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TOURISM: PRESERVING THE WILD OF BAHIA
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CERPT: DOM CASMURRO BY MAC ADO DE ASSIS
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BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
---There's been talk abourtne graying of the Brazilian population and there's a trend there. But according to the latest figures from the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics we are still a nation of youngsters. For every five people there are one between the ages of 15 and 24, meaning that there are 32 million youngsters, more than the population of many nations. And who are these boys and girls? They are all part of a globalized society in which kids in Rio, Mexico City,
Paris and Moscow are wearing the same clothes, listening to the same sounds, I watching the same movies. Most seem put off by politics, but this is probably one of the few items in which there is agreement. There is room for everybody from the mall crowd to the nature lovers, from drug addicts to teetotalers, from the Sunday mass groups to neo-Nazi hate gangs. As you might know, Brazzil person and some vo unteers who help as and when they ° a m P g em sth Tillan :al em ia ountt ti: ni:s°c0 nemin ou::ittl isealnve° late and I'm sorry for that. I don't see me catching up soon, but re assured that the content is fresh and yol will get all the issues you've paid for. Thanks and all the best R M
They are also dying violently more than ever. Traffic killed 30,000 of them in 1995 and 17,000 have been contaminated by the HIV virus since 1982. They are well informed about sex, but this has not been enough to prevent an increasing number of pregnancies. At least they seem to be less alienated than their European counterpart. All in all a complex and mixed bunch who will be soon taking the wheels of the nation. R.M
Book Excerpt Dom Casmurro by Machado de Assis
Nation An A on report card from IJN
Travel Looking for wilderness in Lenvois, Bahia
Culture Cannibalism and Art at SAo Paulo Bienal
Cinema The 50 best movies Brazilians ever made
Cover by Aylan Mello
Books Bestselling Paulo Coelho gets no respect
Eliane Elias a multifaceted talent
Cover Teenagers: a mixed bag of disenchantment and hope
Politics Cardoso was reelected. Why isn't he smiling?
Rapid inhas 20 Letters 49 The Cultural Pulse 51 Classifieds 52 That's Brazilian
Music Daude, a new voice conquering the world
Book Review Blindness by Jose Saramago
Special An American writer lives Brazilian adventure
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POST MASTER: Send address changes to BRAZZIL - P.O. Box 50536 - Los Angeles, CA - 90050-0536 BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Yes, I Did It It's been an open secret to those interested in Brazilian history that dictator and President Gehllio Domelles Vargasâ€”he governed Brazil from 1930 to 1945 as a dictator and then again as elected President from 1951 until his suicide on August 24, 1954â€”had a torrid romance with burlesque actress Virginia Lane during the '40s. Confirmation of the rumors comes now straight from the lover's mouth. During a recent party to celebrate renowned Rio's Confeitaria Colombo 104th anniversary, Lane confessed to her 15-year-long inappropriate relationship, adding: "In those times sweethearts of presidents didn't make scandals." oney
Prodigal Tourist No foreign visitor spends more in New York than Brazilians. Just-released data from the New York Convention & Visitors Bureau for the year of 1997 show that a Brazilian stays in average six days in the Big Apple and spends $71 a day when in town. With a total of 333,000 visitors from the country (31% more than in 1996) it translates into $141 million. Compare this to the 419,000 Japanese visitors who disbursed $100 million, or $48 a day per capita. Brazilians constitute the fifth largest group of visitors behind the Canadian, the British, the German, and the Japanese. While 97% of Brazilians go shopping when tasting the Big Apple they also engage in other activities: they go to
Cyber Dreams One of the most visited sites in Brazi l and by far the most popular one in the state of Goias is not a Yahoo-like Internet directory, a news location, or a hardcore X-rated site. It is a place where a 20year-old, blue-eyed, family-girl blonde beauty with a photographer friend and a penchant for exhibitionism satisfies for free many if not most of the fantasies o the worldwide visitors to her site. According to her own account online, Luanna recently moved from Sao Paulo to a little town in the interior of Goias and is in her sophomore year of an administration college. She won't get into many details though, alleging that she lives with her parents and they haven't the slightest idea what she is being doing in her spare time. Under the insisting questioning by a reporter from the Goiania's (capital of Goias) daily Dial-la da Manha if she were a call girl or worked as escort she seemed genuinely outraged that someone would think she was a prostitute. "I am not a prostitute, never was and never will be. I take my clothes off for pure pleasure. I make absolutely no money with the site. All I want is to satisfy my ego, to show myself Nothing else." She doesn't discard the idea of charging to have access to her pictures in the future though. How did she have the idea to strip online? It was a friend's suggestion, she says, and at first she felt afraid of doing it. Luanna confesses that she feels more gratified for knowing that she is exciting people all over the world than for getting some kicks herself. The Internet stripper revealed that she hates dirty talk, but likes and answers the letters of those who try to romance her. "But I doubt that any of these flirts will become more than an Internet fantasy," she says. She seems to be having a good time. Her pictures are separated into themes, like pages of a diary. The selections have suggestive names such as Blue Dress or Vacations, Sweet Vacations. In the beginning of the story Luanna is invariably full dressed and little by little she starts the stripping. Latel:k, she's become more daring, leaving nothing to the imagination, while in the first selections she wouldn't show more than her sizable boobies: She seems to always be teasing internauts to challenge her. Luanna says that she has already received thousands of letters with all kinds of sweet and indecent suggestions and offers, among them invitations to pose nude, requests for sex, declarations of love, and
marriage proposals. For those interested, Luanna's online address was at the time of this writing http:,1 members.xoom.comiLuanna/
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
No, Thanks! In what amounts to a courageous manifesto against a slipshod press, renowned author Joao Ubaldo Ribeiro, a member of the Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Academy of Letters) announced his decision to limit drastically the number of interviews he gives the media. August 30 he wrote in his Sunday column at dailies 0 Globo from Rio and 0 Estado de S. Paulo: "Hardly anyone does his homework before starting the interview. They sk me where I was born, what books have I written and when, where do I live (ad this inside my house), how many children! have and other things of great public terest, which those who are interested are tired of knowing and those not intereste don't want to know. Or they come with the conviction that, for being a person of modest notoriety, I'm able to give my opinion on every kind of subject like the quality of Cubai cigars, Russia's economic policy, or the performance of the Milan Opera tenors.! don't know, I don't fake that! know, but the interviewer becomes angry when I re eal my ignorance about these and other vast amount of subjects." Ribeiro recalled the episode with a lady reporter whose first question wa : "You are a writer, aren't you?" Writes he: "No,' I wanted to answer but! didn't. m your mother's gigolo.' What the hell! Hasn't she read even her assignment that stated on the top: 'interview writer Joao Ubaldo Ribeiro about such and such subjects." After speaking of several cases, in which what he said was entirely miSunderstood, and an occasion on which he had to change his schedule to accommodate an interviewer who still came much later, the writer concludes that "interview is work that should be paid." Ribeiro agrees with those who say that the interviews often promote his books and image and admits that in this case this is payment enough. The author goes on: "You go to a TV studio, you have to leave your ID card at the reception desk, strap a badge to your shirt and to be subjected to a sries of indignities. Everybody is making money, from the prompter to the host. The only ones who don't earn a thing are the program' score, that is, the interviewee.! thought again and again and! know that with this I might be ending my TV career, bin I have decided: from now on I will only go if they pay for it at least the way Jo Pays me. (JO Soares has a very popular late night interview show in which he promotes the work of his guests.) Farewell, TV spectators." Fashion
For Chris' Sake What Blue Man's owner Daniel Azulay wanted, he said, was to pay homage to Catholicism and eliminate the stereotype that surfers are naughty boys. What he got instead was a lawsuit from Rio's archdioceses, which was decided against him and forced the entrepreneur to cease and desist. Carioca (from Rio) Azulay designed a minuscule swimsuit bottom kiiown as sunga with the face of Christ wearing a thorn crown printed on the back In its decision, judge Antonio Carlos Amado, from the 2nd Special riminal Court, ordered Azulay to stop manufacturing the product, to destroy or atl ast take out the image of the pieces already made, and to make an effort to recall th sungas already sold or given away. "There was no disrespect," argues Azulay, a 45-year-old Jew, who for 25 years has worked in fashion. "If I were a jeweler no one would criticize me for making a necklace with Christ's image. Why can't a surfer get in the sea protected by Christ, wearing a sunga? A crucifix between the generous breasts of a w oman is something more disrespectful." Two years ago the Catholic Church also protested, but didn't take any legal action after gay magazine Suigeneris published a full-page color picture of another sunga sporting the image of the Virgin Mary. The Church called the picture a challenge to the citizens' faith.
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
historical places (70%), visit museums and art galleries (65%) and enjoy a night on Broadway or off-Broadway (63%). migration
Pledging Allegiance Preliminary data from the INS (Immigration and Nationalization Service) obtained by Brazilian daily 0 Estado de S. Paulo show that a record 6,800 Brazilians decided to become American citizens from January 1995 to October 1997. In comparison, between 1989 and 1996, a twice-as-long period, 4,864 Brazilians opted for the new nationality. When all the information is computed the number of new Brazilians for the '95-'97 period should jump to more than 7000. It was in 1994 that for the first time the number of Brazilians seeking naturalization surpassed the 1,000 mark for the year: there were then 1,342 cases. There was little reduction in 1995 (1,278) and then a big jump in 1996 when 2.680 Brazilians got their new citizenship. By October 1997, there were already 2.840 new Brazilian-Americans for that year. On the other side, 458 Brazilians were deported between October 1996 and March 31, 1998 for staying illegally or committing a crime in the US. ociety
Sloppy Homework A woman's place is in the kitchen and doubly so in Brazil. The old male-chauvinist saying wasn't ever truer than in Brazilian homes these days. Not only because Brazilian women as all over the world are doing double shiftâ€”at work and at homeâ€”but also due to the
an mc have home. any mo forced White. 01 experienced help to of the house Since then the country enacted the 1988 constitution, which gives these employees some rights they didn'thave before. The constitution guaranteed paid vacations and maternity leave, but maids still don't have health insurance or unemployment benefits. Also there is no limit for the time they have to workan d there is no pay for overtime. Domestic work cont.
Amid bad news of growing unemployment, serious deficiencies in the health and education sectors, unmanageable crime and a likely devaluation of the real, Brazilians found plenty of reason to celebrate the last UN report on the Human Development Index (HDI). Does Brazil really have any cause for cheering? In a list of the 174 nations belonging to the United Nations, Brazil came in 62nd place, behind countries like Uruguay (38th), Mexico (49th) and Colombia (53rd) and just slightly ahead of Libya (64th). Despite the apparent low position however, Brazilians were commemorating the fact that their HDI more than doubled in the last 40 years and that the country went during this period from the lowest tier of development to the highest one. Based on income, but also education and life expectancy, the UN index gives marks from 0 to 1. Canada, the nation with the highest HDI gets a 0.960 followed by France, Norway and United States. Brazil got 0.809. The data are from 1995. A score below 0.5 indicates a low Human Development Index. Scores between 0.5 and 0.8 show a medium degree of development while those nations with a higher than 0.8 score enjoy a high HDI. In 1960, Brazil with a score of 0.394, was among the countries with the worst HDIs. Ten years later it had improved to 0.507, what gave the nation one of the last spots on the intermediary group. By 1980 Brazil got a 0.673 score and by 1991, 0.787. With the latest result, a 0,809 score, the country enters though humbly the club of the nations with the highest Human Development Index. While in 1970 90% of all municipalities were classified as having low human development (there was none in the higher category and 10% were in the middle), today this number was dramatically reduced to 40%. The UN study also reveals that Brazilians residing in small cities have the best living conditions. Nine from the 13 best-classified cities have less than 50,000 residents. The current Brazilian progress has more to do with a growth in per-capita income than strides in education or life expectancy, two other items considered when evaluating the HDI. The disparity between the richest tier and the poorest, however, continues to be one ofthe worst in the world. The 20% on the top of the pyramid earn 32 times as much as the poorest 20%. The world average is that the richest earn seven times more than the poorest. This imbalance has been increasing dangerously. While in 1960 the poorest half of the nation had to share 18% of the nation's wealth, this number had been reduced to 11.6% in 1995. During the same period the wealthiest 10% increased what they took home from 54% to 63% of the total. Commented Walter Franco, a UN representative in Brazil: "Capitalism's globalizing model is an income concentrator and exclusionary. Brazil, which historically has a very bad income distribution, worsened its situation due to globalization and foreign trade. The report shows that in the same country coexist areas with Canada's index—the highest ranking—and Serra Leoa's, the lowest. The Best Florianopolis, capital of the southern state of Santa Catarina, is one of the cities whose development can be compared to Canada's. It was chosen as the capital city with the best living conditions. The island-city has banned all industries from its territory and increasingly promotes tourism as source of income. The report confirms what everybody knew: Brazilians from the South are in a much better shape then their brothers from the North and life is better in the East (closer to the sea) than in the West. Among the 50 best cities in Brazil not even one is outside the South and Southeast regions. The first one making the list is Brasilia, Brazil's capital, which appears in 51st place. For the first time, the UN study presented also a detailed report by regions and states, analyzing the GDI of the more than 5,000 Brazilian municipalities and comparing them to data from 30 years ago. Feliz, which means happy—a 15,000-resident town 54 miles from Porto Alegre, the capital of Rio Grande do Sul state—came in first with a GDI score of 0.834. Sao Jose da Tapera, in the northeastern state of Alagoas, was considered the worst and got 0.265. In Sao Jose da Tapera, with a population of 27,000, infant mortality is 147.94 per 1000, life expectancy is 53.38, and 70.5% of the residents are illiterate. Less than 40% of the population has access to tap water and sewer. In contrast, illiteracy is 2.4% in Feliz, which has a life expectancy of 72.59 years and infant mortality of 5.9 per 1,000 residents. More than 73% of the residents are served by water and sewer here.
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Academy Words Brazilians deal everyday with hundreds of words in newspapers, billboards books and TV, that don't exist officially. Most of them are technical terms with or without a correspondent in Portuguese that are borrowed from the English. In an extremely modest accommodating gesture, the ABL (Academia Brasileira de Letras—Brazilian itcademy of Letters) has included 37 computer related terms to its updated Vocabulario Ortografico da Lingua Portuguesa (Portuguese Language Orthographic Vocabulary) also kiiown by its acronym VOLP. The VOLP hasn't been updated since 1981. Distinct from a di tionary, the VOLP only lists the word and it grammatical function without giving its meaüngs. Proof of the narrow scope of the additions are all the currently used words tliat were left out. Among them xerocar (pronounced sherocar), which for decades has ben used as synonym for fotocopiar (to photocopy). Other frequently used terms that w re ignored: backup, browser, butar (to boot a computer) megabytes, RAM, setup, site, atd upgrade. While off line, for example, was adopted, on line did not make into the new ocabulary. Celso Niskier, a computer professor and director of Rio's college Faculdade Cdrioca talked about the need for these changes: "The vocabulary is a live organism and it 4 natural the ABL concern to implement changes." It was Faculdade Carioca that presented the Academy with the new technological terms. Even though 101 words were presented, the Academy only adopted 37 of them. While some criticize the changes as being too timid, others as literary Oritic Wilson Martins complain that the new terms are contributing to what he calls 4 "linguistic denationalization." For Niskier the changes only show that the Portuguese I language is dynamic and attuned with the global evolutions." Martins reasons: "Why should we use deletar when we have anular (to void) or apagar (to erase)? The verb escanear (to scan) however might be nationalized. Now, to use the word sitio (little ranch) for site this is even worse than using the English original." These were the computer-related terms included in the VOLP, most of them maintaining the English format: assincrono (asynchronous), bit, broadcast, buffer, byte, cartucho (cartridge), chip, coaxial, conectar (to connect), deletar (to delete), drive, e-mail, faxear (to fax), formatar (to format), hardware, imputar (to imput), interface, internet, intranet, job, joystick, laser, 14yout, menu, network, off line, overflow, overlay, pointer, reformatar (to reformat), , Vocabulario ROM, scanner, sincrono (syncronous), software, spool, web, and Ortografieo winchester. da Lingua There were 6242 new words introduced to a vocabulary that now has Portuguesa 349.817 terms. Some of them are used only in small re. ions of the country, like arabaca, which means old car in the state of Bahia. The VOLP was organized by a group from the Academy, which has 40 members, and outside experts. The academicians were renowned philologist Antonio Houaiss, Evaristo de Morais Filho, Eduardo Portella. Lexicographers Antonio Jose Chediak (he was the book's coordinator), Silvio Elia, Evanildo Bechara and paleontologist Diogenes de Almeida Campos also contributed. To those who fear the discharacterization of the language by the adoption of too many Anglicisms and other isms, Duarte noted that there was a rigorous selection process and that most of the additions were names and adjectives and not verbs, which he calls the "tongue's backbone". Among the slang words incorporated into the vocabulary there are biritar (to have hard liquor), agito (party), aue (confusion), amasso (petting), chacrete (TV cheerleader) and caipirosca (vodka-based margarita). The Aurelio, the most used Portuguese dictionary in Brazil, lists around 1 lO,000 words and contains many words that only now are being adopted by the vocabulary. I-ebrew words adopted: Chanuka, bris (circumcision), chala (type of bread), tsedaka (a good deed), gefiltefish (fish cake), and shofar (religious music instrument). Some words like printar (from to print) were not accepted since the Portuguese already has the verb imprimir. Trying to catch up, the Academy is already working on the next edition of the VOLP, which might come out in the next few months. The p blic is being encouraged to send suggestions of terms to be included. The address: Acadelinia Brasileira de Letras - Comissao de Lexicografia - Avenida Presidente Wilson 203 - 40 ndar - Centro - Rio de Janeiro - 20030-02. The 795-page VOLP is on sale at the ABL bookstore for $25.
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
ues to be one of the wors-, paid jobs in the country even when you consider that tl-e employee gets food and a bed to sleep in. It is estimatec that 65% of tnalids recei‘ e no more than $103 a month. In the Northeast the number of those receiving $100 Dr less raises to 89% of the domestic helpers. The average pay of hour worked is 50 cents. These are people withcut any job quantizations. According to the IPEA, 72% of them never finished first grade. igif=
Dial M for Music There is nothing Rio's police chief, Rene Barrero, can co to solve some of the worst problems in Brazilian jails like chronic cvs,ercrowding and the inabil ty to re-educate the inmates. But inspired by a trip to Belgium where Barret° saw how vegetables grew much better when given classical music along with fertilizers—he is an avid lettuce grower himself--the clief decided to introduce his 1070tegees at the 81st Delegazia Policial (police station) to Bach, Beethoven, Chopin, and Mozart among others. Thai's what the jailbirds isten to now, everyday, from 8 in the morning to l0?. The repertoire, which includes operas, was chosen with the help of music eonducior, Aloisio Lages. "I have 16 people in a cell here," explains Barreto, who spent close to $200 of his owr money to install the acoustic boxes. "They carne full of rage and you need to humanize them." As part of the effort, the inmates will also learn about the composers themselves. The chief promises a "culture bath ' in
ostly by murder'neyer xl the Loth!
Rebel Yell As in the US, MTV is most emorable in Brazil for its ,cute-crazy little ads that appear in between the video-clips z,ti.at fill up its schedule. Its 'latest Video Music Award on August 98 was panned by the IErazilian press as just one more boring program as in years ast. Not that MTV didn't try o change the image of its anual extravaganza. It started with an ad spread Veja, Brazil's leading eekly magazine, using a ell-known national prefernce: female buttocks. The ublicity piece showed a prominent woman derriere barely covered by a skimpy bikini bottom being touched ny a man's hand. Over the tight piece of cloth the copy: 'More exciting than that, only the MTV Video-Music Brasil 98. During the two-hour-long award show, however, there was very little excitement, unless you consider exciting seeing your MC (Timbalada's King Carlinhos Brown) changing a colorful outfit for an even more colorful outfit during intermission. The old guard was represented by alwaysirreverent fiftyish Caetano Veloso, who seems to have adopted the tie as his uniform now. He won best MPB (Brazilian Popular Music) video with "Nao Enche" (Stop Nagging Me). The biggest winner of the right, Os Paralamas, also has several years on the road. They got five awards for "Ela Disse Adeus" (She Said Goodbye), including the best video of the
Cannibals With Brushes Bishop Sardinha, a character from the early Brazilian history, whose main claim to fame derives from the fact that he was eaten by Brazilian cannibals is the great inspiration for the just-opened 24th Biennial in Sao Paulo, the world's third most important art exhibit, just behind the Venice Biennial from Italy and the Documenta exposition from Kassel, Germany. The bishop's deglutition had already inspired in the early '20s the so-called anthropophagic movement, which proposed the cannibalizing of the European culture. The same idea was again adopted by the tropicalista music movement from the late '60s. In 1928, writer Oswald de Andrade, one ofthe leaders of the Movimento Modernista, wrote the celebrated Manifesto Antropofago after looking at Tarsila do Amaral's painting Abaporu, one of the stars of the exhibit. United by the anthropophagic theme there are foreign geniuses like Belgian Rene Magritte, British Francis Bacon, and Dutch Vincent van Gogh as well as William Blake, Auguste Rodin, and Salvador Dali. From the Brazilian side besides Tarsila do Amaral, there are other heavyweights like Hai° Oiticica and Lygia Clark. These works were insured for half a billion dollars, $100 million of which to cover 15 paintings and 13 drawings and prints by Van Gogh. The Bienal itself consumed $15 million to be organized. All these names may give the impression that after decades—the event started in 1951 by the hands of Sao Paulo Maecenas Ciccillo Matarazzo — promoting avant-garde and cutting edge art, the Bienal has become a museum. Not quite. These are just the decoys for close to 1000 works by 270 artists from 55 countries. And for the first time there is a section entirely dedicated to the Brazilian contemporary art. Among the close to 60 Brazilians artists there are Lygia Clark, Helio Oiticica, Alfredo Volpi, Leonilson, and Tunga. Among the innovations introduced in the latest version of the Bienal it is the so-called contamination. According to the organizers, every work was chosen as an illustration for the anthropophagic theme, the global inter-borrowing of ideas. The idea of artistic contagion continues inside the expo, which abolishes the geography and time to purposefully juxtapose the old and the new, the classic and the experimental, the national and the foreign. In a way that you can admire in the same room the distraught faces of Francis Bacon (1909-1992) and the Trouxa (Bundle of Clothes) of Brazilian sculptor Arthur Barrio. Barrio created his trouxas at the end of the '60s during the most repressive phase of the military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from 1964 to 1985. They reminded people of the "presuntos" (literally, hams), cadavers who were found on the streets and covered by a sheet or newspaper waiting to be picked up by the police or the coroner. Organizers are expecting that 450,000 will be lured by the international mixing and will come to the show that will remain open until December 13. A hailstorm with gusty winds on the opening day (October 3) provoked panic and the building on the exhibit in the lbirapuera Park had to be closed for four days while the place was cleaned up and repaired. According to the organizers there was no irreparable damage to the paintings and other works of art. During the press conference held the day after the accident, Belgian curators of the Magritte room, Paolo Vedovi e Giséli 011igns, commented that such "whims of nature" could happen anywhere in the world. Touched by the show of solidarity, curator Paulo Herkenhoff cried copiously. According to a report by weekly /sto E the episode and its consequences were much worse than admitted by the Bienal's organizers. "What we saw on the modernity temple projected by Oscar Niemeyer was one of the saddest demonstrations of carelessness with an inestimable national and foreign artistic patrimony." The magazine described in vivid tones rain and sleet coming from the roof and hitting the works of art while Jose
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Carlos Libanio, a UN representative, commented: "That's the ultimate act • f anthropophagi. Brazilian nature took care of devouring the world's works • f CICCILLO'S • art." In the third floor, the hardest hit, Swiss sculptor Alberto Giacomett 's • DREAM • bronze pieces felt the rain's full brunt. In the panicky reaction by the Biena 's • It was the Venice Biennial that workers that followed, sculptures were hurriedly taken out of the way a d • • inspired Paulista (from sao Paulo) almost were broken. It took more than half an hour after the storm start d • industrialist Francisco Matarazzo before the workers started evacuating the building. • Sobrinho, better known as Ciccillo For more than ten minutes a painting by Argentinian Guillermo Kuii a Matarazzo, to start in 1951 the Bienal was left under a jet of water while many people cried looking at the disast r. • Internacional de Sao Paulo. MatarazComment from Swedish cameraman Pontus Kianderafter after having fi d • zo was the president ofMAM (Museu the situation: "Which artist will wish to expose here again after this traged 7, • • de Arte Moderna de Sao Paulo—Sao Several exhibits that used electricity were short-circuited and for a f w • Paulo Modern Art Museum) and seconds the whole building went dark leading people to start screaming. •• made the new event part of the muclimatized room with the Francis Bacons and Van Goghs weren't affect d, • seum. The Bienal Foundation would though. • only start in 1962. • Anxiety In 1953, for its second edition, • It is easy to understand why emotions are running high and Herkenh s ff • the exhibit had Picasso's Guernica has been crying more than expected. He had cried already during the open ng • and works by the likes of Brancusi, ceremonies when a crowd of 12,000 broke the record of public for the ev nt. • • Calder, Ensor, Klee, Laurens, He said at the time: "Everything is working out." But just barely. Many wo ks • Mondrian, and Munch, and drew a only arrived at the last second. People were already walking the corn' rs • public of 100,000. Four years later • when Van Gogh's Le Moulin de la Gallet was whisked to its place on the t ird • the Bienal got its own space, the floor. • Pavilhao Ciccillo Matarazzo in the Only recently the Bienal started to recoup some international resp ct. • Ibirapuera Park in Sao Paulo, a • Proof of its increasing reputation—at least before the rain incident—is the • 30,000 sq. meter (323,000 sq. feet) fact that the organizers were able to borrow pieces from the Louvre, a irst • structure designed by Oscar time. MoMA, the New York Museum of Modern Art, broke also a 10- ear • Niemeyer, the architect who dreamed • policy of not lending any work to Brazil. All the charm of curator P ulo • Brazil's modern capital city, Brasilia. Herkenhoff was not enough though to get a single piece by Van Gogh om • The '60s and '70s were the best the Van Gogh museum in Amsterdam. The Bienal had to appeal to sm Iler • • of times for the Bienal. All the big museums and private collectors being unable to show a single self-portra t of • names of pop art were represented at the artist. • the 10th Bienal in 1967: Lichtenstein, The Sao Paulo art show used to be a very popular event during the 60s • Rauschenberg, • Oldeburg, and the '70s. Julio Landmann, president of Fundacao Bienal, who as a c ild • Rosenquist, Ruscha, Segall, Andy used to visit the exhibit with his father, talked about these times: "It wa the •• Warhol, and Wesselman. Starting in • era of pop-art, op-art and kinetic art, which drew all kinds of visitor." By • the late '70s, however, the massive • • 1979 however, attendance to the 15th Bienal had fallen to 70,000 visitors • With the creation of the museum space in 1994, the crowds came back and 0 • • OOOOOO • • • OOOOOO • • • Bienal version 22 aw a record 500,000 visitors. The 24th Bienal can be virtually visited at http:/// www.0 1.com.br/bienal/24bienal. On the site hosted by UOL ( niverse Online), the largest Internet provider in Brazil, isitors will be able to see among other offerings the 55 ists from different countries reunited under the Nationa Representations umbrella. The pages have blown up ima es of the, works presented and people have also the opti n of sending their favorite works as electronic card. F r the fist time the Bienal includes virtual exhibits with ad esses of sites that are doing art on line. The e are some of the selected sites: "Vulnerables" by Fa iana de Barros (http://www.vulnerables.ch); "Valet sjacks in Slow Motion" by Kiko Goifman; "HoM " by Lawrence Chua (http://red.ntticc.or.jp/ HoME 'avahome.html); "Memento Mo 1, an Interface for Death" by Ken Goldberg and Wojcie h (http://www.memento.ieor.berkeley.edu/); and "No na e DC", Sabine Bitter and Helmut Weber (http:/ /www plexus.org/omnizone/works/bitter-weber/ index. tm).
