THE RISE OF THE MODERN NATION-STATE IN THE WESTERN WORLD, 1815-1945
2016 SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES FACULTY OF ARTS & HUMANITIES
HIP MARKING GUIDELINES
MODULE ORGANISATION AND LIST OF SEMINAR READINGS
EXTENSIVE READING LIST
Brett Sanders Lecturer in History GE132 School of Humanities Faculty of Arts & Humanities Coventry University Priory Street Coventry CV1 5FB
firstname.lastname@example.org 02477 658 8692
The nation, and our nationhood, is perhaps the most important defining characteristic of our identity, both personal and collective. The language that we speak, the symbols and people we revere, the stories that we tell and the songs that we sing are laced with the concept of the nation. That nation, that geographical space of land that we call our own often defines our understanding of the self and societies. At its most benign the concept of ‘the nation’ binds us in a patriotic kinship whereby we subscribe to set a of shared values, adhere to a common sovereign and legitimate authority and strive towards a common goal, often expressed as the national interest; how often have you heard politicians use that phrase in debates about economic policy, foreign policy and over debates about immigration? The last, the debate about immigration, is at the forefront of political debate now as millions of people from war torn nations in the Middle East try to find a better, safer life beyond their national borders. The recent referendum about Britain’s membership of the European Union revived and highlighted the significance of nationalism – key issues of the ‘Leave’ campaign focussed on being able to control national borders, and counter the perceived threat to British identity from bureaucrats in Brussels and ‘others’ entering the UK. The rejection of the ‘other’ as a threat to a national culture, its economy, its welfare provision or even to its ethnic or racial composition defines the extremist nationalism expressed historically by movements such as Mussolini’s Fascists in Italy, Hitler’s National Socialists in Germany or even in the most contemporary context by movements in the UK such as the English Defence League, Britain First or the Front National in France. So, the concept of the nation can be inclusive and exclusive. Who is considered part of the nation, and who is not is a debate that has led to national unifications in the nineteenth century and catastrophic global conflicts in the twentieth. As historians, we must then try to understand the origins of the nation and establish how it differs from other forms of rule and authority; the birth of the nation resulted from an intellectual movement that rejected the idea of divine rule towards authority resting with the ‘people’. In this module we will deal with the origins and spread of nationalism in the Western world, and the rise of the modern nation state, from the time of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the foundation of the United Nations in 1945. A key theme of the module will be the political impact of French, German, Italian, American and other nationalist movements. The political, social, economic and ideological contexts of these movements shall be discussed as well. The module will also introduce students to some historiographical issues and debates, with emphasis on the analysis, interpretation and writing of the history of national unification and nationalism in modern history.
WHAT WORDS DO YOU ASSOCIATE WITH NATIONALISM?
Kramer, L. (2011) Nationalism in Europe and America: Politics, Cultures, and Identities Since 1775. University of North Carolina Press: Chapel Hill
Coakley, J. (2012) Nationalism, Ethnicity and the State: Making and Breaking Nations. London: Sage
MODULE ORGANISATION AND LIST OF LECTURES AND SEMINARS
In most of the lectures and seminars, the focus will be on actual historical events. However, time has also been allocated to the inculcation of the historical skills you will need to succeed in this and other modules. One of the key skills that you will need to master whilst at University is academic writing â€“ developing your command of the English language to communicate your ideas is fundamental to being a successful humanities student. Classes which are about the acquisition of historical skills are denoted with a green font. It is extremely important that you attend them as well as the lectures and seminars devoted to historical events. Lectures will begin at 15:00 and will conclude at 16:45. Each lecture will consist of two presentations of 45 minutes, punctuated by a tea break between 15:45 and 16:00. During the break, students will be free to leave the room. The lecturer will remain in the room and will be available to answer questions about the material presented and the coursework.
Date of Lecture Lecture One: 3/10/16
Subject of Lecture Introduction
Reading for Seminar Introduction to seminars -
Make sure you know which session to attend Familiarise yourself with Moodle Make sure you have collected your course texts
Listen to: A History of History http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00gryrx
Lecture Two: 10/10/16
Theories of Nationalism and the Nation state.
Read: Coakley, J. (2012) Nationalism, Ethnicity and the State: Making and Breaking Nations. London: Sage 94-114
Watch: David Cannadine, “The Construction of National Identities” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DipeV57CgFw Lecture Three: 17/10/16
The Atlantic Revolutions; Congress of Vienna.
Read: Warwick debates between Gellner and Smith (posted on Moodle) – read in class Kramer, L. (2011) Nationalism in Europe and America. University of North Carolina Press 1-34 Coakley, J. (2012) Nationalism, Ethnicity and the State: Making and Breaking Nations. London: Sage 193-217
Lecture Four: 24/10/15
1848: the Spring Time of Nations; AustroHungarian Empire.
Read: Kramer, L. (2011) Nationalism in Europe and America. University of North Carolina Press 34-56 Watch: David Armitage “The Declaration of Independence: A Global History” http://vimeo.com/28075825 The defeat of Napoleon, 1806-1815 http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/war-andpeace-in-europe-from-napoleon-to-the-kaiser-the-defeat-ofnapoleon-1806 Listen to: Legacy of the French Revolution http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00547gg
Lecture Five: 31/10/16
German Unification – guest lecture from Sonja Astley.
Read: Sperber, J., Beik, W. (2005) The European Revolutions, 18481851. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press Chapter six – the mid-century revolutions in Europe, available as an ebook via the University Library.
Watch: War an Revolution in 1848 http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/war-andpeace-in-europe-from-napoleon-to-the-kaiser-war-andrevolution-in-1848 Listen to: “1848: Year of Revolution” http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b019gy9p Lecture Six: 7/11/16
Risorgimento; American Nationalism and the Civil War
PRESENTATION WORKSHOP – you will be having a dedicated presentation workshop to prepare you for assessment one. You will an hour-long workshop dedicated to presentation skills, follow by a task in which you will practise your newly learned skills using the reading below: Read: Fulbrook, M. (ed) (1997) German History since 1800. London: Hodder Arnold Watch: The Wars of German Unification, 1864-1871 http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/war-andpeace-in-europe-from-napoleon-to-the-kaiser-the-wars-ofgerman Listen to: Bismarck: the Original Iron Chancellor http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00775pm
Lecture Seven: 14/11/16
Zionism; The New Imperialism
Read: Kramer, L. (2011) Nationalism in Europe and America. University of North Carolina Press 125-146 Gooch, J. (2002) The Unification of Italy. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis (read the whole short book) Available as an ebook via the University Library Listen to: Gettysberg http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03hvx70
Lecture Eight: 21/11/16
New World Read: Melting Pots?; Kramer, L. (2011) Nationalism in Europe and America. First World War. University of North Carolina Press 102-125 Coakley, J. (2012) Nationalism, Ethnicity and the State: Making and Breaking Nations. London: Sage 29-47 Watch: Exploitation and Resistance http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-andevents/exploitation-and-resistance Listen to: Social Darwinism http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03vgq1q
Lecture Nine: 28/11/16
Totalitarianism: Stalin, Mussolini and Hitler.
