New Deal 2009 COP 15 climate change talks held in Copenhagen (Denmark) Tim Jackson publishes Prosperity Without Growth University of East Anglia deals with the implications of ‘climategate’ email scandal
2010 US President Obama introduces the Climate Change Bill BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico COP 16 UN climate talks take place in Cancun, Mexico Caroline Lucas is elected as Britainâ€™s first Green Party Member of Parliament 2011 UNEP publishes Towards a Green Economy report UK coalition government abolishes the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution and the Commission on Sustainable Development An earthquake and tsunami threaten the operation of nuclear power plants in Japan 2012 UN Earth Summit (Rio+20) takes place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2014 IPCC publishes its fifth assessment report on climate change Haq, G & Paul,A. (2012) Environmentalism since 1945. London: Routledge
Reading Key texts: Guha, R. (1999) Environmentalism: A Global History. London: Pearson Zelko, F. (2013) Make it a Green Peace. The rise of countercultural environmentalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press
General: Adams, W. M. (2009). Green development: Environment and sustainability in a developing world (3rd ed.), London: Routledge. Betsill, M., Hochstetler,K., Stevis,D. (2006) International Environmental Politics. Palgrave Blackmore, R., & Reddish, A. (1996) Global Environmental Issues. Hodder & Stoughton Blowers, A., Glasbergen, P. (1996) Environmental Policy in an International Context. Arnold Bomberg, E. (1998) Green Parties & Politics in the EU. Routledge Bramwell, A. (1989) Ecology in the 20th Century - A History. Yale: Yale University Press Carter, N. (2007) The Politics of the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Cohen, S. (2006) Understanding Environmental Policy. Columbia University Press Connelly,J., Smith,G. (2003) Politics & the Environment. Routledge Connelly, J., Smith, G. (2012) Politics and the Environment: From Theory to Practice (3rd edition). London: Routledge Dobson, A. (1992) Green Political Thought. London: Routledge. Dodds, F. (1997) The Way Forward - Beyond Agenda 21. London: Earthscan
Doyle, T. (2004) Environmental Movements in Majority and Minority Worlds. Rutgers UP Doyle, T., McEachern, D. (2007) Environment and Politics. London: Routledge Elliott, J. (2002). An introduction to sustainable development. London and New York: Routledge. Goldblatt, D. (1996) Social Theory and the Environment, Polity. Gould, P. (1988) Early Green Politics, Back to the Nature, Back to the Land and Socialism in Britain. Harvester Press. Guha, R., Martinez-Alier, J. (1997). Varieties of environmentalism: Essays north and south, London: Earthscan. Harvey, D. (1996) Justice, Nature & the Geography of Difference. Blackwell. Hewett, J. (1977) European Environmental Almanac. Earthscan Jordan A (2005) Environmental Policy in the EU. Earthscan Keil, R. (1995) "The Green Work Alliance," Capitalism, Nature and Socialism. 6 (3), Issue 23, September, pp. 63-76. Martell L (1994) Ecology & Society. Polity Press McCormick J (1991) British Politics & the Environment. Earthscan McCormick J (1995) The Global Environmental Movement. London: Belhaven Press Mellor, M. (1992) Breaking the Boundaries: Towards a Feminist Green Socialism. Virago Press. Peet, R., Watts, M. (eds.). (2004). Liberation ecologies: Environment, development, social movements. London and New York: Routledge. Peet, R., Robbins P., and Watts, M., (Eds.) (2011) Global political ecology. London: Routledge. Pepper, D. (1986) "Radical Environmentalism and the Labour Movement," in Weston, J. (ed) Red & Green, New Politics of the Environment, Pluto Press, pp. 115139.
Pepper, D. (1995) Eco-Socialism, From Deep Ecology to Social Justice. Routledge. Pepper, D. (1996) Modern Environmentalism. Routledge. Porritt, J. & Winner, D. (1988) The coming of the Greens. Fontana/Collins. Richardson D.,Rootes, C. (eds) (1995) The Green Challenge: the Development of Green Parties in Europe. London: Routledge Rootes C (ed) (1999) Environmental Movements: Local, National and Global. Cas Weston, J. (1986) (ed) Red & Green, New Politics of the Environment, Pluto Press. Williams, R. (1982) Socialism and Ecology, Reprinted in Capitalism, Nature, Socialism, 6(1) March 1995. Young, S. (1993) The Politics of the Environment. Baseline Books.