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
ar. As a replay oflast year, e company Conspiracao es was behind the maof the winning videos. ost ofthe winners had only. one word to say: "Valeu" (it as worth it, cool). Some ore inspired were twice with: "Valeu, gale* 1, folks) The little excitetne was came with the cement that Paul Sao Paulo) rap group. cionais MC's won in the *mice choice categery an eight-minute-long; Diario de UM Detento" of an Inmate), entire! Imed at the Sao Paulo ntiary. The prize was assport to the Ameni Awards held in geles on September The Racionais latest obrevivendo no Infe Surviving in Hell) sold ha cmioinlai lion copies. T s are normally h tile to shows like that often scorn ovvthse media. eemed to enjoy this though and were ecst when received with a ch llhirh o da "fi daputa! fl/ho ,euftafi o putar Evei "brazil calling i someone a of a whore s very offens lQr it used to be anyway tore the MTV show. The rappers.-.-Mil Brown, Edy Rock, KL Jay and Ice Blue—really made e speech and attacked f the Brazilian society or condemn, g blacks to prisons, reformaff tra tories, slums and drug trafficking. They also reg minded the audience that S were the majority in and that they deserved wer. "We thank G the greatest, for our music. Butvve were inspired by vice, by drug,s, by misery. We want that our people wake up and don't see the sun behind ," said KL Jay.
Picks of the Century After presenting a list of the 50 best novels written by Brazilian authors this century Rio's weekly magazine Manchete came up with the 50 best movies ever made in Brazil. Tied for the number of times they are mentioned—four each—are a contemporary director (Walter Lima Jimior) and a filmmaker from the pioneer years, Humberto Mauro, whose Ganga Bruta (Rough Gangue) is the first of the list. Nelson Pereira dos Santos appears three times in the list, including in the second position with Vidas Secas (Barren Lives). In a surprising result for this kind of roster, two of the ten best movies were released in the last two years: Central do Brasil (Central Station) and A Ostra e o Vento (The Oyster and the Wind). It is also odd that Glauber Rocha, considered a genius by many, had only one of his films (Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol) mentioned. Although only recently there's been a revival of the Brazilian movie industry all but extinguished during the Collor era (Fernando Collor de Mello was Brazil's president from 1990 to 1992, when he was impeached accused of corruption) the cinema had its golden times in Brazil. Closer to the European art film model than to Hollywood's mold, Brazilian filmmakers have produced film gems since before the talkies, during the 20s. Arguably the best movie of the silent era was Limite (Limit) released in 1929 and directed by eighteen-year-old Mario Pe ixoto. The best movie on our list, Ganga Bruta (Rough Gangue), was shot by Humberto Mauro, a director who also started during the silent-movies era. He also directed, among others, Na Primavera da Vida (Spring of Life) and 0 Tesouro Perdido (The Lost Treasure). While Hollywood's first speaking and singing movie was The Jazz Singer from 1927, featuring Al Jolson, sound only was introduced in Brazilian movies by 1934. Early on, these talkies explored Carnaval celebrations and tunes without any serious consideration to plot. Este Mundo E um Pandeiro (This World Is One Small Drum) starring a then-unknown Carmen Miranda was the first Brazilian movie with sound. In the '50s, cosmopolitan director and producer Alberto Cavalcante (1897-1982) brought prestige to the national movie industry heading Vera Cruz Studio and producing such movies as Caiggra (The Hunter) by Adolfo Celi and Tom Payne's Terra E Sempre Terra (The World Is Always the World). Cavalcanti has also made movies in France (Rien que les Heures, 1926), in England (The First Gentleman), 1947, in Germany (Herr Puntila und sein Knecht Matti, 1955), and in Italy (La Prima Notte, 1960). For more than a decade, starting in the early sixties, a generation of young filmmakers made waves worldwide with cinema novo (new cinema). Among these directors there were Glauber Rocha, Ruy Guerra, Caca Diegues, Leon Hirunan, Paulo Cesar Saraceni, Joaquim Pedro de Andrade, Roberto Farias, Roberto Santos, David Neves and Arnaldo Jabor. The Manchete selection was made by a group of critics, historians and researchers, which explains why some of the most popular movies like the 1950s chanchadas (musical comedies), comedian Mazzaropi's works and those of contemporary TrapalhOes never made the cut. On the other hand the list includes little-known gems from the beginning of the century like Humberto Mauro's Tesouro Perdido and Adhemar Gonzaga's Barro Humano. The movies were chosen by movie experts Alberto Shatovsky, Antonio Moniz Vianna, Dejean Magno Pellegrin, Ely Azeredo, Fernando Albagli, Geraldo Queiroz, Gil Azevedo Arafijo, Jose Lino Gritnewald, Jurandir Noronha, Michel do Espirito Santo and Valerio de Andrade. Many of them have dedicated their lives to the films, collecting them, writing about them and sometimes making them themselves. 1.Ganga Bruta (Rough Gangue) by Humberto Mauro (1933). Just one of several classics left by the pioneer director from the little town of Cataguases in the State of Minas Gerais. Mauro has also directed such classics as Brasa Dormida (Reposing Ember) and Descobrimento do Brasil (The Discovery of Brazil) 2. Vidas Secas (Barren Lives) by Nelson Pereira dos Santos (1963). Considered by many the best Brazilian movie ever made, the black and white work about poverty and despair in the Northeast backlands is based on Graciliano Ramos's book of same name. Dos Santos, whose 70th birthday is being celebrated nationwide, continues very active as a filmmaker. 3. 0 Pagador de Promessas (The Promise Keeper) by Anselmo Duarte (1962). It won the Cannes Festival Golden Palm. Based on a play by Dias Gomes, the film tells the story of a Nordestino (someone from the Northeast) who decides to give all he has to the poor and intent on fulfilling a vow against a priest's wishes to get his horse inside a church. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
4. Amei um Bicheiro (I Loved a Numbers Game Runner) by Jorge Ileli (195 ). The love story of a lowlife from Rio was a national big hit starring Jece Valadao and Wilson Grey. 5. Assalto ao Trem Pagador (The Pay-Train Robbery) by Roberto Farias (19 2). Based on a true police story that happened in Rio. e for the next Oscar, Central has been getting 6. Central do Brasil (Central Station)by Walter Salles Jr. (1998),S o cheers and provoking tears all over the world. It is the most recent movie m th list. This story of a lady swindler turned into Golden Lion. a good Samaritan was already awarded the 1998 Berlim Festival main prize, 7. Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (God and the Devil on the Land of the S ) by Glauber Rocha (1963). The critic loved this masterpiece by the most polemic and gifted of Brazilian filmmakers. 8. Todas as Mulheres do Mundo (All the Women in the World) by Doming s Oliveira (1966). A comedy that perpetuates the talent and charm of Leila Diniz, who died prematurely in a plane crash. 9. 0 Cangaceiro (The Bandit)by Lima Barreto (1953). The best known an most cited Brazilian movie overseas until the appearance of Pirate (1980). A romantic presentation of an outlaw on the Br 'Han northeastern backlands. 10. A Ostra e o Vento (The Oyster and the Wind) by Walter Lima Junior ( 997). The Top 50 1. Ganga Bruta (Rough Gangue) by Humberto Mauro (1933) 2. Vidas Secas (Barren Lives) by Nelson Pereira dos Santos (1963) 3. 0 Pagador de Protnessas (The Promise Keeper) by Anselmo Duarte (1 62) 4. Amei um Bicheiro (I Loved a Numbers Game Runner) by Jorge Ileli (19 3) 5. Assail° ao Trem Pagador (The Pay-Train Robbery) by Roberto Farias ( 962) 6. Central do Brasil (Central Station) by Walter Salles Jr. (1998) 7. Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (God and the Devil on the Land of the Sun by Glauber Rocha (1963) 8. Todas as Mulheres do Mundo (All the Women in the World) by Domi os Oliveira (1966) 9. 0 Cangaceiro (The Bandit) by Lima Barreto (1953) 10. A Ostra e o Vento (The Oyster and the Wind) by Walter Lima Junior ( 997) 11. Limite (Limit) by Mario Peixoto (1931) 12. Rio 40 Graus (Rio 104 degrees F) by Nelson Pereira dos Santos (1955 13. Os Cafajestes (The Scoundrels) by Ruy Guerra (1962) 14. A Hora e a Vez de Augusto Matraga (The Hour and the Turn of Augu to Matraga) by Roberto Santos (1966) 15. 0 Bandido da Luz Vermelha (The Red Light Bandit) by Rogerio Sgan eria (1962) 16. Macunaima (Macunaima) by Joaquim Pedro de Andrade (1969) 17. Pixote, a Lei do Mais Fraco (Pixote, the Law of the Weakest) by Hec or Babenco (1980) 18. Noite Vazia (Empty Night) by Walter Hugo Khouri (1964) 19.Seto Paulo S. A. (Sao Paulo Inc.) by Luiz Sergio Person (1966) 20. A Intrusa (The IntruderLady) by Carlos Hugo Christensen (1980) 21. 0 Baile Perfumado (The Fragrant Ball) by Paulo Caldas and L. Ferrei a (1997) 22. Favela dos Meus Amores (Shantytown of My Loves) by Humberto M uro (1936) 23. Sim'do o Caolho (Simao the Cross-Eyed) by Alberto Cavakanti (195) 24. Os Fuzis (The Rifles) by Ruy Guerra (1963) 25. Menino de Engenho (Sugar Mill Boy) by Walter Lima Jr. (1965) 26. Dona Flor e Seus Dois Maridos (Dona Flor and Her Two Husbands by B no Barreto (1976) 27. Inocencia (Innocence) by Walter Lima Junior (1982) 28. Metnorias do Carcere (Memories of Jail) by Nelson Pereira dos Sant as (1984) 29. Moleque Tido (Street Kid Tiao) by Jose Carlos Butte (1942) 30. 0 Padre e a Moca ( The Priest and the Maiden) by Joaquim Pedro de Andrade (1965) 31. Viver de Morrer (To Live From Dying) by Jorge Ileli (1970) • 32. Chuvas de Vedic, (Summer Rains) by Carlos Diegues (1996) 33. Lira do Delirio (Delirium Lyre) by Walter Lima Junior (1977) 34. Bye Bye Brasil (Bye Bye, Brazil) by Carlos Diegues (1977) 35. Gaijin (Foreigner) by Tizuka Yainasaki (1980) 36. Eles Nero Usam Black Tie (They Don't Wear Black Tie) by Leon if zman (1981) 37. A Marvada Came (Mean Flesh) by Andre Klotzel (1985) 38. A flora da Estrela (The Hour of the Star) by Suzana Amaral (1985) 39. Fragmentos da Vida (Life's Fragments) by Jose Medina (1929) 40. Tesouro Perdido (Lost Treasure) by Humberto Mauro (1926) 41. Barro Human° (Human Clay) by Adhemar Gonzaga (1928) 42. Ald Ald Carnaval (Hi, Hi, Carnaval) by Adhemar Gonzaga (1936) 43. Carnaval no Fogo (Carnaval in the Fire) by Watson Macedo (1954) 44. Tico-Tico no Fubd (Tico-Tico Bird in the Corn Flour) by Adolfo Cel (1951) 45. 0 Canto da Saudade (The Longing Corner) by Humberto Mauro (192) 46. Agulha no Palheiro (Needle in the Haystack) by Alex Vianny (1953 47. Absolutamente Certo! (Absolutely Right) by Anselmo Duarte (1957) 48. Mulheres e Milhaes (Women and Millions) by Jorge Ileli (1961) 49. 0 Grande Momenta (The Great Moment) by Roberto Santos (1958) 50. Carlota Joaquina, a Princesa do Brasil (Carlota Joaquina, the Princ s of Brazil) by Carla Camurati (1996) BRAZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Who is the Brazilian teenager? He/she is passionate and apathetic, abstemious and drug-addicted, criminal and compassionate. Their numbers are growing faster than any other age bracket. They will soon be :Brazil's movers and shakers. EMERSON LUIS
It would be hard to put a label on the 6,000 youngsters from across Brazil who gathered in September in Brasilia, the nation's capital, for the I Festival Nacional da Juventude (Youth First National Festival). "Unclassifiable" probably would be the only fair designation. They are not leftist dreamers, conservative proselytizers, nor Pepsi, X, mall or any other kind of generation, but rather, they are all of these. They are a close portrait of Brazil today with its clubbers, rappers, skaters, Fidel Castro lovers, hippie nostalgics, teetotalers and drugheads, punks, goody-goodies, and eggheads, bums and career-minded boys and girls, philosophers and the stark crazy. One in every five Brazilians is between the ages of 15 and 24. There are 32 million of them out of a total of 161 million inhabitants, according to the latest figures by the IBGE (Institut° Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica— Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics). While the population as a whole grew 7% between 1991 and 1996 the number of adolescents went up 11%. According to projections, this young population will continue growing for two more years, and will be 28 million by the year 2020. Although inspired by idols as diverse as black slave hero Zumbi dos Palmares, MST leader Jose RainhaJtinior or late composer Chico Science, politics doesn't seem to interest them. The relaxed tone of the conference was reinforced by the daily generous free distribution of condoms by the Health Secretariat of Brasilia and a group called Atitude (Attitude). "The adults have to find out how we are and what we think. Young people need information," said 18-year-old Josyane Nascimento to Correio Bras iliense, the most traditional and most read daily in Brasilia. This rap lover came from Rio with a group of 35 other rap-loving Cariocas (Rio natives). "This event is going to change my life," said Andre Luiz Lemos, 19. "I've already learned about politics, punk, socialism and geography. They didn't come only for the song and dance even though the guitar parties and balls were common during the event. The program of conferences started in the morning and went through all day. While many were missing school by being there, they expected to have their absences justified after presenting proof of participation in different conferences. Among the themes discussed: globalization of the culture, violence, media and youth, the job market, and the history of the Brazilian student movement. Discipline was severe and no alcohol was allowed on the camping grounds. Order and security were guaranteed by the military police and a 30-strong private security force. According to F6rum da Juventude XXI (Youth Forum 21), the organizers of the conference, the main objective of the Brasilia event was to prepare a report with proposals by the participants to be presented to state and local governments. Among the organized political groups there were representatives from. UNE (Uniao Nacional dos Estudantes—Students National Union), UJS (Uniao da Juventude Socialista—Socialist Youth Union), JPT (Juventude do Partido dos Trabalhadores—Workers' Party Youth), CDRC (Comite de Defesa da Revolucab Cubana— Committee for the Defense of the Cuban Revolution), and UJC (Unido da Juventude Comunista—Communist Youth Union) linked to the PCB (Partido Comunista Brasileiro— Brazilian Communist Party) whose members sported a Che Guevara-styled beret. The UJC members were actively trying to get new members for their cause while reading from books by Lenin and Trotsky. The organizers placed 800 seats in the main auditorium. They soon discovered that this was way too many for the small groups that showed up for the conferences and debates there. The themes that drew more attention and public were Brazilian culture and education. There were always too many events going on on the same time BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
including 15 different workshops on themes as diverse as percussion, circus, and community radio. Nights were reserved for pleasure and the youngsters had fun listening to all kinds of music, including samba and rock. Brasilia's Secretariat of Tourism offered five buses with guides, so the youngsters could visit some city's buildings and monuments like the National Congress and the Justice Palace. The buses however were rarely used. Violence and Accidents The conference participants learned that murder was the cause of 41.8% of deaths among Brazilian youngsters between the ages of 15 and 24. The information was given by professor Julio Jacob° Waiselfisz from UNESCO (United Nations Education, Science and Culture Organization) during a debate on violence in Brazilian society. Waiselfisz, who is coordinating a study about violence among youngsters in four state capitals, used data from 1996, the most recent information available. The UNESCO Official criticized the way the media treat the younger crowd. "Youngsters are treated as if they were suspects of violence, when in reality they are its main victim. Governments stage big campaigns against AIDS, which represents 3% of the total of deaths among youngsters, but there is no comprehensive policy against violence," Waiselfisz declared. He also criticized the lack of a national strategy to deal with the situation. According to him, contrary to the widespread perception, violence is not confined to poverty pockets, but it is present in all social classes. Among the causes uncovered by the study for the growing problem: individualism and competitiveness. Last July Brazil was shocked by the death of Joao Francisco Jobim, 18, the older son of late composer Tom Jobim and Ana Jobim, in a car accident in downtown Rio. His mother had just given him as a gift an imported Volkswagen Passat for finishing high school. He was coming back from a night of dance and beer with some friends when he lost control and the vehicle tumbled several times before crashing into a tree. According to friends the young Jobim was a very careful driver. The police report, however, concluded that his car was going 140 km/h (87 mph) when the accident occurred. There were roughly 7,200 adolescent deaths due to car accidents in 1995, the latest year for which there is data about the matter. This was a jump of 75% over the figures of 15 years earlier. Thirty thousand youngsters had a violent death in 1995 when there was a total of 42,000 deaths among those between 15 and 24. While 24% of them were victims of a car accident, another 45% were murdered. Mortality rates for this age bracket are approximately 50% greater in Brazil than in the United States. Voting Apathy The first generation who grew up in a society where the free vote was allowed after the 1964-1985 military dictatorship doesn't seem drawn to politics or convinced of the importance of their own vote. The 1988 Constitution kept the compulsory vote for people over 18 and extended the voluntary vote to everyone between the ages of 16 and 18. There has been little interest in the privilege though, and there were fewer applicants than ever in this age bracket this year, despite the fact that the country had national elections in October for governor, congress and President. In Rio, for example, a mere 18,539 16-year-old adolescents applied for their titulo de eleitor (voter card), a number three times lower than in past polls. This represents 0.09% of the total Rio's electorate. Nationwide there was a slightly larger interest with 1,299,437 applications or 0.28% of the country's voting population. In an interview with Rio's daily 0 Globo, political scientist Nelson Carvalho remarked that in contrast with BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Europe, whe -e teens have oscillated between alienation and adherence to neofascist groups, Brazilian youngsters show interest for politics as long as it is not linked to parties. "The political theme is not that appealing to youngsters anymore," carvalho said. "They get organized for other tasks like promoting a demonstration for students rights. They don't have the same disposition though to be active in a party." Sixteen-gear-old Filipe Candid° explained why he passed on the chance to vote that last time around: "If I vote for a politician who does something stupid, I will also be responsible. I intend to put off this responsibility for as long as I can." Clubber Mentality Inspired by British youngsters there is a growing number of tattooed-Und-pierced clubbers from Rio who frequent Ecstasy-laced raves—rowdy parties with a techno-sound background—and are adept at the ritual known as chill-out, a party after Oe party, that can last hours or days. Among the drugs consumed during this period there are marijuana and speed (encapsulated cocaine-based powder). Rio's daily 0 Dia interviewed a 18-year-old student named Bernardo T., who talked about his experience as a drug-using clubber: "I've participated in a chill out in an Ipanema (upper-class neighborhood in south Rio) penthouse for four whole days. We smoked pot, took Ecstasy and snorted cocaine and speed to the sound of techno. We are not mere drug addicts or little addicted playboys. We have another world and we use drugs only for fun. Only a real clubber can understand what we feel during these drug sessions." In raves in Rio, Sao Paulo and other large cities, the public can generally be divided into two broad groups: the mostly well-behaved and conventionally dressed "pats" (for little Patricia) and "boys" on one side and the hardcore clubbers on the other. Pats and boys just add a few outof-the-ordinary items to their wardrobe including iron-beaded chains and colorful snow eye glasses. Shiny makei up is de rigueur for the girls. Hardcore clubbers on he other hand are more prone to shock the older crowd w th their tattoos, navel and tongue piercings, all kinds of accessories, and psychedelic clothing. To the Surprise of many parents, a rave can be much less wild than their own youth rock parties. While dancing, the participants seem to fall into a trance in which there is no talking, no touching, and no romancing. Two of the favorite places for rave are the beaches of Ipanema and Barra da Tijuca in Rio, which are filled with hundreds of youngsters who dance non-stop from sundown to sunup. While confined to a ghetto until mid-1997, the dubber culture has gone mainstream in Brazil lately. Bands like Massive Attack and Prodigy can be heard now at the most popular dance clubs. Piercing has become more and more widespread and the same is true for clubber synthetic clothes and items that can be found in large chain stores like C&A, but are also sold by street vendors. Pecadb Capital (Sin Capital), Globo Network's new 6PM novela (soap opera), has a group of clubbers among its characters. The soap, which premiered in October, is a remake of a highly-successful story that first aired in the '70s. Rewritten by Gloria Perez the new version is introducing the clabbers group in place of the original motoscooters gang. The Globo team visited rave parties and talked to clubbers to understand their style and philosophy. This popularization of the dubber movement is giving pause to some diehard clubbers, some of whom have abandoned the night in protest. Rio's daily 0 Globo cites Paulo Roberto cle Oliveira, someone who considers himself a real and original dubber: "For more than a year I have not gone out to dance. Today I prefer staying at home with my 15
imported records and magazines. There are 200 fake clubbers The study also: revealed that a more liberal posture in for every legitimate one. This is their moment." society did not translate into candid talk about sex between Sex Practice and Education children and parents. More than 65% of these youngsters While the media pours out a never-ending flow of sexual revealed that they do not feel at ease discussing sex at home. stimulation, sexual education is still very basic. Lack of A mere 35% said they talk to a parent about the subject. sexual information does not seem to be a major problem More sexual freedom also did not eliminate some old though. According to sao Paulo state's Health Secetariat, expectations about women's roles. Only 15.2% see as irrel96% of the state's teenagers said that they know of ways to evant if a woman ianot virgin at marriage. For 29.3% of the avoid pregnancy, even though many of them had not used youngsters, virginity is very important while 52% agree that any kind of contraceptive on their last sexual encounter. this requirement has lost a lot of its bite. On the other hand, The main papers in Brazil have columns or sometimes just 15.3% of the students see virginity for men before entire sections dedicated exclusively to teens. There are at marriage as something important. And marriage is not a least 32 publications catering to the youth and new ones are moribund institution. For 66% of the youngsters polled by testing the waters all the time. They have names like Atrevida Codeplan, marriage is important and necessary. (Daring) and Capricho (Whim) and sex is an ever-present In Porto Alegrei (capital of Rio Grande do Sul state) a theme in their pages. group of doctors of Hospital das Clinicas (General Hospital) When asked by CPM—a led by Dr. Alberto Scofano polling organization specialized 'IImil I Mainieri were surprised by the in youngsters—to name their results of a study done in 1997 A Taste of Daring favorite music group, kids from with 8,356 local youngsters be9 to 18 from seven Brazilian tween the ages of 12 and 18. One of the most read teen publications is Atrevida capital cities chose E o Tchan, a They found out, for example, (Daring Girl) from Abril Editora, the same company band better known for the that 11% ofthe boys interviewed that publishes leading newsweekly Veja. Take a look at prominent derriere of its danchad started having sex at age 11 some titles of its extensive table of contents for the ers and the double entendre of or earlier, representing a fourOctober 1998 issue: its lyrics. They have popularfold increase over numbers from Like dog and cat She is constantly mistreating the ized across the country such five years ago. There was also a boy she likes. Why? hits as dancadabundinha (little jump of more than 300% in the What's up, big boy? - Atrevida gives 25 hints on butt dance) and danca da garrafa number of girls beginning their how to woo all kinds of boys. (bottle dance), both simulating sexual lives before they were 14. Word of Boy They prefer girls who cast a spelt or sexual intercourse. While three years ago they repare filled with charm. When the same CPM asked resented 1.94%, this percentage the youngsters who were the has increased to 7.1% today. "Sabe-Tudo Sobre Sexo" (Know It All About Sex) Brazilians they most admired, Curiously, for the most part is one of the sections that invites reader participation. It the kids talked about the late is a question-and-answer column. A sample: the girls were the ones to take the Betinho—Brazil's mother Theinitiative of starting the first resa —and the athlete of the Question: "Is it true that boys who are taller and sexual relation. For many, the century, Pele, but they were low have big biceps are better endowed than the shortie?" sooner the better to get rid of in the list that was lead by Xuxa, M., 14 years old, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul their virginity, which is seen a TV hostess who has always Answer: No. The size of the penis has no relation to more as a hindrance than an asused he sex appeal and scanty the boy's body shape. Short boys can have a big penis set. clothes to build an audience of or vice-versa. Another common folklore about this Lack of information on kids and their fathers. Carla subject is that men of certain races like Negro, for sexual matters can be downright Perez, whose main claim to example, are usually better endowed than the represenscary. Talking to Correio Brasilifame was the ability ,to shake tatives of other ethnic groups. There is no scientific ense , psychologist Oswaldo her buttocks during a E o Tchan basis for that either. Rodrigues Junior, director of presentation, came in fourth The penis size has more to do with the hereditary Instituto Paul ista de Sexualidade place before Pete and Betinho. factor. The son inherits the size of his sexual organ from (Sao Paulo Institute of SexualShe left that band recently to his father (who in turn got it from his grandfather or ity), described a visit to his ofstar on her own TV program on great grandfather). fice by a young couple. "They SBT, the second largest TV To summarize, it is good that you know that the were college students and they network. capacity for having and giving pleasure is not related to had been married for a year. They For the president of Flapia the size of the boy's penis, but to other factors like wanted to know which was the (Federacao Latino-Americana intimacy that exists between the boy and the girl or his hole to go into. Their biggest de Infancia—Latin American capacity to notice what can give pleasure to his partner. difficulty is to understand how Federation of Childhood) the I. do you arrive at a wholly inteerotization of children is out of grated sexual relation. The main control in Brazil. "All these dances are an invitation to concern of the girls is still the fear of pain and bleeding." 4. erotization," she denounces. We are diseducating the youth, Prostitution skipping stages, causing difficulty in the learning process." While prostitutes have always had an educational role in In Brasilia roughly 50% of the youngsters have their first the sex life of Brazilian young men, it being common that the sexual relation before they are 18, and among those 75% father himself would look for a prostitute for his son's first were less than 16 when they lost their virginity, while 11,9% sexual experience, today they have acquired a new status were less than 12. For most of them (59,4%) the first sexual among teens in the big cities. They have been often used even encounter happened between the ages of 13 and 15. by those kids whose girlfriends have frequent sex with them, Almost half of these kids do not wear condoms. Smoking for variety, for their perceived ability to give more pleasure is not considered cool by this group. Only 10% do it, but and naturally for the lack of commitment in these brief 19.6% admit using or having used drugs. These were findencounters. ings from a 1998 study by Codeplan (Companhia de Daily Folha de Sac Paulo recently told the story of a 17Desenvolvimento do Planalto—Highland Development year-old that they identified only by the initials, L.C.S.J.. At Company) with high school students (88% of them between least once a month LC finds a prostitute at rua Augusta or at the ages of 14 and 18) from the Federal District private and Boca do Lixo (Trash Mouth), two places of low and moderpublic institutions. ate-priced prostitutionl close to downtown. "Today all the
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
gang does that," he told the Folha reporter. "I started just for the kick of if, but I ended up liking it. I think this gets you addicted. What happens is that hookers have more experience and know more how to excite us." Rosely Saylo, a sexologist who writes a column answering teens questions at Folhateen, the Folha weekly teen section, has her explanation for the phenomenon: "They think that their girlfriends are immature." She sees in this new trend another way of treating women as a product. "It's just another item on the shelf to be bought." According to a working girl interviewed by the paper, the boys expect too much of them and some have the naïve notion they will be able to get a free ride: "They think we do miracles and they stay almost still expecting a truckload of things." She describes her younger clients as very curious, asking questions about their daily routine and about what other johns ask them to do. Rarely does a young client ask to have sex without a condom, she said, something guys over 45 are more prone to do. For a one-hour session with a prostitute the youngster has to pay around $80, even though the price falls to $50 after 3 AM. Hotel prices are extra and can go from $10 to $30. Sao Paulo has nightclubs where boys from the upper class can meet prostitutes as if they were ordinary girls just looking for some fun. One of these famous nightclubs is Love Story, which on Friday and Saturday nights becomes a techno-frenzied bacchanalia. Another girl of the night presented as Erika, 19, revealed that her younger clients usually come in trios and love to make a festa (party), i.e., to swap girls among them. Says Erika: "Two friends and I usually take care of them. It's very boring dealing with these boys however and they give you too much trouble. They act as if they are playing a prank in school. Sometimes, when they drink too much, they become violent." Sex and Diseases Most parents still avoid sexual subjects. In school there is no lack of information on AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases as well as on how to wear a condom. What's missing according to experts is the total sexual dimension. All the information has not been able to deter the advance of AIDS among the young generation. Today the main victims of the disease between the ages of 15 and 20 are not gay men and drug addicts anymore, but heterosexuals. This new trend has been noticed in family planning clinics and institutions that care for those infected by the HIV virus, like the Universidade de So Paulo (USP) Casa da Aids (AIDS House). "Today we get more women and they are getting younger by the day," .said Casa da Aids supervisor, Olavo Munhoz Leite. "The youngsters know all the risks, but they think that these things will never happen to them," says Albertina Duarte Talceuti, a World Health Organization researcher and coordinator for the Adolescent Program in So Paulo. "The truth is that AIDS did not change the sex life of teens." The problem is not unique to Brazil. According to the United Nations at least 1/3 of those infected with AIDS worldwide are between the ages of 10 and 24. Since 1982 when a Brazilian adolescent for the first time was found out to have AIDS, 17,000 youngsters have been contaminated by the HIV virus. As for the choice of first sexual partner, the boys prefer BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1996
a friend white the girls would rather do it with their boyfriend. Surprjlsingly, the experience was considered good by 74,8% of th interviewees and 72.6% used some kind of contraceptiv , with the condom being the most popular choice (61.6 /0 of the youngsters preferred it). Increasing Pregnancy The number of pregnancies has fallen nationally across all age groups in recent years, but this does not apply to youngsters between the ages of 15 and 19, according to ' Codeplan. Many kids in this age group don't use any birth control. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were 1, million births last year in Brazil by mothers who were 15 to 19 years old. At least half of these young 'moms didn't want to have a child just yet. Adolescent mothers are still 10 times more common among the poorer population than the richer one, but the problem has become more and more prevalent in every social stratum. An alarming 26.5% of the 2,718,265 deliveries performed throughout the country in 1997 by the SUS (Sistema Onico de Sailde—Universal Health System) occurred among girls between the ages of 10 and 19. While the SUS is used mostly by those without health insurance, the system is responsible for 80% of all deliveries in Brazil. By comparison, this rate is 2% in Switzerland, 7% in England, and 14% in the US. The majority of the se births occurred in the poorer states from the North, the Northeast and the Midwest. The less schooling a girl has the greater the chances she will get pregnant at an earlier age. 54% of all illiterate girls became pregnant while this number fell to 29% among those with at least three years of school and to 4% when they have gone to scf ool more than nine years. Traditional 0 Estado de S. Paulo has concluded in a recent article that the main problem in Parais6polis—a 60,000-people-strong shantytown in Morumbi, an upper-class SAo Paulo neighborhood—is not violence, but the explosive growth of pregnant teens, who are becoming mothers earlier and earlier. "Before, there were many 16 and 17-year-old girls with a big belly. But in recent years we see more and more pregnant girls who are 13 or even 12 years old," according to Maria das Dores Gomes, director of the Parais6polis Residents Union. The Cart6rio do ButantA (notary public bureau) has offered to issue free birth certificates in the favela (shantytown) and revealed that 10% of all births are by mothers who are 15 years old and younger. But they have just started their work in the last few of months. The pl ght of the too-young mother is not one limited to Paraisepo is or large cities favelas. Today, one in four children is born to a mother who is 19 years old or younger. In the early '90s the proportion was one in five. IBGE' s (Institut° Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica—Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics) figures show that the number of mothers who are 15 years old or younger has tripled between 1970 and .1 990. The most common cause for hospitalization among girls between 10 and 14 is childbirth, according to the Health Ministry. Estcdo told the story of 14-year-old L.S., who lost her viriginity at 13 and soon after got pregnant by a 18-year-old boy from the middle-class, who then disappeared. "I knew this could happen," said L. S., "but my boyfriend told me that it didn't happen In the beginning and I became careless." After becoming pregnant, the girl who lived with ther dad in Fortaleza—capital of the northeastern state of Ceara—was sent to her mom's house in Paraisepolis. "Before I wanted to be doctor, but now I don't even know if! am going back to 17 -
Tribe Talk Skaters: Alo!—(hello) notice of someone entering the rink Brej inha—beer Cacetada na mulera—(knock over the head) punk rock show Dig—marijuana Follows—OK! Id!—salutation for a well-done maneuver Nocar—to expel someone from a group Punk—strong scenes Sem miseria!—(lit. without misery) without limit Shift + Del—to erase, to send into space Uma vaca!—(a cow) to describe someone who falls down Sport Lovers: Pe de rato—(mouse foot) someone who bikes badly Radical—Cool Sarado—(cured) cool guy, healthy person Rockers: Burro preto—(black jackass) four-door black Opala car used by rappers Dona—girl E al, fera!—(and there, beast) what's up bro File—cool Massa—cool Mina—girl Muvucada—a crowd Palha—(straw) boring person Prego—(nail) boring person Queimacao—(burning) boring person Rola ai!—send this along Transformes—drugs Vei—brother, old chum Xarope—(syrup) boring person Patricinhas and playboys: Ficar—(to stay) to engage in heavy petting Manero—cool GLS (Gays, Lesbians and Sympathizers) Amapo—woman Biba—gay man (checkmeaning) Bicha, mulher, senhora—gay man Bolacha, fancha, sape, tanque girl—gay woman Barbie, Johnny Bravo—gays wearing baby-look blouses Curra—(rape) thrashing Do bem—pretty gay Goro—liquor Pao corn ovo,pintosa, poc-poc, requenguela—effeminate gay man Racha—woman Racha gay—friendly woman Rio Clubbers: A—acid Basi—Marijuana cigarette E—(pronounced ee) Ecstasy Fazer carao—to be obnoxious Junkie—black clothes, dreary situation Lombrou—it went wrong 0—terrrible as in Este a e ó (This acid is awful) Ta parando—(it's stopping) it is great Internauts: Nocar—to oust someone from a chat group Shift + Del—to delete Follows—right on!
