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NEW HORIZONS FOR ARCHITECTURE OF THE COMMUNITIES A.C.

HORIZONS

Magazine of Architecture

Teaching of architecture Interchange Communities International Technical transference Interviews

Autumn 2009 No1 Octubre del 2009

HORIZONTES Revista de NHAC

Oto単o 2009


Mission Ferment and promote in students and professors, architecture that contributes to preserve the architectonic identity of the communities and to be careful of the environment.

Vision Fotografía: Marco Antonio Aguirre Pliego Vista de horno tradicional. Capulálpam de Méndez, Sierra Norte de Oaxaca.

To help similar institutions for the teaching of regional and sustainable architecture through the use of ancestral techniques in light of new technologies.

HORIZONS Magazine NHAC

Autumn 2009


Directory

NHCA NEWSPAPER

FOUNDERS VERÓNICA GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA PASTOR ALFONSO SÁNCHEZ CRUZ

DIRECTOR

PASTOR ALFONSO SÁNCHEZ CRUZ

EDITORIAL COORDINATOR

MARCO ANTONIO AGUIRRE PLIEGO

EDITORIAL COUNCIL

DESIGN

ACADEMIC LINK PUBLICITY

COMMUNICATIONS TRANSLATOR

IBO BONILLA OCONITRILLO ALFONSO RAMÍREZ PONCE ALEJANDRO RIVADENEYRA MIGUEL ÁNGEL CASTRO MONTERDE JUAN JOSÈ SANTIBÁÑEZ GARCÍA MA.DEL SOCORRO CANSECO CONTI FRANCISCO SANTIAGO CAMIRO JUAN MANUEL GASTÉLLUM ALVARADO BALTAZAR AGUSTÍN GARCÍA SANTOS

JUDITH CABALLERO GÓMEZ RICHARD BOILY

Directory

NEW HORIZONS FOR ARCHITECTURE OF THE COMMUNITIES A.C.

THE HORIZONS Magazine of Architecture without fixed independent periods No. 1 year 1. Printed in Oaxaca, Oax. México Contact: acnahc@yahoo.com.mx www. acnhac.org Tel. 01 951 5011418

Centers of Aquisition: Manuel Doblabo No. 1010 “A” La Noria, Centro Oaxaca, México Tel. 01 951 5011418 Av. Juárez No. 800-B, Centro Oaxaca, México Tel. 01 951 5026572

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CONTENTS EDITORIAL Pastor Alfonso Sánchez Cruz

TEACHING OF ARCHITECTURE REASONABLE AND SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE (Economic coverings of brick without curvature) Baltazar Agustín García Santos

INTERCHANG A PROJECT OF TECHNICAL TRANSFERRENCE BETWEEN THE NHCA AND COSTA RICA Pastor Alfonso Sánchez Cruz

COMMUNITIES THE MOVABLE-DWELLING, AN EXAMPLE OF NATIVE ARCHITECTURE IN SANTA CATARINA ROATINA, MIAHUATLAN, OAXACA. Juan Manuel Gastéllum Alvarado. AUTOCONSTRUCTION OF 16 RURAL DWELLING IN SAN MIGUEL AMATITLAN, OAX (Oaxacan Mixteca) Juan José Santibáñez García. THE TRADITIONAL DWELLING OF SAN PEDRO IXCATLAN. Marco Antonio Aguirre Pliego

INTERNATIONAL THE OTHER TOURISM, THE OTHER ARCHITECTURE. A tool for the conservation of natural reserves. Ibo Bonilla Oconitrillo.

TECHNICAL TRANSFERRENCE. CENTLA DWELLING. Alejandro Rivadeneyra. DWELLINGS OF BALES OF HAY. Miguel Ángel Castro Monterde

INTERVIEWS WITH:

CONTENTS

NEW HORIZONS FOR ARCHITECTURE OF THE COMMUNITIES A.C.

THE EXPRESSIONS AND OPINIONS CONTAINED IN THE ARTICLES PRESENTED, ARE THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THEIR AUTHORS. FRONT PAGE: CAPULALPAM DE MENDEZ “MAGIC TOWN” OF THE NORTHERN MOUNTAIN RANGE OF OAXACA, MEXICO. Photographs by Marco Antonio Aguirre Pliego.

“NHAC GAZETTE” A PUBLICATION OF THE CIVIL ASSOCIATION NEW HORIZONS FOR THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE COMMUNITIES A.C.

VALERIA PRIETO. Judith Caballero Gómez

www.acnhac.org

REGISTERS FOR REQUESTS IN PROCESS.

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EDITORIAL

Editorial Editorial S

tudents and professors of the schools of architecture, architect colleagues, friends; the Horizons Magazine of Architecture, is one of the means of information and diffusion of New Horizons for Architecture of the Communities A.C. “NHAC” its abbreviation, legally constituted the 28th of September 2008, for non lucrative ends, integrated by students and professors of architecture. In this first issue are reflected the principal activities realized from April of 2008 to the present day, that are “The interchange with our brother country Costa Rica and the conventions for collaboration with societies of professionals, academic institutions and government entities”. The idea for the edition of this exemplar is with the finality to make known architectonic and cultural values of our communities by means of a series of articles by recognized architects, that have had incursions in the professional and academic circuits, serving as a consultation in the daily work of the students or inclusive en works of investigation of the professors in the subject.