Read: Kramer, L. (2011) Nationalism in Europe and America. University of North Carolina Press 147-171 Pauley, B. (2008) Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century 1-39 Watch: Gresham College lecture: http://www.gresham.ac.uk/lectures-and-events/the-age-ofdictatorship-europe-1918-1989-hitler
Lecture Ten: 30/11/15
ASSESSED PRESENTATION WEEK
Lecture Eleven: 7/12/15
The Second World War and the end of nationalism?
Read: Kramer, L. (2011) Nationalism in Europe and America. University of North Carolina Press 172-199
"Revising For and Taking Exams" http://www.studyskills.soton.ac.uk/studytips/exams.htm
HOW IMPORTANT IS NATION TO YOUR IDENTITY?
SYMBOLS: WHAT DO THEY MEAN?
ASSESSMENT: 50% coursework – 50% examination, you must get a pass mark* for both elements in order to pass the module. *a pass mark is 40%.
1. A group presentation, equivalent to 50% of the total module mark. 2. Examination: (50% of the total module mark) in a 2 hour unseen paper in which 2 questions are answered. For guidance on how the coursework and examination will be marked see the ‘Criteria for Assessed Coursework’ below.
Group Presentation. Deadline: in seminars week commencing 5 December 2016 The group presentation is designed to offer you an alternative to the usual essay and exam format to enhance your employability skills from level one. The idea is to have students work together effectively in a team to develop a high quality piece of work that demonstrates a strong engagement with the academic literature on the topic chosen, an ability to present and to generate creative visual aids. Students are required to work in groups of four and are expected to present for twenty minutes with an equal 5 minute per student. An expert on presentation skills will be delivering a session during the seminars in the week commencing 2 November. This will explain the importance of presentation skills, the best practices of presenting and the opportunity to test your skills before the assessment is due. Students should approach the presentation in the same way that would an assessed essay; it will be based on sources available via the University library. Use scholarly books and journals available via Locate: http://locate.coventry.ac.uk/primo_library/libweb/action/search.do Your work must also be fully referenced: http://www.coventry.ac.uk/study-at-coventry/student-support/academic-support/centrefor-academic-writing/support-for-students/academic-writing-resources/cu-harvardreference-style-guide/
Choose one of the following: 1. Assess the modernist and primordial theories about the origins of nationalism. 2. In what ways did the Enlightenment affect the emergence of nationalism? 3. How did the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution influence people around the world? 4. To what extent was the Congress of Vienna of 1815 a success in supressing the forces of nationalism? 5. "The word 'Italy' is a geographical expression, a description which is useful shorthand, but has none of the political significance the efforts of the revolutionary ideologues try to put on it, and which is full of dangers for the very existence of the states which make up the peninsula." [Metternich writing in a letter to the Austrian ambassador to France of April 1847] Assess Metternich’s assessment of Italian nationalism by 1847. 6. How did ‘scientific’ conceptions of race influence attitudes towards colonisation in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
PAST EXAM PAPER
January 2015 Coventry University
Faculty of Business Environment and Society
Instructions to candidates Time allowed: 2 hours Answer TWO QUESTIONS All questions are equally weighted
You may take this question paper away at the end of the examination: please keep it in a safe place for future reference.
Continued…. 1. Are nations cultural or political communities? 2. ‘Nations do not make states and nationalisms but the other way round’ (Hobsbawn 1990). Discuss. 3. In what ways did the Congress of Vienna of 1815 supress the emerging forces of nationalism in Europe? 4. Assess the three main visions of Italy by nineteenth century Italian nationalists. 5. Analyse the state’s treatment of minorities in the Austrian Empire and then in Austria-Hungary. 6. What is American exceptionalism and how has this concept influenced the national identity of the United States? 7. Which intellectual movements influenced Western views of non-white peoples in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries? 8. In what ways did the First World War influence nationalists? Consider Wilson’s 14 points. 9. Why did the Nazis come to power in Germany in 1933? 10. In your view, has nationalism become more or less important since 1945?
Whenever you draw information from a book, article, or other source, you must include a citation in your essay explaining where you got this particular piece of information from. This rule applies whenever the fact you are citing is without your personal knowledge or common knowledge. Each time you present a piece of information from a source, you must insert a citation into your essay. Typically, first-year essays contain at least one citation per paragraph. To fail to document your claims with proper citations with could leave one open to a charge of plagiarism. Regardless of its other possible merits, an essay without proper references will always receive a failing grade. An historical essay without references is an academic catastrophe.
Please become familiar with the CU Harvard Reference Style Guide:
At Coventry University, history students use Harvard style citations. History students at other universities use other systems, such as footnotes or endnotes. In all cases, however, historians document their claims according to the general principles outlined in this guide:
If you remain unsure about what the rules governing citations are, please do not hesitate to contact me.
HIP MARKING GUIDE LINES
The agreed Marking Guidelines for Grade Ranges for HIP Coursework Essays, Dissertations and Examination Answers are:
First - 70%+
Very clearly organised and logically structured, following through coherent thesis from aims to conclusion.
Covers material in a full and accurate manner
revealing careful attention to relevant evidence and arguments; excellent understanding of relevant issues. Develops its thesis with the aid of a coherent critical analysis. Some degree of innovation or originality in its approach to topic.
Very well written, with good command of
grammar, syntax, spelling and punctuation; clearly presented with wide range of sources and with accurate and consistent references.
Upper Second - 2.1 - 60-69%
Clearly organised and logically structured, following through coherent thesis from aims to conclusion.
Covers material in a competent manner, with
careful attention to relevant evidence and argument. Develops sound understanding of issues and problems raised in question.
Develops its thesis with an analytical approach, focused on the question throughout.
Well-written with generally good grasp of
grammar, syntax, spelling and punctuation; clearly presented with use of relevant sources and with accurate and consistent references.
Lower Second - 2.2 - 50-59%
Sound organisation, though with some inconsistencies; follows through thesis from aims to conclusion in limited but adequate manner.
Covers material in generally thorough manner,
though with some inconsistencies. Somewhat lacking in attention to relevant evidence, examples or arguments. Develops adequate understanding of issues and problems raised by the question, though not always focused on actual question. Approaches material with an essentially descriptive rather than analytical focus (a key distinction from 2.1 above).
Adequately written with generally sound
command of grammar and syntax, though with a few errors of spelling and punctuation; clearly presented with use of limited but relevant sources and with consistent references.
3rd Class - 40-49%
Some evidence of relevant organisation and structure with a few aims clearly set out.
