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206 ISS: Humanity and the natural world: a history

Semester Two, 2017. School of Humanities, Coventry University.


Contact Details Module leader: Brett Sanders Email: aa1369@coventry.ac.uk Office: GE 132 Telephone: 02476 888 8692 Office Hours: Wednesday

14:00-15:00

Thursday

13:00-15:00


Welcome Since the professionalization of the historical profession in the nineteenth century, the nation state has been the dominant focus of the historian’s enquiring pen. Most of the modules, the people you have studied, and the books you have read, are rooted in the concept of the nation state. This is largely the result of history’s professionalization being inextricably linked with the evolution of the nation state as the dominant form of societal organisation. However, since the 1960s and directly linked to the counter-cultural social movements of that decade, a divergence occurred which sought to develop histories that were more inclusive than the birth, development, and relationships between states. Indeed, there emerged a wide array of new avenues for the interested historian. Histories of gender, race, and environment emerged to produce studies that were inclusive of historically oppressed groups and those that accounted for change resulting from factors outside of humanity’s control. Enter here the environmental historians who strive to analyse how ecological issues such as climate and disease can, and have, shaped change. In addition, they study how humanity’s cultural lenses affect its relationship with the natural world, and how these have shaped the physical environment on which we depend for our survival. Further, since the birth of industrialism in the eighteenth century, and in particular since the 1960s, a fear that anthropogenic change is threating humanity’s very survival has prompted the social movement of environmentalism. This social movement conceived as a critique of industrial civilisation, emerged from the 1960s as a mass participatory movement that has instilled the environmental issue, and alarmism, to the forefront of the local, national, and global political debate. In fact, the environment might be considered the issue of the twenty first century as we, as a species, continue to debate how to alleviate global inequalities, whilst allowing the global north to maintain their expectations of continued material growth. Over the course of this module we will explore the ways in which humanity’s modes of production have affected our relationship with the natural world – indeed since the Neolitihic Revolution the natural world has been increasingly


humanised. We explore how the study of nature has been a key component of human societies as they sought to understand their place in nature. In addition, we will come to understand how the reconnection of Eurasia with the Americas after Columbus’ discovery in 1492 resulted in almost incomprehensible ecological, cultural and demographic change – we cannot begin to understand the world in which we live without exploring the ecological conditions that shaped it. Finally, we will analyse how a social movement was born that today represents one of the key pillars of our global political discourse. In studying this relatively new and growing avenue of historical enquiry we can, as historians, move towards a world history that answers some of the questions unanswered by a traditional focus on nation states, the actions of men, and the influence of guns and spears.

I hope you enjoy the module, Brett


Module Aims The aim of this module is to introduce students to the developing area of Environmental History (EH). Broadly stated, EH examines the impact of humans on the natural world over time. Clearly therefore, there are many themes to be examined in studying this relationship and this module discusses and analyses some of the most aspects of this interaction. Starting by defining terms, this module discusses how the debates surrounding EH have evolved and proceeds to deal with the impact of environmental groups, the debates surrounding the development of the environmental sciences, the effect of the Colombian Exchange, the agricultural and industrial revolutions, climate change, the built environment, sustainability, war and ethical considerations. Learning Outcomes Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to: • • • •

• • •

Define environmental history, and identify the relationship of environmental history with other disciplines and sub-disciplines. Think critically about the historical relationship between humans and the natural world. Analyse and interpret primary and secondary source documents relating to environmental history using historical research methods. Evaluate how the Columbian Exchange resulted in significant ecological and biological changes in Europe and the Americas and dramatically altered human societies on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Identify how environmental factors, such as disease and pollution have shaped political and social life across the globe. Analyse how human settlements have altered the environment. Analyse the impact of industrialization on human society during the Modern Era, and evaluate how governmental and nongovernmental actors have attempted to ameliorate the negative environmental consequences of industrialization. Identify current environmental challenges facing humanity, and analyse these challenges from a historical perspective.


Key texts There are three key texts for this module; two general introductions to environmental history, and a master piece of the genre, Alf Crosby’s Ecological Imperialism.

The reading, listening, and viewing for this module will be from these three texts and others listed in the section below. I have ensured that anything not in the key texts is available digitally, either via links to external websites, or Locate’s e-Library.

Mosley, S (2010) The Environment in World History. London: Routledge


Penna, A. (2011) The Human Footprint. A Global Environmental History. Chichester: Wileys

Crosby, A. (2015) Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press


Lectures and Seminars Lectures will begin on Thursdays at 11:00am and will conclude at 12:45 in GE403. Each lecture will consist of a 45-minute presentation, punctuated by a tea break between 11:45 and 12:00.

Date of Lecture Lecture One 26/01/2017

Subject of Lecture Introduction; what is Environmental History?