Included, you will find the sections: THE TEACHING OF ARCHITECTURE, in which are summarized the activities realized with Arch. Alfonso Ramirez Ponce, of the graduate area of the UNAM; INTERCHANGE, activities realized with Costa Rica; COMMUNITIES, articles by the architects Juan Jose Santibañez Garcia, Juan Manuel Gastellum Alvarado and Marco Antonio Aguirre Pliego; INTERNATIONAL, projects in communities of Costa Rica realized by Arch. Ibo Bonilla; INTERVIEW, with the Arch. Valeria Prieto; TECHNICAL TRANSFERRENCE, Centla Dwelling by Arch. Alejandro Rivadeneyra and Dwellings of Bales of Hay by Arch. Miguel Angel Castro Monterde. I infinitely thank the opportunity and invaluable support of my architect FRIENDS for their help in the coordination of each step of this project, being today a palpable reality. To my family for their patience and endorsement in every sense, but above all for their confidence; to each and everyone who have participated in some of the activities that we have pursued and realized.

Pastor Alfonso Sánchez Cruz President of NHAC.

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Autumn 2009

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REGIONAL ARCHITECTURE AND SUSTAINABLE (Economiccoveringsofbrickwithoutcurvature.) Alfonso Ramírez Ponce

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Autumn 2009


SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE

REGIONAL AND SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE Economiccoveringsof brickwithoutcurvature. Baltazar Agustín García Santos

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n the 20th and 21st of February of the current year, there was carried out with satisfactory results, at the Instituto Estatal de Ecologia de Oaxaca (IEEO) “State Institute of Ecology of Oaxaca” the workshop course; REGIONAL AND SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE, (Economic coverings of brick without curvature) said activity was realized thanks to the Collaboration Agreement celebrated by the IEEO and the Civil Association New Horizons for Architecture of the Communities A.C., (NHAC)* The workshop course was imparted by the recognized architect Alfonso Ramirez Ponce, professor of graduate studies of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) “National Autonomous University of Mexico”, writer, lecturer, planner and constructor of low cost works with prime materials like brick, it can be said that Ramirez Ponce is an Assessor of the Pan-American Federation of Architects of America FPAA, Winner of the prize “Armando Mestre” of the Republic of Cuba. First prize of the Competition on Technology Transference for Popular Habitat, organized by the CYTED (Ciencia y Tecnologia para el Desarrollo) “Science and Technology for Development”, and now Distinguished Friend of the Civil Association New Horizons for Architecture of the Communities. The workshop- course had the nutritive participation of students, professors and graduates of the Faculties of Architecture of the capital city of Oaxaca. In the afternoon of Saturday the 21st, Ramirez Ponce, kept the oaxacans captivated for more than two hours in the Casa de la Ciudad “House of the City”; he helped the listening of architecture with musical pieces and with architectural examples had music seen as a way to better understanding our regionalism; with these activities promo-

ted by the NHCA, pretending to establish bases for the realization of projects and the conjunctive actions of training, diffusion, consultation and interchange with students professors and architects, normative environmental Institutions and constructors, which will permit contribution to the formation of future professionals conscious of the necessity of preserving and taking care of the environment and the architectonic typology of the communities, of which with the passing of time have lost uses, customs, traditions, construction techniques, and the use of materials of the region.

Photos of the workshop course Regional and Sustainable Architecture, (Economic coverings of brick without curvature) imparted by Arch. Alfonso Ramirez Ponce, the 21st and 22nd of February 2009, in the installations of the State Institute of Ecology of Oaxaca. *NHCA, is an independent civil association, non-lucrative, which has a network of friends in the local, regional and international contexts ready to contribute to regional and sustainable architecture to take care of the environment. The course-workshop realized with the help of Eng. José Luis Bustamante del Valle, Director of the IEEEO, and is available at www, acnhac.org

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EXCHANGE

A technical transference project between Mexico and Costa Rica. Pastor Alfonso Sรกnchez Cruz

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EXCHANGE

ARCHITECTURE, ALTERNATIVE AND SOCIAL BENEFIT

TOURISM

Atechnicaltransferenceproject betweenMexicoandCostaRica.* Pastor Alfonso Sánchez Cruz From the 16th to the 21st of August of 2008, the Costa Rican experience interchange phase of the project was carried out to do with the theme “Architecture, alternative tourism and social benefit” between Mexico and Costa Rica, promoted therefore by the Presidents of the Colleges of Architecture of Oaxaca and Costa Rica, Miguel Angel Castro Monterde and Abel Salazar Vargas respectively, the Universidad Autonoma “Benito Juarez” de Oaxaca “UABJO” (Autonomous University “Benito Juarez” of Oaxaca), the Civil Association New Horizons for Architecture of the Communities and the Escuela de Arquitectura y Urbanismo, de la Universidad Interamericana de Costa Rica (School of Architecture and Urbanism of the Interamerican University of Costa Rica). In the School of Architecture and Urbanism of the Interamerican University conferences were given: one by the writer of this article and another by Arch. Ibo Bonilla of Costa Rica, and a conversation workshop with the participation of said lecturers, professors, students and guests, to do with cases of academic and private collaborations with farming and indigenous communities, for the generation of productive projects, by means of access to financial sources of annuity, like Non-governmental Organizations, United Nations Programs and Foundations. From Mexico the certification of Magic Towns with special emphasis was put forward and in particular the ultimate designation: Capulalpam de Mendez, located in the Juarez mountain range in Oaxaca, a community that in spite of its multiple natural attractions, has a very clear identity and differentiable from its social organization, governed by “uses and customs”, in this way to conserve its artistic, architectonic and cultural heritage. In February of 2009, another academic exercise was started, oriented in cataloguing analytically detailed architectonic typologies of the town, with the objective to bring technical support for the basis of an ordering in the intervention of existing constructions and in the outlines for the growth of the new infrastructure needed for a growing influence each