school," she said while holding ther 3-month-old baby. Abortions are frequent and risky. More than half of the teens seen by the Hospital Sao Paulo's Family Planning Center go through an abortion, one third of the time self induced. Violence and Death Brasilia was shaken by several murders committed by youngsters' gangs in recent years. The most notorious of these crimes—with international repercussion—was the assassination of Patax6 Indian, Galdino Jesus dos Santos, who was set on fire last year while he slept on a bus bench. Those involved in the crime were all kids from rich families who were looking for some fun and thrills. Those who thought that it was an isolated episode have been disproved by the facts. Brazilian kids have been forming unnamed gangs. The new groups are becoming famous for their cruelty. In September, there were more than 15,000 cases of crimes by minors between the ages of 12 and 17 being investigated by the Promotoria de Justica da Infancia e da Juventude (Justice Prosecution Office for Childhood and Youth). For the most part, analyses have shown that law breakers belong to families where parents are absent or don't offer proper orientation to their children. Skinheads are among the most dangerous. They usually start a fight and beat people without any provocation. According to Suzana Machado, director of Brasilia's Child and Youth Department, gangs are becoming more daring and lethal every day: "These youngsters from the upper middle class have bigger bodies and almost all of them practice martial arts. With this craze of body cult, fights are always more violent." Another problem with teens, one rarely shown in statistics, is the growing rate of suicides. A study by Claves (Centro Latino-Americano de Estudos de Violencia e Saude—Latin-American Center for the Study of Violence and Health)—an institution in Rio—reveals that the rate of suicides of youngsters between the ages of 15 and 24 has increased by 26% from 1979 to 1993. Nine state capitals were involved in the research: Rio, Sao Paulo, Belem (Para), Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), Curitiba (Parana), Fortaleza (Ceara), Porto Alegre (Rio Grande do Sul), Recife (Pernambuco), and Salvador (Bahia). The most dramatic increase (80%) occurred in Sao Paulo where, in 1993, there were 8.06 deaths for every 100,000 people in that age group compared to 4.47 in 1979. Among the little good news: there was a small reduction in the number of youth suicides in Rio, Belo Horizonte, Belem, and Curitiba. With 21.7% of all the suicides for this age group in 1995, it only lost to the 25 to 34 age group (24%) as champion of suicides. Despite the severity, by world standards these numbers are not considered high. By comparison, 29 in every 100,000 Australians aged 15 to 24 killed themselves in 1993. Drinking and Drugs According to the National Cancer Institute's National Coordination for the Control of Smoking and Cancer Primary Prevention (Contapp),12 is the average age at which kids try their first cigarette. Half of them will become addicted. Peer pressure seems to be the main factor behind taking on smoking. WHO's data show that 75% of Latin American smokers started the habit between the ages of 14 and 17. Alcohol is the preferred drug by both male and female youngsters. A study by Cebrid (Centro Brasileiro de Informacaes Sobre Drogas Psicotropicas— Brazilian Center for Information on Psychotropic Drug) showed that half of all children taste alcohol for the first time between the ages of 10 and 12, and that 28.6% of the time they get their first sip at home. Cebrid polled, 15,503 students from elementary and secondary schools from ten state capital cities. The research also revealed that 23.81% were led to drink by peer pressure, that 10.5% missed school after drinking and that 28.9% used alcohol up to the point where they lost control. Other studies suggest that close to 10% of the kids who use alcohol mix it with pot and cocaine. Veja magazine cites a recent study in 16 large cities by researcher Tania Zagury in which she found out that 57.7% of kids have their first experience
18 BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
with illegal drugs before they are 14 years old. Homo Apoliticus Except for the few politicized ones, today's adolescents seem in- . different to politics. There is nothing that resembles the throngs of students defying tanks and police in 1968 or even the much tamer crowd of caras pintadas (painted faces) of six years ago who went to the streets to demand for corruption-plagued President Fernando Collor de Mello's resignation. In sao Paulo and Rio, less than 30% of the 16 and 17 year olds with right to vote have applied for a titulo de eleitor (voter identication card). In a mere three small states—Piaui, Tocantins, and Rio Grande do Norte—this number surpasses 50% of the eligible voters. According to a Unesco study with 400 youngsters from Brasilia aged 14 to 20, only 0.5% of them trust Congress or their own student representatives. The same study showed that 67% of the respondents would not participate in a strike in their own schools and that 63% never go out on a demonstration, even though 59% of them say that they follow politics through TV news programs. The main concern for 97.8% of them: to have a good job, to have money, to have a family and to be happy. Two percent only seemed worried about the country's future. "What's going to happen in a few years when it's time for these youngsters to take a position and assume a political post?," asked political scientist Marcos Coimbra, director of the research institute Vox Populi. Teens of All Colors Earlier this year Correio Brasiliense tried to classify and map what they called the teen tribos (tribes) of the nation's capital. They came up with 12 galeras (groups), which they divided in three groups: those who prefer to have fun at home, the health and adrenaline generation, and those who gather in malls, clubs and streets. They now even have their own magazine, Tribu, a bimonthly publication that started with an initial circulation of 10,000 copies and covers fashion, behavior, and culture. The street people, i.e. those who socialize in nightclubs, parties, malls and the like are the skaters, the rockers, the clubbers, the patricinhas and playboys (upper-class boys and girls) and the GLS (gays, lesbians and sympathizers). You distinguish one tribe from the other by the clothes their members wear. The clubbers are the most colorful, starting with the colorized hair, plus bright. clothing, piercing and appealing earrings. For them, fun is a dance hall filled with noisy techno music. Their parties, also known as raves, can happen in the most unusual places and have already happened in the subway tunnel, a bathroom at University of Brasilia, and even inside a moving truck. Nothing for them could be more uncool than normal events and people. The GLSs have many of the clubbers taste including the choice of meeting places and music, even though they usually stay in their own places known as bares arco-iris (rainbow bar). Skaters and rockers seem to prefer action to talk and when they open their mouth their talk seems more like gobbledygook to the non-initiated. They use plenty of their in-house slang. sometimes just recycled old slang. They wear baggy Bermuda shorts, T shirts with bands or morbid themes including skeletons, and love their tattoos. As for hair they go from the long-haired manes to the shaved heads. Their favorite hangouts during the day are the alternative and imported CD shops. Patys (or patricinhas)are the female answer to the mauricinhos. These are well-to-do boys and girls who dress more conservatively. A cellular phone and an expensive as-possible imported car are a must to belong to this tribe. Since they try to mix only with teens of their own status, patys and mauricinhos end up having some bars exclusively for themselves. The healthy generation loves the outdoors, the fitness club, the special diet and little or no alcohol and dangerous sports like rappelling. The domestic tribes on the other hand find everything they need to have fun at home: the VCR, the computer linked to the Internet, the telephone, or even the Bible. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
• •••••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
• • • • •
Some Personal Questions
In its October issue Capricho presented the results of a questionnaire given to 500 boys from Sdo Paulo, Rio, Curitiba, Belo Horizonte, Brasilia e Salvador. The questions couldn't be more intimate. • • • • How many times a day do you • • • • think about sex? • Several times 77% • • Once 15% • • Rarely 8% • •
•• • • • • •
• • Is it uncool for a girl to have a • • • • condom in her purse? • • No 80% • • Yes 12% • • Don't know 8% • • • • • Is it uncool for the girl to be expe- • • • rienced? • • No 49% • •• Yes 31% • It doesn't matter 20% • • • • Should the girl take the initiative? • • • • No 54% • •• Yes 25% • It doesn't matter 21% • • • •
Is it a problem if the girl is not a • • • • virgin anymore? • • No 66% • It doesn't matter 22% • • Yes 12% • • If the girl is menstruating, you... • • don't have sex 39% • stay indifferent 28% • don't like it but go ahead 27% • get more excited 6% • •
The time to put on the condom is nothing special 39% exciting or embarrassing depending on the girl 35% exciting 15% embarrassing 11%
• • •• •
If you lose your erection you try again 68% • say: "This never happened to me • • before." 16% • wait for her action 11% • give up 5% • • e th middle of • If she wants to stop in • the action you... • try to understand 57% • you insist 32% • you get annoyed and give up 11% • • • After sex you • keep to yourself 66% • take care of the girl 25% • lose the interest in the girl 9% • • • • ••••••••••••
•• •••••••••• •
RUNNING AGAINST TIME I ave just rea• wit _great interest Kathryn Gallant's article "Nevermore?", about the torture, imprisonment and disappearance of Brazilian citizens. It is absolutely imperative that! get in touch with her as soon as possible, as my husband and I have been searching for his father for some time now, and he has the same name as one of the men on the list of 13 leftists who were imprisoned and died there, possibly tortured to death. This is an urgent matter, as my husband's father would be approximately 71 years old if he is still alive, and time may be running out. If he has died, we need to know. Please answer! We are desperate. P. S. The man we are trying to locate is Milton Chester DeCastro (or de Castro), son of Chester and Ophelia Decastro, brother of Lisenko and cousin of Geraldo. Lisa Brown Hudson, New Hampshire MATTER OF CREDIT I love Brazzil magazine an. I am_prou to have published a few articles there. But on occasion some of your writers need to learn about proper "attribution." The most flagrant example I've seen of this was Kirsten Weinoldt's recent piece "1968: For Ever," which copied material out of one of my books. It did list several sources at the end, but almost the entire middle section—the Geraldo Dias and Chico Buarque parts especially—was lifted word for word from the first edition of my book The Brazilian Sound. There is so much copied, in fact, that it wduld have been fair to give me a byline on the article. This is plagiarism, even if there is a mention of my bodc at the end of her article. Any materiar lifted verbatim from another source must be clearly credited. Chris McGowan Los Angeles, California THE AUTHOR REPLIES ear us Mc owan, Ever since someone recommended your book The Brazilian Sound, I've been a big fan of it and referred to it so many times, it s now dog-eared and worn. Therefore, when I took on the task of writing about 198, I was delighted to see some things about Geraldo Vandre and Chico Buarque I didn't know. I used it, and in my enthusiasm I didn't realize that so much was verbatim. I just love this book and was happy to find what I needed. I am really sorry about that. Sincerely, Kirsten Weinoldt West Boylston, Massachusetts NOT BLACK AND NOT WHITE rea y oveyourpu. 'cation, tut ave a request from all Brazilians who read jt: Do not copy the racist thinking_ of Amencans! There is no such thing as a ''White Brazilian or Black Brazilian.' We are all beautiful Brazilians and must not separate ad copy the pitiful example of hatred that exists here in the USA. We are special people that show the world that it is ppssible for allcolors to be one people! We will not hate as Americans do! Long live the culture and people of Brazil! AJ Brown Washington DC You ate itsited to participate in this dialoene Write to: Letters to the Publisher P.O. Bus 50536 Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536 or send E-mail to: brazzillt brazzikeom Please, include a phone number in the event \% e- need to reach you. Thanks! 20
BRAZZIL IS ALL YOURS CLASS MATERIAL am ea+ mg an e prt m ni ianapo is1n I nye. to ow :razz/ magazine' T e ana to create a "Brazil-focused" educational articles in English give us the chance to use opportunity for school children. I also hope to them in English classes. Maybe these are involve an already targeted high school, Which some good ideas for you as a promotion of ispredominantly African Atnerican in my Bra- Ithe magazine in Brazil: tourist agencies and zil-awareness.campaign, I would like to request tthe distribution of the magazine to flight your permission to repnnt copies of the mfor- 3-companies so they can offer it to their pasmation I found at http://www.brazil-biasil.com/ sengers. cvroct95.htm to be distributed among students I Marisa Riguetto for the purpose of generating discussion. Via Internet ' Phillip Wagner IT'S ALL FOR THE TAKING Indian ,,, oils, Indiana ave just come across Brazzi an as it PINING OF HO is the only English source I can find on I recent y came upon onnation a ut 'Brazil, I was interested in the contents. Jam your publication in The Writer (October 1998 particularly interested in the political and issue). Hooray! I am a free-lance writer. I spent economic situation, ad I cannot find any two years in Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) as a child way of getting this Ilifo from any of the (7-9 years old), which was back in 1954-1955. promptsTicons. Is it me who is messingup, or I went to Curso Toneleros where I became the is there some limitation to how much into is "No. 1" student at the end ofmy first grade, and disseminated? all during the second grade, until my family Julie Marlow moved to the United States. My school was on United Kingdom Avenida Princesa Isabel, a few blocks from AMERICANS AND AMERICANA where I lived and also a few blocks from the I ma : razi ianexpatriate wing srae Copacabana Beach. I have pictures—and memories—and an idea for one or two pieces, since 1968 and I'm a history buff. I'm very which I will submit after I "study" your maga- interested in knowing something about the immigration of Southern families to the then zine. But the story I really want to write someday Empire ofBrazil, after the Civil War.! know will be of my return to Rio. Haven't been back they went to Sao Paulo (Americana and since, although I have traveled to other parts of Santa Barbara do Oeste) and to the Amazon the world. F,arlier this year I was in Lagos, area. Could you help me find something Portugal-where I observed the wavy mosaic about the subject? Or indicate someone or sidewalks, the "zh-sh-ch-ão" sounds of the some University in Brazil or in the USA to Portuguese language—and had a hmikenng to guide me in this search?! saw your Web page be in the Rio of my childhood. And in Lisbon in the intemet—by the way very well done, specially about the hints to an American they even have a Corcovade there! newcomer— and I thought I could ask your Olga Bourlin help in this attempt. Via Internet Carlos Lefevre THANKS FOR VIRGINIA Kibbutz Lahav T s again to Bruce Gi man or another REQUIRED READING well written and informative piece, this time the A ou I re: ize : razzi is most y in interview with Virginia Rodrigues. I was lucky nglish, I e t that if my students subscribed enough to find the CD with the "I Want to Be rit, they would get some good insights into Readi" number on it. Truly a wonderful first azilian culture at home and abroad. CD. The criticshavenot exaggerated Virginia's Alison talent. Via Internet Fred Dobb, Ph.D. California Department of Education Sacramento, California LE1-11.,RS PERMISSION GRANTED ngratu attonsto : race i man on agreat article oriVilla-Lobos's quartets! The editor of Pauta, Mexico's main musical quarterly would very much like to translate and publish it with Can't you find Brazzil at your all the due credits. He asked me to get your Brazilian consulate? permission to do so. Aron Bitran, Via Internet Don't ask us why, Cuarteto Latinoamericano ask the consulate.
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Since President Fernando Henrique Cardoso's re-election, his economic team has been working on a fiscal package with tough measures. The government's intention is to turn the $9.7 billion deficit projected for 1999 into a $13.7 billion surplus at the federal government level alone. But the future seems grim. Is recession next? Some experts think so. MARTA ALVIM
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On October 4, Brazilian voters re-elected President Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC) by a landslide, handing him a vote of confidence in spite of news that, after the election, tough economic measures would ensue as an attempt to rescue Brazil from the ongoing global market chaos. Cardoso, the first Brazilian President to run for reelection in Brazil's history, won the first round with 53% of the votes, while his main opponent, Luis Inacio Lula da Silva, trailed with 32%. However, FHC' s triumph was bittersweet to say the least. Apart from the millions of blank and null votes cast by a frustrated electorate, several of Cardoso 'S important allies were also defeated in key state gubernatorial elections. Moreover, the President's margin of victory in Brazil's major capitals and cities was much narrower than what had been predicted by the country's polling institutes as well as by his own advisors. The message sent by the voters was clear: they are neither happy with the current economic situation nor in favor of austerity; if they voted for the victorious candidate, it was mainly due to a lack of a better choice. Since Cardoso's re-election, his economic team has been working on a fiscal package, aiming to save some $23.5 billion in 1999 alone by means of spending cuts and tax increases. The austerity plan is a condition imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and other international lending agencies if Brazil is to be bailed out of its financial woes by emergency loans from those institutions. What remains to be seen, though, is whether Congress will approve the tough measures, and whether state governors will back them up as well. Under Brazil's constitution, governors have broad independence on financial matters, such as taxing and spending. Moreover, they exercise a great deal of influence over local congressional delegations, who are key to the approval of the austerity plan. Since House representatives are elected by proportional representation, the defeat of FHC's allies in powerful states, such as Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, will certainly be troublesome for the President, especially when the time comes to pass the reform of the ailing social security system, the proposed tax hikes and the comprehensive spending cuts. On the other hand, FHC's losses in key states may somehow be offset by the victory of Sao Paulo governor Mario Covas, a long-time friend and supporter of Cardoso BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
who is credited with rescuing the state from an imminent bankruptcy during his first term as Sao Paulo's governor. Brazil's richest state, Sao Paulo accounts for 70 out of the 513 congressional seats. According to Finance Minister Pedro Malan, the government's goal is to turn the $9.7 billion deficit projected for 1999 into a $13.7 billion surplus at the federal government level alone. States and municipalities will have to post a $3 billion surplus, the same performance being expected from all stateowned enterprises. That would represent a primary budget surplus (excluding debt costs) of 2.6% of gross domestic product (GDP) in 1999. For 2000 and 2001, Minister Malan forecasts a surplus of 2.8% and 3% of GDP respectively. If those goals are achieved, the government expects that the current interest rates of 45% a year will be reduced to an average of 21.89% next year, with further reductions in the following two years, when they would reach 16.88% in 2000, and 13.37% in 2001. Subsequently, the public deficit, which has reached 7.5% of GDP would drop to 4% of GDP in 1999, to 2.5% in 2000, and to 2% of GDP in 2001. Since the proposed $7.3 billion in budget cuts will not be sufficient to balance Brazil's accounts, the new package has also established an increase on the financial transactions tax—also known as the "check tax" (CPMF)—which would boost revenues by approximately $6 billion a year. In addition, the fiscal package plans to raise public servants' contributions to social security, a measure that will likely be met with fierce resistance by Congress. While it is unfair that all these years public workers have contributed less to social security than their private sector counterparts, critics of the tax hikes argue that the problem is not how much the government collects in taxes, but how that money is spent. A case in point is that the much-boasted fiscal plan unveiled by the Brazilian government in the wake of the Asian crisis a year ago has turned into a big fiasco. Instead of the plan's projected $16.7 billion rise in revenues, the public deficit has jumped from 4.8% of GDP in 1997 to 7.5% this year, largely because states and municipalities continued to spend indiscriminately, taking advantage of the revenue brought in by the privatization of state-owned companies. Overall, international analysts agree that the austerity plan announced by the Brazilian government is sensible, and its implementation will determine whether the expected $30 billion in emergency loans from the IMF and other agencies will be approved or not. It's in the hands of Brazil's capricious Congress to approve the established measures and the fundamental fiscal reforms without any further delays. However, no matter how the package is handled, Brazil still faces a grim year ahead. According to the experts, GDP growth for next year is expected to shrink to approximately 1%, while more pessimistic forecasts see the economy falling into recession.
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Marta Alvim is a Brazilian journalist, freelance translator and interpreter. You can reach her at firstname.lastname@example.org BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Paulo Coelho is today the best-known Brazilian author, with more than 21 million books sold in 73 countries around the world. He is also the object of some of the most vicious diatribes from Brazilian literary critics. All his prestige in Europe, especially in France, didn't buy him any respect at home. ROSEMARY GUND
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In a society where the birth of a celebrity daughter and her first sneeze can preempt the privatization of the national telecommunications system, the much debated success of writer Paulo Coelho is not that out of context. Coelho exploits the taste for the esoteric just as Brazilian TV exploits the public's illiteracy and taste for sensationalism. Paulo Coelho commercializes spirituality in the same way TV hostess Xuxa commercialized her pregnancy, with the only difference being that Coelho's success has crossed cultural boundaries, showing that the search for packaged wisdom is global. It is a fact. Brazilian intellectuals like it or not, Paulo Coelho, 51, is by now a established phenomenon. His trick consisted in becoming the second Brazilian author to reach the mark of 21 million books sold around the world, however in a unprecedented way in our culture. Differently from the "other writer", namely Jorge Amado, Coelho took only ten years to reach this mark with only eight volumes published compared to 37 by the northeastern author who, by the way, achieved such a feat with great support from the communist party. Much has been speculated about the reason for this success. The literary elite in Brazil refuse to look seriously at this author and automatically disqualify his work of literary value. But the fact is that Paulo Coelho and consequently his literature, or non-literature, counts with a faithful public of readers (and followers) not only in Brazil but all over the world. That is accredited, according to many, to his "universality", as explained Coelho's European agent Monica Antunes to Veja magazine. Even writing in Portuguese, a that, as we all know, has little or no diffusion in the international editorial market, Coelho managed to captivate a world public that appears to be avid to digest his fables of prophetic and spiritual teachings filled with absolute truths and with a wide array of interpretation possibilities. His books do not preach any religion in particular, but all religions, with his common place messages that can be incorporated by Jews and Muslims alike, without necessarily offending any creed. Veronika Being that Coelho is a writer of established success with three best-sellers in the market and his last novel Veronika Decide Morrer (Veronika Decides to Die) ranking first on the top ten list in Brazil, his success cannot be interpreted as mere coincidence. This conclusion has led some critics to question the direction of our "post-modern" literature.