Limited focus on question, which displays
some attention to relevant evidence and arguments. Evidence of some understanding of the issues and problems raised by the question.
Limited style and presentational skills. A command of
English though with errors of grammar and syntax, and spelling. Uneven use of sources and references.
Fail - -40%
Disorganised with no logical structure.
Unfocused; minimal attention to relevant
evidence or arguments, together with minimal understanding of problems and issues raised by the question.
Very poorly written, with inadequate command
of grammar and syntax, and with numerous errors of spelling and punctuation; presented with inadequate or non-existent sources or references.
Under the banded marking scheme, your work will conform to the grading system below.
100 95 90 85 80 75 72
Upper Second 68 Class 65 62 Lower Class
Second 58 55 52
48 45 42
38 35 30 20 10 0
While you are not expected to consult all the works on a particular topic you should read as widely as possible in order to obtain a variety of interpretations. Remember that with some texts it may be sufficient to confine yourself to one chapter or part of a chapter. Moreover, many authors summarise their arguments at the beginning and the end of chapters. Journal articles should also be consulted as they provide current analysis of particular topics and information on methodological issues.
Aberbach, David. “Hebrew literature and Jewish nationalism in the tsarist empire.” Nations and Nationalism 3, no. 1 (1997): 25-44. Aberbach, David. "Nationalism, Reform Judaism and the Hebrew Prayer Book." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 1 (2006): 139-159. Aberbach, David. "Nationalism and the Hebrew Bible." Nations and Nationalism 11, no. 2 (2005): 223-242. Abizadeh, Arash. "Liberal Nationalist Versus Postnational Social Integration: On the Nation's Ethno-cultural Particularity and 'Concreteness.' " Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 3 (2004): 231-250. Aguilar, Paloma and Carsten Humlebæk. "Collective Memory and National Identity in the Spanish Democracy: The Legacies of Francoism and the Civil War." History and Memory 14, no. 1/2 (2002): 121-164. Al-Ali, Nadje. "Review Article: Nationalisms, National Identities, and Nation States: Gendered Perspectives." Nations and Nationalism 6, no. 4 (2000): 631-38. Banton, Michael. “International norms and Latin American states' policies on indigenous peoples.” Nations and Nationalism 2, no. 1 (1996): 89-103. Banton, Michael. "Max Weber on 'Ethnic Communities': A Critique." Nations and Nationalism 13, no. 1 (2007): 19-35. Barnard, F. M. "National Culture and Political Legitimacy: Herder and Rousseau." Journal of the History of Ideas 44, no. 2 (1983): 231-253. Bassin, Mark. “Turner, Solov'ev, and the "Frontier Hypothesis": The Nationalist Signification of Open Spaces.”Journal of Modern History 65, no. 3 (1993): 473-511.
Béland, Daniel and André Lecours. "Sub-State Nationalism and the Welfare State: Québec and Canadian Federalism." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 1 (2006): 77-96. Belchem, John. “Nationalism, Republicanism and Exile: Irish Emigrants and the Revolutions of 1848.” Past and Present February, no. 146 (1995): 103-135. Bell, David. “Recent Works on Early Modern French National Identity (Review Article).” Journal of Modern History 68, no. 1 (1996): 84-113. Ben-Amos, Avner. “Monuments and Memory in French Nationalism.” History and Memory 5, no. 2 (1993): 50-81. Benner, Erica. "Is There a Core National Doctrine?" Nations and Nationalism 7, no. 2 (2001): 155-74. Berdahl, Daphne. “Voices of the Wall: Discourses of Self, History and National Identity at the Vietnam Veterens Memorial.” History and Memory 6, no. 2 (1994): 88-124. Berger, Stefan. “Viewpoint: Historians and Nation-Building in Germany after Reunification.” Past and PresentAugust, no. 148 (1995): 187-222. Bond, Ross, David McCrone, and Alice Brown. "National Identity and Economic Development: Reiteration, Recapture, Reinterpretation and Repudiation." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 3 (2003): 371-392. Bossche, Geert Van Den. "Is There Nationalism after Ernest Gellner? An Exploration of Methodological Choices." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 4 (2003): 491-510. Boswell, Laird. "Franco-Alsatian Conflict and the Crisis of National Sentiment during the Phoney War." The Journal of Modern History 71, no. 3 (1999): 552-584. Bosworth, R.J.B. “The Touring Club Italiano and the Nationalization of the Italian Bourgeoisie.” European History Quarterly 27, no. 3 (1997): 371-410. Bowman, William D. “Regional History and the Austrian Nation (Review Article).” Journal of Modern History67, no. 4 (1995): 873-. Boyd, Carolyn P. "The Second Battle of Covadonga: The Politics of Commemoration in Modern Spain."History and Memory 14, no. 1/2 (2002): 37-64. Bracewell, Wendy. "Rape in Kosovo: Masculinity and the Serbian Nationalism." Nations and Nationalism 6, no. 4 (2000): 563-90. Branding, D.A. "Monuments and Nationalism in Modern Mexico." Nations and Nationalism 7, no. 4 (2001): 521-31.
Brennan, Gillian. "Language and Nationality: The Role of Policy Towards Celtic Languages in the Consolidation of Tudor Power." Nations and Nationalism 7, no. 3 (2001): 317-38. Breuilly, John, David Cesarani, Siniša Malešević, Benyamin Neuberger, and Michael Mann. "Debate on Michael Mann's The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 3 (2006): 389-411. Brinckner, Benedikte and Jens Brinckner. "Musical Constructions of Nationalism: A Comparative Study of Bartók and Stravinsky." Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 4 (2004): 579-598. Broers, Michael. "Cultural Imperialism in a European Context?: Political Culture and Cultural Politics in Napoleonic Italy." Past and Present, no. 170 (2001): 152-80. Brown, David. “Are there good and bad nationalisms?” Nations and Nationalism 5, no. 2 (1999): 281-302. Brown, David. “Why is the nation-state so vulnerable to ethnic nationalism?” Nations and Nationalism 4, no. 1 (1998): 1-15. Brown, Matthew. "Not Forging Nations but Foraging for Them: Uncertain Collective Identies in Gran Colombia." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 2 (2006): 223-240. Brunner, José. “Pride and Memory: Nationalism, Narcissism and the Historians Debates in Germany and Israel.” History and Memory 9, no. 1-2 (1997): 256-300. Bryant, Chad. "Whose Nation?: Czech Dissidents and History Writing from a Post-1989 Perspective."History & Memory 12, no. 1 (2000): 30-64. Bunk, Brian D. "'Your Comrades Will Not Forget:' Revolutionary Memory and the Breakdown of the Spanish Second Republic, 1934-1936." History and Memory 14, no. 1/2 (2002): 65-92. Bunzl, Matti. “On the Politics and Semantics of Austrian Memory: Vienna's Monument Against War and Fascism.” History and Memory 7, no. 2 (1996): 7-40. Burleigh, Michael. “The Knights, Nationalists and Historians: Images of Medieval Prussia from the Englightenment to 1945.” European History Quarterly 17, no. 1 (1987): 25-56. Bynack, V. P. "Noah Webster's Linguistic Thought and the Idea of an American National Culture." Journal of the History of Ideas 45, no. 1 (1984): 99-114. Cagaptay, Soner. "Citizenship Policies in Interwar Turkey." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 4 (2003): 601-620. Confino, Alon. "Telling About Germany: Narratives of Memory and Culture." Journal of Modern History 76, no. 2 (2004): 389-416.