Reading for Seminar The environment in world history Mosley, S. (2010) The Environment in World History. Oxon: Routledge, p.1-13 José Augusto Pádua (2010) The Theoretical Foundations of Environmental History:

http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ea/v24n68/en_09.pdf

Supplementary journal if you’re interested! C.P. Snow Two Cultures http://s-f-alker.org.uk/pubsebooks/2cultures/Redelecture-2-cultures.pdf Lecture Two 02/02/2017

Studying nature Studying nature; the humanities, science, and the proliferation Pepper, (1996) Modern Environmentalism. Routledge, Chapter 3, p. 123-151 of knowledge

London:

https://1drv.ms/b/s!AiCouaSupdPzg8haw3KzpuF9qM-G_w

Lecture Three 09/02/2017

Humanising the natural world – from hunter gatherers to industrialism

Humanising the natural world Mosley, S. (2010) The Environment in World History. Oxon: Routledge Introduction, p.13-30, and 83-110 Listen to: BBC In Our Time: Enclosures of the 18th Century http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00b1m9b


Lecture Four 16/02/2017

The Columbian Exchange

The Columbian Exchange Crosby, A. (2015) Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Explanations, 269-293 Crosby, A. (1988): The Overseas Migration of Western Europeans as a Biological Phenomenon http://seankheraj.com/readings/HIST1035-Crosby.pdf Listen: BBC Radio 4 In Our Time: History as Science http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00545f0

Supplementary documentaries: America before Columbus https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RkicPYuEv2E Guns, Germs and Steel https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ojU31yHDqiM

Lecture Five 23/02/2017

People, population growth, and overpopulated oblivion?

People, Population growth, and overpopulated oblivion? Ehrlich, P. (2009) The Population Bomb Revisited. The Electronic Journal of Sustainable Development 1(3) 63-71 http://www.populationmedia.org/wpcontent/uploads/2009/07/Population-Bomb-Revisited-PaulEhrlich-20096.pdf

Malthus, T. (1798) An Essay on the Principle of Population – chapters 1&2 http://mysite.du.edu/~rkuhn/ints4465/malthus.pdf


Lecture Six 02/03/2017

Environmentalism: roots, 1890-1960

The roots of environmentalism

Lecture Seven 09/03/2017

The birth of modern environmentalism, 1945-1968

The birth of modern environmentalism, 1945-1969

David Peterson del Mar. (2012) Environmentalism. New York: Pearson/Longman, 6-28 (e-book available from the Library catalogue)

Lynne White Jr. (1967) ‘The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis’. Science 155 (3767), 1203-1207 http://www.uvm.edu/~gflomenh/ENV-NGOPA395/articles/Lynn-White.pdf David Peterson del Mar. (2012) Environmentalism. New York: Pearson/Longman, 50-67 (e-book available from the Library catalogue) Listen to podcast 14, ‘Silent Spring at 50’ https://www.eh-resources.org/podcast-44/

Lecture Eight 16/03/2017

Modern environmentalism 1968-1997

Modern environmentalism Zelko, F. (2014) ‘Make it a Green Peace’. GHI BULLETIN NO. 34 127-135 http://www.ghidc.org/fileadmin/user_upload/GHI_Washington/Publications /Bulletin34/34.127.pdf Watch: Big ideas that changed the world: Environmentalism https://media.coventry.ac.uk/Play/7831

Lecture Nine 23/03/2017

Environmental Ethics

Environmental Ethics Blewitt, J. (2014) Understanding Sustainable Development. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 39-53 (e-book available from the Library catalogue) Supplementary reading: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/#Bib


Lecture Ten 30/03/2017

War, environment, and ecocide

War, environment and ecocide Higgins, P. (2012) Earth is Our Business: eradicating ecocide. Shepheard-Walwyn (Publishers) Ltd. http://eradicatingecocide.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/06/EarthisourBusinessFirstChapter.pd f Ecocide, the 5th Crime Against Peace: Polly Higgins at TEDxExeter https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8EuxYzQ65H4


Assessment This module is assessed via an essay and an exam. The essay accounts for 50 percent of the final module grade, and the examination accounts for 50 percent of the final module grade (essay 50%, exam 50%). To pass the module the aggregate of your marks should be a minimum of forty percent, while no one mark should be less than 35 percent. Essay The essay should be approximately 2,250 words and submitted by 10 March 2017. Please submit your essay on the module web via TurnitIn. All essays must be typed, properly referenced and students should retain a copy for themselves.

1. Why did Environmental History emerge in the 1960s and 1970s? 2. In what ways did Enlightenment thinking affect humanity’s relationship with the natural world? 3. In what ways did the Columbian Exchange influence the populations of the Americas and Europe? 4. To what extent was the Industrial Revolution also an ecological revolution? 5. How did the ‘Prophets of Doom, 1968-1972’ (McCormick 1989) assess the issue of overpopulation? 6. Environmentalism is a reaction against industrial civilisation. Discuss.


Late Work All work submitted after the submission deadline without an approved extension will be given a mark of zero. A late submission grade of zero is better than a non-submission, however, as a late submission may allow you to re-sit the coursework. No submission at all will result in an automatic failure of the module, no resubmission entitlement, and potentially the termination of your whole course. You should note that short deferral (extension) of up to three calendar weeks may be given for genuine "force majeure" and medical reasons. (Please note that poor time management, theft, loss, or failure to keep a back-up file, are not valid reasons for an extension). The short deferral must be applied for on or before the submission date. You can apply for a short deferral by submitting an Examination/ Coursework Deferral Application Form. Application Forms along with the supporting evidence should go to the relevant Student Support Office, for undergraduates. For a longer delay in submission a student may apply for a (long) deferral. Academic staff can not sanction extensions – only the student support team are able to do so.

Exam The final element of the module’s assessment is an exam. This will take place during May. The precise date and venue of the exam will be available closer to the time, on the publication of the exam timetable on the University website. The exam is two hours long, in which time you will be asked to answer two equally weighted questions. The exam is unseen.