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Socidogist Magda Santos, in her thesis about the author, defined his success to Folha de Sao Paulo as the result of an "exacerbation of the crisis of reason [and] a narcissism characteristic of the end of the century." Critic Wilson Martins apparently agrees: "Coelho is a sociological phenomenon, he is an answer to the injunctions of our historical moment, to the anxiety that reappears at the end of every millennium. When the world doesn't end on the year 2000, maybe all this interest for Coelho's work will end," he said to Veja. But according to the critic Candid° Mendes de Alineida, his books do not present a text but "a product of a convenience store." Whatever the case, Coelho is only responding to an ever increasing demand for spiritual solutions to meaningless lives, in a world ever more materialistic and uprooted. People are in search of the easy answers that he sets out to give his readers and which give them in exchange a transcendental meaning to their lives and alleviate the feeling of alienation that we experience in our contemporary world. It is the search for the sacred in a moment in that traditional religions fail to fulfill the anxieties of contemporary man, a fact that makes of Coelho and of the whole "new age" culture truly sociological phenomena. One should not forget though that before he became a writer, Coelho was a producer who worked in the competitive musical industry, which also makes him an expert in the marketing laws that govern the media. The releasing of his books involves sophisticated publicity campaigns. In Italy for example the release of the book 0 Monte Cinco ( The Fifth Mountain) closed for a week five little streets in five Italian cities that were renamed Via Paulo Coelho. Of course Coelho is very aware of all these strategies and he actively participates in the decisions. He also approved the release of the other products that together with his books would make out the perfect Paulo Coelho Kit: A CD-ROM with pictures and biographical notes and the computer game Pilgrim based on the book of the same name in English (0 Diario de um Mago). His success abroad is proof that Coelho really has a feel for good business. Despite all the criticism—especially at a national level—in regards to the quality of his work and his sloppy Portuguese, Coelho continues to rank on the very top of the list of best sellers in Brazil and is also one of the top on the lists in Europe as well. Even in France, a country of strong literary tradition and crib to literati like Proust. Besides all that, he was the main celebrity at this year's Paris Book Fair (that this year honored Brazil), a fact which might have left many serious Brazilian writers baffled. Even though Coelho hadn't been invited by the official delegation that represented Brazil, he decided to mark his presence anyway. He was invited by his French publisher Anne Carriere to help promote the release of The Fifth Mountain in France, apparently another success which sold more than 200 thousand copies in only three weeks there. The writer stole the show from the other Brazilian writers who passed unnoticed, and received treatment worthy of a star with rights to special attention from president Jacques Chirac, because in 1996 he had been honored with the Insignia of Arts and Letters by the French government. According to his French publisher Anne Carriere, who organized a reception of 700 people for Coelho at the Carroussel, the event's coordinators alleged they had never seen anything comparable in the 10 years. Even if Coelho remains below the greatest best sellers of BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
the world Danielle Steel and John Grisham, he still has many reaso s to pride himself: his books have been published in 73 different countries. That alone is remarkable, especially w en one considers he writes in Portuguese which unlike Engli h, has no literary diffusion abroad. • Howeve , according to what critic Silviano Santiago stated to Vej , , there has been a mystification of his success in France. T e fact that this country has been the homeland of some of e greatest writers and philosophers of all times is not relev. t. To Santiago the French public can be just as mediocre as any other country's public. " The Paulo Coelho phenomeno only confirms the existence of globalized taste and global' ed book market." The fact at Coelho's grammatical mistakes continue to go unnotic d by the public reflects, according to critic Gabriel Pert. se, the reality of a society that is not sufficiently instructed fir good and selective reading. In a country where about 14,7 i ercent of the population is absolutely illiterate, not taking into consideration the functional illiterates, Coelho's m stakes are not even that bad. Errors r ging from a misplaced comma to more serious errors of a eement can be found on the pages of the Alchemist, i nc of his first books, and The Fifth Mountain, one of his most recent. His success abroad in editorial markets th t are perceived as more "demanding" might appear inc • herent but should probably be merited to the work of th translators who many times practically rewrite literary wo ks. Coelho as however been the subject of the most sadistic criticism, that accredited to Ivan Angelo of Veja magazine on occasio of the release of the Fifth Mountain in Brazil in 1996. In hi article, Angelo refers to the book as a "mountain of nonsens " ( the word monte in colloquial Portuguese also means "a lit of') and criticizes clearly and bluntly not only the linguis ic mistakes committed by Coelho but also the tremendou historical inaccuracies. Referring to him as the PC of letter. ,who like the PC of Collor makes use of "ghosts" for person 1 gain (referring to the secret bank accounts of Paulo al Farias who was involved in the political scandal of money 1 undering during the term of president Fernando Collor de ello), Angelo pointed out the various grammatical errors f regency and agreement present in his "elementary prose! and accused his book of having a "simplistic plot" and if presenting an "ingenuous wisdom", which was "written in a hurry" to make the Brazilian Biennial on time. This de even generated a public brawl in the section of letters f Veja between the author and the critic, which unfortunat ly might have turned out to look bad for Coelho. In an attempt to refute the accusations of Angelo in regard to the "hilarious" anachronisms found in his book, Coelho accused h"iiof not having consulted an encyclopedia before writing his article. Angelo however did not let Coelho off the hook and eplied in a letter clarifying the distinction for Coelho ( d the readers) between writings on leather and parchmen . According to Angelo, the technique referred to as parchm nt in Coelho's book appeared in Greece in the II century B and not in the IX century BC as it was implied in the book, according to an encyclopedic reference transcribed b Angelo in his letter. Coelh rn however does not seem to be jolted by his critics. Maybe on y those who think Coelho is out to get the Nobel Prize of iterature are the ones missing the point. He only writes bo • ks, which is very different. Practically everyone is aware of e fact that nowadays any person with a more sophistic ed computer and a printer can publish a book. 25
Virtually anyone can declare himself an "expert" on a tionalistic theme based on Coelho's life and lead them to the subject for whatever reason and share his or her knowledge, bookstores. As far as content goes, the recycling of old as long as there are people willing to pay for that. And there clichĂŠs continues, the search for spirituality in our empty are. The majority of people actually seem to prefer this easily lives and the discovery of the great "treasure" in the end. digestible and accessible reading that offers to solve all of Could that be the finding of our own destiny? Probably. It is our problems in less than two hundred pages. not necessary to buy the book to find out. Moreover, Coelho's books also seem to fill in a gap, t Maybe we should simply take Coelho's work for what it approximating the author to his reader and giving that tone really is. According to what critic Jose Paulo Paes said to of intimacy in a world ever more fragmented and individuVeja magazine paraphrasing the American critic Winsatt, his alistic. The employment of short and clear sentences, the use, books "solve all of your problems while you're reading it but not to say abuse, of the first person singular even when that as soon as you close it, our difficulties appear with double the could be omitted, help to transmit this feeling of "up close strength." And that might well nail Coelho's work down. But and personal" that pleases a lot of people. at the same time, if Danielle Steel can, why not Coelho? And the formula has worked so far. However, maybe as a response to criticism of being repetitive, Coelho decided to Rosemary Gund is a graduate student change the subjectâ€”pero no mucho. His new book does not of Italian Literature at SFSU refer to esoteric or spiritual themes as the others clearly did, and a free-lance translator. She can be reached at but still has a strong spiritualistic tone. The great novelty lies email@example.com in the fact that the book is based in a revealing fact of his personal life. The psychiatric internment of the main character of the novel, Veronika, after trying suicide was based in the personal experience lived by the author. Coelho had been confined to a mental institution by his own parents three times AIR - IATA 01-1-9279-012 during his youth in the 60s because he wanted to become a writer against OCEAN- FMC 3853 his father's will. In this book Coelho describes a lot of what he had experienced during his confinement. The schizoTO ANY AIRPORT IN BRAZIL phrenic character Eduard in the book is submitted to electric shock treatments that are described in details by Coelho who affirms to have been victim of the same treatment : "I FULL CONTAINER & CONSOLIDATIONS received a lot of shocks. I would TO ANY PORT IN BRAZIL contort myself, convulsing. And even after the shocks, I would still (EXCELLENT CONTAINER RATES) have convulsions," Coelho said in an interview to Veja magazine. But he affirms he has no trauma or resentment against his father and that writing about it was not an emoSHIPPER'S DOOR PICK-UP AIR/OCEAN FREIGHT I'mk tional thing nor some sort of catharsis. He just felt it was time to share CUSTOMS CLEARANCE (INCL. ALL DUTIES) imm. that about his life. According to Coelho, the book DOOR DELIVERY TO BUYER IN BRAZIL is supposed to incite a debate around the issue o f "madness". People who choose to be different and go against the norm are usually considered to be crazy, because the society does 12833 SIMMS AVE. - HAWTHjuriNE, CA 90250 not understand them. For him, we are making choices at every moment of our lives and we either choose to live or give it up. FAX: (310) 973-7113 Coelho is a character of his own E-mailtiPtouchdownco.com book, treated in the third person singular, who tells his story about WEB his own hospitalizations. The strategy maybe is to call the reader's attention through a sensa-
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CAPiTULO I DO TITULO Uma noite destas, vindo da cidade para o Engenho Novo, encontrei num trem da Central urn rapaz aqui do bairro, que eu conheco de vista e de chapel'. Cumprimentou-me, sentou-se ao pe de mim, falou da lua e dos ministros, e acabou recitando-me versos. A viagem era curta, e os versos pode ser que nao fossem inteiramente maus. Sucedeu, porem, que, como eu estava cansado, fechei os olhos tres ou quatro vezes; tanto bastou para que elei nterrompesse a leitura e metesse os versos no bolso. —Continue, disse eu acordando. —Já acabei, murmurou ele. --sao muito bonitos. Vi-lhe fazer urn gesto para tira-los outra vez do bolso, mas ndo passou do gesto; estava amuado. No dia segyinte entrou a dizer de mim nomes feros, e acabou alcunhando-me Dom Casmurro. Os vizinhos, que ndo gostam dos meus habitos reclusos e calados, deram curso a alcunha, que afinal pegou. Nem por isso me zanguei. Contei a anedota aos amigos da cidade, e eles, por graca, chamam-me assim, alguns em bilhetes: "Dom Casmurro, domingo you jantar corn voce."—"Vou para Petropolis, Dorn Casmurro; a casa é a mesma da Rendnia; ve se deixas essa caverna do Engenho Novo, e vai la passar uns quinze dias comigo."—"Meu caro Dom Casmurro, nAo cuide que o dispenso do teatro amanhA; venha e dormird aqui na cidade; dou-lhe camarote, dou-lhe cha, dou-lhe cama; s6 ndo lhe dou moca." Ndo consultes dicionarios. Casmurro ndo esti aqui no sentido que eles lhe ddo, mas no que the pas o vulgo de homem calado e metido consigo. Dom veio por ironia, para atribuir-me fumos de fidalgo. Tudo por estar cochilando! Tambem nAo achei melhor titulo para a minha narracdo; se ndo tiver outro daqui ate o fim do livro, vai este mesmo. 0 meu poeta do trem ficara sabendo que ndo lhe guardo rancor. E corn pequeno esforco, sendo o titulo seu, podera cuidar que a obra e sua. Ha livros que apenas terdo isso dos seus autores; alguns nem tanto. CAPITULO II DO LIVRO Agora que expliquei o titulo, pass° a escrever o livro. Antes disso, porem, digamos os motivos que me poem a pena na mdo. Vivo so, corn um criado. A casa em que moro é prOpria; fl-la construir de proposito, levado de um desejo tao particular que me vexa imprimi-lo, mas \fa la. Urn dia. ha bastantes anos, lembrou-me reproduzir no Engenho Novo a casa em que me criei na antiga Rua de Matacavalos, dando-lhe o mesmo aspecto e economia daquela outra, que desapareceu. Construtor e pintor entenderam bem as indicacOes que Ihes fiz: é o mesmo predio assobradado, tres janelas de frente, varanda ao fundo, as mesmas alcovas e salas. Na principal destas, a pintura do teto e das paredes é mais ou menos igual, umas grinaldas de fibres mindas e grandes passaros que as tomam nos bicos, de espaco a espaco. Nos quatro cantos do teto as figuras das estacOes, e BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Dom unit) Seeing my distress and finding out why, a palm tree murmured that there was no harm in 15year-old boys being on the corners with 14-year-old girls. Quite the opposite, at that age this was a youngster's sole obligation and corners were made just for that.
MACHADO DE ASSIS
ao centro das paredes os medalhoes d Cesar, Augusto, Nero e Massinissa, corn os n mes por baixo... Ndo alcanco a raid° de tais pers nagens. Quando fomos para a casa de Matacaval s, _la ela estava assim decorada; vinha do decenio nterior. Naturalmente era gosto do tempo meter sabor classic° e figuras antigas em pinturas americanas. 0 mais é tambem analog° e parecid41. Tenho chacarinha, fibres, legume, uma casua ina, urn poco e lavadouro. Uso louca velha eimobilia velha. Enfim, agora, como outrora, h aqui o mesmo contraste da vida interior, que pacata, corn a exterior, que é ruidosa. 0 meu fim evidente era atar as duas contas da vida, e restaurar na velhice a adolesceneia. Pois, senhor, ndo consegui recompor o que fbi nem o que fui. Em tudo, se o rosto é igual, a fisionomia é diferente. Se sO me faltassem os outros va; um homem consola-se mais ou menos das pessoas que perde; mas falto eu mesmo, e esta 'lacuna é tudo. 0 que aqui esta é, mal comparando, semelhante a pintura que se p6e na barba e nos cabelos, e que apenas conserva o habit° extern°, como se diz nas aut6psias; o interno nao agiienta tinta. Uma certiddo que me desse vinte anos de idade poderia enganar os estranhos, corno todos os documentos falsos, mas tido a mim. Os amigos que me restam sac, de data recente; todos cis antigos foram estudar a geologia dos campossantos. Quanto as amigas, algumas datam de quinze anos, outras de menos, e quase todas creem na mocidade. Duas ou tres fariam crer nela aos outros, mas a lingua que falam obriga muita vez a consultar os dicionarios, e tal freqiiencia é cansativa. Entretanto, vida diferente ndo quer dizer vida pior, é outra coisa. A certos respeitos, aquela vida antiga aparece-me despida de muitos encantos que lhe achei; mas é tambem exato que perdeu muito espinho que a fez molesta, e, de rnemoria, conservo alguma recordacdo doce e feiticeira. Em verdade, pouco apareco e menos falo. tistraçOes raras. 0 mais do tempo é gasto em hortat,jardinar e ler; como bem e ndo durmo mal.
Ora, como tudo cansa, esta monotoni a acabou por exaurir-me tambern. Quis variar, e lembrou-me escrever urn livro. Jurisprudencia. filosofia e politica acudiram-me, mas ndo me acudiram as forcas necessarias. Depois, pensei em fazer uma Historia dos Suburbios menos seca que as mem6rias do Padre Luis Goncalves dos Santos relativas a cidade; era obra modesta, mas exigiadocumentos e datas como preliminares, tudo arid° e longo. Foi entdo que os bustos pintados nas paredes entraram a falar-me e a dizerme que, uma vez que eles ndo alcancavam reconstituir-me os tempos idos, pegasse da penae contasse alguns. Talvez a narracdo me desse a ilusdo, e as sombras viessem perpassar ligeiras, como ao poeta, tido o do trem, mas o do Fausto: Al vindes outra vez, inquietas sombras?... Fiquei tao alegre corn esta iddia, que ainda agora me treme a pena na mdo. Sim, Nero, Augusto, Massinissa, e tu, grande Cesar, que me incitas a fazer os meus comentarios, agradecovos o conselho, e you deitar ao papel as reminiscencias clue me vierem vindo. Deste modo, viverei o que vivi, e assentarei a mdo para alguma obra de major tomb. Eia, comecemos a evocacao por uma celebretarde de novembro, que nunca me esqueceu. Tive outras muitas, melhores, e piores, mas dquela nunca se me apagou do espirito. E o que vais entender, lencjo. CAPITLILO III A DENUNCIA la entrar na sala de visitas, quando ouvi proferir o meu nome e escondi-me atras da porta. A casa era a da Rua de Matacavalos, o mes novembro, o ano é que e urn tanto remoto, mas eu ndo hei de trocar as datas a minha vida s6 para agradar as pessoas que ndo amam historias velhas; o ano era de 1857. —D. Gloria, a senhora persiste na ideia de met,er o nosso Bentinho no seminario? E mais que tempo, e já agora pode haver uma dificuldade. —Que dificuldade? —Uma grande dificuldade. Minha nide quis saber o que era. Jose Dias, depois de alguns instantes de concentracdo, veio ver se havia alguem no corredor; ndo deu por mim, voltou e, abafando a voz, disse que a dificuldade estava na casa ao pe, a gente do Padua. —A gente do Padua? —Ha algum tempo estou para the dizer isto, mas ndo me atrevia. Ndo me parece bonito que o nosso Bentinho ande metido nos cantos corn a filha do Tartaruga, e esta 6 a dificuldade, porque se eles pegam de namoro, a senhora tera muito que lutar para separa-los. —Nat) acho. Metidos nos cantos? —E urn modo de falar. Em segredinhos, sempre juntos. Bentinho quase que ndo sai de la. A pequena é uma desmiolada; o pai faz que nao ve; tomara ele que as coisas corressem de maneira que... Compreendo o seu gesto; a senhorando cre em tais calculos, parecelhe que todos tern a alma candida... —Mas, Sr. Jose Dias, tenho visto os pequenos brincando, e nunca vi nada que faca desconfiar. Basta a idade; 29
Bentinho mat tern quinze anos. Capitu fez quatorze a semana passada; sdo dois criancolas. NA° se esqueca que foram criados juntos, desde aquela grande enchente, ha dez anos, em que a familia Padua p,erdeu tanta coisa; dal vieram as nossas relacoes. Pois eu hei de crer?... Mano Cosme, voce que acha? Tio Cosme respondeu corn um "Ora!" que, traduzido em vulgar, queria dizer: "Sdo imaginacoes do Jose Dias; os pequenos divertem-se, eu divirtome; onde esta o gamdo?" — Sim, creio que o senhor esta enganado. —Pode ser, minha senhora. Oxala tenham razdo; mas creia que ndo falei sena° depois de muito examinar... —Em todo caso, vai sendo tempo, interrompeu minha Ink; you tratar de mete-lo no seminario quanto antes. —Bern, uma vez que ndo perdeu a ideia de o fazer padre, tern-se ganho o principal. Bentinho ha de satisfazer os desejos de sua mae e depois a Igreja brasileira tern altos destinos. NA° esquecamos que urn bispo presidiu a Constituinte, e que o Padre Feijo govemou o imperro... —Governou como a cara dele! atalhou tio Cosme, cedendo a antigos rancores politicos. —Perddo, doutor, rid° estou defendendo ninguem, estou citando. 0 que eu quero é dizer que o clero ainda tern grande papel no Brasil. —Voce o que quer é urn capote; ande, vá buscar o gamdo. Quanto ao pequeno, se tern de ser padre, realmente IIé melhor que nao comece a dizer missa atras das portas. Mas, olhe cá, mana Gloria, ha mesmo necessidade de fazelo padr,e? —E promessa, ha de cumprir-se. —Sei que voce fez promessa... mas uma promessa assim... lido sei... Creio que, bem pensado... Voce que acha, prima Justina? —Eu? —Verdade é que cada urn sabe melhor de si, continuou tio Cosme; Deus é que sabe de todos. Contudo, uma, promessa de tantos anos... Mas, que e isso, manaGlOria? Esta chorando? Ora esta! Pois isto é coisa de lagrimas? Minha mde assoou-se sem responder. Prima Justina creio que se levantou e foi ter corn ela. Seguiu-se urn alto silencio, durante o qual estive a pique de entrar na sala, mas outra forca maior, outra emocao... Ndo pude ouvir as palavras clue tio Cosme entrou a dizer. Prima Justina exortava: "Prima Gloria! Prima Gloria!" Jose Dias desculpava-se: "Se soubesse, ndo teria falado, mas falei pela veneracao, pela estima, pelo afeto, para cumprir urn dever amargo, urn clever amarissimo..." CAPITULO by UM DEVER AMARISSIMO! Jose Dias amava os superlativos. Era um modo de dar feicdo monumental As ideias; ndo as havendo, servia a prolongar as frases. Levantou-se para ir buscar o gamdo, que estava no interior da casa. Cosi-me muito a parede, e vio passar corn as suas calcas brancas engomadas, presilhas, rodaque e gravata de mola. Foi dos ultimos que usaram presilhas no Rio de Janeiro, e talvez 30
neste mundo. Trazia as calcas curtas para que Ihe ficassem bem esticadas. A gravata de cetim pretb, corn um arco de aco por dentro, pescoco; era end() moda. 0 rodaque de chita, veste caseira e leve, parecia nele uma casaca de cerimonia. Era magro, chupado, corn urn principio de calva; teria os seus cinqUenta e cinco anos. Levantou-se corn o passo vagaroso do costume, nAo aquele vagar arrastado dos preguicosos, mas urn vagar calculado e deduzido, urn sitogismo completo, a premissa antes da conseqtlencia, conseqiiencia antes da conclusao. Urn dever amarissimo! CAPITULO V 0 AGREGADO Nem sempre ia naquele passo vagaroso ,e rigido. Tambem se descompunha em acidnados, era muita vez rapid() e tepid° nos movimentos, tao natural nesta como naquela maneira. Outrossirn, na largo, se era preciso, de urn grande riso sem vontade, mas comunicativo, a tab ponth as bochechas, os dentes, os olhos, toda a cara, toda a pessoa, todo o mundo pareciam rir nele. Nos lances graves, gravissirno. Era nosso agregado desde muitos anos; meu pai ainda estava na antiga fazenda de %ague, e eu acabava de nascer. Urn dia apareceu ali vendendose por medico homeopata; levava urn Manual e uma botica. Havia entao urn andaco de febres; Jose Dias curou o feitor e uma escrava, e nao quis receber nenhuma remuneracao. Entao meu pai propos-the ficar ali vivendo, corn pequeno ordenado. Jose Dias recusou, dizendo que era justo levar a safide a casa de sape do pobre. —Quern the impede que va a outras partes? Va aonde quiser, mas fique morando conosco. —Voltarei daqui a tres meses. Yoltou dali a duas semanas, aceitou casa c comida sem outro estipendio, salvo o qu quisessem dar por festas. Quando meu pai fo eleito deputado e veio para o Rio de Janeiro coni a familia, ele veio tambem, e teve o seu quarto ad fundo da chacara. Um dia, reinando outra vez febres em Itaguai, disse-lhe meu pai que fosse vet a nossa escravatura. Jose Dias deixou-se estar calado, suspirou e acabou confessando que nao era medico. Tomara este Moto para ajudar a propaganda da nova escola, e nao o fez sem estudar, muito e muito; mas a consciencia nAo the permitia aceitar mais doentes. —Mas, voce curou das outras vezes. —Creio que sim; o mais acertado, Porem, 6 dizer que foram os remedios indicados nos livros. Eles, sim, eles, abaixo de Deus. Eu era um charlatao... Nao negue; os motivos do meu procedimento podiam ser e cram dignos; homeopatia 6 a verdade, e, para servir a verdade, menti; mas C tempo de restabelecer tudo. Nao foi despedido, como pedia entao; meu pai já ilk) podia dispensi-lo. Tinha o dom de se fazer aceito e necessario; dava-se por falta dele, como de pessoa da familia. Quando meu pai morreu, a dor que o pungiu foi enorme, disseram-me; nao me lembra. Minha mae ficou-lhe muito grata, e nao consentiu que etc deixasse o quarto da chacara; ao setimo dia. depois da missa, etc foi despedir-se dela. —Fique, Jose Dias. —Obedeco, minha senhora. Teve um pequeno legado no testamento, uma apOlice e quatro palavras de louvor. Copiou as palavras, encaixilhou-as e pendurou-as no quarto, por cima da cama. "Esta 6 a melhor apace", dizia etc muita vez. Corn o tempo, adquiriu certa autoridade na familia, certa audiencia, ao menos; nao abusava, e sabia op inar obedecendo. Ao cabo, era amigo, nao direi 6timo, mas nem tudo C otimo neste mundo. E nAo lhe suponhas alma subalterna; as cortesias que fizesse vmham antes do Mout° que da indole. A roupa durava-lhe muito; ao
contrario das pessoas que enxovalham depressa o vestido novo, etc trazia o velho escovado e liso, cerzido, abotoado, de uma elegancia pobre e modesta. Era lido, posto que de atropelo, o bastante para divertir ao sera() e sobremesa, ou explicar algum fenomeno, falar dos efeitos do calor e do frio, dos polos e de Robespierre. Contava muita vez uma viagem que fizera a Europa, e confessava que a nao sermos n6s, já teria voltado para la; tinha amigos em Lisboa, mas a nossa , familia, dizia ele, abaixo de Deus, era tudo. —Abaixo ou acima? perguntou-the tio Cosme um dia. —Abaixo, repetiu Jose Dias cheio de veneracao. E minha mae, que era religiosa, gosiou de ver que etc punha Deus no devido lugar, e sorriu aprovando. Jose Dias agradeceu de cabeca. Minha mae dava-lhe de quando em quando alguns cobres. Tio Cosme, que era advogado, confiava-lhe a cOpta de papeis de autos, CAPITULO VI TIO COSME Tio Cosme vivia corn minha mae, desde que ela enviuvou. Já entdo era como prima Justina; era a casa dos tres viavos. A fortuna troca muita vez as maos a natureza. Formado para as serenas fun9Oes do cap italismo, tio Cosme nao ennquecia no foro: ia comendo. Tinha o escritorio na antiga Rua das Violas, perto do jun, que era no extinto Aljube. Trabalhava no Crime. Jose Dias ndo perdia as defesas orais de tio Cosme. Era quem the vestia e despia a toga, corn muitos cumprimentos no fim. Em casa, referia os debates. Tio Cosme, por mais modesto que quisesse ser. sorria de persuasao. Era gordo e pesado, tinha a respiracao curta e os olhos dorminhocos. Uma das minhas recordacOes mais antigas era ve-lo montar todas as manilas a besta que minha mae lhe deu e que o levava ao escritorio. 0 preto que a tinha ido buscar a cocheira segurava o freio, enquanto etc erguia o pe e pousava no estribo; a isto seguia-se um minuto de descanso ou reflexao. Depois, dava urn impulso, o primeiro, o corpo ameacava subir, mas nao subia; segundo impulso, igual efeito. Enfim, apos alguns instantes largos, tio Cosme enfeixava todas as forcas fisicas e morais, dava p ultimo surto da terra, e desta vez caia em cima do selim. Raramente a besta deixava de mostrar por um gesto que acabava de receber o mundo. Tio Cosme acomodava as carnes, e a besta partia a trote. Tambem nao me esqueceu o que etc me fez uma tarde. Posto que nascido na .roca (donde vim corn dois anos) e apesar dos costumes do tempo, eu nao sabia montar, e tinha medo ao cavalo. Tio Cosme pegou em mime escanchou-me em cima da besta. Quando me vi no alto (tinha nove anos), sozinho e desamparado, o chao Id embaixo, entrei a gritar desesperadamente: "Mamae! maniac!" Eta acudiu palida e tremula, cuidou que me estivessem matando, pegou-me, afagou-me, enquanto o irmao perguntava: BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
—Mana Gloria, pois urn tamanhdo comparada a sorte grande, eles a tiraram no bilhete comprado de sociedade. destes tern medo de besta mansa? Concluo que nao se devem abolir as loterias. —Ndo esta acostumado. —Deve acostumar-se. Padre que Nenhum premiado as acusou ainda de imorais, seja, se for vigario na roca, é precise, como ninguem tachou de ma a boceta de Pandora, que monte a cavalo; e, aqui mesmo, por Ihe ter ficado a esperanca no fundo; em ainda ndo sendo padre, se quiser florear alguma parte ha de eta ficar. Aqui os tentio aos como os outros rapazes, e no souber, dois bem casados de outrora, os bem-amados, os hd de queixar-se de voce, mana GI(Via. bem-aventurados, que se foram desta para i outra —Pois que se queixe; tenho medo. vida, continuar um sonho provavelmente. Quando a loteria e Pandora me aborrecem, ergo os olhos — Medo! Ora, medo! A verdade e que eu so vim a aprender para eles, e esqueco os bilhetes brancos e alboceta equitacdo mais tarde, menos por gosto fatidica. sao retratos que valem por originais. 0 que por vergonha de dizer que ndo de minhamde, estendendo a for ao marido,Parece sabia montar. "Agora é que ele vai dizer: "Sou toda sua, meu guapo cavalheiro!" 0 namorar deveras", disseram quando eu de meu pai, olhando para a gente, faz este comecei as licOes.Ndo se diria o mesmo comentdrio: "Vej am como esta moca me de tio Cosme. Nele era velho costume e Se padeceram molestias, nao sei, como na sel se necessidade. Jánão davapara namoros. tiveram desgostos: era crianca e comecei or ndo Contam que, em rapaz, foi aceito de ser nascido. Depois da morte dele, lembra- e que muitas damas, alem de partiddrio ela chorou muito; mas aqui estdo os retr tos de exaltado; mas os anos levaram-Ihe o ambos, sem que o encardido do tempo the tirasse mais do ardor politico e sexual, e a a primeira expressdo. Sao como foto rafias gordura acabou com o resto de ideias instantaneas da felicidade. CApITULO VIII pnblicas e especificas. Agora so cumpria E TEMPO as obrigacOes do oficio e sem amor. Mas é tempo de tornar aquela tarde de Nas horas de lazer vivia olhando ou jogava. Uma ou outravez diziapilherias. novembro, uma tarde clara e fresca, sossegada como a nossa casa e o trecho da rua m que CAPITULO VII moravamos. Verdadeiramente foi o prineipio da D. GLORIA Minha mae era boa criatura. Quando minha vida; tudo o que sucedera antes foi como o Ihe morreu o marido, Pedro de Albu- pintar e vestir das pessoas que tinham de entrar em querque Santiago, contava trinta e urn cena, o acender das luzes, o preparo das rabecas, anos de idade; e podia voltar para a sinfonia... Agora 6 que eu ia comecar minha Itaguai. Ndo quis; preferiu ficar perto Opera. "A vida é uma Opera", dizia-me un velho da igreja em que meu pai fora sepultado. tenor italiano que aqui viveu e morreu... E evlicouVendeu a fazendola e os escravos, me um dia a defitucdo, em tat maneira que me fez comprou alguns que pos ao ganho ou crer nela. Talvez valha a pena da-la; e so urn alugou, uma duzia de predios, certo capitulo. CAPtTULO IX duller° de apolices, e deixou-se estar A OPERA na casa de Matacavalos, onde vivera os Já ndo tinha voz, mas teimava em dizer que a dois ultimos anos de casada. Era filha de uma senhora mineira, descendente tinha. "0 desuso é que me faz mal", acrescentava. de outra paulista, a familia Fernandes. Sempre que uma companhia nova chegava da Ora, pois, naquele ano da graca de Europa, ia ao empresario e expunha-lhe todas as 1857, D. Maria da GlOria Fernandes injusticas da terra e do ceu; o empresario cometia Santiago contava quarenta e dois anos mais uma, e ele saia a bradar contra a iniqUidade. de idade. Era ainda bonita e moca, mas Trazia ainda os bigodes dos seus papeis. Quando teimava em esconder os saldos da andava, apesar de velho, parecia cortejar uma juventude, por mais que a natureza princesa de Babilonia. As vezes, cantarolava, sem quisesse preservd-la da acdo do tempo. abrir a boca, algum trecho ainda mais idoso que Vivia metida em um eterno vestido ele ou tanto; vozes assim abafadas sdo sempre escuro, sem adornos, corn um xale preto, possiveis. Vinha aqui jantar comigo algumas dobrado em triangulo e abrochado ao vezes. Umanoite, depois de muito Chianti, repetiupeito por um camafeu. Os cabelos, em me a definicdo do costume, e como eu the dissesse bandos, cram apanhados sobre a nuca que a vida tanto podia ser uma Opera, como uma por urn velho pente de tartaruga; alguma viagem de mar ou uma batalha, abanou a cabeca vez traziatoucabranca de folhas. Lidava e replicou: vida é uma opera e uma grande opera. 0 assim, corn os seus sapatos de cordovdo rasos e surdos, a um lado e outro, vendo tenor e o baritono lutam pelo soprano, em presenca e guiando os servicos todos da casa do baixo e dos comprimarios, quando nao sdo o soprano e o contralto que lutam pelo tenor, em inteira, desde manhd ate a noite. Tenho au i na parede o retrato dela, presenca do mesmo baixo e dos Fnesmos ao lado do do marido, tais quais na comprimarios. Hd coros a numerosos, muitos outra casa. A pintura escureceu muito, bailados, e a orquestracdo é excelente... —Mas, meu caro Marcolini... mas ainda dá ideia de ambos. Ndo me —Que?... lembra nada dele, a ndo ser vagamente E, depois de beber um gole de licor, pousou o que era alto e usava cabeleira grande; o e expos-me a hist6ria da criacdo, corn retrato mostra uns olhos redondos, que me acompanham para todos os lados, palavras que you resumir. Deus é o poeta. A mnsica é de Satanas, jovem efeito da pintura que me assombrava em pequeno. 0 pescoco sai de uma maestro de muito futuro, que aprehdeu no conservatorio do ceu. Rival de Miguel, Rafael e gravata preta de muitas voltas, a cara toda rapada, salvo urn trechozinho Gabriel, ndo tolerava a precedencia que des tinham pegado as orelhas. 0 de minha nide na distribuicdo dos premios. Pode ser tambem que mostra que era linda. Contava entao a musica em demasia doce e mistica daqueles vinte anos, e tinha uma flor entre os outros condiscipulos fosse aborrecivel ao seu dedos. No painel parece oferecer a flor genio essencialmente tragic°. Traniou uma ao marido. 0 que se le na cara de ambos rebelido que foi descoberta a tempo, e elb expulso é que, sea felicidade conjugal pode ser do conservatorio. Tudo se teria passado sem mais BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