time greater for alternative tourism, which constitutes a pillar of economic sustenance of the population. The participation of the Costa Rican Architect Ibo Bonilla brought an important thrust and motivation in the initiating of this phase of the project in conjunction with Arch. Pastor Cruz, students and professors, to such a point that Arch. Ibo Bonilla was declared “Distinguished visitor of Capulalpam de Mendez”. In preparation for this academic collaboration, Arch. Ibo Bonilla lectured at two magisterial conferences: in the Library Francisco de Burgoa and in the Faculty of Architecture of the C.U. of the UABJO, which generated an important benefit for the student community, magisterial and official, with the presence of community leaders interested in the theme, to the point where their opinions were broadcast by the principal TV stations and newspapers. In his conferences, Ibo Bonilla highlighted the premise that all investment should suppose a social benefit, and that the ecotourism can be a sufficiently productive activity, in this way, protecting the forest is more profitable than exploiting it. Also he shared his experiences of various decades with more than forty native and farming communities that live around the Natural Reserves of Costa Rica; he said that Ecotourism is associated with the effects of activities related to excursion of less than a year, outside the personal environment, with the finality of leisure, study or other related motives, with responsible environmental attitudes and an ethic of conservation and respect for the natural and cultural environment.

Conferences imparted by the architects Pastor Alfonso Sanchez Cruz and Ibo Bonilla Oconitrillo in the School of Architecture and Urbanism of the Interamerican University of Costa Rica.

He emphasized that this is tourism with less intensity and less demand in the stereotype of comfort, which favours the interest of knowing landscapes, biodiversity, people and customs distinct from where they come from. The mentioned entities have valorised very positively this interchange of experiences and methodologies, about a theme of which Costa Rica and Mexico share its importance, as a means to preserve their identity and heritage. With the aforementioned we have established the bases for a much more ample collaboration, which includes the interchange of professors and students; presently the Civil Association of New Horizons for Architecture of the Communities (NHAC) has a signed agreement of collaboration with the School of Architecture and Urbanism of the Interamerican University of Costa Rica.

Visit to the School of Architecture of the University Veritas of Ccosta Rica. *“Second phase of the interchange Oaxaca-Costa Rica.

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EXCHANGE

VISITAS A:

CÁPULALPAM DE MÉNDEZ “Pueblo Mágico” Sierra Norte de Oaxaca.

Ibo Bonilla signing the register of distinguished visitors in the municipality of Capulalpam de Mendez, Oaxaca, Mexico.

Within the technical transference project between Mexico and Costa Rica, the distinguished visitor made an excursion to Capulalpam de Mendez.

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COMMUNITIES THE MOVABLE DWELLING EXAMPLE OF NATIVE ARCHITECTURE IN SANTA CATALINA ROATINA, MIAHUATLAN OAXACA. Juan Manuel Gastéllum Alvarado. AUTO CONSTRUCTION OF 16 RURAL DWELLINGS IN SAN MIGUEL AMATITLAN OAX. (Oaxacan Mixteca) Juan José Santibáñez García. THE TRADITIONAL DWELLINGS OF SAN PEDRO IXCATLAN. Marco Antonio Aguirre Pliego

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COMMUNITIES

THE MOVABLE DWELLING EXAMPLEOFNATIVEARCHITECTUREINSANTA CATALINAROATINA,MIAHUATLANOAXACA. Juan Manuel Gastéllum Alvarado n the southern limit in the Region of the Central Valleys of the state of Oaxaca, adjacent to the Southern Mountains Region, eleven kilometres to the east leaving from the population of Miahuatlan of Porfirio Diaz, is located the Municipal Agency of Santa Catarina Roatina, Miahuatlan, Oaxaca, its population nucleus of 1406 inhabitants is concentrated on an extension of terrains with hills and downward thrusts in an area of approximately 3 Km².

I

In present times, where the globalization concept influences everything, but principally the small communities, because it embeds itself stripping the identity values of the towns, it is the moment to look towards them to rereclaim these custom particularities, fruit of history and culture; in this case referring to true architectonic works, that in truth are not of large dimensions as to be included in the conjunction of specimens appreciated as “grandiose”, they keep a human scale proper of the conception and thought of its executors, who achieve dwellings that don’t offend the surroundings but to the contrary, integrate within the context to which in their elaboration they use materials that are produced in their surroundings: regularly natural elements that in many occasions only need to be collected

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to give them a function, and through “simple” processes are transformed into an all constructive that couples with the identity of the location which has born them, and where their residents are shown to be happy possessors of the results. In these moments, when surfaces the necessity to rescue the knowledge achieved by some localities in terms of construction of traditional dwelling, it is the duty to transmit such conditions to the present generations, and in the future these practices become known in favour of their registering, diffusion and promotion for didactic and rescue ends. In this sense, even in Santa Catarina Roatina they conserve the original cultural patterns from which they elaborate dwellings that use a minimum of economic resources, those that labour is substituted through “tequio” (volunteer labour) by the same neighbours, those that in full harmony with their environment use the materials which are at hand to construct their habitat, that which so well reflects the socioeconomic level of their inhabitants, above all radiate cultural richness, adequate for the climate that predominates the zone and proportions a vast range of natural resources and techniques that they have at their disposal. In spite of certain geographical points of Roatina the use of industrialized materials in their dwellings has been noticed, nevertheless one perceives a community that keeps