Confino, Alon. "Traveling in a Culture of Remembrance: Traces of National Socialism in West Germany, 1945-1960." History & Memory 12, no. 2 (2000): 92-121. Confino, Alon. “The nation as a local metaphor: Heimat, national memory and the German Empire, 1871-1918.”History and Memory 5, no. 1 (1993): 46-86. Delgado, A. "The Transformation of Political Behaviour in the Basque Country: Nationalism and Politics in Bermeo, 1898-1936." European History Quarterly 32, no. 3 (2002): 335-366. Deringil, Selim. “The Ottoman Origins of Kemalist Nationalism: Namik Kemal to Mustafa Kemal.” European History Quarterly 23, no. 2 (1993): 165-192. DeVotta, Neil. "From Ethnic Outbidding to Ethnic Conflict: The Institutional Bases for Sri Lanka's Separatist War." Nations and Nationalism 11, no. 1 (2005): 141-159. Echeverria, Begona. "Privileging Masculinity in the Social Construction of Basque Identity." Nations and Nationalism 7, no. 3 (2001): 339-63. Ehrlich, Charles E. “Early Twentieth-century Catalan regionalist theory: Lluís Duran i Ventosa, his times, and the influence of the Austrian Empire.” Nations and Nationalism 4, no. 2 (1998): 207-226. Engelhardt, Juliane. "Patriotism, Nationalism and Modernity: The Patriotic Societies in the Danish Conglomerate State, 1769-1814." Nations and Nationalism 13, no. 2 (2007): 205-223. Farrar, Lancelot. "A reply to Pryke's reply to Farrar, McQuire and Gellner, Ernest; and Smith, Anthony D. “The nation: real or imagined?: The Warwick Debates on Nationalism.” Nations and Nationalism 2, no. 3 (1996): 357-370. Gelvin, James. “Modernity and its discontents: on the durability of nationalism in the Arab Middle East.”Nations and Nationalism 5, no. 1 (1999): 71-89. Gemie, Sharif. "Roots, Rock, Breizh: Music and the Politics of Nationhood in Contemporary Brittany."Nations and Nationalism 11, no. 1 (2005): 103-120. Gerber, Haim. "The Limits of Constructedness: Memory and Nationalism in the Arab Middle East."Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 3 (2004): 251-268. Gershon, Israel. “Imaging and reimaging the past: the use of history by Egyptian nationalist writers, 1919-1952.” History and Memory 4, no. 2 (1992): 5-37. Gerson, Stéphane. "Town, Nation, or Humanity? Festive Delineations of Place and Past in Northern France, Ca. 1825-1865." Journal of Modern History 72, no. 3 (2000): 628-82. Gould, Eliga H. “American Independence and Britain's Counter-Revolution.” Past and Present February, no. 154 (1997): 107-141.
Gounaris, Basil C. "From Peasants into Urbanites, from Village into Nation: Ottoman Monastir in the Early Twentieth Century." European History Quarterly 31, no. 1 (2001): 4364. Gourievidis, Laurence. "Representing the Disputed Past of Northern Scotland, 19452000." History & Memory 12, no. 2 (2000): 122-41.
Greenfeld, Liah. "Nationalism and the Mind." Nations and Nationalism 11, no. 3 (2005): 325-341. Guibernau, Montserrat. "Anthony D. Smith on Nations and National Identity: A Critical Assessment."Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 1/2 (2004): 125-142. Haesly, Richard. "Identifying Scotland and Wales: Types of Scottish and Welsh National Identities."Nations and Nationalism 11, no. 2 (2005): 243-263. Hagemann, Karen. "Gendered Images of the German Nation: The Romantic Painter Friedrich Kersting and the Patriotic-National Discourse during the Wars of Liberation." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 4 (2006): 653-679. Hall, Patrik. “Nationalism and historicity.” Nations and Nationalism 3, no. 1 (1997): 3-23. Halliday, Fred. "The perils of community: reason and unreason in nationalist ideology (Ernest Gellner Nationalism Lecture)." Nations and Nationalism 6, no. 2 (2000): 153-172. Hann, Chris. “Ethnic cleansing in Eastern Europe: Poles and Ukrainians beside the Curzon Line.” Nations and Nationalism 2, no. 3 (1996): 389-406. Harden, F. David. “Liberty Caps and Liberty Trees.” Past and Present February, no. 146 (1995): 66-102. Hargreaves, John. “Ethno-nationalist movements in Europe: a debate.” Nations and Nationalism 4, no. 4 (1998): 569-574. Hargreaves, John; Ferrando, Manuel Garcia. “Public opinion, national integration and national identity in Spain: the case of the Barcelona Olympic Games.” Nations and Nationalism 3, no. 1 (1997): 65-87. Harris, Ruth. “The "Child of a Barbarian": Rape, Race and Nationalism in France during the First World War.”Past and Present November, no. 141 (1993): 170-206. Hosking, Geoffrey. "The Second World War and Russian National Consciousness." Past and Present175, no. 1 (2002): 162-187.
Hosking, Geoffrey. “Can Russia become a nation-state?” Nations and Nationalism 4, no. 4 (1998): 449-462. Houlihan, Barrie. “Sport, national identity and public policy.” Nations and Nationalism 3, no. 1 (1997): 113-137. Inglis, K.S. “Entombing unknown soldiers: from London and Paris to Baghdad.” History and Memory 5, no. 2 (1993): 7-31. Kaufmann, Eric and Oliver Zimmer. "'Dominant Ethnicity' and the 'Ethnic-Civic' Dichotomy in the Work of Anthony D. Smith." Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 1/2 (2004): 63-78. Kaufmann, Eric and Zimmer, Oliver. “In search of the authentic nation: landscape and national identity in Canada and Switzerland.” Nations and Nationalism 4, no. 4 (1998): 483510. Keating, Michael. “Michael Keating's response.” Nations and Nationalism 4, no. 4 (1998): 575-577. Kelley, Donald R. "Romanian Cultural and Political Identity." Journal of the History of Ideas 59, no. 4 (1998): 735-38. Kennedy, James. "A Switzerland of the North?: The Nationalistes and a Bi-National Canada." Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 4 (2004): 499-518. Perspective." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 3 (2003): 433-450. Kramer, Lloyd. "Historical Narratives and the Meaning of Nationalism." Journal of the History of Ideas58, no. 3 (1997): 525-45. Kumar, Krishan. "English and French National Identity: Comparisons and Contrasts." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 3 (2006): 413-432. Kumar, Krishan. "Empire and English Nationalism." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 1 (2006): 1-13. Kurthen, Hermann and Minkenberg, Michael. “Germany in transition: immigration, racism and the extreme right.” Nations and Nationalism 1, no. 2 (1995): 175-196. Liebich, Andre. "Searching for the Perfect Nation: The Itinerary of Hans Kohn (18911971)." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 4 (2006): 579-596. Litvak, Meir. “A Palestinian Past: National Construction and Reconstruction.” History and Memory 6, no. 2 (1994). Llobera, Josep R. "A Comment on Hastings's the Construction of Nationhood." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 1 (2003): 15-18.