History of ecology Anker, P. (2002) Imperial Ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Bocking, S. (1997) Ecologists and Environmental Politics: A History of Contemporary Ecology. New Haven and London: Yale University Press Egerton, F. (1983) 'The History of Ecology: Achievements and Opportunities' (Part 1) Journal of the History of Biology pp. 259-310. Egerton, F. (1985) 'The History of Ecology: Achievements and Opportunities' (Part 2) Journal of the History of Biology 18, pp. 103-143. Golley, F. B. (1993) A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More than the Sum of its Parts. New Haven: Yale University Press Hagen, J. B. (1992) An Entangled Bank: The Origins of Ecosystem Ecology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press Kingsland, S. E. (1985) Modelling Nature: Episodes in the History of Population Ecology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Kwa, C. (1987) 'Representations of Nature Mediating between Ecology and Science Policy: The Case of the International Biological Programme'. Social Studies of Science, 17 (3), pp. 413-442.
Miller, C. and Rothman, H. (1997) Out of the Woods: Essays in Environmental History. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press Mitman, G. (1992) The State of Nature: Ecology, Community, and American Social Thought, 1900-1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Pauly, P. J. (1996) 'The Beauty and Menace of the Japanese Cherry Trees: Conflicting Visions of American Ecological Independence' Isis, 87(1) pp. 51-73. Real, L. A., & Brown, J. H., (Eds.) (1991) Foundations of Ecology: Classic Papers with Commentaries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Shortland, M. (ed). Science and Nature: Essays on the history of the environmental sciences. Oxford: British Society for the History of Science Sheail, J. (1987) Seventy-Five Years in Ecology: The British Ecological Society. Oxford: Blackwell Taylor, P. J. (1998) 'Technocratic Optimism, H. T. Odum, and the Partial Transformation of Ecological Metaphor after World War II' Journal of the History of Biology 21, 1. Weiner, D. R. (1984) 'Community Ecology in Stalin's Russia: "Socialist" and "Bourgeois" Science' Isis, 75(4), pp. 684-696. Worster, D. (1979) Nature's Economy: The Roots of Ecology. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books Zeller, S. (2001) 'Darwin Meets the Engineers: Scientizing the Forest at McGill University, 1890-1910'. Environmental History 6(3), pp. 428-50.
Animals Hanson, E. (2002) Animal Attractions: Nature on Display in American Zoos. Princeton: Princeton University Press Baratay, E., Hardouin-Fuger, E. (2002) Zoo: A History of Zoological Gardens in the West. London: Reaktion Books Barrow, M.V. (1998) A Passion for Birds: American Ornithology After Audubon. Princeton: Princeton University Press Jones, R. W. (1997) '"The sight of creatures strange to our clime": London Zoo and the consumption of the exotic'. Journal of Victorian Culture 2, pp. 275-294.
Mitman, G. (1999) Reel Nature: America's Romance with Wildlife on Film. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Pauly, P. J. (2002) 'Fighting the Hessian Fly: American and British Responses to Insect Invasion, 1776-1789'. Environmental History 7(3) pp. 485-507 Robbins, L.E. (2002) Elephant Slaves and Pampered Parrots: Exotic Animals in Eighteenth-century Paris. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press Rothfels, N. (Ed.) (2003) Representing Animals. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press Rothfels, N. (2002) Savages and Beasts: The Birth of the Modern Zoo. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press Philo, C. & Wilbert, C. (Eds.) (2000) Animal Spaces, Beastly Places. London: Routledge Russell, E. (2001) War and Nature: Fighting Humans and Insects from World War I to Silent Spring. Cambridge University Press Sleigh, C. (2001) 'Empire of the Ants: H. G. Wells and Tropical Entomology'. Science as Culture 10, 33-71. Cultures of nature Allen, D, (1993) The Naturalist in Britain. Princeton University Press Barnes, T.J. & J.S. Duncan (1992) Writing Worlds: Discourse, Text and Metaphor in the Representation of Landscape. London: Routledge Cronon, W. (Ed.) (1994) Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New York, W.W. Norton Davis, Susan G. (1999) Spectacular Nature: Corporate Culture and the Sea World Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press Henniger-Voss, Mary (Ed.) (2002) Animals in Human Histories: The Mirror of Nature and Culture. Studies in Comparative History. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press Matless, D. (1999) Landscape and Englishness. Reaktion Books: London Lynch, M & Law, J. (1999) 'Pictures, texts, and objects: The literary language game of birdwatching', pp. 317-341 in M. Biagioli (ed.), The Science Studies Reader. London: Routledge