COMMUNITIES concepts of dwellings in contraposition to those systems known as “modern”, those that in all measures are seen as construction procedures foreign to the culture and idiosyncrasies of its populations. Also are maintained standing various dwellings elaborated based with walls made of adobe covered with clay, with thick wood at the top of doors and windows as a style of enclosure, and roofs with wooden beams that sustains tiles from the region with adequate slopes to drain the rain water. Nevertheless, the construction system that is desired to standout in those instances, of which are common in the population, uniquely use materials like vegetation, earth, and water that the close environment offers; elements found and obtained naturally and that the inhabitants of Roatina have taken charge to bind in their dwellings integrating them with the natural environment in agreeable conjunctive landscapes. It deals with rectangular dwellings approximately 3.00 x 4.00 meters in surface, using reed or poles of otate (pole which looks like bamboo but of a small diameter) in way of walls bound with rattan, placed vertically with reinforcements of the same material horizontally, of which are incrusted with wooden poles finishing in a U in its extremes sunk directly on the ground at the corners and intermediate reinforcements, components that are covered with clay in the interior as well as the exterior. With this scheme rests a structure of

wooden poles finishing in a U aligned with the walls, known as props, that support a roof of four slopes, of which are formed by equal areas that are united resting on each other towards

the centre of the dwelling, where is formed the parts of the slopes, of which are hung on wooden poles finishing in a U which receive two or three bundles of reeds horizontally that form a triangular reticule at the extremes and square at the centre called “to encage”, above which they place the clusters of ocote pine leafs, attaching them from bottom to top until reaching the trestle; the extremities are intertwined, the loose ends or disagreeable or non-functional

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COMMUNITIES

ends are cut, and they are arranged with overlap. This roofing has demonstrated a resistance in windy times up to forty years with the respective maintenance consistent with small interventions or repair, recommending its use as a dwelling, moreover not to give it use as a kitchen or place where fire is used because of the inflammable substances of which the bundles of leafs on the roof can catch fire. The present article would not be complete without highlighting that with all these combinations of qualities a more attractive one is added, resulting that when for whatever reason, someone who lives in these dwellings decides to separate himself from the original nucleus or to change the location of residence, in function of its conservation, the structure that makes up the roof can be transported on the

It is worth while to reflect in turn to the particularities that presents our population to rescue them from prejudicial influences, maybe not avoiding the cutting out of “modernism”, maybe incorporating its positive aspects, but above all maintaining those elements that have demonstrated usefulness in the past, since those remain latent in the present and will be appreciated in the future.

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backs of twenty persons to the future location of residence, moving in this fashion the dwellings up to three kilometres distance to place this part of the structure on the new walls of the new location, for what is considered to be movable dwellings. This activity that is executed by means of “guelaguetza” (everyone freely helping) and where the beneficiary responds to the collaborators as in a celebration with a meal and alcoholic beverages, in conjunction contributes to promote social relations, the cooperation and the group spirit between those that intervene.

Juan Manuel Gastellum Alvarado is a full time professor of the Faculty of Architecture C.U., of the Autonomous University “Benito Juarez” of Oaxaca, professor of Urban Development and Secretary of the Civil Association New Horizons for Architecture of the Communities. gastel@hotmail.com

Bibliography • CHACON Polanco, Mario Roberto. La arquitectura popular otra especie en extinción. In “Módulo”, magazine of the faculty of arquitecture of the University San Carlos de Guatemala. Marzo 1989. •COMOS. Builded vernacular patrimony chart En: http://www.internacional.icomos.org/vernac-esp.htm. • LANGAGNE Ortega, Eduardo. Et al. Como una piedra que rueda. Ediciones Gernika, S, A. México 1993. 444 p. • LOPEZ Morales, Francisco Javier. Arquitectura Vernácula en México. Edit. Trillas. México 1993. 388 p. • MOYA Rubio, Víctor José. La vivienda indígena de México y el mundo. Dirección General de Publicaciones U.N.A.M. 3ª Ed. México. 1988. 256 p • OCAMPO García, María de Lourdes. La vivienda tradicional de Chiapa de Corzo, Chiapas. In: “Cuadernos de Arquitectura y urbanismo” No 6., Revista de la Facultad de Arquitectura. Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas 2001. 78 p.


COMMUNITIES

AUTO CONSTRUCTION OF 16 RURAL DWELLINGS IN SAN MIGUEL AMATITLAN OAX.

(OaxacanMixteca)

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Juan José Santibáñez García

he expression of architecture is the clearest parameter of the general state of a culture; it is the open book that manifests achievements, pretensions, myths and beliefs of a community. Since I have had the use of reason I have been a spectator and actor in the daily happenings of the region, since I was born here and from childhood accompanied my father to the towns. I witnessed many indigenous manifestations like dances, celebrations, labours, clothing and later their architecture. In the last 35 years we have lost much of our original values through economic development that invades all corners of the country and does not forgive local forms and criteria. Form the year 1988 to 1996 I assisted various works in the diocese of Huajuapan as assessor. This served me to recognize the region as an architect. At collaboration time, I learned of simple solutions that people gave to their spaces; they, being linked to nature, loving her and discovering with ease the use of materials that are in the surroundings. The present document registers a special job that shows us things can be done under the optic of local values adopting the bountifulness of new techniques and modern know how. With pride I let known the work of 16 farm women that built their dwellings with lots of effort and dedication. The achievement that they reached doing it marked a new point of departure in their lives. They gained the respect of the community, self-esteem and security. The unbelievers in the town now admire them, visit them, stimulate them and are objects of a photographic exposition in the present article. The municipality of San Miguel Amatitlan where the development of this project took place is considered one of the poorest in the state of Oaxaca and the country. In the last 30 years there has been a procession of many government programs with weak results, generating strong dependence vices, and from my particular point of view, this has weakened the character of the popu-