Llobera, Josep R. “The concept of the nation in French social theory: the work of Dominique Schnapper.”Nations and Nationalism 4, no. 1 (1998): 113-119. Llobera, Joseph R. “The French ideology? Louis Dumont and the German conception of the nation.” Nations and Nationalism 2, no. 2 (1996): 193-211. Lusztig, Michael and Knox, Colin. "Good Things and Small Packages: Lessons from Canada for the Northern Irish Constitutional Settlement." Nations and Nationalism 5, no. 4 (1999): 543564. Lytle, Paula Franklin and Matthew Levinger. "Myth and Mobilisation: The Triadic Structure of Nationalist Rhetoric." Nations and Nationalism 7, no. 2 (2001): 175-94. Mahon, Milena. “The Macedonian question in Bulgaria.” Nations and Nationalism 4, no. 3 (1998): 389-407. McGregor, Russell. "The Necessity of Britishness: Ethno-Cultural Roots of Australian Nationalism."Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 3 (2006): 493-511. Meadwell, Hudson and Martin, Pierre. “Economic integration and the politics of independence.” Nations and Nationalism 2, no. 1 (1996): 67-87. Meanwell, Hudson. “Republics, nations and transitions to modernity.” Nations and Nationalism 5, no. 1 (1999): 19-51. Megas, Branka. "On Bosnianness." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 1 (2003): 19-24. Mendez-Gastelumendi, Cecilia. "The Power of Naming, or the Construction of Ethnic and National Identities in Peru: Myth, History and the Iquichanos." Past and Present, no. 171 (2001): 127-60. Miller, Nicola. "The Historiography of Nationalism and National Identity in Latin America." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 2 (2006): 201-221. Mohamed, Jama. "'the Evils of Locust Bait': Popular Nationalism During the 1945 Anti-Locust Control Rebellion in Colonial Somaliland." Past and Present 174, no. 1 (2002): 184-216. Moore, M. "Normative Justifications for Liberal Nationalism: Justice, Democracy and National Identity."Nations and Nationalism 7, no. 1 (2001): 1-20. Moreno, Eduardo Manzano and Juan Sisinio Pérez Garzón. "A Difficult Nation?: History and Nationalism in Contemporary Spain." History and Memory 14, no. 1/2 (2002): 259-284. Pavkovic, Aleksandar. “From Yugoslavism to Serbism: the Serb Penrose, Jan. "Nations, States and Homelands: Territory and Territoriality in Nationalist Thought."Nations and Nationalism 8, no. 3 (2002): 277-98.
Penrose, Jan. “Essential constructions? The 'cultural bases' of nationalist movements.” Nations and Nationalism 1, no. 3 (1995): 391-417. Perry, M. "‘Sans Distinction De Nationalité’? The French Communist Party, Immigrants and Unemployment in the 1930s." European History Quarterly 34, no. 3 (2004): 337-369. Petersoo, Pille. "Reconsidering Otherness: Constructing Estonian Identity." Nations and Nationalism13, no. 1 (2007): 117-133. Pryke, Sam. “Nationalism and sexuality, what are the issues?” Nations and Nationalism 4, no. 4 (1998): 529-546. Ram, Haggay. "The immemorial Iranian nation? School textbooks and historical memory in post-revolutionary Iran." Nations and Nationalism 6, no. 1 (2000): 67-90. Ram, Uri. “Zionist Historiography and the Invention of Modern Jewish Nationhood: The Case of Ben Zion Dinur.” History and Memory 7, no. 1 (1996): 91-124. Raun, Toivo U. "Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Estonian Nationalism Revisited." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 1 (2003): 129-148. Reagin, Nancy. "The Imagined Hausfrau: National Identity, Domesticity, and Colonialism in Imperial Germany." Journal of Modern History 73, no. 1 (2001): 54-86. Routledge, Bruce. "The Antiquity of the Nation? Critical Reflections from the Ancient near East."Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 2 (2003): 213-234. Rowley, David G. "Imperial versus national discourse: the case of Russia." Nations and Nationalism 6, no. 1 (2000): 23-42. Roy, Nina. "Nationalism, Primitivism and the Golden Age in Othon Friesz's Autumn Work (1908)."Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 3 (2004): 313-332. Schechter, Ronald. “Translating the "Marseillaise": Biblical Republicanism and the Emancipation of the Jews in Revolutionary France.” Past and Present May, no. 143 (1994): 108-135. Schmidt-Nowara, C. "‘La Espana Ultramarina’: Colonialism and Nation-Building in Nineteenth-Century Spain." European History Quarterly 34, no. 2 (2004): 191-214. Schnapper, Dominique. "The Ernest Gellner Nationalism Lecture: Citizenship and National Identity in Europe." Nations and Nationalism 8, no. 1 (2002): 1-14. Schopflin, George. "Identities, Politics and Post-Communism in Central Europe (the Ernest Gellner Lecture)." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 4 (2003): 477-490.