nada, se Deus nao houvesse escrito urn libreto de Opera do qual abrira mao, por entender que tal Oiler° de recreio era improprio da sua eternidade. Satanas levou o manuscrito consigo para o inferno. Corn o fim de mostrar que valia mais que os outros,—e acaso para reconciliar-se corn o ceu,—compos a partitura, e logo que a acabou foi levala ao Padre Eterno. —Senhor, ndo desaprendi as !ivies recebidas, disse-Ihe. Aqui tendes a partitura, escutai-a emendai-a, fazei-a executar, e se a achardes digna das alturas, admiti-me corn ela a vossos pes... —Nao, retorquiu o Senhor, ndo quero ouvir nada. —Mas, Senhor... —Nada! nada! Satanas suplicou ainda, sem melhor fortuna, ate que Deus, cansado e cheio de misericordia, consentiu em que a Opera fosse executada, mas fora do cell. Criou um teatro especial, este planeta, e inventou uma companhia inteira, corn todas as partes, primarias e comprimdrias, coros e bailarinos. —Ouvi agora alguns ensaios! —Ndo, ndo quero saber de ensaios. Basta-me haver composto o libreto; estou pronto a dividir contigo os direitos de autor. Fob talvez urn mal esta recusa; dela resultaram alguns desconcertos que a audiencia previa e a colaboracdo amiga teriam evitado. Corn efeito, ha lugares em que o verso vai para a direita e a para a esquerda. NA° falta quern diga que nisso mesmo esta a beleza da composicao, fugindo a monotpnia, e assim explicam o terceto do Eden, a aria de Abel, os coros da guilhotina e da escravidao. Ndo é raro que os mesmos lances se reproduzam, sem raid() suficiente. Certos motivos cansam forca de repeticdo. Tambem ha obscuridades; o maestro abusa das massas corais, encobrindo muita vez o sentido por um modo confuso. As partes orquestrais sao alias tratadas corn grande pericia. Tal é a opinido dos imparcials. Os amigos do maestro querem que dificilmente se possa acha obratdo bem acabada. Urn ou outro admite certas rudeas e tabs ou quais lacunas, mas corn o andar da Opera 6 provavel que estas sejam preenchidas ou explicadas, e aquelas desaparecam inteiramente, ndo se negando o maestro a emendar a obra onde achar que nao responde de todo ao pensamento sublime do poeta. Já ndo dizem o mesmo os amigos deste. Juram que o libreto foi sacrificado, que a partitura corrompeu o sentido da tetra, e, posto seja bonita em alguns lugares, e trabalhada corn arte em outros, é absolutamente diversa e ate contraria ao drama. 0 grotesco, por exemplo, ndo esta no texto do poeta; é uma excrescencia para imitar as Mulheres Patuscas de Windsor. Este ponto é contestado pelos satanistas corn alguma aparencia de razdo. Dizem eles que, ao tempo em que o jovem Satanas compos a grande opera, nem essa farsa nem Shakespeare cram nascidos. Chegam a afirmar que o poeta ingles nao teve outro genio send° transcrever a tetra da 31
Opera, corn tal arte e fidelidade, que parece ele pr6prio o autor da composicOo; mas, evidentemente, é urn plagidrio. —Esta peca, concluiu o velho tenor, durard enquanto durar o teatro, nao se podendo calcular em que tempo sera ele demolido por utilidade astronomica. 0 exit° é crescente. Poeta e musico recebem pontualmente os seus direitos autorais, que nao sao os mesmos, porque a regra da divisao é aquilo da Escritura: "Muitos sao os chamados, poucos os escolhidos". Deus recebe em ouro, Satands em papel. —Tern graca... — Graca? bradou ele corn faria; mas aquietou-se logo, e replicou:—Caro Santiago, eu nao tenho graca, eu tenho horror a graca. Isto que digo é a verdade pura e uiltima. Urn dia, quando todos os livros forem queimados por inifteis, ha de haver alguem, pode ser que tenor, e talvez italiano, que ensine esta verdade aos homens. Tudo é mnsica, meu amigo. No principio era o do, e do do fez-se re, etc. Este cdlix (e enchia-o novamente), este cal ix 6 urn breve estribilho. Nao se ouve? Tambem nao se ouve o pau nem a pedra, mas tudo cabe na mesma Opera... CAPITULO X ACEITO A TEORIA Que é demasiada metafisica para um se tenor, nao ha dirvida; mas a perda da voz explica tudo, e hd filosofos que sao, em resumo, tenores desempregados. Eu, leitor amigo, aceito a teoria do meu velho Marcolini, ndo s6 pela verossimilhanca, que é muita vez toda a verdade, mas porque a minha vida se casa bem a definicao. Cantei urn duo temissimo, depois um trio, depois urn quatuor... Mas nao adiantemos; vamos primeira parte, em que eu vim a saber que já cantava, porque a denuncia de Jose Dias, meu caro leitor, foi dada principalmente a mim. A mime que ele me denunciou. , CAPITULO XI A PROMESSA Tao depressa vi desaparecer o agregado no corredor, deixei o esconderijo, e corn i varanda do fundo. Nao quis saber de lagrimas nem da causa que as fazia venter a minha mae. A causa eram provavelmente os seus projetos eclesidsticos, e a ocasiao destes é a que you dizer, por ser já entAo historia velha; datava de dezesseis anos. Os projetos vinham do tempo em que fui concebido. Tendo-lhe nascido morto o primeiro filho, minha mae pegou-se corn Deus para que o segundo vingasse, prometendo, se fosse varao, mete-lo na Igreja. Talvez esperasse uma menina. Nao disse nada a meu pai, nem antes, nem depois de me dar a luz, contava faze-lo quando eu entrasse para a escola, mas enviuvou antes disso. Viuva, sentiu o terror de separar-se de mim; mas era tao devota, tao temente a Deus, que buscou testemunhas da obrigacao, confiando a promessa a parentes e familiares. Unicamente, para que nos separdssemos o mais tarde possivel, fez-me aprender em casa primeiras letras, latim e doutrina, por aquele Padre Cabral, velho amigo do
tio Cosme, que ia lájogar as noites. Prazos largos sao faceis de subscrever; a imaginacao os faz infinitos. Minha mae esperou que os anos viessem vindo. Entretanto ia-me afeicoando a iddia da Igreja; brincos de crianca, livros devotos, imagens de santos, conversacOes de casa, tudo convergia para o altar. Quando iamos a missa, dizia-me sempre que era para aprender a ser padre, e que reparasse no padre, nao tirasse os olhos do padre. Em casa, brincava de missa,—um tanto as escondidas, porque minha mae dizia que missa far) era coisa de brincadeira. Arranj dvamos urn altar, Capitu e eu. Eta servia de sacristao, e alterdvamos o ritual, no sentido de dividirmos a hOstia entre nos, a hostia era sempre um doce. No tempo em que brincavamos assim, era muito comum ouvir a minha vizinha: "Hoje hd missa?" Eu já sabia o que isto queria dizer, respondia afirmativamente, e ia pedir hostia por outro nome. Voltava corn eta, arranjavamos o altar, engroldvamos o latim e precipitavamos as cerimonias. Dominus, non sum dignus... Isto, que eu devia dizer tres vezes, penso que s6 dizia uma, tal era a gulodice do padre e do sacristao. Nao bebiamos vinho nem agua; nao tinhamos o primeiro, e a segunda viria tirar-nos o gosto do sacrificio. Ultimamente nao me falavam ja do semindrio, a tal ponto que eu supunha ser negocio findo. Quinze anos, nao havendo vocacao, pediam antes o seminario do mundo que o de S. Jose. Minha mae ficava muita vez a olhar paramim, como alma perdida, ou pegava-me na mao, a pretexto de nada, para apertd-la mmito. CAPITULO XII NA VARANDA Parei na varanda; ia tonto, atordoado, as pemas bambas, o coracao parecendo querer sair-me pela boca fora. Nao me atrevia a descer a chacara, e passar ao quintal vizinho. Comecei a andar de urn lado para outro, estacando para amparar-me, e andava outra vez e estacava. Vozes confusas repetiam o discurso do Jose Dias: "Sempre juntos..." "Em segredinhos..." "Se eles pegam de namoro..." Tijolos que pisei e repisei naquela tarde, colunas amareladas que me passastes a direita ou esquerda, segundo eu ia ou vinha, em vos me ficou a melhor parte da crise, a sensacao de urn gozo novo, que me envolvia em mim mesmo, e logo me dispersava, e me trazia arrepios, e me derramava nao sei que balsam° interior. As vezes dava por mim, sorrindo, urn ar de riso de satisfacao, que desmentia a abominacao do meu pecado. E as vozes repetiam-se confusas: "Em segredinhos..." "Sempre juntos..." "Se eles pegam de namoro..." Urn coqueiro, vendo-me inquieto e adivinhando a causa, murmurou de cima de si que Ira° era feio que os meninos de quinze anos andassem nos cantos corn as meninas de quatorze, ao contrario, os adolescentes daquela idade nao tinham outro oficio, nem os cantos outra utilidade. Era urn coqueiro velho, e eu cria nos coqueiros velhos, mars ainda que nos velhos livros. Passaros, borboletas, uma cigarra que ensaiava o estilo, toda a gente viva do ar era da mesma opiniao. Corn que entdo eu amava Capitu, e Capitu a mim? Realmente, andava cosido as saias dela, mas nao me ocorria nada entre nos que fosse deveras secreto. Antes dela ir para o colegio, eram tudo travessuras de crianca; depois que saiu do colegio, é certo que tido estabelecemos logo a antiga intimidade, mas esta voltou pouco a pouco, e no ultimo ano era completa. Entretanto, a materia das nossas conversacoes era a de sempre. Capitu chamava-me as vezes bonito, mocetao, uma for; outras pegava-me nas maos para contar-me os
dedos. E comecei a recordar esses e outros gestos e palavras, o prazer que sentia quando eta me passava a mao pelos cabelos, dizendo que os achava lindissimos. Eu, sem fazer o mesmo aos dela, dizia que os dela eram muito mais lindos que os meus. Entao Capitu abanava a cabeca corn uma grande expressao de desengano e melancolia, tanto mais de espantar quanto que tinha os cabelos realmente admirdveis; mas eu retorquia chamando-lhe maluca. Quando me perguntava se sonhara corn eta na vespera, e eu dizia que nao, ouvia-the contar que sonhara comigo, e eram aventuras extraordindrias, que subiamos ao Corcovado pelo ar, que dancavamos na lua, ou entao que os anjos vinham perguntar-nos pelos nomes, a fim de os dar a outros anjos que acabavam de nascer. Em todos esses sonhos andayamos unidinhos. Os que eu tinha corn ela nao eram assim, apenas reproduziam a nossa familiaridade, e muita vez nao passavam da simples repeticao do dia, alguma frase, algum gesto. Tambem eu os contava. Capitu urn dia notou a diferenca, dizendo que os dela eram mais bonitos que os meus, eu, depois de certa hesitacao, disse-lhe que eram como a pessoa que sonhava... Fez-se con de pitanga. Pois, francamente, so agora entendia a emocao que me davam essas e outras confidencias. A emocao era doce e nova, mas a causa dela fugia-me, sem que eu a buscasse nem suspeitasse. Os silencios dos riltimos dias, que me nao descobriam nada, agora os sentia como sinais de alguma coisa, e assim as meias palavras, as perguntas curiosas, as respostas vagas, os cuidados, o gosto de recordar a infancia. Tambem adverti que era fen6meno recente acordar corn O pensamento em Capitu, e escutd-la de mem6ria, e estremecer quando !he ouvia os passos. Se se falava nela, em minha casa, prestava mai s atencao que dantes, e, segundo era louvor ou crftica, assim me trazia gosto ou desgosto mais intensos que outrora, quando eramos somente cornpanheiros de travessuras. Cheguei a pensarnela durante as missas daque le mes, corn intervalos, é verdade, mas corn exclusivismo tambem. Tudo isto me era agora apresentado pela boca de Jose Dias, que me denunciara a mim mesmo, e a quem eu perdoava tudo, o mat que dissera, o mat que fizera, e o que pudesse vir de urn e de outro. Naquele instante, a eterna Verdade nao valeria mais que ele, nem a eterna Bondade, nem as demais Virtudes eternas. Eu amava Capitu! Capitu amava-me! E as minhas pernas andavam, desandavam, estacavam, tremulas e crentes de abarcar o mundo. Esse primeiro palpitar da seiva, essa revelacao da consciencia a si pr6pria, nunca mais me esqueceu, nem achei que the fosse compardvel qualquer outra sensacao da mesma especie. Naturalmente por ser minha. Naturalmente tambem por ser a primeira. Excerpted from Dom Casmurro by Machado de Assis, Edicties de Ouro, Rio de Janeiro, 1969, 272 pp
32 BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
, For the Brazilian, particularly the Nordestino, it's impossible to Caravelas to the south, you'll have to either pass through speak about the Rio Sao Francisco without a dose of pride and or connect in one of them. Both towns have basic emotion. The third most important river in Brazil, after the Amazon services and accommodation. Excursions to Parque and Rio Paraguai, there is no river that is anthropomorphised like the Nacional Marinho dos Abrolhos are best organized in sao Francisco. Those who live along its banks speak of it as a Caravelas. friend—hence the affectionate nickname velho chico or chicao On a dirt track 12 km north of Prado are the (Chico is short for Francisco). At the crossroads of BR-101, BR-116 semideserted beaches of Paixao and Tororao. The dirt and BR-124, Feira de Santana is the main city ofBahia's interior, and road continues 22 km to Cumuruxatiba. North of a great cattle center. There's not much to see here except the Feira de Cumuruxatiba, past the ocean border of Parque Nacional Gado, the big Monday cattle market (lots of tough leather), which is de Monte Pascoal, the village of Caraiva and all the way great fun, but don't expect to buy much, and the Mercado de Arte to Trancoso is a 60-km stretch of undeveloped coastline. Popular (open daily except Sunday). The Casa do Sertao (folklore Judging by the interest currently being shown by museum) and Museu Regional (Regional Museum) might also be developers, it is unlikely to stay that way. Beyond worth a look. Caraiva, there are only the miserable unpaved roads to PARQUE NACIONAL DE MONTE PASCOAL Trancoso and Arraial d'Ajuda. On 22 April 1500 the Portuguese, sailing under the command of CARAVELAS Pedro Alvares Cabral, sighted the broad, 536-meter hump of Monte Caravelas, 74 km from Teixeira de Freitas on BRPascoal (Mt Easter), their first 101, is not only a gateway to glimpse of the New World Parque Nacional Marinho dos They called the land Terra de Abrolhos; it's also an Vera Cruz (Land of the True interesting town in its own right, with a large fishing Cross). community and good beaches The park, 690 km from nearby. Salvador and 479 km from Vitoria, contains a variety of Information ecosystems: Atlantic rainVisa card cash withforest, secondary forests, drawals can be made at the swamplands and shallows, Banco do Brasil on Praca Dr mangroves, beaches and reefs. Imbassahi. The IBAMA Foreigners and Brazilians Who came The variety of the landscape is information office (Tel.: 297to visit have settled permanently in the matched by the diversity in 1148), on Praca Dr lmbassahi, historical city of Lengois in Bahia. They has colorful brochures in flora and fauna. There are several monkey species, incluhave been the backbone of a strong English, with useful information about the Parque ding the endangered spider ecological movement to preserve a land monkey, two types of sloths, Nacional Marinho dos Abrothat has been ravaged by forest fires, lhos. Abrolhos Turismo (Tel.: anteaters, rare porcupines, hunting, and poisoning of rivers. 297-1149), also on Praca Dr capybaras (the world's largest Imbassahi, is a private travel rodent), deer, jaguar, cougar agency, but it also acts as a and numerous species of birds. kind of unofficial tourist There are plans for a office. English is spoken here. visitors' center, marked trails, There is also a small tourist picnic tables, etc, but there is information office at the no infrastructure yet. Visitors rodoviaria. can climb Monte Pascoal and A reader who spent four roam through the forests at the weeks in the area as a volunwestern/BR-101 end of the teer for a whale research park. The coastal side is project writes about Caraaccessible by boat or on foot velas: from Caraiva in the north and .Caravelas is a small city Corumbau to the south. The with hardly any tourist facinorth-eastern corner ofthe park lities, which makes it a very below Caraiva is home to a quiet and original place. You small number of Pataxo can hardly buy a T-shirt there, Indians—this section has been and few people speak Enofficially closed to tourism in glish. But the food in the the past but the Pataxo don't Restaurant Jubarte (Humpdiscourage visitors. back) is excellent. I According to recent recoMmend the shrimp with cheese. What also makes reports, the Pataxo have succumbed to the lucrative offers of logging Cara elas special is that it lies in a delta area with companies and allowed the park to be stripped of its valuable timber. mangroves and Atlantic jungle. Opposite the village is The park currently covers only 12,000 hectares, a figure which the b g island of Cacumba (100 sq km), that is surrounded represents half of its original size, and the shrinkage threatens to by the big arms of the delta. Along the coast grows the continue unchecked. mangrove and inland the forest. There are about 200 CUMURUXATIBA fami ies living there, who cultivate the land for their own Sandwiched between a bluff and the ocean, this two-street beach support. Some oftheir produce they sell on the mainland. town is quiet and slow-paced. There's not much to it, apart from a There are three species of mangrove, red, black and long beach lined with amendoeira trees, a handful ofpousadas and white, and they all grow there. What makes the mangrove a surprising number of good restaurants. spec al is the extreme height of the trees (20 meters plus), Boat trips to Corumbau, Caraiva and Parque Nacional de Monte probably the highest in the world. Enormous crabs take Pascoal can be arranged with Leo de Escuna on his schooner Santa care of oxygen in the soil—the soil is clay and without Cruz de Cabralia. Contact him at Aquamar, a barraca along the crabs it would be too hard. In the jungle grows a variety beach. of trbpical fruits. There are lots of different species of PRADO & ALCOBACA bird and in the swamp near the shore, crocodiles live. These little big towns on the coast south of Cumuruxatiba don't he second specialty of Caravelas is the harbor from have much to offer travelers—their beaches are built up and not where you can go to the protected marine National Park especially pretty. If you are heading to Cumuruxatiba to the north or
Preserving the Wild
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
of the Abrolhos Archipelago. In wintertime (end of June to October) it is an area for Humpback whales who mate and give birth there. Their population is increasing and is estimated now at about 400 to 700. A nature protection organization is doing research into their social behavior and is making photos for identification. (Bettina van Elk, The Netherlands) Things to See & Do To get a feel for the town's thriving fishing industry, check out the Cooperativa Mista dos Pescadores on Rua da Cooperativa opposite the hospital, or wander along the riverfront to Praca dos Pescadores, where the fisherfolk hang out after coming in from the day's catch. For beaches, head for Praia Grauca (eight km north of town on a dirt track) and Pontal do Sul (across the Rio Caravelas). In addition, there are the island beaches of Coroa da Barra (half an hour by boat) and Coroa Vermelha (1 1/2 hours by boat). It's possible to go by boat along the mangrove-lined Rio Caravelas to the next beach town to the south, Nova Vicosa. Ask at the tourist office at the rodoviciria, Abrolhos Turismo or Abrolhos EmbarcacOes. A snorkeling day trip to the island of Coroa Vermelha costs $40 per person, with lunch included. PARQUE NACIONAL MARINHO DOS ABROLHOS Abrolhos, Brazil's first marine park, covers part of an archipelago 80 km offshore from Caravelas. In 1832, Charles Darwin visited here whilst voyaging with HMS Beagle. The archipelago consists of five islands, but the only inhabited one is Santa Barbara, which has a lighthouse, built in 1861, and a handful of buildings. Abrolhos is being preserved because of its coral reefs and crystal-clear waters. Underwater fishing within the park is prohibited. The only approach is by boat, and staying on the islands is prohibited. The Brazilian navy considers the area strategic, therefore only underwater photography is permitted. Unfortunately, the archipelago's coral reefs, home to at least eight different species of coral, have been badly affected by toxic chemicals routinely dumped by industry, especially a pulp and paper company in southern Bahia. Dynamite fishing has depleted the fish stocks and thereby caused rapid growth of seaweed (normally kept in check by herbivorous fish), which is destroying the coral reefs. Experts now maintain that the erosion caused by deforestation along the coastline is responsible for heavy levels of sediment in the ocean, which in turn prevents sufficient light reaching underwater organisms such as the coral. West of Salvador FEIRA DE SANTANA At the crossroads of BR-101, BR-116 and BR-124, Feira de Santana is the main city of Bahia's interior, and a great cattle center. There's not much to see here except the Feira de Gado, the big Monday cattle market (lots of tough leather), which is great fun, but don't expect to buy much, and the Mercado de Arte Popular (open daily except Sunday). The Casa do Sera() (folklore museum) and Museu Regional (Regional Museum) might also be worth a look. Festivals Two months after Carnaval, Feira de Santana is the scene of the Micareta—a 60-year-old local version of Carnaval which brings together the best trios eletricos of Salvador, with local blocos, samba schools and folklore groups. The main action of the Micareta takes place on Avenida Getnlio Vargas, the city's main street, where 20 trios hop along for five days. The festivities begin on Thursday with a boisterous dance and opening ceremony. The tennis and cajueiro clubs sponsor large dances like the traditional Uma Noite no Havai (A Night in Hawaii). For those who missed out on Carnaval in Salvador, the Micareta could tie the next best thing. SALVADOR TO LENCOIS The seven-hour bus odyssey from Salvador to Lenciais first goes through Feira de Santana and then continues through typical sertilo countryside: patches of low scrub and cactus where scrawny cattle graze and hawks circle above. In 1995, much of the road had been newly asphalted, but there were still odd sections where the asphalt drops out, as if someone hadn't done their sums properly. The bus stops for lunch at Itaberaba where the rodoviciria restaurant serves two typical sena° dishes: carne de sol corn 34
pirtlo de leite (dried salted beef with manioc and milk sauce to take the edge off the salt) and sopa de feijelo (bean soup with floating UPO—Unidentified Pigs' Organs). LENcoIS Lenciais lies in a gorgeous, wooded mountain region—the Chapada Diamantina—an oasis of green in the dusty serteio. You'll find solitude, small towns steeped in the history and superstition of the garimpeiros (prospectors), and great hiking to peaks, waterfalls and rivers. If you want to see something different, and have time for only one excursion into the Northeastern interior, this is the one. The natural beauty of the region and the tranquillity of the small, colonial towns has attracted a steady trickle of travelers for several years; some have never left. These new residents have spearheaded an active environmental movement that successfully lobbied the government to declare the region a national park. History The history of Lencois epitomizes the story of the diamond boom and bust. After earlier expeditions by bandeirantes proved fruitless, the first diamonds were found in Chapada Velha in 1822. After large strikes in the Rio Mucuge in 1844, prospectors, roughnecks and adventurers arrived from all over Brazil to seek their fortunes. Garimpeiros began to work the mines, searching for diamonds in alluvial deposits. They settled in makeshift tents which, from the hills above, looked like sheets of laundry drying in the wind—hence the name ofLencOis (Portuguese for sheets). The tents ofthese diamond prospectors grew into cities: Vila Velha de Palmeiras, Andarai, PiatA, Igatu and the most attractive of them all, the stone city of Lencois. Exaggerated stories of endless riches in the Diamantina mines precipitated mass migrations, but the area was rich in dirty industrial stones, not display-quality gems. At the height of the diamond boom, the French—who purchased diamonds and used them to drill the Panama Canal ( 1881-89), St Gothard Tunnel, and London Underground—built a vice consulate in Lencais. French fashions and bon mots made their way into town, but with the depletion of d iamonds, the falloff in French demand (and subsequently the fail in diamond prices on the international market), the abolition of slavery, and the newly discovered South African mines, the boom went bust at the beginning of the 20th century. The town's economy has long since turned to coffee and manioc cultivation, and to tourism. But diamonds are what the locals still dream of. The last few garimpeiros are using powerful and destructive water pumps to wrench diamonds from the riverbeds. Geology According to geologists, the diamonds in Chapada Diamantina were formed millions of years ago near present-day Namibia. Interestingly, Bahia was contiguous to Africa before the continental drift. The diamonds were mixed with pebbles, swept into the depths of the sea—which covered what is now inland Brazil—and imprisoned when the conglomeration turned to stone. With the formation of Chapada Diamantina this layer of conglomerate stone was elevated, and the forces of erosion released the trapped diamonds which were then brought to rest in the riverbeds. Information The Secretaria de Turismo Lencois has a tourist office (Tel.: 334-1121) on Avenida Senhor dos Passos. The office can help with accommodation and has photographs ofthe main attractions in the Chapada Diamantina. The enthusiastic young guides that hang around the tourist office can be useful for day trips—they charge about $25 per day for groups of up to four people. Jaqueline Rocha Haj Lima in the office can recommend a guide who is familiar with the area you want to visit. The Prefeitura Municipal, at Praca Otaviano Alves 8, is a pretty building with b&w photos of old Lenc6is, erratic opening hours and scant information. Lampido, a local newssheet, has some ecological information, plus the local football results and political scandals. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Things to See The city is pretty and easily seen on foot, although, unfortunately, most ofthe buildings are closed to the public. See the old French vice consulate, a beige 19th-century building where diamond commerce was negotiated, and Casa de Afranio Peixoto (House & Museum of Afranio Peixoto), with the personal effects and works of the writer Afranio Peixoto. Also worth a visit is Lanchonete Zack), run by local historian Mestre Oswaldo, which displays various mining relics and artifacts. Festivals The principal holidays take place in January and September. Festa de Senhor dos Passos starts on 24 January, and culminates on 2 February with the Noite dos Garimpeiros (Prospectors' Night). Semana de Afranio Peixc;to, a week dedicated to the author, is held from 11 to 18 December and coincides with the municipality's emancipation from slavery. Lamentacao das Almas is a mystic festival held during Lent. Lencois is also noted for Jare, regional variation of Candomble. Things to Buy There are night stalls on Praca Horacio de Mattos selling crochet, lacework, trinkets and bottles of colored sand collected at nearby Sala() de Arei as Coloridas. Funkart Artesanato and the Mercado Municipal are other places to look for the work oflocal artisans. PARQUE NACIONAL DA CHAPADA DIAMANTINA Many of the foreigners and Brazilians who came to visit have settled permanently in Lencois. They have been the backbone of a strong ecological movement which is in direct opposition to the extractive mentality of the garimpeiros and many ofthe locals. Riverbeds have been dug up, waters poisoned and game hunted for food and sport. Much of the land has been ravaged by forest fires. The hunting and depletion of habitat has thinned the animal population severely. After six years of bureaucratic battles biologist Roy Funch helped convince the government to create the Parque Nacional da Chapada D iamantina to protect the natural beauty of the area. Signed into law in 1985, the park roughly spans the quadrangle formed by the cities of Lencois and Mucuge, Palmeiras and Andarai. The park, 1520 sq km of the Sincora range of the Diamantina plateau, has several species of monkeys, beautiful views, clean waterfalls, rivers and streams, and an endless network of trails. Although bromelias, velosiaceas, philodendrons and strawflowers are protected by law, these plants have been uprooted nearly to extinction for the ornamental plant market. The park is particularly interesting for rock hounds, who will appreciate the curious geomorphology of the region. Information The park has little, if any, infrastructure for visitors. Knowledgeable guides, such as Roy Funch and Luis Krug, can greatly enhance enjoyment of any trip into the park. Whether you take a guide or not, you should definitely not go alone. In the descriptions ofpark hikes that follow, we've indicated those trips which would be dangerous without a guide. Funch, an ax-American from Arizona and now a naturalized citizen, came to Brazil 10 years ago with the Peace Corps. He pushed for the creation of the Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina and has a very detailed knowledge of the region. He is currently working on other projects, but can be contacted through the Fundacao ChapadaDiamantina (Tel.: 334-1188), at Rua Pe de Ladeira 212. Luis Krug, from sao Paulo, is a guide who knows the history, geography and biology of the arca, as well as the trails. Contact Luis at Pousada Canto das Aguas in Lencois. In Palmeiras, Claude Samuel runs trips into the park from the Pousada Candomba (Tel.: 332-2176). Claude speaks English and French, and his donkey treks have been recommended by readers. Day Trips Around the Park For day trips around Lencois, you can walk or hire a horse. For day trips further afield you have the option of walking, hitching using the bus, or taking one of the guided tours offered BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