More information about Juan Jóse Santibañéz at www.arquitectosartesanos.com.mx

lation, above all in the men. With their small cultural collaboration these women have generated certainty, have sown a new spirit capable of changing many habits. It is the beginning of a new vision in the patterns of behaviour between the sexes. This example shows that the women are very strong, that when they are given the opportunity they make whatever endeavour progress, because they have less vices and being forsaken in society are more disposed to change. In this scenario the importance of community experience and its real dimension should be considered, not for its quantative characteristic, but in the conceptual aspect that could signify, with due impulse, the beginning of a project at the regional level, with greater transcendence, which could reproduce itself in numerous groups, impeding in this way that the bountifulness brought about by this experience remains only as an anecdote. In this document is illustrated some characteristics of the project. Juan José Santibáñez García. Cemex Project Award – Congruencies in Sustainability The Bienal Silver Medal Award of Mexican Architecture www.arquitectosartesanos.com PHOTOGRAPHS Marcela taboada of the collection Women of clay REFERENCES A municipality of the Oaxacan Mixteca San Miguel Amatitlan by Juan Carlos Bonilla Duran THANKS TO Pbro. Santiago Rojas Julia Santiago y grupo Edith Rodríguez Gio TEXT CORRECTOR Arch. Martin Arriaga CONAFOVI

The present article is an extract of the original text of 14 pages. BIBLIONHAC inthe web page www.acnhac.org HORIZONS Magazine NHAC

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COMMUNITIES

THE TRADITIONAL DWELLINGS OF SAN PEDRO IXCATLAN. Marco Antonio Aguirre Pliego

Introduction

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o talk about San Pedro Ixcatlan, Tuxtepec, Oaxaca, is to talk about humidity, greenness, and native architecture; but to undertake the last it is necessary to define it. What is vernacular architecture? The term vernacular according to the dictionary designates native. It is obvious that this does not satisfy us, since it lends itself to confusions. Rosa Maria Sanchez Lara, in an article titled “The significance of vernacular architecture”, after reviewing what popular architecture is, says: Vernacular architecture in on the other hand, for the most part until now has been analysed by critics and scholars foreign its production and use (from there the picturesque aspect that has been conferred), has been denominated also naïve, spontaneous, folkloric, etc., and in it remain as constants, elements of popular and traditional character. ¹

A clearer and ampler definition would require a search taking in consideration the significance of the dominant civilization. Alvin Toffler in some way initiates us to the situation when he writes: The human species has experienced up to now two great waves of change, each one having buried previous cultures or civilizations and therefore has substituted them in inconceivable ways of life. The first wave of change – the agricultural revolution – took thousands of years in displaying itself. The second wave – birth of industrial civilization – needed only three hundred years.²

Vernacular architecture is the surviving popular architecture of the agricultural age. It is the architecture that refuses to disappear in the industrial age. One of its principal characteristics is that in it the collective sentiment is an imperative. It is the architecture of the collective pre-industrial. Vernacular architecture is architecture suspended in time; or better said an extemporal architecture in the measure that its design does not pretend to signify a trend. On the contrary, it signifies a cultural resistance and from this angle, it is a marginal phenomenon with respect to contemporary occidental culture. Industrial capitalism, by intrinsic contradiction, produces marginality. Another essential characteristic of vernacular architecture is that of being a product eminently of craftsmanship. And here again cultural resistance is expressed; the resistance of a world that was enslaved. The sphere of vernacular architecture is in that of the primitive space; the architecture that is close to nature, near motherhood. From here the fascination that is provoked in the city individual. Vernacular architecture is aesthetic in the measure that it harmonizes with nature. The discussion that I express in what follows about the architecture of San Pedro Ixcatlan, is a long way from being a thesis. It is only a summary of fleeting impressions, which have as a conceptual frame the argumentation expressed here up to now.

Location of San Pedro Ixcatlan. Drawing by Marco A. Aguirre P. 1¹Rosa Maria Sanchez Lara. The significance of vernacular architecture, in VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE, book of architecture and conservation of artistic inheritance. N° ²Alvin Toffler. The Third Wave. Edition . 11ª Impression. Mexico, 1988. p.26.

10.INBA.,Mexico 1980. p. 11.

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COMMUNITIES Antecedences of this article In the year 1988 Oscar Gomez Torres and Marco Antonio Arriaga Solis, realized as a thesis, for the title of architects, a study called “Rural Dwellings for the Process of Relocation in the Region of the Papaloapan”. Through this they analysed the problem that confronts the towns situated in the basin of the dam “Miguel Aleman” also known as the Temascal dam. The problem

consists that there exists a government project to raise dam’s level of water, something that affects various populations and that implies the relocation of each and everyone of them. In the thesis in question, the authors analysed the government proposal and rejected it proposing one more adequate. The knowledge of this thesis moved me, first, to know physically the site object of the study; and later, to confront the criticism from other aspects related to the same

Tradicional ixcateca dwelling on the edge of the lake. Drawing by Marco Antonio Aguirre Pliego. HORIZONS Magazine NHAC