Schöpflin, George. “Nationhood, communism and state legitimation.” Nations and Nationalism 1, no. 1 (1995): 81-91. Schumann, Christoph. "Nationalism, Diaspora and 'Civilisational Mission': The Case of Syrian Nationalism in Latin America between World War I and World War II." Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 4 (2004): 599-618. Seijas, X.M. Nunez. "The Region as Essence of the Fatherland: Regionalist Variants of Spanish Nationalism (1840–1936)." European History Quarterly 31, no. 4 (2001): 483-518. Sekulic, Dusko. “The creation and dissolution of the multinational state: the case of Yugoslavia.” Nations and Nationalism 3, no. 2 (1997): 165-179. Smith, Anthony D. "Authenticity, Antiquity and Archaeology." Nations and Nationalism 7, no. 4 (2001): 441-49. Smith, Anthony D. "Ethnic Election and National Destiny: Some Religious Origins of Nationalist Ideals."Nations and Nationalism 5, no. 3 (1999): 331-356. Smith, Anthony D. " 'Set the Silver Sea': English National Identity and European Integration." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 3 (2006): 433-452. Smith, Anthony D. "History and National Destiny: Responses and Clarifications." Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 1/2 (2004): 195-209. Smith, Anthony D. "The Poverty of Anti-Nationalist Modernism." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 3 (2003): 357-370. Smith, Anthony D. “Gastronomy or geology? The role of nationalism in the reconstruction of nations.” Nations and Nationalism 1, no. 1 (1994): 3-23. Smith, Anthony D. “Memory and modernity: reflections on Ernest Gellner's theory of nationalism.” Nations and Nationalism 2, no. 3 (1996): 371-388. Smith, Anthony D.; Igwara, Obi; Leoussi, Athena; and Mulhall, Terry. “Editorial.” Nations and Nationalism 1, no. 1 (1995): 1-2. Smith, Jay M. "Social Categories, the Language of Patriotism, and the Origins of the French Revolution: The Debate over Noblesse Commercante." Journal of Modern History 72, no. 2 (2000): 339-74. Sperber, Jonathan. “Festivals of National Unity in the German Revolution of 18481849.” Past and PresentAugust, no. 136 (1992): 114-138. Sperling, Valerie. "The Last Refuge of a Scoundrel: Patriotism, Militarism and the Russian National Idea." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 2 (2003): 235-254.
Spires, Scott. "Lithuanian Linguistic Nationalism and the Cult of Antiquity." Nations and Nationalism 5, no. 4 (1999): 485-500. Stanbridge, Karen. "Nationalism, International Factors and the 'Irish Question' in the Era of the First World War." Nations and Nationalism 11, no. 1 (2005): 21-42. Stergios, James. "Language and Nationalism in Italy." Nations and Nationalism 12, no. 1 (2006): 13-33. Suny, Ronald Grigor. "Constructing Primordialism: Old Histories for New Nations." Journal of Modern History 73, no. 4 (2001): 862-896. Sutherland, Claire. "Nation-Building through Discourse Theory." Nations and Nationalism 11, no. 2 (2005): 185-202. Tervo, Mervi. "Sports, "Race" and the Finnish National Identity in Helsingin Sanomat in the Early Twentieth Century." Nations and Nationalism 8, no. 3 (2002): 335-56. Thomas, Alys. â€œLanguage policy and nationalism in Wales: a comparative analysis.â€? Nations and Nationalism3, no. 3 (1997): 323-344. Thompson, Martyn P. "Ideas of Europe during the French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars." Journal of the History of Ideas 55, no. 1 (1994): 37-58. Tollebeek, Jo. "Historical Representation and the Nation-State in Romantic Belgium (18301850)."Journal of the History of Ideas 59, no. 2 (1998): 329-53. Tolz, Vera. "Rethinking Russian-Ukrainian Relations: A New Trend in Nation-Building in PostCommunist Russia?" Nations and Nationalism 8, no. 2 (2002): 235-54. Tonnesson, Stein. "Globalising National States." Nations and Nationalism 10, no. 1/2 (2004): 179-194. Trajtenberg, Graciela. "Plastic Arts and Nation-Building in Israel." Nations and Nationalism 8, no. 2 (2002): 215-34. Tranter, Bruce and Jed Donoghue. "Convict Ancestry: A Neglected Aspect of Austrian Identity."Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 4 (2003): 555Zimmer, Oliver. "Boundary Mechanisms and Symbolic Resources: Towards a ProcessOriented Approach to National Identity." Nations and Nationalism 9, no. 2 (2003): 173-194. Zimmer, Oliver. "Competing Memories of the Nation: Liberal Historians and the Reconstruction of the Swiss Past 1870-1900." Past and Present 168 (2000): 194-226. .
Reading on the countries and regimes studied during the year
1. On American Nationalism Kaczorowski, Robert J. â€œTo Begin the Nation Anew: Congress, Citizenship, and Civil Rights after the Civil War.â€? American Historical Review 92, no. 1 (1987): 45-68.
Adelman, Jeremy and Aron, Stephen. "From Borderlands to Borders: Empires, Nation-States, and the Peoples in Between in North American History." American Historical Review 104, no. 3 (1999): 814-841.
"Introduction: AHR Forum, Creating National Identities in a Revolutionary Era." American Historical Review 106, no. 4 (2001): 1214-14.
Wahrman, Dror. "The English Problem of Identity in the American Revolution." American Historical Review 106, no. 4 (2001): 1236-62. Robertson, Andrew W. ""Look on This Picture . . . And on This!" Nationalism, Localism, and Partisan Images of Otherness in the United States, 1787-1820." American Historical Review 106, no. 4 (2001): 1263-80.
2. On the Italian unification
Cooper, Basil Henry (2008), Count Cavour : his life and career, Bibliobazaar.
Denis Mack Smith (1st edition : 1954, new edition : 1985), Cavour and Garibaldi 1860 : a study in political conflict, Cambridge University Press.
Denis Mack Smith (1992), Italy and its monarchy, Yale University Press (Only the part of it related to the unification).
Riall, Lucy (1994), The Italian Risorgimento : state, society and national unification, Routledge.
Riall, Lucy (2008), Garibaldi. Invention of a hero, Yale University Press.
3. On the German unification
Blackbourn, David (1998), The long nineteenth century : a history of Germany, 1780-1918, Oxford University Press.
Eick, Erich (1964), Bismarck and the German Empire, Norton and Co.
Feuchtwanger (2002), Bismarck, Routledge.
Taylor, Alan J. P. (2003), Bismarck: the man and the statesman, Sutton Publishing.
Taylor, Alan J. P. (1980), The struggle for mastery in Europe, 1848-1918, Oxford University Press USA.
Williamson, D. G. (1998), Bismarck and Germany, 1862-1890, Longman.
4. On Austria-Hungary
Cornwall, Mark (2002), The last years of Austria-Hungary : a multi-national experiment in early twentieth century Europe, University of Exeter Press.
Evans, R. J. W. (2008), Austria, Hungary, and the Habsburgs : central Europe, c. 1683-1867, Oxford University Press, USA (mainly the articles dealing with the end of the 19th century).
Taylor, A. J. P. (1976), The Habsburg monarchy, 1809-1918. A history of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, University of Chicago Press.
5. On Third Republic France
Helias, Pierre-Jakez (1980), Life in a Breton village, Yale University Press.
Lehning, James R. (2001), To be a citizen : the political culture of the early French Third Republic, Cornell University Press.
Mayeur, Jean-Marie (1984), The Third Republic from its origins to the Great War, 1871-1914, Cambridge University Press.