Assessment criteria Assessment criteria Class

Class I

Mark range

Guidelines

90 – 100%

In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, an outstanding answer that could hardly be bettered. High degree of understanding, critical/analytic skills and original research, where specified. Outstanding in all respects.

80 – 89%

70 – 79%

Class II : I

65 – 69%

In addition to that for 70 – 79% below, the answer will demonstrate an excellent level of understanding, presence of clear description, critical/analytical skills or research, as appropriate.

Answer entirely relevant to the assignment set. Answer will demonstrate clear understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. There will be evidence of wide-ranging reading and/or research, as appropriate, beyond the minimum recommended. Answers will be written/presented in a clear, well-structured way with clarity of expression. At level 3, evidence of independent, critical thought would normally be expected.

Answer demonstrating a very good understanding of the requirements of the assignment. Answer will demonstrate very good understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. Answer will be mostly accurate/appropriate, with few errors. Little, if any, irrelevant material may be present. Reading beyond the recommended minimum will be present where appropriate. Well organised and clearly written/presented.

A good understanding, with few errors. Some irrelevant material may be present. Well organised and clearly written/presented. Some


Class

Mark range 60 – 64%

Class II : 55 – 59% II

50 – 54%

Class III

45 - 49%

40 – 44%

Marginal

35 – 39%

Guidelines reading/research beyond recommended in evidence.

Answer demonstrating a good understanding of relevant theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Some reading/research beyond that recommended may be present. Some errors may be present and inclusion of irrelevant material. May not be particularly well-structured, and/or clearly presented.

Answer demonstrating a reasonable understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology. Answer likely to show some errors of understanding. May be significant amount of irrelevant material. May not be well-structured and expression/presentation may be unclear at times.

An understanding demonstrated, but may be incomplete and with some errors. Limited use of material with limited reading/research on the topic. Likely to be poorly structured and not wellexpressed/presented. Irrelevant material likely to be present.

Basic understanding demonstrated, with some correct description. Answer likely to be incomplete with substantial errors or misunderstandings. Little use of material and limited reading/research on the topic in evidence. May be poorly structured and poorly expressed/presented. Some material may be irrelevant to the assignment requirements.

Some relevant material will be present. Understanding will be poor with little evidence of reading/research on


fail

Fail

the topic. Fundamental errors and misunderstanding likely to be present. Poor structure and poor expression/presentation. Much material may not be relevant to the assignment.

30 – 34%

20 – 29%

0 – 19%

Inadequate answer with little relevant material and poor understanding of theories, concepts, issues and methodology, as appropriate. Fundamental errors and misunderstandings will be present. Material may be largely irrelevant. Poorly structured and poorly expressed/presented.

Clear failure to provide answer to the assignment. Little understanding and only a vague knowledge of the area. Serious and fundamental errors and lack of understanding. Virtually no evidence of relevant reading/research. Poorly structured and inadequately expressed/presented.

Complete failure, virtually no understanding of requirements of the assignment. Material may be entirely irrelevant. Answer may be extremely short, and in note form only. Answer may be fundamentally wrong, or trivial. Not a serious attempt.


Banded Marking Under the banded marking scheme, your work will conform to the grading system below.

Classification Numerical Scale First Class

100 95 90 85 80 75 72

Upper Second Class

68 65 62

Lower Second Class

58 55 52

Third Class

48 45 42

Fail

38 35 30 20 10 0


Assessment Advice It is essential to remember that you are answering a precise question. Both the essay and exam will assess you on how well you responded to this question. As this is the case, it is essential that the whole of your submission is an argument. Do not leave the argument to the conclusion. State exactly what it is you believe right at the start, go on to prove your case paragraph by paragraph, and then sum up this argument in the conclusion. If you do this, using relevant evidence and stating why alternative arguments are incorrect, then you will gain a good mark. In short, analyse rather than describe. Reading through the ‘essay checklist’ below, as well as the following ‘guide to marking criteria’, will make sure you are on the right track.

DO 1. Include a title sheet with your submission. 2. Staple the separate sheets of your essay together 3. Consider exactly what the question is asking. 4. Formulate an argument in direct response to the essay title. 5. Write an introduction that a) outlines your argument clearly, and b) explains how you will prove your case (i.e. how the structure of your essay will be laid out). 6. Refer to other academics’ work which considers the question selected. 7. Group your points into a clear structure. 8. Guide the reader through your essay, stating when you have moved on to a new section. 9. Give examples to back your claims. 10. Write a conclusion that sums up your argument and the evidence used


to support it. 11. Reference your essay fully and correctly. 12. Provide a bibliography. 13. Use the spell check. 14. Make a copy of your essay before submission. 15. Collect your essay once it is marked. This is the only way to learn from past mistakes/triumphs. DO NOT 1. Write an introduction that indicates you have not yet made up your mind about an answer to the question. 2. Write an introduction that does not leave the reader with a map of how your essay will be laid out. 3. Be descriptive. 4. Make unsubstantiated statements (back all your points with evidence). 5. Leave stating your argument to the conclusion. 6. Reference incompletely. 7. Write the essay the night before.


Referencing References and Bibliography are different, and sometimes need different treatment. References are the material which you have directly referred to or quoted from in your writing. They should always be listed in alphabetical order of author's last name.