Autumn 2009 17


COMMUNITIES The traditional ixcateca dwelling The traditional dwelling of San Pedro Ixcatlan is characterized, from a special point of view, in that it is modulare; in other words it is composed of locals, with different functions, separated by areas of free circulating air. Said functions generally fall under the following: kitchen, bedroom and storage; the bathroom invariably separated from the assembly, it is a cubical with latrine. From the constructive point of view, the locales in question have compacted earthen floors, although en recent years, we must admit, some families have progressed by means of concrete floors; the walls of the enclosures are made of poles or canes of otate (pole which looks like bamboo but of a small diameter) placed horizontally, without windows; the coverings are made based on a thick wooden framework tied with rope made of vegetable fibre and covered with dung from the region. The forms of the covering, with two slopes, and with pronounced inclinations, generate a space that is used like a wooden mezzanine in which are kept utensils and prime materials. From a plastic point of view, the floors of the locales have a long rectangular form and their respective composite axis’s are placed randomly; the great inclination of the coverings make that the volumes are visually agreeable; the proportions of the different elements

of each unit of the assembly are harmonious between eachother. Complementing the image of the landscape the orchards in which there are tropical fruit trees like the mango and the guava, and ornate trees like the rose post (Tabebuia rosea), also called the tropical oak tree, whose foliage, in spring, is composed in large part by rosy flowers. From the point of view of the conjunction understood as the population, the dwellings that I refer to occupy the common lands (borders of the emplacements) under a low density plan; in other words, without agglomeration. In the central area of the town the dwellings are of another type: of much durable materials, nonetheless they have wooden or brick walls and are covered with galvanized sheet metal; the unique common element is the roof with two slopes, one of which has an angular break that favours the formation of an eaves that covers generally a corridor. It appears to me that the centric dwellings are fluid because of the formal scheme of the dwellings in the Mazatec zone. But returning to the dwellings on the periphery of San Pedro Ixcatlan, in other words traditional dwellings, after analysing them conceptualizing the following reflections that corroborate my initial presentation: through its aspect expresses obstinacy for a determined form of being, of which is valid under whatever circumstance.

Two different aspects of the dwelling in San Pedro Ixcatlan. Photographs from Jesus Ignacio Ramirez Tovar.

Floor plan and construction details of a traditional ixcateca dwelling. Drawing by Oscar Gomez and Marco A. Arriaga S. 18

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Marco Antonio Aguirre Pliego is an architect with a masters in the History of Architecture in Mexico, retired professor of the UABJO, member of the Seminar of Mexican Culture and new recipient of the Plaque of Honour from the Federation of Colleges of Architects of the Mexican Republic en 2008.


INTERNATIONAL THE OTHER TOURISM, THE OTHER ARCHITECTURE (A tool for the conservation of natural reserves) Ibo Bonilla Oconitrillo.

HORIZONS Magazine NHAC

Autumn 2009


INTERNATIONAL

THE OTHER TOURISM, THE OTHER ARCHITECTURE Ibo Bonilla Oconitrillo Atoolfortheconservationofnatural reserves

T

he objective of these conferences was to share the accumulated experience during the 17 years of non commercial collaboration, with farming and indigenous communities that live around the Reservas Naturales de Costa Rica (Natural Reserves of Costa Rica), under the strategy that Ecotourism can be a sufficiently productive activity, which implies for example to protect the forests is of greater profit than to exploit it. Costa Rica has around 30% of its territory dedicated to natural reserves, we do not have sufficient adult workers to hire as forests rangers, thus under the concept of a solidarity collaboration private in character, we bet on the idea that the best caretakers are the proper neighbours of the forest. The conceptualization of ecotourism began around the year 1990, but it is until recent times that it has consolidated as such, the year 2002 was declared by the U.N. as the “Year of Ecotourism”. Conventional tourism historically has demonstrated to be probably the most un-loyal and predatory of human activities; despoiling until destroying the most beautiful locations, requiring costly and stereotypic luxury and with the least change of style, moving to “dazzle” other locations, leaving behind itself known secondary affects: damage to the natural and cultural environment, inflationary processes, real estate speculation, unjustified urban expansion, social deterioration like prostitution, drugs, gambling, etc. If the construction of buildings is the human activity that is implicated in 70% of the impact on the natural economy and is tied to the volatile tourist industry, this tells us that we need to take precautions and bring forth technical solutions and policies to mitigate such impact. Ecotourism appears to be less aggressive, but even as is we need to observe it closely, because the major part of what is done escapes the certification protocols for “green” design and construction, of which permits with the pretext

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Magisterial conferences by Ibo Bonilla Oconitrillo in the library Francisco de Burgoa, Oaxaca, Mexico, April 5th 2008.


INTERNATIONAL of the ecotouristical seal, that some unscrupulous contractors, especially transnacionals, implant models that are foreign to pristine landscapes, that are attractive at first, but that destroy when not respecting their particular ecological characteristics, for the sake of preconceived ideas that commercially have had success in other parts. This type of entrepreneurial activity, whose objective is to maximize profit, is moreover, that which typically promotes the system of “all included�, and which excludes the people that from ancestral times have lived on the lands that are now occupied by so called big hotels. On the other hand, the success of ecotouristic activities are

based on the diffusion of the awareness of environmental responsibility and in the ethics of conservation and it has been observed that such conviction is transmitted to a type of tourist that normally comes predisposed in this sense. Our project unfolds based on workshops that include the best possible participation of the interested population, normally they are small communities which have had contact with social services, anthropologists, sociologists, etc. from official organisms and/or non government organizations, or have had relations with other communities that are developing similar projects.

3 cases of 45 projects promoted by Arch. Ibo Bonilla in Costa Rican communities.

Stibraupa Yorkin The Bribri indigenous community, located near the Skuy river in Yorkin, Talamanca, leaders in communal promotions and flag carriers for the preservation of the ancestral culture. There they built two shelters, classrooms for telesecundaria (high school by telecommunications), restaurant, communal hall, pathway and are in the process of refurbishing the aqueduct.

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INTERNATIONAL

Scientific Station La Selva (The Forest) The property La Selva occupies an important position within biological corridors in the north of the country, moreover having a world class scientific station for the quality and quantity of scientific investigations of the tropical forest. It is controlled by the Organization of Tropical Studies that is a consortium of universities from the United Stated and Costa Rica. There they constructed shelters for scientist and visitors. Centre of Visitors and Laboratories.