by the travel 4gencies and pousadas in LencOis. The Grand Circuit described later in this section, is best done on foot. For horse rental, c ntact Senhor Dazim, who has horses available. There's no sig on his house, so you may have to ask around— everyone in th neighborhood knows him. You can choose from his list of hor e rides and treks, which are all accompanied. Sample prices per person are: one hour ($3); half day ($20); whole day ($ 6); three days ($60). Negotiate discounts for groups of thre or more. Bus services are infrequent and scarce, particularly to the remote parts of the park. Day Trips Around Lenvois Rio Lenc6is You can start a pleasant hike along the Rio ' Lencois by following a trail southwest from the rodoviaria (and continuing through the Parque Municipal da Muritiba, upstream to Cachoeira Serrano (a series of rapids) and Sala° de Areias Coloridas (literally Room of Colored Sands), where artisans gather their matera prima for bottled sand paintings. If you continue up the river, you'll see Cachoeirinha waterfall on a tributary to your left, and after passing Pop Paraiso waterhole, you'll see Cachoeira da Primavera waterfall on another tributary on your left. From the rodoviaria to here takes around 1 V2 hours on foot. RibeirAo Io Meio & Cachoeira do Sossego This is another relaxing hike (45 minutes) that can be made to Ribeirao Meio. Take the road uphill from Camping Lumiar, ignoring the left turning you'll see after about 100 meters, and centinue until the road ends at a white house. After continuing for a short distance, take the left fork of a trail which descends and crosses a stream. Keep following the track until you reach a ridge overlooking Rio Ribeirao, a tributary of Rio Sao Jose. At the foot of the ridge, you'll find Ribeirao do Meio, a series of swift-ming holes with a natural waterslide (bring old clothes or borrow a burlap sack). It is very important not to walk up the slide: several bathers who have done so have met with nasty accidents. Instead, swim across to the far side of the pool and climb the dry rocks at the side of the slide before launching off. Upstrea from Ribeirao do Meio, a trail leads to Cachoeira do Sossego aterfall. The hike involves a great deal of stonehopping alon the riverbed. On no account should you attempt this trail dun g high water or rain: the river stones are covered with lichen hich becomes impossibly slippery. To walk there and back to encois takes around five hours. Gruta d Lapao This is pr bably the largest sandstone cave in South America. Access is tri y and it's necessary to take a competent guide— ask at the to rist office. The walk takes around four hours. Day Tri $ Further Afield Lapa D ce, Gruta da Pratinha & Gruta Azul These three sights are best visited by car—the guided day trips offered by travel agents and other operators in Lencois usually take in all of these sights. Lapa Doce (70 km from Lencois, then a 25-minute hike to the entrance) is a huge cave formed by a subterranean river. Access to the cave is via an immense sinkhole; inside there's an impressive assortment of cave decorat ons which prompt erotic comparisons. Admission costs $0.50. About 1 km from this cave are Gruta da Pratinha and Gruta Azul, two m ire caves of lesser interest, which have-been spoilt by pollution and vandalism. Rio Mu ugezinho This riv ,25 km from Lencois, is a super day trip. Take the 8 am Palmei as/Seabra bus, and ask the driver to let you off at Barraca do le—the bus passes this place again at around 4 pm on its return trip to Lencois. From Barraca do Pele, pick your way about o km downstream to Poco do Diabo (Devil's Well), a sw mming hole with a 30-meter waterfall. Further upstream, y u'll find Rita and Marco, who have set up house in a cave and r n a snack bar outside. Morro o Pai Inacio & Barro Branco Morro d Pai Inacio (1120 meters) is the most prominent as
peak in the immediate area. It's 27 km from Lencois and easily accessible from the highway. An easy but steep trail takes you to the summit (200 meters above the highway) for a beautiful view. Hikers may want to take the trail along Barro Branco between Lencois and Morro do Pai Inacio—allow four or five hours one way for the hike. Palmeiras, Capao & Cachoeira da Fumaca Palmeiras, 56 km from Lencois, is a drowsy little town with a slow, slow pace and a scenic riverside position. The streets are lined with colorful houses. There is one pousada in the town and a couple of cheap pensaes. The hamlet of Capao is 20 km from Palmeiras by road From here, there's a six-km trail (two hours on foot) to the top of Cachoeira da Fumaca, also known as the Glass waterfall, after missionary George Glass, which plummets 420 meters—the longest waterfall in Brazil. Although marked on the map, the route to the bottom of the waterfall is very difficult, and isn't recommended. The Grand Circuit The grand circuit of the park covers around 100 km and is best done on foot in a clockwise direction. It takes about five days, but you should allow eight days if you include highly recommended side trips, such as Igatu and Cachoeira da Fumaca. Lenceis to Andarai For this section you should allow two days. On the first night, camp at a site near Rio Roncador. On the way, you pass Marimbus, a microregion with characteristics similar to the Pantanal. In Andarai, either camp or stay at the basic Penseio
Poco Encantado & Igatu These side trips are highly recommended. Poco Encantado, 56 km from Andarai, is an underground lake which is clear blue and stunningly beautiful. You'll need a car to get there; hitching is difficult because there is very little traffic. Igatu, 12 km from Andarai, is a small community with an intriguing set of ruins (highly recommended). Either walk or drive to Igatu. Andarai to Vale do Pati & Ruinha This section takes a day, but you should allow an extra day to potter around the valley: for example, doing a side trip to Cachoeirao (a delightful waterfall) or enjoying the atmosphere in the tiny ghost settlement of Ruinha. Vale do Pati to Cap() This section, which crosses the beautiful plains region of Gerais do Vieira, is best covered in two comfortable days, although it's possible to do it in one very long day. The tiny settlement of Capao serves as a base for the highly recommended hike to Cachoeira da Fumaca. In Capao, you can camp or stay at the Pousada Candombti for $2.50 per person, with breakfast an additional $1.50. Cap() to Lencois You'll need a full day to hike this section. From Capao, follow the road through Caete Acu, and when you reach the 'bar', take the track to the right. Follow the main track east, crossing the river several times, before veering off to reach Lencois. There are a couple of campsites along the track on the section between the 'bar' and Lencois. RIO SAO FRANCISCO For the Brazilian, particularly the Nordestino, it's impossible to speak about the Rio Sao Francisco without a dose ofpride and emotion. The third most important river in Brazil, after the Amazon and Rio Paraguai, there is no river that is anthropomorphised like the Sao Francisco. Those who live along its banks speak of it as a friend—hence the affectionate nickname velho chico or china() (Chico is short for Francisco). The geographical situation of the Sao Francisco gave it a prominence in the colonial history of Brazil that surpassed the Amazon. Born in the Serra da Canastra, 1500 meters high in Minas Gerais, the Rio Sao Francisco descends from south to north, crossing the greater part of the Northeast sertao, and completing its 3160-km journey in the Atlantic Ocean after slicing through the states of Minas Gerais and Bahia, and delineating the borders of the states of Bahia, Pernambuco, Sergipe and Alagoas. For three centuries the Sao Francisco, also called the 'river of national unity', represented the only connection between the
small towns at the extremes of the sena' o and the coast. 'Discovered' in the 17th century, the river was the best of the few routes available to penetrate the semi-arid Northeastern interior. Thus the frontier grew along the margins of the river. The economy of these settlements was based on cattle, to provide desperately needed food for the gold miners in Minas Gerais in the 18th century and, later, to feed workers in the cacao plantations in southern Bahia. Although the inhabitants of the region were often separated by enormous distances, cattle ranching proved a common bond and produced a culture which can be seen today in the region's folklore, music and art. The history of this area is legendary in Brazil: the tough vaqueiros who drove the cattle; the commerce in salt (to fatten the cows); the cultivation of rice; the rise in banditry; the battles between the big landowners; and the religious fanaticism of Canudos. The slow waters of the Sao Francisco have been so vital to Brazil because in a region with devastating periodic droughts, the river provides one of the only guaranteed sources of water. The people who live there know this, and thus, over the centuries, they have created hundreds of stories, fairy tales and myths about the river. One example is the bicho da agua (beast of the water). It is part animal and part man that walks on the bottom of the river and snores. The crew on the riverboats throw tobacco to the bicho da agua for protection. The river's width varies from two handspans at its source in the Serra da Canastra, an empty, uninhabitable region where nothing grows, to 40 km at the Lagoa do Sobradinho, the biggest artificial lake in the world. As a result, Nordestinos believe that Sao Francisco is a gift of God to the people of the sertao to recompense all their suffering in the drought-plagued land. River Travel People have always traveled by the Sao Francisco. In the beginning there were sailboats and rowboats, then came the motorboats, which became famous because of the personalities of the barqueiros who drove the boats and put carrancas on the front of them. Carrancas are wooden sculptures that represent an animal-like face—part dog, part wolf—with big teeth and open mouth. These sculptures are now popular as folk art, and are sold in Salvador and at fairs along the river. Today, with the river cities linked by roads, river traffic has decreased drastically, but it shouldn't prove too hard to find boats for short trips on local market days (usually Saturday). Bom Jesus da Lapa, on the Sao Francisco in the interior of Bahia, is the site of one of the most important religious festivals and processions in the sena°. The festival is held on 6 August. It may be possible to hire a local boat from Juazeiro, on the Pernambuco-Bahia border, to Xique-Xique, 200 km downstream in Bahia. A reader wrote to us with the following assessment of river travel along the Rio Sao Francisco: The river appears dead as a means of commercial travel, and only a small amount oftransport by local narrow boat continues between the villages. The river has become sluggish as a result of construction of a hydroelectric plant on the seaward Excerpts from Bru:il side of Lagoa do Sobradinho, and silting is so severe in some A Travel Survival Kit places that the shallow-draught 3rd edition, local boats touch bottom. by Andrew Draffen, Xique-Xique, at the Chris McAsey, southern end of Lagoa do Leonardo Pinheiro, Sobradinho, appears to have a and Robyn Jones. mainly school-age population, For more information most of whom are learning English and are keen to use it. call Lonely Planet: A couple of islands close to (800) 275-8555. the town have been declared a Copyright 1996 Lonely reserve for the protection of Planet Publications. anteaters, which are said to be Used by permission. the only ones in the area. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
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Fire and Poet Eliane Elias adds new punch to her already explosive arsenal of talent with the release of her second tribute to Ant8nio Carlos Jobim. In informed jazz circles Eliane Elias is considered to be one of the most evolving composers, pianists, producers, and leaders to come along in many years. With the release of Sings Jobim, vocalist can be added to the list. BRUCE GILMAN
Undeniably, time and over-exposure has diverted continued appreciation of Antonio Carlos Jobim's music and turned bossa nova into a cliché. For years, beautiful tunes like "Wave" and "Garota de Ipanema" have been piped into supermarkets, dental offices, and even into elevators via Muzak. The term "elevator music" was applied to the music of Tom Jobim. Nonetheless, devotees of Jobim's music continue to promote it. One staunch advocate is an overwhelmingly creative pianist, composer, and producer, who moved to the United States in 1981, preceded by tales of greatness. By arranging and recording a volume ofJobim classics, Eliane Elias has once again permitted listeners to hear the familiar with a warming appreciation of the discrete parts that Jobim so mysteriously united. For this latest outing on the Blue Note label, Eliane has chosen the perfect sidemen: Michael Brecker, Marc Johnson, Paulo Braga, and Oscar Castro-Neves, who hasn't sounded this cocksure since his work on the landmark recording Elis & Tom. As is typical of Eliane's work, the arrangements are incredibly intricate while at the same time sounding deceptively simple. Fledgling musicians attempting to play along with these "familiar" tunes will soon realize how many modulations and chordal alterations Elias utilizes without drawing attention to them. She extracts from each composition everything that Jobim put into them and infuses them with a richness that draws out their finer subtleties and increasingly complex harmonic overtones while retaining that distinctive Jobim sound. Elias was a child prodigy who had been spared that special hell reserved for artists who force their talents too early by her penchant for transcribing Art Tatum and Bud Powell solos from recordings. When Eliane first paraded her technical skills in the United States, she amazed musicians and non-musicians alike. They marveled at her dazzling right-hand runs, executed often at frightening speed. Her command of the keyboard was total. Her harmonic sensibility caused a sense of wonderment among other pianists on the New York scene. Harmonically, she was advanced despite the developments that were being made by players like Keith Jarrett and Chick Corea. Her predilection for changes of key baffled some, but there was no denying her constant retention of melodic interest in whatever piece of music she was playing. Jazz greats frequented New York clubs to listen, in apparent abject disbelief and no little admiration, to this sweet young girl unleash her pyrotechnical skills. At twenty-one she had an overwhelming command of everything from up-tempo numbers to ballads, great harmonic insight, monumental swing, and the passion of her Brazilian roots. In informed jazz circles today Eliane Elias is considered to be one of the most evolving composers, pianists, producers, and leaders to come along in many years, and with the release of Sings Jobim, vocalist can be added to the list. One New York pianist told me that the Sings album is just another example of the record label's cockamamie marketing schemes. "Poof! Transform Eliane into a singer and sell more CD's!" But Blue note has always been the first label to recognize and record real jazz talent, and more often than not they have blazed a trail in jazz which was later traveled by other labels. I've been a big fan of Eliane's ever since that first album with Steps Ahead (1983), so naturally Sings Jobim has been in my CD player lately, and the best way I've found to approach Eliane's debut as a vocalist is with open ears and a sense of wonder. If nothing else, reverence arises from humility and from the capacity to get out of one sown ego and to listen. When I spoke to Eliane, I was struck by how exceptionally alert, unpretentious, and candid she is. Brazzil—A friend of mine describes your playing as a cross between Egberto Gismonti and Bud Powell. Which pianists have influenced your playing the most? Eliane—Most people relate or compare to things that they know, to pianists that they know. People have told me, "Oh, you sound like Keith Jarrett," or "You sound like Bill Evans." But I've been influenced by a number of pianists, especially as a young girl, starting with Art Tatum and Bud Powell and going to Wynton Kelly, and I can goon... Bill Evans, Herbie Hancock, Keith Jarrett... Brazzil—It's interesting that you mentioned Bill Evans because both Eddie Gomez and Marc Johnson worked with him. Do these players bring something to your music that you admired in the music of Bill Evans? Eliane—You know, I've known these players for years. I know how they play. I was very, very familiar with their music when I moved here. Depending on what direction I want to take the music, I will call a specific player. Eddie Gomez and Marc Johnson are wonderful bassists. They are wonderful jazz players, but they are also very melodic. Marc Johnson especially has an intonation that is just absolutely perfect. You know, that classical training mixed with all the jazz. And there are certain things that I write that require somebody who can execute the part, but who also will BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
create things when we are playing other tunes. It's a very hard chair to fill in my trio because you not only have to be a jazz player, but you have to know the music of Brazil. Brazzil—And the percussion chair in your rhythm sections is always held by one of the drum world's aristocracy: Nana Vasconcelos, Perter Erskine, Jack DeJohnette. Are these the players in the United States with the best concept of Brazilian rhythm? Eliane—When I recorded with Jack DeJohnette, for example, my intention was to do those Brazilian numbers as jazz tunes, as a looser thing. I wasn't looking for the complete, authentic Brazilian drummer. On the new recording I called Paulo Braga who is Brazilian, and who's authentic. He has the sound that I wanted for that particular recording, the sound I wanted when I was singing, when I wanted bossa nova to be played the way it should be played. Paulo, I think, is really the greatest Brazilian drummer. So it depends on the music that I write and what I'm looking for. And it can happen the other way around too. If I know that I'm going to be touring with Perter Erskine and Marc Johnson, I might be inspired to write things that I know would be great to play with them. And the same with Eddie and Jack and other players. I think, "All right! This will be great with them. Let me write something for that trio." I can do it that way or write first and then choose the musicians for the recording. Brazzil—Y ou dedicated a tune on So Far So Close to a great bass player who in 1987 met a senseless and violent death. Can you tell me a little about your composition "Straight Across"? Eliane—That's a tune I dedicated to Jaco Pastorius, and I still think it's very interesting. Harmonically speaking, "Straight Across" is kind of modal, but it's not like a Weather Report tune. It's something that had to do mostly with the way Jaco played, and if you notice on the recording, I'm also playing the bass line on keyboards. It was great because I had Michael (Brecker) and Peter Erskine playing the other parts, and, of course, they both worked a lot with Jaco. Jaco was an inspiration. Brazzil—Has working in the U.S. created any barriers for you as far as keeping up with what is currently happening in Brazilian music? Eliane—Not really, because I go to Brazil often, like two or three times ayear. And I'm in touch, you know? I'm pretty much aware of things that go on, especially with the things that interest me musically. I might not know the latest pop group because perhaps I'm not searching for that, but I am aware of what is happening in general with the country's music. And you know, I'm always back, so I still feel that I haven't created any barriers. If anything, living in the U.S. has created a kind of nostalgia for me here and there. I miss my country and my language; it's so inspiring there. The sound of the birds... they sing differently. The time of the place and the people... It's just different, and I do miss that aspect of it. That's why I go as much as I can. Brazzil—How is your career perceived by players in Brazil? Eliane—In terms of pianists in Brazil, the ones I know there always look at me as an example, as someone who did something and got out of the country. It's difficult to leave Brazil, come here, and establish a career. They admire that. I think I have inspired a lot of people, not only musically but especially in a personal way like, "Oh, this is a goal that I have to reach." It's something I think they look at and say, "Oh, great, she did it. I'd like to do it." But I'm sure that young players have many, many idols, many fine players that they listen to. Brazzil—Y ou mentioned that Herbie Hancock was one of your influences. How was it working with him on your Grammy nominated CD, Solos and Duets? Eliane—When we were scheduled to record, he arrived the night before, very late, around midnight, and he came over to my place and said, "So what are we going to do?" And I said, "Well, let's just go and play." I told him that the only tune I knew I wanted to do for sure was "The Way You Look Tonight." So we got there, and it was really magic. I don't remember if I was right or left channel, but we were one on each side, you know, like the speakers, right? And when we went to listen afterward, we didn't know who was who. It was really like one... completely. It was like our creation right there. I got goose BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
bumps when I lis ened to some of the free pieces, like one called "Messages" whe e we just started playing and really let go and played free impr isation. The ideas were flowing. Herbie named it "Messages" be ause he felt that we were really communicating. Working with hi was a great musical experience. Really beautiful. Brazzil—When did you first meet Herbie? Eliane—I met Herbie in 1981 when I was touring with Steps Ahead. We were playing a double tour with V.S.O.P. (1). Steps would play first, and Herbie would go to the first row in the theater and sit there listening to me play. And he loved it! I used to tell him, "I study your music. I love your playing," and all that. He was always one of my idols. I was just a young girl, and I was playing on the same bill as Herbie Hancock, working together! He was so kind. We started doing more and more concerts together, and over time we became more like friends, like musicians, less like the idol and the young girl. When I recorded my first CD, he went out there and told every magazine, "I like,Eliane Elias. Her playing is great. She brings me to tears." He reall was so supportive. So I've always been thankful, first, for his musi , it's so wonderful; and second, for the incentive and the support t at he gave me when my career just started. It was rare because so nany people just... You know how people can be. We always wan*d to play together, but the opportunity didn't come until we re orded the duet album. Brazzil—Chick Corea recently released a CD of Bud Powell's music, and DaOilo Perez did one of Monk's. If you were to record a tribute to an American pianist/composer, who would you choose? Eliane—Ah... I don't know. I mean Cole Porter has some great tunes. You know, I love Bud Powell. I would prefer to record Bud Powell than Mork. Brazzil—What'S your take on Monk? Eliane—Well, Very interesting. You're going to laugh at this because when I was in Brazil, I had a great collection of records, but I didn't know, for example, the ages of the players, when they came out. I knew Art Tatum was older. Oh, and I had (Oscar) Peterson too. You know, I had all those guys. I was listening to everybody. And I heard Mon, and I said, "Oh my God! Who is this guy? He's so sloppy, and he's got no chops. He has no technique. So sloppy!" I mean, I was c mpanng him to, you know, to Art Tatum or to Herbie or to Kei h Jarrett. My take was like, "Huh?! Interesting." But the way he layed, you know, to me at that time, was sloppy (laughs). But I ow he's great. Great stuff. Created another style, and you know... Brazzil—Can y u tell me a little about working with Vinicius? Eliane--Somet ing interesting. I was invited to work with him and Toquinho in 197 . And I worked with Vinicius until he died. I was a very young gi 1, and it was a really great experience. I mean, Vinicius was not nly a great lyricist, he was a reat poet, and a great diplomat. A very intelligent man, very sensible, very sensitive and wise. And his vi w of life was... He had a different take than most people do, very ifferent. And I think that, not just musically but personally too, s aring years on the road with somebody like that, sure did somethi g to me in terms of my view of life. Really, I was very fortunate. Brazzil—Jobim is a dominant thread on your Blue Note recordings. Do you feel Jobim's music will continue to hold up over the next 50 years? Eliane—You know, it's so hard to predict what's going to hold up. We never know. These days the adolescents are listening to something else. We have anew generation here that's very different. But I still believe that bossa nova is sensuous. There is something about it that is just so great that people relate to. Jobim's songs are just... He's a great composer. I believe that he is Brazil's best composer, like the father of our standards. So far it has been like that. It's hard to say if it's going to continue. That depends on who's going to continue playing his music the way it should be played. Not many people do. His music, in a certain way, is very complex, but it can sound very simple. And because it can be done in a simple way, it is also mi.isic that is played everywhere by different... You know, I can walk into a hotel and hear it in the lobby. I can walk into a great jazz musi ian's set and hear it. I mean you hear it in different ways because h reached such a wide audience. And who's going to continue doing it is going to be interesting. Will it hold up in fifty years? I don't k ow, but I hope so. 39
Brazzi/—Which is your favorite Jobim recording? Eliane—I don't have one only. I like all of his recordings, so it's almost impossible to name just one. Some tunes from Elis and Tom are magnificent. The Composer Plays had great tunes. Oh, he has so much that it's hard to say one. He has a beautiful album with arrangements by Claus Ogerman, Urubu. Beautiful! I was so young when it came out, but I was so impressed when I heard it. Brazzil—I've heard some people say that the idea for Sings Jobim was a Blue Note marketing scheme to sell more CD's. Eliane—That's interesting. You know, people... (laughs) That's interesting how they put things. Blue Note's idea? You know, I wasn't forced. I haven't been forced in my career to do anything that I didn't want to do. And I wouldn't, over anything. Everything that I have done, every project that I have accepted, whether it was my idea or not, was because I wanted to do it. You know how many CD's I have out, right? I have used my voice on more than a few tunes, sometimes just using my voice as another color, sometimes as an instrument doing parts, things like that. But I always... you know... slowly I brought the voice in. I've never seen myself, and I don't, as just a singer. I'm not a singer. I'm a pianist, a composer. But I can sing something here and there. Not like a singer with a powerful voice, but in my own style, in my own way. You know, putting my feelings through a tune. Yeah, I'll do that. No problem, right? No, what was happening was that every time I performed, my fans, afterward, always asked, "Is there going to be some day when you're going to sing a little more? We'd love to hear you sing. Can you sing one for us please? Sing one for us please. Is there going to be a day when you are going to do a special project, an album singing, just so we can hear your voice?" This has been happening for years, and I had already recorded my tribute to Jobim, years ago when he was alive. I like tributes to be done for people when they are alive, more than after the fact—they appreciate things then. But I got to a point where I felt like, "Ah, I've done solo piano, the duets with Herbie, things as a composer, recordings where I used synthesizers. I've done trio playing. The Three Americas was something different. I'm known to be very diverse. My CD's are very different—one from the other. And why? because all those sides are genuine sides, they are true sides of me. You know, I am Brazilian. There are some recordings that are Brazilian. I'm a jazz player. Yes, I'm a classical player. I have a classical CD. So I felt that I wanted to do an album singing. Not a statement of "Here's a singer," but here's how I'm thinking, okay? And when I decided to do that, what came to my mind was, "Who do I know best as a composer? What music can I do well, something that I'm very comfortable with? Ahh... Jobim." So, no, I wasn't forced. Brazzil—Y our vocals are beautiful on "Falando de Amor." Eliane—Oh, you know, I think it's such a beautiful tune, so much Brazil and not something that has been done a lot. But if you noticed, I chose an interesting combination of tunes. Some are very well known, but a lot of them are obscure tunes that I felt I should bring to the people here in the United States. And "Falando de Amor" is a special tune. The lyrics are so beautiful. I really love that one. It's very, very... It's almost like that Brazilian nostalgia. Brazzil—Are you bothered by comparisons to Astrud Gilberto? Eliane—You know, that was the first statement I made. People compare to what they know. If that's what they know, that's what they are going to say. You know, I had... I'm not even going to repeat that one... When I first recorded, people would say, "Oh, Tania Maria." Tania is great, but she has nothing to do with my work. People compare with what they know. Again, we have to understand that Astrud had a big hit here. She made "The Girl From Ipanema" with Stan Getz, a very famous song in this country. That recording is actually very special. Internationally it was Jobim's biggest hit. Astrud is Brazilian and also has a kind of soft, hoarse voice, so people will say, "Oh, Eliane sounds like that." People tend to associate and it's okay. Brazzi/—After listening to "Modinha" on the new CD I went back and listened to versions by Zizi Possi, Ney Matogrosso, Elis, and even the one you did with Joe Henderson. It's almost like a rite of passage for players to cover this tune. Eliane—"Modinha"? Yeah, you know, I think that tune is so beautiful, so special. I like the tune a lot. I did a piano treatment for it and an introduction. You can hear some of my classical there. You can hear Brazil there. All I can say is that I usually search the deepest place in my heart when I'm working, and I love this tune. It's a very difficult song to sing. It has a very large vocal extension, really, really a big extension for the voice. It's demanding, and I feel very proud about the way it came out. Brazzil—My favorite track on the new CD is "A Felicidade." Eliane—Oh yeah. It came out nice didn't it? Brazzil—That's the one! Such a great groove, 40