• Books: Author's last name, initial(s) or first name(s), (ed.) if he/she is the editor rather than the author, date of publication, title of book, place of publication, name of publisher. e.g. Barrass, R. (1982) Students Must Write, London, Methuen. The title of the book should be underlined or italicised. • Articles: Author's last name, initial(s) or first name(s), date of publication, title of article, title of journal, details of journal, volume, part, pages, etc. e.g. Barrass, R. (1993) Students Must Write, Adults Learning, vol. 6, part 4, pp45-78. The titles of the journal should be italicised or underlined. • More than one author: If there are between one and three authors, cite them all as they appear on the book or article. e.g. Coe, N. Ryecroft, R. and Ernest, P. If there are more than three, cite the first one and then put 'et al' (which means 'and others'). e.g. Coe, N. et al • When you mention a source of information, e.g. a book, article or report, you must reference it correctly, with author's name and date in brackets at the end of the sentence. e.g. (Allen 1989)


• If you have read four books which all say the same thing, you can refer to them collectively in date order in your text: e.g. As many writers (Smith 1989, Jones 1990, Matthews 1990, Ihenacho 1992) have said, the opposite is sometimes the case. This shows that you have read the material, but aren't wasting vital words quoting from them all. These books then need correctly referencing in your bibliography. The Bibliography is the list of material you may have read or referred to but may not have used directly in your work. Some tutors are happy for you to list these in with the references, some want them separate, some don't want them at all. If in doubt, ask. Again, list works in alphabetical order of author's last name. This, and the way you lay out your references, are academic convention and are called the Harvard method which is the preferred method in higher education and should be followed unless you have been told to do it a different way for a particular reason.


Past exam paper - May 2016

Coventry University

Faculty of Arts & Humanities

206 ISS Key Themes in Environmental History

Instructions to candidates Time allowed: 2 hours

Answer TWO QUESTIONS

All questions are equally weighted

You may take this question paper away at the end of the examination: please keep it in a safe place for future reference.


1. Why did Environmental History emerge in the 1960s and 1970s? 2. What effect did the Scientific Revolution of the Renaissance have on the relationship between humankind and nature? 3. In what ways did the Columbian Exchange impact demographic change in the Old and New Worlds? 4. ‘The growing concentration of population, consumption and production in urban areas has greatly increased the stress placed on the environment’ (Mosley 2010). Discuss. 5. In what ways did the Industrial Revolution result in environmental change? 6. Why was the Vietnam War and the use of Agent Orange such a turning point in the relationship between war and the natural environment? 7. In your opinion, does nature have intrinsic or instrumental value? 8. How did the ‘Prophets of Doom, 1968-1972’ (McCormick 1989) assess the issue of overpopulation? 9. What factors contributed to the emergence of the modern environmental movement in the 1960s and 1970s? 10.Assess some of the key differences and similarities between the early environmental movement and the ‘new environmentalism’ of the 1960s and 1970s.


Environmentalism timeline

1945 The Second World War ends The United Nations is established 1948 Fairfield Osborn publishes Our Plundered Planet William Vogt publishes Road to Survival 1947 The US Defenders of Wildlife is established The US Marshall Plan for post-war economic recovery is adopted 1949 UN Scientific Conference on Conservation and Utilization of Resources (UNSCCUR) is held in New York Aldo Leopold publishes A Sand County Almanac 1951 The US Nature Conservancy is established US President Truman establishes the Paley Commission to examine future supply of natural resources 1952 The great London smog kills an estimated 12,000 people The Paley Commission publishes Resources for Freedom report 1953 The Keep America Beautiful campaign is established The Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II takes place in London 1954 The UK Beaver Committee concludes levels of air pollution can no longer be tolerated Food rationing ends in the UK 1955 First UK Independent Television channel (ITV) is launched 1956 UK adopts its first Clean Air Act 1957 A fire occurs at Britain’s Windscale nuclear power plant 1958 US economist J. K. Galbraith publishes The Affluent Society 1961 World Wildlife Fund (WWF) is established


Agent orange – a chemical herbicide – is used in the Vietnam War 1962 Rachel Carson publishes Silent Spring 1963 USA adopts the Clean Air Act 1964 USA adopts the Wilderness Act 1965 USA adopts the Land and Water Conservation Act Ralph Nader publishes Unsafe at Any Speed 1966 Kenneth E. Boulding publishes his essay ‘The Economics of the Coming Spaceship Earth’ In the USA, The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau is broadcast The International Union for Conservation of Nature publishes its first Red Data Book on endangered species 1967 US Environmental Defense Fund is established Torrey Canyon oil spill occurs off the coast of Cornwall 1968 Apollo 8 mission produces first images of the Earth from space A biosphere conference is held in Paris Garrett Hardin publishes ‘The Tragedy of the Commons’ Paul Ehrlich publishes The Population Bomb 1969 Friends of the Earth is established An oil slick occurs at Santa Barbara Cuyahoga River fire occurs USA adopts the National Environmental Policy Act 1970 Natural Resources Defense Council is established The first Earth Day is held in the USA Don’t Make a Wave Committee is established to protest against nuclear testing in Canada MIT’s Study of Critical Environmental Problems publishes Man’s Impact on the Global Environment report The UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution is established