Nord, Philip (1998), The Republican moment : struggles for democracy in 19th century France, Harvard University Press.
Tombs, Robert (1992), Nationhood and nationalism in France : from Boulangism to the Great War, 1889-1919, Routledge.
Varley, Karine (2009), Under the shadow of defeat : the war of 1870-1871 in French memory, Palgrave Macmillan.
Weber, Eugen (1976), Peasants into Frenchmen : the modernization of rural France, 18701914, Stanford University Press.
5. On Tsarist Russia
Hosking, G. (1998), Russia : people and empire, 1552-1917, Harvard University Press.
Kappeler, Andreas (2001), The Russian empire : a multi-ethnic history, Longman.
Lee, Steven J. (2006), Russia and the USSR, 1855-1964 : autocracy and dictatorship, Routledge.
Moss, W. G. (2004), A history of Russia since 1855, Anthem Press.
6. On Imperialism
Aldrich, Robert (2002) Imperial ‘mise en valeur and mise en scène’ : Recent works on French colonialism. The Historical Journal, 45, (4) pp. 917–936
Andall, J. Burdett, C. and Duncan D. (2003) Italian Colonialism: Historical Perspectives.
Baumgart W. Imperialism: The Idea and Reality of British and French Colonial Expansion 1880-1914
Chamberlain, M. E. (1999) The scramble for Africa. Seminar studies in History, Longman, 2nd Ed.
Eldridge C. C. British Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century
Hobsbawm E. J. The Age of Empire 1875-1914
7. On the Russian revolution
Fitzpatrick, Sheila (2008), The Russian revolution, Oxford University Press.
Ilyich, Lenin, Vladimir (1987), Essential works of Lenin, Dover Publications.
Pipes, Richard (1996), A concise history of the Russian revolution, Vintage.
Trotski, Leon (2008), History of the Russian revolution, Haymarket Books.
Wade, Rex A. (2004), Revolutionary Russia : new approaches to the Russian revolution of 1917, Routledge.
White, James D. (1994), The Russian revolution : 1917-1921. A short history, A. Hodder Arnold Publication.
8. On the Weimar Republic
Theo Balderston (2002), Economics and politics in the Weimar Republic, Cambridge University Press.
Eberhard Kolb (2004), The Weimar Republic, Routledge (2nd edition).
A.J Detlev Peukert (1993), The Weimar Republic, Hill and Wang.
Nicholls (2000, 4th edition), Weimar and the rise of Hitler, Palgrave Macmillan.
9. On Fascist Italy
De Alexander (2004, 2nd edition), Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany : the “Fascist” style of rule, Routledge. Martin Blinkhorn (2006, 3rd edition), Mussolini and Fascist Italy, Routledge. Bolitho, William (2005), Italy under Mussolini, Kessinger Publishing. Giuseppe Finaldi (2008), Mussolini and Italian Fascism, Longman.
10. On Stalin’s Russia
Dziewanowski, M. K (2002, 6th edition)., Russia in the Twentieth century, Prentice Hall. Fitzpatrick, Sheila (2000), Everyday Stalinism. Ordinary life in extraordinary times : Soviet Russia in the 1830s, Oxford University Press. Kenez, Peter (1985), The birth of the propaganda state : soviet methods of mass mobilization, 1917-1929, Cambridge University Press. Kenez, Peter (2006, 2nd edition), A history of the Soviet Union from the beginning to the end, Cambridge University Press. Kirschenbaum, Lisa A. (2000), Small comrades : revolutionizing childhood in Soviet Russia, 1917-1932, Routledge Falmer. Service, Robert (2006), Stalin. A biography, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Ward, Chris (1999), Stalin’s Russia, A. Hodder Arnold Publication.
11. On Nazi Germany
Bessel, Richard (2001, 2nd edition), Life in the Third Reich, Oxford University Press.
Richard Bessel (1996), Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany : comparisons and contrasts, Cambridge University Press.
Blackburn, Gilmer W. (1984), Education in the Third Reich : a study of race and history in Nazi textbooks, State University of New York Press.
Etlin, Richard A. (2002), Art, culture and media under the Third Reich, University of Chicago Press.
Gellately, Robert (2002), Backing Hitler : consent and coercion in Nazi Germany, Oxford University Press.
Kershaw, Ian (2000), The Nazi dictatorship : problems and perspectives of interpretation, A. Hodder Arnold Publication.
Kershaw, Ian (2002), Popular opinion and political dissent in the Third Reich: Bavaria, 19331945, Oxford University Press (to compare with Backing Hitler â€Ś By Gellately).
Kitchen, Martin (2008), The Third Reich. Charisma and community, Longman.
Remy, Steven P. (2003), The Heidelberg myth : the nazification and denazification of a German university, Harvard University Press.
Weigner, Gregory (2002), Anti-Semitism and schooling under the Third Reich, Routledge.
Welch, David (2002), The Third Reich : politics and propaganda, Routledge.
On the Application of Benedict Andersonâ€™s Theory of Nationalism
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. rev. ed. NY: Verso, 1991.
Anthias, Floya & Nira Yuval-Davis. Racialized Boundaries: Race, Nation, Gender, Colour and Class and the Anti-Racist Struggle.NY: Routledge, 1992. (examples from UK)
Balakrishnan, Gopal. "The National Imagination." New Left Review 211(1995): 56-69. ---, ed. Mapping the Nation. Introd. Benedict Anderson. NY: Verso, 1996.
Buell, Frederick. National Culture and the New Global System. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1994.
Davis, Horace B. Toward a Marxist Theory of Nationalism. NY: Monthly Review P, 1978. (discussion of theories of Stalin, Trotsky, Sultan Guliev, Fanon and Amilcar Cabral.)
Gellner, Ernest. Nations and Nationalism. NY: Cornell UP, 1983. --sees the social roots of nationalism in industrial social organization.
Guibernau, Montserrat. Nationalisms: The Nation-State and Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1996.
Hobsbawm, E.J. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. NY: Columbia UP, 1990.
Hutchinson, John & Anthony D. Smith. Nationalism(Oxford Readers). Oxford: Oxford UP, 1994.
James, Paul. Nation Formation: Towards a Theory of Abstract Community. London: Sage, 1996. (A theoretical survey)
Tomlinson, John. Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins UP, 1991. Woolf, Stuart, ed. Nationalism in Europe 1815 to the present: A Reader. NY: Routledge, 1996. (contains a review of Gellner and Anderson)
For Love of Country: Debating the Limits of Patriotism. Beacon, 1996
Other specialised readings
Battente, Saverio (2000) Nation and State building in Italy: recent historiographical interpretations (1989 – 1997), 1: Unification to Fascism. Journal of Modern Italian Studies, 5 (3) pp. 310-321. Bosworth, R. J. B. (2000) Per necessità famigliare: Hypocrisy and Corruption in Fascist Italy. European History Quarterly 30 (3), pp. 357-387. Duggan, C. (1997) “Francesco Crispi, ‘political education and the problem of Italian national consciousness, 1860-1896.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 2 (2) pp. 141-166. Overy, R. (1994) The inter-war crisis, 1919-1939. Longman Walker M. (1989), Plombieres: Secret Diplomacy and the Rebirth of Italy, Oxford University Press.