and Brecker sounds. Eliane—He sounds great. Oh yeah! Brazzil—Was the recording atmosphere any different for this track? Eliane—Well, I always try to keep, as I do in every tune, the authenticity. My idea was that Brecker would be almost like a samba school on saxophone. Rhythmically that was the idea. Also harmonically there are some things that! changed that came out nicely. I just worked the arrangement in a certain way, you know, I used some modulations, some different colors. Brazzll—Tell me. Eliane—Well, if you really pay attention to the places when it goes to the verses there are a couple of modulations. When I come into (sings) Tristeza ncio tern fim, it's in one key, then it modulates to another. Then something interesting happens with (sings)Felicidade sim. Afelicidade é como a. It goes down. It's really in order to get the key for me because it was a big extension, and it's very interesting. You have to listen for it. You'll hear it. Brazzll—Which tun e was the hardest to record? Eliane—If you mean hard in terms of singing, there are some songs that were hard in general, and they took a lot of my concentration and preparation, but they came out really nice, "Ano Dourado" (Looks Like December), for example. When Jobim recorded that tune, he sang a part that was very low, and a female choir sang the very high part. It has another huge extension and the phrasing is not easy. "Falando de Amor" is another tune that... It wasn't physical, but I wanted to capture all this emotion. I did the take for "Esquecendo Voce" playing the piano and singing, and I played a piano solo. It's a very special tune and wasn't hard, but it is a tune I love. And while recording, I started crying, "O000h!" When I came out they were all saying, "It's beautiful!" But I said, "No! I cried. I don't want to have that on a record!" They were screaming, "Are you crazy? With that much emotion, you're not going to touch this!" It took me a minute to let go, to share that much emotion, to let people have something that I was putting so much into; but it's there. Brazzi/—You've started to play a circuit of Performing Arts Centers. How do these venues affect a performance differently than the clubs and jazz festivals? Eliane—Well, I must say that every performance is different. There is always a difference. When you play a club, it's a very intimate atmosphere, and it can be a lot of fun. When you play a concert hall, it's also great though the communication with the audience is on a different level. But the sound, you know... it's inspiring. I think playing the outdoor festivals is the hardest thing for a piano trio. It's not hard for me, but if it's too hot, the piano gets out of tune, and the sound, the acoustics, are usually problematic. Unless the sound people are really together and they have really great, great equipment, they tend to overamplify the acoustic instruments. Many times they have great equipment, but they don't have a great sound person; or they have a great sound person, but they don't have the equipment. So, I very much enjoy playing the theaters, and I've never had a problem, whether the audience is coming to see me because they know Eliane or they're coming to check me out for the first time. It's hard to find better sound than the concert halls. In other respects, I can't say that the performing arts circuits are doing anything that is so different. Ifpeople like music, I know that they BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
N are going to enjoy the show, and it's going to be great. And ifthey don't like music then they don't go to the theaters (laughs). Most of the time it's just great. But every performance is very, very different. Brazzii—Getting back to Blue Note, you know Herbie recorded for Blue Note and Horace Silver, McCoy Tyner... Eliane—Jazz history. Brazzil—Y ea, they've always had the reputation for finding, recognizing, and recording the talent before someone else did. I noticed that other Blue Note pianists like Chucho Valdes and Gonzalo Rubalcaba have also started playing the Performing Arts circuit. Was this something encouraged by Blue Note or was it something these artists individually decided? Eliane—Well, I think it's not even a matter of you deciding. I think many musicians would like to get into the circle. It's difficult to Ft into. But it does not have anything to do with Blue Note hooking us up. Of course, they love to see their artists performing. I think every company would like to see their artists touring as much as they can and being out there playing the music. The best way to promote a CD is to be out there playing. There's nothing like touring, but B lue Note doesn't hook me up with that. There is an agency that I have been associated with that specializes in working with the performing arts programs. Brazzil—Y ou've obviously paid your dues in the predominantly male world of jazz, so I was wondering if you are bothered at all by the way Blue Note packages your recordings. You know, the covers always portray you as this sexy Brazilian babe with the bedroom-eyes in the off the shoulder outfits? Eliane—Well, first of all, I thank you for saying that. But I don't perceive it that way. I don't think they try to make me more or less beautiful. If you meet me, ifyou go to my performances, I look like I look. I look like the covers. And after all, I could just wear jeans and a shirt, but my face is my face. I mean, it's unusual enough to be a woman in jazz, but it's even more unusual to be a blonde Brazilian, white woman jazz musician with an attractive face, and then on top of that, with a nice figure. People say, "The record company is doing that," but Blue Note doesn't make me look like that. I look like that if you meet me on the street. I like to dress, you know, I like to... How can I say this? I'm not a person who wears executive suit8. I dress, you know, in mini skirts... I'm Brazilian! So, they haven't done anything. I think the Sings Jobim cover is beautiful. The blue is radiant; it's very Brazil. I mean, okay, the face looks good. Well okay, thank you if you think it looks good. But there has never been anything that insinuates... Ah, you know... I can guarantee you that when it comes down to it, Blue Note doesn't keep any artist for an album cover. They have dropped so many artists. The music is what has to sell, and it has to communicate with people in order to sell. And if it doesn't then... Obviously, they prefer that I look good than I don't. Maybe ten years from now the covers will be just like the all other ones you see (laughs). They probably will be like that later on, but right now I enjoy saying, "Oh, okay, it looks nice for people," and I'm proud. Brazzil—Do you have any unfulfilled goals as a player or composer? Eliane—Oh yea, many things. Brazzil—T ell me. Eliane—But I don't want to tell you (laughs). I'll BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
give you all my ideas. No, I'm kidding. There are many things that I'd like to do. I'd love to record with an orchestra. I haven't done that. I'd love to do that. Brazzii—Like a concerto? Eliane—No, no, like piano trio and orchestra. I'd love to do that. I'm doing something now that I've always wanted to do. I'm recording six of my own compositions with a twenty-two piece big band. Bob Brookmeyer did all the arrangements. It's one of the things I've wanted to do because I love big bands too. I'd like to expand my group and go into more quintet and sextet playing, which I'm starting to do, especially live. I'd also like to write for string quartet. Oh, there are so many things. And I'm about to do another classical record. There is so much Villa-Lobos that I want to record. This is what is really so great about musicians. The time passes and there is always something more that you want to do, and that keeps you going. If I told you, "No, there's nothing more that I want to do," then I'd be done. I hope it all happens. You know, I hope I get the chance. Brazzil—W ill the big band recording be coming out soon? Eliane—It's going to come out probably within the next six months. Brazzil—On Blue Note? Eliane—No, I didn't do it for Blue Note. I recorded in Europe. Brazzil—Can you tell me the label? Eliane—Not yet, because we're signing now. I cannot tell you when it will be out until I receive the contracts. Brazzil—What do you think is most important for up-and-coming jazz players to focus on today? Eliane—You know, I still believe that success is a combination, which I can't explain in a few words. But it's a combination of talent, effort, and personality. I think it's very important for young players to study conventional theory, to become familiar with all the jazz vocabulary, and to absorb the music of jazz's major influences—the different ways, the different approaches. But I also think that trying to develop their own voice is something very, very, important—and that happens with time— because there are so many musicians. Many of the greatest players could be recognized before they were widely respected artists. I'm sure if you heard a tape of Herbie Hancock when he was fifteen years old, you'd know that was a young Herbie. There was something there already, and he developed it. I think that's very important. It's perseverance; it's dedication. It's a combination of all that and, of course, talent. Brazzil—Eliane, do your students at Manhattan School of Music ever ask you about the implications of a life dedicated to earning a living from music? Eliane—They are anxious about what they are going to do when they graduate. They are definitely anxious. But I tell them, "People are different, and there are many careers in music. Not everyone coming out of a great music college is going to be a great performer, a jazz player. There are some that are going to be teachers. There are some who are going to write scores," you know? There are so many different things that one can do with music. I think they would all like to be performing artists, but there are other things that they can do with their music. That's what I tell them. "Just keep working on it. Keep your eyes open for what you can do. Hopefully, you will establish yourself." It's not easy; not every musician coming out of a college is going to become established as a performing musician. Brazzil—If you had to create a list of required listening for students of jazz piano at the university level, which three recordings would definitely be on that list? Eliane—You know, I don't like answering that kind of question. Let me tell you why. If you wanted to know what three recordings I like or that influenced my playing the most, I could try to think of three that were among my collection. But depending on the level of the student, what they need to listen to could be completely different. Students who need to work on their bebop might have to listen to Bud Powell. To those students who need work on the melodic or harmonic aspects of their playing I might say, "Let's work on Bill Evans." And to the one who doesn't know how to place eighth notes, you know, how to swing, I might say, "Okay, let's hear this." You see, it depends on the individual student, so it would be a funny quote. You know what I mean? Brazzll—Completely, yeah. Eliane, what was the most important lesson you learned from Amilton Godoy? Eliane—Oh, I studied everything. I started when I was thirteen, and I studied it all. He was a great man. If I would tell you about him, it would take two or three hours just to explain what we did. He's a great teacher. He really went searching and searching, for me especially. ; he saw some talent. I was different from other students because I went very quickly. I finished the program when I was fifteen. I just devoured everything I could When I went to Amilton, I was already transcribing the great solos of all the great jazz pianists and playing along with them. You know, copying down, I mean, writing, wiiting. But, he developed my vocabulary. He gave me the skills and all the theory. Reall , it was unbelievable, a great, great experience. 41
Modinha Tom Jobim/ Vinicius de Moraes
Torn Jobini/Vinicius de Moraes tein im f &dileSsbits xi° listen Felicidade siro Happiness yes Triiteza nao tern fan Sadness has to Felicidade sim liappn * less yes hklieidade6cornoagota Hinessis1ik allio.nurnap6taIadeflor Of uew4 Bntha trangaiki It shines Depsdeleveoscilai ThenIi cal comouma ligiimet de And falL arnor love A tehcidade do pobre The hap parece seems to tlo (=naval The gre gralide ratetrabalha o 4110 inteiro People otwn inomatto tie sonho For just Pia fazer a fantasia To make Deieioudepirataoude Of1dnt jardinebn garden Pratudoseacabrna Butev:US ,, , quarta-fefra
Nao! Nao pode mais meu coracao Viver assim dilacerado Escravizado a uma lima() que se DesilusAo Ah, nAo seja a vida sempre assim Como urn luar deseperado A derramar melancolia em mim Poesia em mim
No! No it cannot be my heart To live in pieces Enslaved to illusion that is only Delusion Ah, life can't always be this way Like desperate moonlight To spread melancholy in my Poetry in me
Vai, triste cancao Sai do meu peito e semeia emocAo Que chora dentro do meu coracao Coracao
Go, sad song Leave my heart and sow emotion That cries inside my heart Heart
Esquecendo Voce Tom Jobim
_ nlo apiwna Happiness isi o pelo at \roe do !eve it flies o41gh Mastenia vida breve But hes aebajaveritoseniparar It needs awin
A fell cove toai
I have to spend my life singing only one song I have to learn to live alone in solitude I have to remember so many times the laughter of your eyes I have to spend my life trying to forget this goodbye
Eu you ter que esquecer seu sorriso e o pranto dos olhos meus Eu you ter que esquecer seu olhar na hora do adeus
I have to forget your smile and my weeping eyes I have to forget your look at the time of goodbye
Eu you ter que esquecer minim vida - S6Noce nao percebe o porque SO you ter que passar minha vida esquecendo voce
I have to forget my life Only you don't realize why I have to spend my life forgetting you
• • • • • • • • • • OOOOOO • • • • • • • •
Out of Tune
Eu you ter que passar minha vida cantando uma se cancao Eu you ter que aprender a viver sozmha na solidAo Eu you ter que lembrar tantas vezes o nso do olhos seus Eu you ter que passar minha vida tentando esquecer este adeus
A minhafelicidade estA My htçpiness d dreaming • rtoitenamorada Of the eyes 0 ci Minila °co lts°,esta passando Like the nighi mg =and° search of , Em ' dein gado softly embalm, pot favor S raqueeIaacor4ea1egre She needs to a can o dia with the da obeijos de inner Offering kiY ssetibt • • •
Tom Jobim/ Newton Mendonca
Se voce insiste em classificar Meu comportamento de antimusical Eu mesmo mentindo devo argurrientar ue isso é bossa nova e que isso muito natural 0 que voce nao sabe nem se quer pressente E que os desafinados tambem tern um coracao Fotografei voce na minha Rolleiflex Revelou-se a sua enorme ingratidao
If you insist on categorizing My behavior as antimusical Even if I lied I should argue That this is bossa nova and this is very nathral What you don't know, nor can you guess Is that those who sing out of tune also have a heart I photographed you with my Rolleiflex It revealed your enormous ingratitude
S6 nao podera falar assim do meu amor Este é maior que voce pode encontrar Voce corn a sua musica esqueceu o principal Que no peito dos desafinados No fundo do peito tambem bate calado Que no peito dos desafinados Tambem bate urn coracao
You cannot talk this way about my love It is the highest that you can find You with your music, forget the essential In the heart of those who sing out of tune Deep in the breast, a heart also beats softly In the heart of those out of tune A heart is also beating
BRAZZ1 - OCTOBER 1998
Brazzil—I can't even imagine a musician in the U.S. who plays choro going to Rio and establishing a career, but in a sense, you did something similar when you came to New York. Was it hard to make the transition from playing in Brazil to the scene in the United States? Eliane—No, not really. It was easy. That's what I had been preparing for. It was who I was and when I could finally be what I was (laughs). It really was what I wanted. When I was playing at home, I'd ask myself, "Where am I going to do this? In Rio?" I mean, "Let me go to the U.S." It was no problem. When I came up here, I was already playing straight ahead and was probably listening to more straight ahead than any American keyboard player. I had a huge collection at home, and I had been devouring it. Brazzil—Did you see many similarities between Sio Paulo and New York? Eliane—Oh, incredible how many. I felt so comfortable in New York, although I didn't speak English. But I felt that it was a city that I could always like. sao Paulo is so huge. I mean, New York looked like a little town with little numbers. If you stay in Manhattan, you see streets that have little numbers and avenues. It was so small and not at all threatening to me. I constantly hear about Americans who speak the language, who were born here, and who are afraid of New York City. They must come from a calmer environment and a different kind of... Sao Paulo is a huge metropolis, cosmopolitan. There was no difference. Brazzil—W hat did you study at Juilliard with Olegna Fuschi? Did you want to be a concert pianist? Eliane---No, I never intended to be a concert pianist. I always had classical lessons in order to thoroughly develop my technique. With Olegna I did some great work approaching the piano as a string instrument more than a percussion instrument. We worked with the concept of legato playing.
Brazzil—Are there any schools in Brazil similar to Berklee School of Music? Eliane—Yes, the one I i/vent I to. CLAM—Centro Livre de Aprendizagem Musical, which means Free Center of Musical Apprenticeship. Brawl—Has your approach changed since your tenure with Steps Ahead? Eliane—Sure. We are always in transformation. People are in constant mutation. We change. I think the core of the musician is the same, but I think the approach does change. It may be the same person, the same heart and intention, but there is a maturity. There are different experiences. Yes, it has changed. Brazzi/—Eliane, aside from music, what are you passions? Eliane—(laughs)Ah, yeti know, music is a great passion. Music also is my profession, so there are times that I need to get a little bit away from the piano, but not from mu ic. I love nature, so I go to the country. I have a country home in the Ha ptons, and I like going there. I swim. I connect with nature, the plants. I listen to the birds. It's just something special that I like. I like yoga. And I ravel so much that when I actually have time off, I like best just to be ho e. I like to cook. You know, a nice meal, very simple, not anything ext avagant. I like the simplicity of life and nature and a nice meal. I cannot do a lot of sports. I cannot play tennis. I cannot play volleyball because of m wrists, because of my hands. Those are things I can't do. But I love s nding time with my daughter, Amanda. She's fourteen and doing thins with her, you know, it's just great. Brazzil—I know that our grandmother wrote chorinhos and your mother was a concert ianist. Would you be disappointed if Amanda didn't pursue a caree in music? Eliane—No, you know as a mother, all that I want for her is that she does something that she lov , that she's happy with. I'm sure that when you love what you do, you b come successful. Success transpires through what you do with heart; it sho s in your work. And if Amanda decides not to be a musician, that mean that she didn't have that love for music, the enthusiasm about it. an that's fine. I wouldn't want her to do what she doesn't want to do. But she's so talented. Playing great too. Brazzil—She has a go d teacher. Eliane—Yes, but I'm n t her teacher. I don't believe in... not even at this age. They have to get it rom outside. What I can teach her she can hear. I mean it's in her. I'll tea h her other things when she gets older.
Selected Discography on sessions with other artists Artist
Brazzil—Do you thin Amanda's relationship with her parents is different from other k ds who have parents with demanding careers? (2) Eliane—Oh, I'm sure. think it's differenthaving parents who are artists, who are people that wo k with their creativity all the time. And there is a certain sensibility to th t. There is something that she is exposed to. The kind of life that she has.. Yes, it's different. Our relationship is a very close one because when we'r home, we're really home. I'm with her and she's part of that environmen , the creative environment that surrounds us. She understands that and is big part of it herself.
Wave: The Antonio Verve 1996 Carlos Jobim Songbook
Double Rainbow Verve 1995
Abandoned Garden Warner Bros. 1995
Brazzil—Is there anyt ing I haven't asked that you would like to pass on to the readers? Eliane—No! (laughs)you've asked me more than I'm usually asked in interviews. (laughs) I tl.ink you covered it all.
Out Of The Loop GRP Records 1994
Brazzll—Great. Thank you so much, Eliane. It was a pleasure. Eliane—For me too. Yes, thank you.
The Brecker Brothers
Toots Thielemans The Brasil Project, Vol. II Private Music
Toots Thielemans The Brasil Project Private Music
Once I Loved
K2B2 Records 1990
Denon Records 1988
Randy Brecker/ Eliane Elias
BRA72IL - OCTOBER 1998
Passport Records 1986 Elelctra 1983
1. The group V.S.O.P. was formed under the aegis of Herbie Hancock in the mid-'70's, when he wanted a vacation from fusion; the line-up was the classic mid-'60's Miles quintet—Herbie, Wayne Shorter, Tony Williams, Ron Carter, with Freddie Hubbard filling the Miles seat on trumpet. They recorded three albums on CBS, (usually listed under Hancock's name) one an import-only Japanese concert. The group's success as a draw on the live circuit in the late '70's lead directly to major labels dumping their fusion rosters and looking seriously at acoustic jazz again. Wynton Marsalis and the other young suits soon followed, a rather mixed blessing, if you ask me. 2. Amanda's father is jazz trumpet great Randy Brecker. Bruce Gilman, music editor for Brazzil, received his Masters degree in music from California Institute of the Arts. He leads the Brazilian jazz ensemble Axe and plays cuica for escola de samba MILA. You can reach him through his e-mail: email@example.com 43
akie he Must Be Good It was a magic night at Canecao in Rio. In the audience the likes of Caetano Veloso and Sonia Braga. On stage: Daude. She started out with a segment of hard, driving rock, which set the audience on fire and soon she had the audience in the palm of her hand, following her every move and sound. There was a contagious aura about her, of mischief and playfulness as well as an obvious love for what she was doing. KIRSTEN WEINOLDT
The day was September 22, 1998. The place: Teatro Canecao in Rio de Janeiro where magical things happen, now as in days past when Tom Jobim and Noel Rosa contributed to making Rio a Cidade Maravilhosa (Marvelous City i Rio's nickname). I had received an invitation from Natasha Records to attend this one-show engagement of Datide. I must admit that I knew little about her, except for the times I had heard someone rave about her. Living in the U.S., one is handicapped by the lack of radio stations playing Brazilian music. It is necessary to read reviews and then go in search of the CDs that sound interesting. I arrived at Canec5o in the Botafogo district ofRio, not far from the famous Copacabana and introduced myself. I was given tickets on the first row oftables right in front of the stage, which gave me ample opportunity to see and take pictures. Looking around I saw screen star, S6nia Braga, arriving and being greeted by dignitaries, friends, and fans. Canecao is by no means an elegant place, but it is laid out in such a way that the audience can enjoy the show from anywhere in the multi-level room. I decided to go in search of my contact from Natasha Records, hallo, whom I hadn't met yet, and went toward the exit where I ran into Caetano Veloso, who told me he had just arrived from the airport and was stopping by before going home. I began to feel the excitement and anticipation. If Caetano chose to go to Canecao rather than home after a grueling tour schedule, then I figured Daode must be good. I went back to my table without having found Julio, just in time to see Caetano posing for photographers with Sonia Braga. I even managed to get a shot in, myself. One of the differences between an American and a Brazilian audience is that if a show here in the U.S. is scheduled to start at a particular time, the booing starts if the show has not begun five minutes after that designated time. In 44
Brazil, people are much more relaxed about something like that. A little more time gives people the chance to chat and have a drink, look about, and anticipate a little longer—even if it is a Tuesday night, and it's already after 11. Finally, the lights dimmed, and a voice introduced the evening's attraction. The stage became enveloped in smoke, which was given an eerie, dream-like quality by changing, colored lighting. The group accompanying Daade appeared. It consists of drums, percussion, electric guitar, keyboard, and two female dancers. And then—there she was—dressed in what appeared to be an ultra-short, silver hooded raincoat, which glittered in the light. Black knee-high patent leather boots hugged her long, shapely legs and made her entrance—strutting onto the stage—quite a sight. The crowd roared. She started out with a segment of hard, driving rock, which set the audience on fire from the first note. The two dancers were beautifully choreographed to complement the singer. The first song brought back memories from my childhood in Europe. It was Miriam Makeba's "Pata Pata," which created such a stir many years ago. The energy with which she began her show setthe tone for the rest ofthe evening. The crowd was energized, and once, when I looked back, I saw that the fans on the upper levels were on their feet dancing along with the intoxicating music. Later, the raincoat came off, revealing a charcoal, metallic, strapless, short dress which might have been painted on. Daude can carry off that kind of dress, however, her slim, feminine body being the perfect vehicle for that kind of outfit. It appeared that with the change in dress came a change in the music she sang. The volume turned down a notch or two, her songs became soft, more romantic ones. "Vamos Fugir" (Let us Flee) by Gilberto Gil and "Objeto Nao Identificado (Object Not Identified) by Caetano Veloso, were just two of them. And Daude had the audience in the palm of her hand, following her every move and sound. There was a contagious aura about her, of mischief and playfulness as well as an obvious love for what she was doing. And when her musicians played solo, she respectfully stood aside to let them enjoy the spotlight. Her voice is crisp and sexy, and her demeanor is mischievous and teasing at the same time that it is romantic and vulnerable. And then, suddenly, it was over in what seemed like an instant—an instant, which, as it turned out, had lasted roughly an hour and a half. It was 1 o'clock when I checked. It was a little like awakening from a fantasy-filled dream. Paula Lavigne, wife of Caetano and partner in Natasha Records, invited us backstage to meet Dal:1de. It was her birthday, now that it was the 23'd of September, and she was greeted by well-wishers and friends, and "Happy Birthday" was sung accompanied by many hugs and kisses. Now dressed in a simple, white shirt and pants, she looked just as beautiful and a BRAZZIL -OCTOBER 1998
little bit to my surprise, sweet and warm. The playfulness was now mixed with a shyness not present on stage. I was introduced, and we agreed that backstage at Canecdo was neither the time nor the place for an interview. The time and place came a few days later at the office of Natasha Records where they gave me copies of her CDs Dazide and Dafide #2. A word about Natasha's office is necessary. Located in the Santa Teresa neighborhood of Rio, one must have a mountain-worthy car, climbing narrow, winding, cobblestoned streets to the top of a steep hill to get there. Then, upon being admitted by a buzzer, there is a dozen or so steep steps down to the entrance with a breath-taking view of Rio's Pdo de Acucar, Sugarloaf Mountain, and much more. Daitcle was not able to meet us there, so the interview took place over the phone, something that made me just the slightest bit nervous, my Portuguese being a lot less than perfect. But my first instinct about the lady was correct. She was nice and warm and very patient with me. Datide was born on September 23rd, 36 years ago in Salvador, but she could tell you she was 26, and you would believe her. Brazzil: Your father was a musician, wasn't he? What did he play, and what was his influence on your own music? Datide: He played clarinet and saxophone. And there was always music in my house, classical, big band music, and MPB (MOsica Popular Brasileira—Brazilian Popular Music). Brazzil: For my readers, many of whom are Americans, how would you speak of your music? Datide: It is music for everybody, for all races in all countries. Brazzil: Speak of your tour to Europe. Datide: Yes, in October we are starting a tour that goes to Norway, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and Denmark. There will be Bossa Nova, folkloric music and much more in the tour. Brazzil: What do you find to be the difference between Brazilian and European audiences? Datide: They are actually more alike than different. I am touched by the warmth and respect I feel coming from both. Brazzil: You have just released your second CD. When will it be out in the U.S.? Dalide: I'm afraid that we haven't found a distributor yet, so I can't tell you when it will be out. Brazzil: But when it does come out, you will do a tour promoting it? Wilde: Yes, I'm looking forward to that. Brazzil: Tell me about the songs on the CD and in the show. Who chose them, and are there songs with special significance for you? Datide: First, I choose my own material. It's difficult to say if there are songs with special significance, but! can say this, that all my material is chosen by the same criterion. It must be emotional music. Brazzil: The CD has special participation by Djavan, Carlinhos Brown, Herbert Vianna, and Nelson Sargento. How do they contribute to the quality of the work? Datide: Each one of them contributes to making a better CD because of their own love for singing as well as for emotional music. Each one puts his personality into the work. Brazzil: What are your plans for the future? Wilde: I want to work a lot. I love to sing, and I hope my career will grow. Brazzil: Do you have a personal philosophy on the business of being a singer? Mode: I try not to be blinded or too impressed with being a performer.! learned growing up that respect is the most important thing—the respect I give others as well as the respect I receive in return. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Gilberto Gil and Liminha Vamos fugir Deste litgar, baby Vamos fugir TO cansadol de esperar Que voce nr carregue Vi os fugir Proutro ugar, baby os fugir Pra onde quer ue voce vá Que voce e carregue Pois • iga que ird Iraja Iraja Pronde eu s veja voce Voce vej a mim s6 M j6 Mar* Qualquer outro lu ar comum Outro lug qualquer Guapo é Guapore Qualquer outro ligar ao Sol Outro lugar ao Sol Ceu azul, ceu azul Onde haja sO meu corpo nu Junto ao seu corpo nu Vlainos fugir Proutro ugar, baby V amos fugir Pronde haja urn toboga Onde a gente escorregue Pois driga que ira Iraja iraja Pra onde eu sO veja voce Voce ve a a mim so M. ajO Marajo Qualquer outro lu ar comum Outro lug qualquer Guap Sr Guapore Qualquer outro 1 gar ao Sol Outro I gar ao Sol Ceti az 1, céu azul Onde aja s6 meu corpo nu Junto ao s u corpo nu amos fugir Deste ugar, baby amos fugir TO cansado de esperar Que voce iie carregue. Todo dila de manha Flores que a ente regue Uma baiida de maga Outra ban de reggae TO cansad de esperar Que voce e carregue Pronde quer 1 ue voce vá Que voce e carregue
Let's escape From this place, baby Let's escape I'm tired of waiting For you to take me away Let's escape To another place, baby Let's escape To where you want Take me away So tell me that you are going Iraja, Iraja To where I only see you You only see me Maraj6 Maraj6 Any other ordinary place Any other place Guapore Guapore Any other place in the sun Other place in the sun Blue sky, blue sky Where there will be only my naked body Together with your naked body Let's escape To another place, baby Let's escape To where there's a toboggan Where the people get away So tell me that you will go Iraja, Iraja To where I only see you And you only see me Maraj6 Marajo Any other ordinary place Any other place Guapore Guapore Any other place in the sun Other place in the sun Blue sky, blue sky Where there will be only my naked body Together with your naked body Let's escape From this place, baby Let's escape I'm tired of waiting For you to take me away Every day in the morning Flowers which people water Another piece of apple Another reggae band I'm tired of waiting For you to take me away To where you want to Take me away.