1971 The Founex Report identifies the link between development and environment Greenpeace is established The US State of Oregon’s Bottle Bill becomes law The Environmental Defense Fund wins a court order forcing the US federal government to consider a national DDT ban Keep America Beautiful launches the US ‘Crying Indian’ campaign Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen publishes The Entropy Law and the Economic Process Barry Commoner publishes The Closing Circle Friends of the Earth launches its first UK protest against non-returnable bottles 1972 UN Conference on the Human Environment is held in Stockholm The UK-based magazine The Ecologist publishes ‘A Blueprint for Survival’ First US Earth Day takes place on 22 April Club of Rome publishes The Limits to Growth James Lovelock develops his Gaia hypothesis Barbara Ward publishes Only One Earth USA adopts the Clean Water Act 1973 E. F. Schumacher publishes Small is Beautiful Murray Bookchin publishes Post-Scarcity Anarchism USA adopts the Endangered Species Act The US Ecology Center launches a recycling demonstration project in California 1974 UK adopts the Environmental Pollution Act 1975 Vietnam War ends RAMSAR Convention (wetlands) and CITES (wild animal trade) come into force 1976 Seveso disaster occurs in Italy, producing a dioxin cloud USA adopts the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act US Toxic Substances Control Act


1977 UK’s first bottle bank is sited in Barnsley, South Yorkshire 1978 Amoco Cadiz oil disaster occurs near Brittany, France Toxic waste in the Love Canal neighbourhood in New York State is discovered 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear accident occurs in the USA BBC broadcasts David Attenborough’s Life on Earth documentary Emergency clean-up of the Valley of the Drums – a 23-acre toxic waste dump in Kentucky 1980 The Brandt Commission publishes North–South: A Programme for Survival 1981 UK adopts the Wildlife and Countryside Act International Whaling Commission finally bans commercial whaling Miljöpartiet de Gröna is established as Sweden’s first green political party Julian Simon publishes The Ultimate Resource 1982 Residents of Afton, a predominantly black community, protest against the construction of a hazardous waste site in North Carolina 1983 Brandt Commission publishes Common Crisis Times Beach in Missouri is evacuated due to toxin scare 1984 Union Carbide Bhopal disaster occurs in India Friends of the Earth launches its first UK campaign on acid rain 1985 Greenpeace’s Rainbow Warrior is blown up by French Intelligence in Auckland, New Zealand Live Aid concert takes place to raise money for Ethiopian famine 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant explodes in Ukraine UK government accepts link between British air pollution and Scandinavian acid rain Brundtland Commission publishes Our Common Future US United Church of Christ’s Commission for Racial Justice publishes Toxic Wastes and Race 1987 Monsanto undertakes its first GM field trials Economist Robert Costanza and colleagues attempt to value ecosystem services


1988 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is established Miljöpartiet de Gröna is the first new political party to enter the Swedish parliament for seventy years 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill occurs in Alaska Swedish government establishes the Stockholm Environment Institute as an international environment development research institute US Time magazine declares Endangered Earth as Planet of the Year UK Green Party receives 2.2 million votes in the European elections – 15 per cent of the vote British musician Sting establishes Rainforest Foundation International 1990 UK publishes its first environment White Paper IPCC publishes its first assessment report on the science of climate change UK adopts the Environmental Protection Act 1991 A road protest camp at Twyford Down hits the UK national news 1992 Earth Summit is held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil European Union introduces a voluntary Eco-labelling scheme Anti-consumerist ‘Buy Nothing Day’ is launched in the USA 1994 US President Clinton signs an Executive Order reinforcing civil rights and environmental laws World Bank anniversary celebrations take place in Madrid, Spain 1995 Anti-road protests take place at Newbury bypass in Berkshire, England Greenpeace opposes the deep-sea disposal of Brent Spar oil storage buoy Finnish Greens become the first party in Western Europe to enter a national government 1996 UK Forum for the Future is established 1997 The Kyoto Protocol on climate change is adopted 1998 Veterans of the anti-roads movement and Reclaim the Streets participate in the Global Street Party to coincide with the G8 summit in Birmingham


1999 Protests take place at the Seattle World Trade Organization negotiations 2000 UK Commission on Sustainable Development is established 2001 Terrorist attacks take place on the World Trade Center in New York on 11 September G8 summit in Genoa (Italy) is attended by an estimated 200,000 protestors; security forces shoot dead a protestor IPCC publishes its third assessment report on climate change 2002 UN World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg, South Africa 2005 Kyoto Protocol on climate change comes into force The UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment is published 2006 US magazine Vanity Fair publishes a special Green Issue Al Gore produces the Oscar-winning climate change documentary film An Inconvenient Truth The Stern Review estimates the cost of not taking action on climate change 2007 Al Gore holds a Live Earth concert to raise awareness to combat climate change IPCC publishes its fourth assessment report on climate change 2008 UK adopts the world’s first Climate Change Act with a legally binding commitment to reduce carbon emissions UNEP launches a Global Green New Deal 2009 COP 15 climate change talks held in Copenhagen (Denmark) Tim Jackson publishes Prosperity Without Growth University of East Anglia deals with the implications of ‘climategate’ email scandal 2010 US President Obama introduces the Climate Change Bill BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico COP 16 UN climate talks take place in Cancun, Mexico Caroline Lucas is elected as Britain’s first Green Party Member of Parliament 2011 UNEP publishes Towards a Green Economy report UK coalition government abolishes the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution and the Commission on Sustainable Development An earthquake and tsunami threaten the operation of nuclear power plants in Japan