Nash, R. (1979) 'The Exporting and Importing of Nature: Nature-Appreciation as a Commodity, 1850-1980'. Perspectives in American History 12, pp. 519-560. Outram, D. (1996) 'Spaces of Natural History' in N. Jardine, E. Spary, and J. Secord (Eds.) The Cultures of Natural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 249-265. Race and Gender Anderson, W. (1996) ‘Disease, race and empire’. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 70 (1): 62-67 Anderson, W. (1996) ‘Immunities of empire: race, disease and the new tropical medicine, 1900-1920’. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 70 (1): 94-118 Harrison, M. (1996) ‘The tender frame of man’. Disease, climate and racial difference in India and the West Indies, 1760-1860’. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 70 (1):68-93 Hazlett, M. (2004) ‘Woman vs. Man vs. Bugs: Gender and Popular Ecology in Early Reactions to Silent Spring’. Environmental History, Vol. 9, No. 4: 701-729 Leach, M. and Green, C. (1997) ‘Gender and Environmental History: From Representation of Women and Nature to Gender Analysis of Ecology and Politics’. Environment and History 3: 343-370 Livingstone, D.N. (1991) ‘The moral discourse of climate: historical considerations on race, place and virtue’. Journal of Historical Geography 17: 413-434. Merchant, C. (1989). Ecological revolutions: nature, gender, and science in New England. Carolyn Merchant. Chapel Hill; London: University of North Carolina Press Merchant, C. (2004) Shades of darkness: race and environmental history. Environmental History Vol. 8, Issue 3, 380-394 Mergen, B. (2003) ‘Review Essay: Children and Nature in History’. Environmental History, Vol. 8, No. 4: 643-669 McEwan, C. (1996) ‘Paradise or pandemonium? West African landscapes in the travel accounts of Victorian women’. Journal of Historical Geography 22, 1, 68-83
History of conservation and environmentalism Andrews, R. (1999) Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press Budiansky, S. (1995) Nature's Keepers: The New Science of Wildlife Management. New York: Free Press Clements, K. (2000) Hoover, Conservation, and Consumption: Engineering the Good Life. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas Closmann, C. (2009) War and the environment: military destruction in the modern age. College Station: Texas A&M University Press Elliot, R. (1997) Faking Nature: The Ethics of Environmental Restoration. London: Routledge Evans, D. (1992) A History of Nature Conservation in Britain. London: Routledge Gottlieb, R. (1993) Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement . Washington: Island Press Lear, L. (1997) Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Holt and Company Maher, Neil M (2002) 'A New Deal Body Politic: Landscape, Labor, and the Civilian Conservation Corps'. Environmental History 7(3) 435-461. Meine, C. (1988) Aldo Leopold: His Life and Work. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press Nash, R. (1989) The rights of nature: a history of environmental ethics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press Nash, R. (2001) Wilderness and the American Mind (4th ed). New Haven and London: Yale University Press Nicholson, M. (1987) The new environmental age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Pepper, D,. Youngs, M., Perkins, J. (1984) The roots of modern environmentalism. London: Croom Helm Petulla, J. (1980) American environmentalism: values, tactics, priorities. College Station: Texas A&M University Press Ponting, C. (1992) A green history of the world. London: Penguin Books
Rome, A. (2001) The Bulldozer in the Countryside: Suburban Sprawl and the Rise of American Environmentalism. New York: Cambridge University Press Sheail, J. (1976) Nature in Trust: The History of Nature Conservation in Britain. Glasgow: Blackie Sheail, J. (1981) Rural Conservation in Inter-war Britain. Clarendon Press: Oxford Sheail, J. (1995) 'War and the Development of Nature Conservation in Britain', Journal of Environmental Management 44, 1995, pp. 267-283 Sutter, Paul (2002) Driven Wild: How the Fight Against Automobiles Launched the Modern Wilderness Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press Yearley, S. (1989) 'Bog Standards: Science and Conservation at a Public Inquiry', Social Studies of Science 19(3) pp. 421-438 Wall, D. (1994) Green history: a reader in environmental literature, philosophy, and politics. London: Routledge
Green Politics Chasek, M., Downie, D. and Welsh Brown, J. (2006) Global Environmental Politics. 4th edition. Boulder (Co): Westview Press. Carter, N. (2007) The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, Policy. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dobson, A. (2007) Green Political Thought. London: Routledge Jordan, A., Lenschow, A. (eds) (2008) Innovation in Environmental Policy: Integrating the Environment for Sustainability. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar O'Neil, K. (2009) The Environment and International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
European Commission documents: European Commission (1999) Environment in the EU at the Turn of the Century. EEA European Commission (2004) Environmental Policy Review. EEA
European Commission (2005) The European Environment â€“ State & Outlook 2005. EEA