Ibo Bonilla Oconitrillo President of Valdesol Plans and Projects, Architect, Mathematician, Educator, Master in Business Administration ‌ more information about Ibo Bonilla www.ibonweb.com

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THECHNICAL TRANSFERENCE. CENTLA DWELLING Alejandro Rivadeneyra. DWELLINGS OF BALES OF HAY Miguel テ]gel Castro Monterde

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THECHNICAL TRANSFERENCE.

CENTLA DWELLING Alejandro Rivadeneyra

The present article shows the design of the Centla Dwelling, a prototype dwelling that is constructed in Boca de Chilapa, Centle, one of the municipalities of Tabasco, as an alternative so that the families can count on a secure location facing the imminent floods that occur from year to year; the project, designed by the Mexican architect Alejandro Rivadenyera, will consist in the construction of 26 dwellings. Because on the yearly floods suffered in the state of Tabasco, the Hidrico Plan has planned a series of hydraulic works and the relocation of the inhabitants of the lower zones, which implies millionaire investments during various years. In the meantime, there exist alternate measures

“The Centla Dwelling is based on the typology and traditional construction systems of the dwellings on the shores of the Grijalva River. The dwelling is raised 1.50 meters above ground by means of posts.� 24

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to live with the water, instead of seeing it as an enemy. As a result of steps headed by the mayor Nicolas Bellizia, the Civil Association Habitat for Humanity will elaborate a habitation project in the municipality in question, of which will be located in the ranch Boca de Chilapa; it involves the construction of 26 dwelling units starting from a prototype. Said project is an efficient, economic and sustainable alternative for housing solutions in high risk flooding zones and has been elaborated especially for the municipality of Centla, because of the necessities that exist between the populations that live on the edge of the rivers and suffer every year the destruction of the rising tributaries. The construction of the 26 dwellings that the project consists of, will be initiated with an investment of approximately three million 120 thousand pesos, for the benefit of 150 inhabitants of the zone. The Public Works of Centla and Habitat for Humanity A.C., are joining forces to realize this ambitious project, which will come


THECHNICAL TRANSFERENCE. to offer a more secure option to those who live in this region of the municipality. It can be said that recently the first contract for the construction of the Centla dwelling in the municipality of Peto in the Yucatan peninsula has been signed with CONAFOR, it concerns a training program for the sustainable construction in rural communities. The project of which we are occupied has ample possibilities of construction in other entities of the Country.

The photographs presented are courtesy of Arch. Alejandro Rivadenyera for the NHCA

“Alejandro Rivadenyera.- is a foremost Mexican architect which has been the object of important national and international recognitions amongst those that we find: Third place for the international competition convoked by the Academia of Milan, for the convention centre of the Vatican, First place in the competition of the project for the new headquarters of the Federal Council of Conciliation and Arbitration and second place in the project of the Arts Centre of San Luis Potosi. Gold Medal of the IDA, Professor in the seminar for title of the Faculty of Architecture of the UNAM. For more information www.rivadenyera.com.mx

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THECHNICAL TRANSFERENCE.

DWELLINGS OF BALES OF HAY Miguel Ángel Castro Monterde

T

he closest data of the utilization of bales of hay to build dwellings or schools come from the years 1886 or 1887 in Nebraska; later on in New Mexico as well. In Mexico there is knowledge of the first dwellings made of those materials that were found in the state of Chihuahua.

This construction system is adaptable to whatever type of project; the bales of hay that in these are utilized are made of sticks of wheat or rice and other similar plants, which are cut and fed mechanically into a baler to compact them; once compacted they are tied in blocks of various sizes and are left to dry, in this way are easier to manage.

Simonton dwelling, Purdum, Nebraska

Dwelling in Puebla in 1994 Characteristics of the 3 wires 35.5 to 34.1 cm. high 58.9 cm. wide 109.2 to 119.3 cm. long Heat insulation R-55.2

The projects that are elaborated for this type of dwelling can be very plastic in that with the bales of hay one can create the necessary forms. The construction process is very versatile and easy to use for any person, since it treats of a simple construction process, in that uniquely we need to build a foundation using rocks, to a height of approximately 40 centimetres, above ground level, to avoid humidity; above this we anchor reinforcing rods, bamboo or reeds so that in each one of these we enclose up to four bales of hay. In the inferior part, between the rocks and the bales of hay, we use asphalt cardboard so that humidity is not absorbed by the hay.

Characteristics of bales of two wires of 35.5x40.6 cm. high45.7 cm. wide 89.9 to 101.6 cm. long 15.75 to 29.25 kg. Heat insulation R-43.2

We proceed in this way until we reach a maximum of 7 bales for each level. It is recommended to reach a height 2.40m. For the openings of the doors and windows we use pine wood of 1” or 1½” to make the frames the same thickness as the walls; for the superior closures, finishing the placement of the bales of hay, we also place wood of 1” or 1½” in two layers and they are fastened with screws to the rods anchored to the foundation or fastened by plastic ties.

Women working in the Aves del Castillo project in Mexico 1993 with Archs. Helen and Jorg Ostrowsky of Calgary

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THECHNICAL TRANSFERENCE. In the state of Oaxaca such bales can be acquired with ease in Nochixtlan, this population being producers of wheat.