2012 UN Earth Summit (Rio+20) takes place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2014 IPCC publishes its fifth assessment report on climate change

Haq, G & Paul, A. (2012) Environmentalism since 1945. London: Routledge

Recommended reading Closman, C. (1997) War and the Environment. Austin: A&M University Press Smout, T. (2008) Exploring Environmental History. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Mannion, A. (1997) Global Environmental Change. Harlow: Longman Nash, L. (2008) Inescapable Ecologies. Berkeley: University of California Press Pepper, D. (1996) Modern Environmentalism. London: Routledge Jones, P. (2001) History and Climate. London: Plenum Buell, L. (2005) The Future of Environmental Criticism. Oxford: Blackwell Lopez, R. (2012) The Built Environment and Public Health. San Francisco: Jossey Hughes, W. (2007) Environment and Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press Frey, H. (2008) Visions of Sustainability. Abingdon: Taylor&Francis Strobe, W. (2012) Fast Forward: Ethics and Politics in the Age of Global Warming. Washington DC: Brookings Institute


General Crosby, A. (1986) Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Cronon, W. (1996) (Ed.) Uncommon Ground: Rethinking the Human Place in Nature. New York: Norton Fiege, M. (2012) The republic of nature: an environmental history of the United States. Seattle: University of Washington Press Hughes, D. (2001) An environmental history of the world. New York: Routledge Hughes, D. (2005) 'Global Environmental History: The Long View', Globalizations, 2, [3], 293-308. Hughes, D. (2006) What is Environmental History? Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Krech, Separd, J.R. McNeill & Carolyn Merchant, Encyclopedia of World Environmental History (London & New York: Routledge, 2004).

Lewis, C. H. (1993) 'Telling Stories About the Future: Environmental History and Apocalyptic Science', Environmental History Review 17, pp. 43-60. Macnaghten, P. & Urry, J. (1998) Contested Natures. Thousand Oaks: Sage McNeill, R. (2000) Something new under the sun: an environmental history of the twentieth century world. London: Penguin Books Mosley, S. (2010) The Environment in World History. London: Routledge Myllyntaus, T. & Saikku, M. (Eds.) (2001) Encountering the Past in Nature: Essays in Environmental History, Series in Ecology and History. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press Sheail, J. (2002) An environmental history of twentieth century Britain. Houndsmills: Palgrave Simmons, I. (1993) Environmental history: a concise introduction. Oxford: Blackwell Simmons, I. (2001) An environmental history of Great Britain: from 10,000 years ago to the present. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press


Simmons, I. (2008) Global Environmental History. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Smout, T. (2009) Exploring Environmental History: selected essays. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Stine, J. K., & Tarr, J. A. (1988) 'At the Intersection of Histories: Technology and the Environment', Technology and Culture 39, pp. 601-40. White, Richard (2001) 'Environmental History: Watching a Historical Field Mature', Pacific Historical Review 70, pp. 103-110. Worster, D. (1994) Nature's Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas, Studies in Environment and History Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Worster, D. (1988) The Ends of the Earth: Perspectives on Modern Environmental History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Worster, Donald. (1993) The wealth of nature: environmental history and the ecological imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Yearley, S. (1995) 'The Environmental Challenge to Science Studies' pp. 457-479 in S. Jasanoff, G. E. Markle, J.C. Petersen and T. Pinch (Eds.) Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks, CA, London

History of ecology Anker, P. (2002) Imperial Ecology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Bocking, S. (1997) Ecologists and Environmental Politics: A History of Contemporary Ecology. New Haven and London: Yale University Press Egerton, F. (1983) 'The History of Ecology: Achievements and Opportunities' (Part 1) Journal of the History of Biology pp. 259-310. Egerton, F. (1985) 'The History of Ecology: Achievements and Opportunities' (Part 2) Journal of the History of Biology 18, pp. 103-143. Golley, F. B. (1993) A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More than the Sum of its Parts. New Haven: Yale University Press


Hagen, J. B. (1992) An Entangled Bank: The Origins of Ecosystem Ecology. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press Kingsland, S. E. (1985) Modelling Nature: Episodes in the History of Population Ecology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Kwa, C. (1987) 'Representations of Nature Mediating between Ecology and Science Policy: The Case of the International Biological Programme'. Social Studies of Science, 17 (3), pp. 413-442. Miller, C. and Rothman, H. (1997) Out of the Woods: Essays in Environmental History. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press Mitman, G. (1992) The State of Nature: Ecology, Community, and American Social Thought, 1900-1950. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Pauly, P. J. (1996) 'The Beauty and Menace of the Japanese Cherry Trees: Conflicting Visions of American Ecological Independence' Isis, 87(1) pp. 51-73. Real, L. A., & Brown, J. H., (Eds.) (1991) Foundations of Ecology: Classic Papers with Commentaries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Shortland, M. (ed). Science and Nature: Essays on the history of the environmental sciences. Oxford: British Society for the History of Science Sheail, J. (1987) Seventy-Five Years in Ecology: The British Ecological Society. Oxford: Blackwell Taylor, P. J. (1998) 'Technocratic Optimism, H. T. Odum, and the Partial Transformation of Ecological Metaphor after World War II' Journal of the History of Biology 21, 1. Weiner, D. R. (1984) 'Community Ecology in Stalin's Russia: "Socialist" and "Bourgeois" Science' Isis, 75(4), pp. 684-696. Worster, D. (1979) Nature's Economy: The Roots of Ecology. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books Zeller, S. (2001) 'Darwin Meets the Engineers: Scientizing the Forest at McGill University, 1890-1910'. Environmental History 6(3), pp. 428-50.