Berger, Stefan (2004) Inventing the Nation: Germany. Arnold. James, Harold (1994) A German Identity: 1770 To The Present Day. 3rd Ed. Phoenix. Ramm A. (1971), The Foundation of the German Empire 1871 , Oxford University Press.
France - The Third Republic
Fortescue, William (2000) The Third Republic in France, 1870 â€“ 1940: Conflicts and Continuities. Routledge. Kaplan, Robert (1999) Making sense of the Rennes verdict : The military dimension of the Dreyfus Affair. Journal of Contemporary History 34 (4) 499-515. Price, Roger. (1993) A Concise History of France. Cambridge University Press. Sowerwine, Charles (2001) France since 1870: Culture, Politics and Society. Palgrave. Tombs, Robert (1996) France 1814 â€“ 1914. Longman.
Crankshaw E. (1983), The Fall of the House of Habsburg, Penguin. Jaszi Oscar (1966), The Dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy, University of Chicago Press. Kann, Robert A. (1980), A history of the Habsburg Empire, 1526-1918, University of California Press. Macartney C. A. (1969), The Habsburg Empire 1790-19 18, Macmillan. Seton-Watson H. & C. (1981), The Making of a new Europe, Methuen London.
Bradley, Joseph (2002) Subjects into citizens: Societies, Civil Society, and Autocracy in Tsarist Russia. The American Historical Review 104 (4) Haimson, L. (1964/65) The problem of social stability in urban Russia, 1905-1917. Slavic Review 23/24 (1) pp. 1-22. Harcave Sydney (1965), First Blood: The Russian Revolution of 1905, Bodley Head. Stablinsky W. (1986), The Road to Bloody Sunday: Father Gapon and the St Petersburg Massacre of 1905, Princeton University Press.
The Russian revolution and Stalin’s Russia
Fitzpatrick, Sheila (1971) “The emergence of Glaviskusstvo. Class war on the cultural front, Moscow, 1928-29.” Soviet Studies 23 (1), pp. 236 – 253. Mackenzie, David and Curran, Michael (1991) A History of the Soviet Union. 2nd Ed. Wadsworth Inc. MCCauley, M. (2003) Stalin and Stalinism. Harlow, 3rd Ed. Harlow, Pearson Longman. Montefiore, S. (2003) Stalin: The court of the Red Tsar. Phoenix. Nettl, J. P. (1967) The Soviet Achievement. Thames & Hudson Pearson, Raymond (1998) “The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire.” Macmillan Ticktin, H. (1995) The political-economic nature of the purges. Critique 27, pp. 129-157.
Weimar and Nazi Germany
Bessel, Richard (2004) The Nazi capture of power. Journal of Contemporary History 39 (2) pp. 169-188.
Burleigh, Michael (2000) The Third Reich: A New History. Pan. Carsten F. L. (1974) The Reichswehr and Politics: 1918-33, University of California Press. Feuchtwanger, E. J. (1995) From Weimar to Hitler: Germany, 1918 – 1933. Macmillan, 2nd Ed. Fox, Jo (2004) Resistance and the Third Reich. Journal of Contemporary History 39 (2) pp. 271-284. Gellately, Robert (2001) Backing Hitler: Consent & Coercion in Nazi Germany. Oxford Hoffmann, Peter (1996), The history of the German resistance, 1933-1945, Queen’s University Press. Kershaw, I (1991) Hitler. Profiles in power. Longman. Kershaw, Ian (2000) The Nazi dictatorship: Problems & Perspectives of interpretation. 4th Ed. Arnold. Mees, Bernard (2004) Hitler and Germanentum. Journal of Contemporary History 39 (2) pp. 255-270. Noakes, Jeremy (2004) Leaders of the people? The Nazi party and German society. Journal of Contemporary History, 39 (2) pp. 189-212. Ryder A. J. (2008, new edition), The German Revolution of 1918: A Study of German Socialism in War and Revolt, Cambridge University Press. Stachura Peter D. (1978), The Shaping of the Nazi State, Croom Helm Ltd. Stern J. P. (1975) Hitler: The Fuhrer and the people, University of California Press. Stolper O. (1967, new edition ; 1st edition in English : 1940), The German Economy 1870 to the Present, Weidenfled and Nicolson. John Wheeler-Bennett (2005, 2nd edition), Nemesis of power. The German army in politics, 1918-1945, Palgrave Macmillan. Welch, David (2004) Nazi propaganda and the Volksgemeinschaft: Constructing a people’s community. Journal of Contemporary History 39 (2) pp. 213-238.
Fascist Italy Binchy, Daniel A. (1941), Church and State in Fascist Italy, Oxford University Press.
Berezin, Mabel (1997), Making the Fascist self : the political culture of interwar Italy, Cornell University Press. Bonsaver, Guido (2007), Censorship and literature in Fascist Italy, University of Toronto Press. Bosworth, R. J. B. (2007), Mussolini’s Italy. Life under the Fascist dictatorship, 1915-1945, Penguin. Bosworth R. J. B. (2002), Mussolini, A. Hodder Arnold Publication. Falasca-Zamponi, S. (2000), Fascist spectacle : the aesthetics of power in Mussolini’s Italy, University of California Press. Fogu, Claudio (2003), The historic imaginary : politics of History in Fascist Italy, University of Toronto Press. Gentile, Emilio and Botsford, Keith (1996), The sacralisation of politics in Fascist Italy, Harvard University Press. De Grazia, Victoria (2002), The culture of consent : mass organisation of leisure in Fascist Italy, Cambridge University Press. Gregor, A. James (2006), Mussolini’s intellectuals : fascist social and political thought, Princeton University Press. Lazzaro, Claudia (2005), Donatello among the Blackshirts : history and modernity in the visual culture of Fascist Italy, Cornell University Press. Minio Paluello, L. (2007), Education in Fascist Italy, Paluello Press. Mussolini, Benito (1998), My rise and fall, Da Capo Press. Painter, Borden (2007), Mussolini’s Rome : rebuilding the eternal city, Palgrave Macmillan. Thompson, Doug (1991), State control in Fascist Italy : culture and conformity, 1922-1943, Manchester University Press. Williams, George L. (1994), Fascist thought and totalitarianism in Italy’s secondary schools : theory and practice, 1922-1943, Peter Lang Publishing. Wolff, Richard (1989), Between Pope and Duce : Catholic students in Fascist Italy, Peter Lang Publishing.