Threaded tubes with bolt to adjust each 1.8 m. and on the corners each 91.45 cm

Each 4 bales of hay

Wooden door lintel

Structure of wooden windows Wood enclosure of 2x6”

No. 4 rods inserted at each 4 bales of hay

No. 4 rods in the foundation making an anchor leaving it 3.6 m. high

For the roof we use a light material system in question will permit its inhabiwhich can be wood based of beams or ties tants to have a dignified dwelling. supported by each one of the extremes of the walls of bales of hay, and above these ties ¾” wood tongue and groove boards or 16 mm. plywood can be placed, above this asphalt cardboard or tiles manufactured in the regional, with the finality of conserving the regional vernacular architecture image in which it is constructed. The walls for its thickness and the type of material, results in an excellent thermal and acoustic material, appropriate for areas of severe climates. In the coverings of the walls we utilize chicken wire, held with thick wire anchors, Dwelling in Alberta Canada in 1993 which serves as the reinforcement for a homogenised mixture of earth from the region with sand, cement, manure and a few fistfuls of the same hay, which is applied like mud over the coverings and left to dry before giving it the next step; the covering can be up to be 3 centimetres thick. Once dried it can be finished with nopal gum or in defect with alternate contemporaneous products like transparent resins; these should be applied uniquely to the exterior; in the interior we follow the same procedure, but ignoring the materials used against inclemency so that the walls can have ventilation. View of the interior of a dwelling The system has been implanted in two made of bales of hay in Santa Fe cities of Mexico: in Tlaxcala and in Oaxaca. United States build by Arch. Beverly In the later inclusive there are examples of Spears this including the surrounding valleys. HoMiguel Angel Castro Monterde is an architect for the pefully we could retake this type of consU.R.S.E. Was president of the College of Architects of truction since it is comfortable, flexible in the State of Oaxaca (2007-2008). Recipient of the Plaque of Honour of the FCARM in 2008 and presently in its design and low in cost; and our state of charge of the Commission of Assemblies of the same Oaxaca being an entity of low earnings, the HORIZONS Magazine NHAC

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Interview with Valeria Prieto

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INTERVIEW

Interview with Valeria Prieto Judith Caballero Gómez

Architect Valeria Prieto, can you tell us: Where did you graduate and what are you in charge presently in the Mexican ICOMOS

?

I graduated from the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), presently I am vice president of the Mexican ICOMOS and Secretary General of the International Scientific Committee of Vernacular Architecture of the same, at the international level.

What is the motive of your visit to the city of Oaxaca?

?

It is due to an invitation of the Academic Body of Higher Studies of Architecture (CAEA), of the Faculty of Architecture of the C.U. of the Autonomous “Benito Juarez” University of Oaxaca (UABJO), to share my experiences about the conservation of vernacular architecture inside the framework of the First Seminar about vernacular dwellings in the south eastern region of Mexico.

A visit to Capulalpam de Mendez Oaxaca Mexico by the participants of the First Seminar on vernacular dwellings of the southeast region of Mexico HORIZONS Magazine NHAC

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ENTREVISTA What do you believe the future holds for vernacular architecture in Mexico? There is the risk that it will disappear in so far that in the last ten years, numerous examples of vernacular architecture of distinct architectonic genders like the dwelling, the markets, the squares of the towns and the open spaces in general have suffered a radical transformation, loosing with it their historical and cultural content, for this reason the importance of participating in this first seminar, where all the presentations were a great contribution; on the other hand it is good to know that there still exits professionals that are interested in the study of this type of architecture.

What is your opinion with respect to the conclusions and results of this first seminar? This academic activity could have major repercussions in the southeast region in the measure that its conclusions and results are be adopted by the Faculties of Architecture, already part of the conclusions exhort the introduction within the curricular plan of the education of the student, the learning of vernacular architecture no only in the undergraduate program, but also in the graduate area, by the same means we could have a greater benefit for the students if the teachers induce them in realizing professional practices in rural communities, where the conservation of a typology of this type of architecture can be appreciated, as such like the improvements that can be proportioned to rural native dwellings of the most marginal population, this is indubitably necessary.

Your final comments. Participants of the First Seminar on vernacular dwellings in the south eastern region of Mexico I congratulate the Academic Body of Higher Studies in Architecture, organizers of the event and the Civil Association New Horizons for the Architecture of the Communities, since with this labour they induce future architects to show interest in the communities, and to do their practices and social service in these zones, since as this is an option of the field of labour, with an ample range of activities to elaborate and propose not only in favour of the teaching of architecture, but also the rescue of our vernacular architecture that is finally the type that enriches each corner of the populations of our country.

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The 1st Seminar on vernacular dwellings in the southeast region of Mexico, was organized by the Academic Body of Higher Studies in Architecture (CAEA), the Faculty of Architecture of C.U., of the Autonomous University “Benito Juarez� of Oaxaca (UABJO), and the help of the Civil Association New Horizons for the Architecture of the Communities (NHAC), and was realized from the 3rd to the 5th of September 2009, in the Faculty of Architecture C.U., of the U.A.B.J.O.


Watercolour by Arch. Jorge Tames y Batta President of the Association of Institutions in the Teaching of Architecture of the Mexican Republic (ASINEA) 2008-2010 Faculty of Architecture UNAM Mexico DF. HORIZONS Magazine NHAC

Autumn 2009


Commentaries and suggestions at www.acnhac.

Boards of 25 cm

Bream

Bread oven

Dwelling of the Ramirez family

Dwelling of the Ramirez family

NEW HORIZONS FOR ARCHITECTURE OF THE COMMUNITIES A.C.

Drawings of the Articule “The traditional dwelling of Capullalpan de Mendez Northern mountain Range of Oaxaca, México”, presented at the Frist seminar on the vernacular dwelling in the southeast region México available en the section BIBLIONHAC www. acnhac.org

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