Animals Hanson, E. (2002) Animal Attractions: Nature on Display in American Zoos. Princeton: Princeton University Press


Baratay, E., Hardouin-Fuger, E. (2002) Zoo: A History of Zoological Gardens in the West. London: Reaktion Books Barrow, M.V. (1998) A Passion for Birds: American Ornithology After Audubon. Princeton: Princeton University Press Jones, R. W. (1997) '"The sight of creatures strange to our clime": London Zoo and the consumption of the exotic'. Journal of Victorian Culture 2, pp. 275-294. Mitman, G. (1999) Reel Nature: America's Romance with Wildlife on Film. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Pauly, P. J. (2002) 'Fighting the Hessian Fly: American and British Responses to Insect Invasion, 1776-1789'. Environmental History 7(3) pp. 485-507 Robbins, L.E. (2002) Elephant Slaves and Pampered Parrots: Exotic Animals in Eighteenthcentury Paris. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press Rothfels, N. (Ed.) (2003) Representing Animals. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press Rothfels, N. (2002) Savages and Beasts: The Birth of the Modern Zoo. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press Philo, C. & Wilbert, C. (Eds.) (2000) Animal Spaces, Beastly Places. London: Routledge Russell, E. (2001) War and Nature: Fighting Humans and Insects from World War I to Silent Spring. Cambridge University Press Sleigh, C. (2001) 'Empire of the Ants: H. G. Wells and Tropical Entomology'. Science as Culture 10, 33-71.

Cultures of nature Allen, D, (1993) The Naturalist in Britain. Princeton University Press Barnes, T.J. & J.S. Duncan (1992) Writing Worlds: Discourse, Text and Metaphor in the Representation of Landscape. London: Routledge Cronon, W. (Ed.) (1994) Uncommon Ground: Toward Reinventing Nature. New York, W.W. Norton Davis, Susan G. (1999) Spectacular Nature: Corporate Culture and the Sea World Experience. Berkeley: University of California Press


Henniger-Voss, Mary (Ed.) (2002) Animals in Human Histories: The Mirror of Nature and Culture. Studies in Comparative History. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press Matless, D. (1999) Landscape and Englishness. Reaktion Books: London Lynch, M & Law, J. (1999) 'Pictures, texts, and objects: The literary language game of birdwatching', pp. 317-341 in M. Biagioli (ed.), The Science Studies Reader. London: Routledge Nash, R. (1979) 'The Exporting and Importing of Nature: Nature-Appreciation as a Commodity, 1850-1980'. Perspectives in American History 12, pp. 519-560. Outram, D. (1996) 'Spaces of Natural History' in N. Jardine, E. Spary, and J. Secord (Eds.) The Cultures of Natural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 249-265.

Environment and Empire Brown, K. (2003) ‘Trees, forests and communities: some historiographical approaches to environmental history on Africa’ Area, 35, 4: 343-356. Kirby, K. and Watkins, C. (eds) (1998) The ecological history of European forests. Wallingford,Oxon : CAB International McNeill, J.R. (2004) ‘Woods and warfare in world history’. Environmental History, Vol. 9, No. 3:388-410 Rackham, O. (1980) Ancient Woodland. Edward Arnold: London Rackham, O (2000) The history of the countryside: the classic history of Britain's landscape, flora and fauna. London: Phoenix Press Rackham, O. (2001) Trees and woodland in the British landscape : the complete history of Britain's trees, woods & hedgerows. Rev. ed. London: Phoenix Press. Rackham, O. (2003) Ancient woodland : its history, vegetation and uses in England. New ed. Dalbeattie, Kirkudbrightshire: Castlepoint Press Smout, T.C. (2003) People and woods in Scotland: a history. Edinburgh : Edinburgh University Press Vera, F.W.M (2000) Grazing ecology and forest history. CABI Publishing, Wallingford Watkins, C. (1993) An ancient woodland bibliography. English Nature Watkins, C. (1998) European woods and forests: studies in cultural history. Wallingford: CAB International


Williams, M. (1989) Americans and their forests: a historical geography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Williams, M (2004) Deforesting the Earth: from Prehistory to Global Crisis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ecological exchange

Anker, P. (2002) Imperial Ecology. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Axtell, J. (1992) ‘Columbian encounters: beyond 1992’. William and Mary Quarterly, 49: 335360 Bowden, M.J. (1992) ‘The invention of the American tradition’. Journal of Historical Geography, 18: 3-26 Butzer, K. (ed) (1992) The Americas before and after 1492: current geographical research. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 82: 369-385 Crosby, A.W. (1972) The Columbian exchange. Biological and cultural consequences of 1492. Greenwood Press. Westport, CT Crosby, A.W. (1986) Ecological imperialism. The biological expansion of Europe. Cambridge University Press. Denevan, W.M. (1992) The pristine myth: the landscape of the Americas in 1492. In Butzer, K. (ed) (1992) The Americas before and after 1492: current geographical research. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 82: 369-385.

Race and Gender Anderson, W. (1996) ‘Disease, race and empire’. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 70 (1): 62-67 Anderson, W. (1996) ‘Immunities of empire: race, disease and the new tropical medicine, 1900-1920’. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 70 (1): 94-118 Harrison, M. (1996) ‘The tender frame of man’. Disease, climate and racial difference in India and the West Indies, 1760-1860’. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 70 (1):68-93 Hazlett, M. (2004) ‘Woman vs. Man vs. Bugs: Gender and Popular Ecology in Early Reactions to Silent Spring’. Environmental History, Vol. 9, No. 4: 701-729 Leach, M. and Green, C. (1997) ‘Gender and Environmental History: From Representation of Women and Nature to Gender Analysis of Ecology and Politics’. Environment and History 3: 343-370


Livingstone, D.N. (1991) ‘The moral discourse of climate: historical considerations on race, place and virtue’. Journal of Historical Geography 17: 413-434. Merchant, C. (1989). Ecological revolutions: nature, gender, and science in New England. Carolyn Merchant. Chapel Hill; London: University of North Carolina Press Merchant, C. (2004) Shades of darkness: race and environmental history. Environmental History Vol. 8, Issue 3, 380-394 Mergen, B. (2003) ‘Review Essay: Children and Nature in History’. Environmental History, Vol. 8, No. 4: 643-669 McEwan, C. (1996) ‘Paradise or pandemonium? West African landscapes in the travel accounts of Victorian women’. Journal of Historical Geography 22, 1, 68-83

History of conservation and environmentalism Andrews, R. (1999) Managing the Environment, Managing Ourselves: A History of American Environmental Policy. New Haven: Yale University Press Budiansky, S. (1995) Nature's Keepers: The New Science of Wildlife Management. New York: Free Press Clements, K. (2000) Hoover, Conservation, and Consumption: Engineering the Good Life. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas Closmann, C. (2009) War and the environment: military destruction in the modern age. College Station: Texas A&M University Press Elliot, R. (1997) Faking Nature: The Ethics of Environmental Restoration. London: Routledge Evans, D. (1992) A History of Nature Conservation in Britain. London: Routledge Gottlieb, R. (1993) Forcing the Spring: The Transformation of the American Environmental Movement . Washington: Island Press Lear, L. (1997) Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. New York: Henry Holt and Company Maher, Neil M (2002) 'A New Deal Body Politic: Landscape, Labor, and the Civilian Conservation Corps'. Environmental History 7(3) 435-461. Meine, C. (1988) Aldo Leopold: His Life and Work. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press


Nash, R. (1989) The rights of nature: a history of environmental ethics. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press Nash, R. (2001) Wilderness and the American Mind (4th ed). New Haven and London: Yale University Press Nicholson, M. (1987) The new environmental age. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Pepper, D,. Youngs, M., Perkins, J. (1984) The roots of modern environmentalism. London: Croom Helm Petulla, J. (1980) American environmentalism: values, tactics, priorities. College Station: Texas A&M University Press Ponting, C. (1992) A green history of the world. London: Penguin Books Rome, A. (2001) The Bulldozer in the Countryside: Suburban Sprawl and the Rise of American Environmentalism. New York: Cambridge University Press Sheail, J. (1976) Nature in Trust: The History of Nature Conservation in Britain. Glasgow: Blackie Sheail, J. (1981) Rural Conservation in Inter-war Britain. Clarendon Press: Oxford Sheail, J. (1995) 'War and the Development of Nature Conservation in Britain', Journal of Environmental Management 44, 1995, pp. 267-283 Sutter, Paul (2002) Driven Wild: How the Fight Against Automobiles Launched the Modern Wilderness Movement. Seattle: University of Washington Press Yearley, S. (1989) 'Bog Standards: Science and Conservation at a Public Inquiry', Social Studies of Science 19(3) pp. 421-438 Wall, D. (1994) Green history: a reader in environmental literature, philosophy, and politics. London: Routledge

Green Politics Chasek, M., Downie, D. and Welsh Brown, J. (2006) Global Environmental Politics. 4th edition. Boulder (Co): Westview Press. Carter, N. (2007) The Politics of the Environment: Ideas, Activism, Policy. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Dobson, A. (2007) Green Political Thought. London: Routledge


Jordan, A., Lenschow, A. (eds) (2008) Innovation in Environmental Policy: Integrating the Environment for Sustainability. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar O'Neil, K. (2009) The Environment and International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Other resources European Society for Environmental History http://eseh.org/ Environment and History (journal): web site with contents listings of current and back issues http://www.erica.demon.co.uk/EH.html American Society for Environmental History: http://www.hnet.org/~environ/ASEH/welcome_IE4.html Forest History Society Bibliography: http://www.lib.duke.edu/forest/biblio.html Environmental History (Journal): web site, with contents listings of current and back issues http://www.lib.duke.edu/forest/ehmain.htm United Nations Environment Programme http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=43 European Environment Agency website http://www.eea.eu.int/ European Society for Environmental History http://eseh.org/ International Institute for Sustainable Development http://www.iisd.ca/ Third World Network http://twnside.org.sg/ Convention on biodiversity http://www.cbd.int/ UN Convention to combat desertification http://www.unccd.int/


Convention on the hazardous wastes http://www.basel.int/ Oosthoek, J. Exploring Environmental History https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/exploring-environmental-history/id276398458

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