Telephone interviews are always difficult in that they provide no visual impressions, one of the other, and therefore end up being shorter. So I did a little research to get a few more answers about Maria Waldelurdes Costa Santana, which is Dande's real name. She was born in the Candeal neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the neighborhood Carlinhos Brown calls his own, and where the musical tradition is strong. (Carlinhos Brown runs a school for music in Candeal). Her father, who was in the military, was transferred to Rio when she was 10. Her little brother could not pronounce Waldelurdes, and Dande was born. In addition to the music she heard at home, she studied lyrical song with Paulo Fortes and did musical theater with the directors Luiz Mendonca and Luiz Antonio Martinez Correa (Mahogany), and MPB shows with Mauricio Tapajos. Will Mowatt, the English producer, known for his work with the group Soul II Soul, says of Dande's diverse taste in music," The key word to understanding Dande's music is fusion." Together with Celso Fonseca he produced Dande's second CD, Daitcle #2. He wanted to explore the singer's many facets. "Dande herself selected all the songs. Celso and I mercly sought to give it a contemporaneous package. The result is pop and very Brazilian. It mixes MPB with techno, Carlinhos Brown with South Africa. Miriam Makeba's "Pata Pata" has participation by Carlinhos Brown and the baianargentino, Argentine from Bahia, percussionist, Ramiro Mussotto. Other recreations on the CD are "Vamos Fugir" by Gilberto Gil and Liminha with participation by Djavan as well as the samba by Nelson Sargento "Idioma Esquisito," (Strange Language). The other cuts on the CD are new. These are "Chanson Triste" (Sad Song) by Herbert Vianna; "Qu.ase" (Almost) by Caetano Veloso and Antonio Cicero; "Romena" by Luis Capucho
and Suely Mesquita, and "Boca" (Mouth) by Paulinho Moska and George Israel. After recording in Rio, Dande and Will went to London to put the finishing touches on the CD. "I think," says Will, "that this is a CD well suited for playing on the radio as well as for dancing, with songs that people can sing and whistle. And Dande's personality comes shining through on all the cuts." The first CD is still selling around the world, and some ofthe cuts have been included in collectionsâ€”one in Israel and one on David Byrne's "Beleza Tropical 2," and by Chris Blackwell, founder of Island Records. It seems as if the world of popular music is opening its doors to the Bahian singer. "Dande expresses a new reality for Brazil, one of youth that is proud of the country's culture but not afraid of mixing it with the rhythm and technology from the outside," says Will Mowatt. "It's something I perceived in the work people like Carlinhos Brown, Chico Science, Fernanda Abreu, and Herbert Vianna. Herbert, by the way, is like David Bowie and Peter Gabriel in that he is apt to reinvent himself. He heard the CD and was impressed with what we had done. Sitting at Canecao, I tried for a moment to separate myself from the invitation and front row table and the job ahead of writing about this singer. I pictured her on a North American stage and asked myself, "Would an American audience get as excited as this audience was?" And the only answer that came to me was "Yes, yes!" Kirsten Weinoldt was born in Denmark and came to the U.S. in 1969. She fell in love with Brazil after seeing Black Orpheus many years ago and has lived immersed in Brazilian culture ever since. E-mail: kwracing(&erols.com
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Like most epidemics, it begins simply enough; a man in his car is waiting for the light to change. But before it does, he does. People honk, swear, and none of this helps the man recover his sight: "Nothing, it's as if I were caught in a mist or had fallen into a milky sea. But blindness isn't like that, said the other fellow, they say that blindness is black, Well I see everything white." A luminous whiteness, to be exact. And the blindness spreads, ignoring the logic that "blindness isn't something that can be caught just by a blind man looking at someone who is not, blindness is a private matter between a person and the eyes with which he or she was born." The amazing Portuguese writer Jose Saramago has created another compelling tale in his inimitable style, again ably translated by Giovanni Pontiero who, sadly, passed away as he was correcting the proofs. Saramago's stories do not tend to be dark, but this oneâ€”the luminous whiteness to the contraryâ€”is by far the most nightmarish. To avert the escalation of this strange phenomenon, the handful of people who have contracted this white sickness, so-called, are rounded up and quarantined in an empty mental hospital. There are two wings, separated by a kind of no man's land, each wing with a courtyard and three wards. There's a core group, and the book (if you'll excuse the pun) will never let them out of sight for very long. These "seven pilgrims" consist of the first blind man, his wife, the doctor who examined the first blind man, the doctor's wife, and three of the doctor's patientsâ€”a young woman with dark glasses, a boy with a squint, and an old man with a black eyepatch. If this seems like an odd way to describe characters instead of simply giving them names, it's because this is how the author describes them to us. No one in the book has a proper name. Fortunately for the group, and just as fortunately for us, the doctor's wife has only pretended to be blind so that she could stay with and look after her husband. Sure, she expects to lose her sight at any moment, but as the book continues so does her vision. But don't think she's gloating with pleasure over this. Occasionally she considers her being spared "contemptible and obscene. I have no right to look if the others cannot see me." As these personal catastrophes multiply, it's clear that the best and the worst in people will be brought forth. One slight incident leaves the doctor murmuring, "This is the stuff we're made of, half indifference and half malice." Later, having to wallow in shit, literally in shit because the lavatories are becoming useless, he's reduced to tears of frustration. "There are many ways of becoming an animal... this is just the first of them." A third of the way through the book and now the hospital is full and becoming overcrowded. The roughly 260 people inside, regardless of what status they enjoyed on the outside, have been reduced to a common denominator. The internees colonize their respective wards, stake their turf, so to speak, and try to instill some order. The doctor's wife helps her group as much as she can, repeatedly saying, "If we cannot live entirely like human beings, at least let us do everything in our power not to live entirely like animals." But the Orwellian nightmare is unrelenting, the pools of urine and excrement everywhere, in the hallways and the yards, and while everything smells to high heaven it's to the lower depths of hell that we're sinking. Suddenly, the newly arrived contingent in the third ward decides to horde all the food (left outside the gate daily by soldiers), and demands payment for it from the other internees. Valuables are collected and handed over, but fewer provisions rather than more are given in return. BRA77IL -OCTOBER 1998
Nightmare in White The newest Nobel Prize in Literature, Portuguese writer Jose Saramago has jusi released another book in the U.S. Once again the inimitable Saramago has created a compelling tale. This time a dark one, dealing with a luminous blindness. BONDO VVYSZPOLSKI Blindness, by Jose Saramago, trans. by Giovanni Pontiero (Harcourt Brace, 294 pp., $22)
"After week, the blind hoodlums sent a message saying they wanted women. Just like that, Bring us women." Later, when the seven blind, violated women from the first ward are retreating from that den of iniquity, each one leading the one after her by the hand, the image we have or them transcends time and place, becoming biblical, mythological, universal. The luminous whiteness that each person sees is truly a sad, ironic comment on this microcosm of society that has become pitch black with unspeakable horror. We have witnessed the breakdown of law, order, morality; we have seen the futile attempts at adaptation; and we have seen old fears and superstitions gaining hold. But along 47
the way Saramago has left a trail of commentary, scattered remarks and phrases for the reader to chew over and consider, such as the doctor's "Perhaps only in a world of the blind will things be what they truly are," or the girl with the dark glasses saying that "Fear can cause blindness," or the doctor's wife thinking to herself, "Blindness is also this, to live in a world where all hope is gone." The apocalyptic terrors continue when the seven central characters return to the city, such as it is, from which they were exiled. As they make their way, this uncertain cluster of humanity may remind us of a similar happenstance group in Saramago's The Stone Raft, people randomly thrown together after the Iberian Peninsula pulled free from the rest of Europe and went spinning off towards the Azores. In that novel, the world unraveled form the outside; here in unravels from within. Blindness is stitched together with long sentences, the dialogues often separated only by commas, so that even the most U.S. Postal Service Statement of Ownership, Management and Circulation as required by 39 USC 3685 I. Publication Title: Brazzil 2. Publication No.: 1091-868X 3. Filing Date: October 22, 19984. Issue Frequency: Monthly 5. No. of Issues Published Annually: 12 6. Annual Subscription Price: $3.00 7. Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: Brazzil, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 900421024 8. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters or General Business Office of Publisher: Brazzil, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-10249. Full Names and Complete Mailing Addresses of Publisher: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024; Editor Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024; Managing Editor: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024 10. Owner: Rodney Mello, 2039 N. Ave. 52, Los Angeles, CA 90042-1024 11. Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages, or Other Securities: None 12. N/ A 13. Publication Name: Brazzil 14. Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: September 1998 15. Extent and Nature of Circulation: Actual No.
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16. This Statement of Ownership will be printed in the October 1997 issue of this publication. 17. I certify that all information furnished on this form is true and complete. I understand that anyone who furnishes false or misleading information on this fonn or who omits material or infonnation requested on the form may be subject to criminal sanctions (including fines and imprisonment) and/or civil sanctions (including multiple damages and civil penalties). (Signed) Rodney Mello, Publisher and Editor-in-Chief
attentive reader may stumble and hive some doubt as to who is speaking. However, in a book about the loss of sight, or perspective, it not only seems a brilliant use of Saramago's stylistic devices, but implies that things should not be spelled out so clearly. Anyway, a book is always something of a blind movie, isn't? You have to rely on your imagination aid your vocabulary, not on pictorial hinages, to see what's in front of you. ' Saram ago has spoken of the impetus that led to his writing The Stone Raft, which is the persistent notion in much of Western Europe that Spain and Portugal are not really part of, or integral to, the European community. Fine, Saramago seemed to be responding, we'll just pi& up and move somewhere else. In Blindness, however, one can only guess at what the impetus was, in part because there's so much wrong with the planet and because Mankind seems to be stumbling through, narrowly averting one holocaust after another. It's a cautionary tale, a warning, and a grim meditation on human nature. The collected, works of Jose Sathmago include several acknowledged masterpieces, among them Baltasar abd Blimunda, The Year of the Death Ricardo Reis, and The Gospel According to Jesus Christ. Now we'll have to make room for.Blindness, a disturbing, compelling nova that's sure to be discussed for years to come.
Blindness, two excerpts: Blind men lay stretched out on the long tables in the refectory. From a dripping tap over a sink full of garba , trickled a thread of water. The doctors wife looked around her in search or a bucket or basin but could see nothing that might serve her purpose. One of the blind men was disturbed by this presence and asked, Who's there, She did not reply, she knew that she would not be welcome, that no one would say, You need water, then take it, and if it's to wash the corpse of a dead woman, take all the water you want. Scattered on the floor were plastic bags, those used for the food, some ofthem large. She thought they must be torn, then reflected that by using two or three, one inside the other, not mach water would be lost. She acted quickly, the blind men were already getting down from the tables and asking, Who's there, even more alarmed when they heard the sound of miming water, they headed in that direction, the doctor's wife got out of the way and pushed a table across their path so that they could not come near, she then retrieved her
bag, the water was running slowly, in desperation she forced the tap, then, as if it had been released from some prison, the water spurted out, splashed all over the place and soaked her from head to foot. The blind men took fright and drew back, they thought a pipe must have burst, and they had all the more reason to think so when the flood reached their feet, they were not to know that it had been spilled by the stranger who had entered, as it happened the woman had realized that she would not be able to carry so much weight. She tied a knot in the bag, threw it over her shoulder, and, as best she could, fled. rit When the doctor and the old man with the black eyepatch entered the ward with the food, they did not see, could not see, seven naked women and the corpse of the woman who suffered from insomnia stretched out on her bed, cleaner than she had ever been in all her life, while another woman was washing her companions one by one, and then herself. When she reached the street, it was raining buckets, All the better, she thought, panting for breath, her legs shaking, in this rain the smell will be less noticeable. Someone had grabbed the last rag that had barely covered her from the waist up, she was now going around with her breasts exposed and glistening, a refined expression, with the water from heaven, this was not liberty leading the people, the bags, fortunately full, are too heavy for her to carry them aloft like a flag... Eyes are also needed to see this picture, a woman laden with plastic bags, going along a raindrenched street, amidst rotting litter and human and animal excrement, cars and trucks abandoned any old way, blocking the main thoroughfare, some of the vehicles with their tires already surrounded by grass, and the blind, the blind, openmouthed and staring up at the white sky, it seems incredible that rain should fall from such a sky. The doctor's wife reads the street signs as she goes along, she remembers some of them, others not at all, and there comes a moment when she realizes that she has lost her way. There is no doubt, she is lost. She took a turning, then another, she no longer remembers the streets or their names, then in her distress, she sat down on the filthy ground, thick with black mud, and drained of any strength, of all strength, she burst into tears. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Movies RIO 0 Cara de Pau (The Fresh Guy)—Comedy. Guy has to invent ways to survive after being fired from the place where he worked for 30 years. Written by Juca de Oliveira, directed by Paulo Guarnieri, with Castrinho and Flavio Guarnieri. Teatro dos Grandes Atores. A Ninfeta da Rua Augusta (Augusta Street's Lolita)—Drama. Based on Jorge Mascarenhas's movie of same name. Poor girl becomes prostitute to help her family. Directed by Valeria Abbade. Teatro Armando Gonzaga. Procura-se Pablico (Looking for Audience)— Comedy. Famous authors practice modern texts. Written and directed by Dirceu de Mattos, with Cia. Atores Atoa. Teatro Dirceu de Mattos. Os Colecionadores (The Collectors)—Theater of absurd dealing with contemporary life. Written and directed by Joel Gusson, with Cia. das Indias Ocidentais de Teatro. Sala Carlos Couto. Performance—Comedy. Stories of marriages. Written and directed by Sarah Berandeth, with Sandro Rabello and Andre Cerveira. Centro Qultural Oduvaldo Vianna Filho. 0 Abre Alas (Hey, Let Me Through)—Musical. The life of pioneer musician Chiguinha Gonzaga with Rosamaria Murtinho. 0 Abre Alas, composed by Chiquinha, was the first big Carnaval hit. Directed by Charles Moeller and Claudio Botelho. Written by Maria Adelaide do Amaral. Teatro Joao Caetano.
SA -0 PAULO Uma Lk& Longe Demais (A Lesson That Went Too Far)—Two students kidnap teacher after being expelled from school. Written by Zeno Wilde, directed by Mauricio Lencasttre, with Aldine Muller, Mauricio Lencasttre and Edye. TBC (Teatro Brasileiro de Comedia) Aqueles 2 (Those Two)—The reencounter of two lovers long after the end of their affair. Written and directed by Jose Geraldo Petean, with Eloisa Elena and Marcelo Goes. Espaco Piolim. Dom Casmurro (Mr. Curmudgeon)—Bentinho wants to prove to himself beyond any doubt that his beloved wife Capitu betrayed him. Adapted from the Machado de Assis novel by Jose Paulo Rosa, who also directs. With Regina Pessoa, Zhe Gomes, and Alexandre Leal, Teatro Lucas Pardo Filho. Homem Branco e Cara Vermelha (White Man and Red Face)—Lost in the desert a Jew in order to survive must dissuade an Indian from committing suicide. Written by George Tabori, directed by Wolfgang Pannek, with Linneu Dias, Maura Baiocchi, and Antonio Galleao. Teatro do Instituto Goethe, As Polacas (The Polish Girls)—Based on Jovens Polacas (Polish Girls), a book that tells the story of a group of Jewish prostitutes in Brazil, early this century. Written by Analy A. Pinto, directed by Iacov Hillel, with Lacia Romano and Isa Kopelman. Teatro Maria Della Costa. BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Just-released American movies A Perfect Murder (Urn Crime P feito), Firestorm • (Tormenta Fogo), I Think I do (Acho Que So Mafia! (Mafia!), The Mask of Zo (A Mascara do Zorro), The Negot tor (A Negociactio), The Object My Afection (A Raziio do Meu Afet Out of Sight arresistivel Paixã Small Soldiers (Pequenos Gu reiros), Snake Eyes (Olhos Serpente) Acao Entre Amigos (Operation Among Friends)—Brazi1/1998—The story of a former torturer policeman who decides to raise fighting roo ters. Directed by Beto Brant, w th Leonardo Villar, Zecarlos Macha o, and Caca Amaral. La Serva Padrona (The Maid Boss Brasil/1998—The artful acts of Serpina to get married to her bo s. Directed by Carla Camurati, w th Thales Pan Chacon and Jose Car os Leal. Sokout (0 Silancio)--Iran/Fran e/ 1998—Blind boy gets lost w ile folowing some pleasing voices. irected by Mohsen Makhmalbaf th Tahmineh Normatora. Amores (Loves)—Brazil/199 — Comedy. Daughter of a TV produ er going through professional crisis f Ils in love with his best friend, a marr ed man. Directed by Domingos Olive ra, with Maria Mariana and Domin os Oliveira. Cinderela Baiana (Cinderella fr m Bahia)—Brazil/1998—Musical c medy. Directed by Conrado Sanc •z, with Carla Perez, Alexandre Pi es, Perry Sales, and Fabio Vidal. he story of a poor girl who becom a star, very similar to the life sto of Carla Perez herself. Kenoma—Brazi 1/ 1 997—Drama. rtisan from the interior has an ob ession: to build a perpetual moti n. Directed by Eliane Caffe, with J se Dumont, Enrique Diaz, Jonas Ble h, and Mariana Lima.
FICTION 1 Veronika decide morrer, Paulo Coelho. Objetiva, 221 p. R$15. 2 0 mundo de Sofia, Jostein Gaarder. Companhia das Letras, 555 p. R$26,50. 3 0 rancho, Danielle Steel. Record, 448 p. R$20. 4 Mal secreto—Inveja, Zuenir Ventura. Objetiva, 264 p. R$22. 5 0 plano perfeito, Sidney Sheldon. Record, 300 p. R$25. 6 No fim da certo, Fernando Sabino. Record, 226p R$20. 7 0 Deus das pequenas coisas, Arundhati Roy. Cia das Letras, 344 p. R$ 28. 8 AtravEs do espelho, Jostein Gaarder. Companhia das Letras, 144p. R$17. 9 Sem asas ao amanhecer, Luciana Scotti. 0 Nome da Rosa, 197 p. R$ 25. 10 4 senhora de Avalon, Marion Zimmer Bradley. Rocco, 504 p. R$28.
NONFICTION 1 A viagem do descobrimento, Eduardo Bueno. Objetiva, 148 p. R$16,00. 2 Minha bola, minha vida, Nilton Santos. Gryphus, 248 p. R$21. 3 203 maneiras de enlouquecer um homem na cama, Olivia St. Claire. Ediouro, 128 p. R$10,90. 4 177 maneiras de enlouquecer uma mulher na cama, Margot Saint-Clair. Ediouro, 128 p. R$ 10,90. 5 As melhores piadas do planeta e da Casseta, Casseta e Planeta. Objetiva, 128 p. R$10. 6 Chic homem, manual de moda e estilo, Gloria Kalil. Senac, 237 p. R$45. 7 Como falar corretamente e sem inibicoes, Reinaldo Polito. Saraiva, 216 p. R$18. 8 Dossie Brasil, Geneton Morais Neto. Objetiva, 151 p. R$19. 9 Ah; se eu soubesse, Richard Edler. Negocio. 237 p. R$ 28,70. 10 Bilhoes e bilhaes, Carl Sagan. Cia das Letras, 100 p. R$23,50.
SELF-HELP/ ESOTERISM I Cancer tern cura, Frei Romano Zago. Vozes, 208 p. R$10. 2 As profecias sem misterio, Paiva Netto, Elevacao, 255 p. R$ 16. 3 Meditando corn Brian Weiss, Brian L. Weiss. Salamandra, 100 p. R$ 14,90. 4 A tiguia e a galinha, Leonardo Boff. Vozes, 206 p. R$ 16. 5 0 sucesso serfeliz, Roberto Shinyashi. Gente, 198 p. R$ 20. According to Jornal do Brasil, http://www.jb.com.br 49
FOGO & PAIXAO AGENCY Membros ao redor do mundo / Members worldwide MAKE FRIENDS? VOCE OVER FAZER AMIZADES? HAVE A DATE? TER UM NAMORADO? FUTURE MARRIAGE? FUTURO CASAMENTO? Mande sua foto e informasoo pessoal. Send your photo, and personal information.
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For Ad, call (213) 255-8062 or E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 50
BRA7_ZIL - OCTOBER 1998
FEIRA LIVRE OPEN MARKET BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY
Inside sales agents needed, bilingual, Mon-Fri., L.A. Area. Call (213) 482-2323. Ask for Sergio.  International Company exporting to Brazil. High $ potential for individuals with contacts in Brazil. (805) 449-5507  CATERING
AtencAo, brasileiros: fazemos comidaparacongelar, salgadinhos, jantares, peq uenos/gran des grupos. Call Joy (562) 438-3415 
1 (800)772-6788. Voice line is 1 (810) 772-6452 x124  MISCELLANEOUS
Babalawo Zezito D'Oxum, 45 anos no Rio. Rua do Carmo 15, Parque Amorim, Belford Roxo, Rio , Brazil Zip: 26185-340. Tel.: (021) 761-1682  Procuro tutor particula,r para conversacao portuguesa. Area de Hollywood. Gail (213)660-2119  Tickets para o Brasil - Cheap! Baratos - 1 (800)643-3910. Tudo legal. 
Portuguese Courses in Salvador da Bahia, Dialog°, http:// www.brazilstudy.com, E-mail: email@example.com, fax: 01155 71 336-6329 1155]
Brazilian Music in its totality. Samba, bossa nova, chorinho, bald°, axe, and more. Merchant Express (954) 785-5991
COMPUTER & SOFTWARE
NEWSPAPERS & MAGAZINES
Computer programmers wanted - From USA, Brasil; other locations. Work Visas, also part-time - Ventura County Internet - Researcher Recruiter; English firstname.lastname@example.org Port Hueneme (805) 986-4353 
Jornais e revistas do Brasil. Recebemos jomais di arios etodas as principais revistas, incluindo masculinas e femininas. Tel. (954) 785-5991 PERSONAL WOMAN SEEKS MAN
Brasileiros: Fazemos comidas tipicas pra congelar, salgados, bolos pra festa, doces e sobremesas diversas. Jantares, pequenos/grandes grupos. Consultenos. Ester (714) 774-9030  Salgados - Coxinhas, Risoles, Croquete / Docinhos - Brigadeiro, Beijinho... Suzana (714) 666-2749  HEALTH & FITNESS
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Sales Manager to 75 K (US). Company does not want to relocate anyone. Market and sell new and existing automotive drive train components to assigned accounts. Increase sales, program management and market positioning in traction control products—axles, clutches, etc. Portuguese/English bilingual, BS degree a must. Please e-mail or fax résumé to Jackie Nabat: email@example.com or brazzil-ADS (213) 255-8062 BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Brazilian lady, 59, gostaria de conhecer senhor educado e corn situacao financeira estavel. Por favor, escreva para: PO Box 2673, Santa Clarita, CA 913862673  Single Brazilian Women. Men worldwide desire to correspond with you for friendship/marriage. No Fee. Send color photo and profile to SOTB, P. 0. 274123, Tampa, FL 33688,call (813) 932-3805 or e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org - http:// www.sotb.com  PERSONAL MAN SEEKS WOMAN
American, Black, male,27years old, would like to meet a Brazilian lady for cultural enlightenment and companionship. Bill (310) 537-2291  Americano, 38, atraente, romantic° e sincero. Procura brasileira 18-45. Enviar foto para 2440-16th St, No. 179, San Francisco, CA 94103  Americano, 43 anos, delgado, branco, olhos verdes, professor de Frances e Inglés, fala Portugues, gostaria de encontrar brasileira entre 18-30 anos. Chame (310) 712-1627 
FE IRA LIVRE RATES: 500 a word. Phone is one word. DISCOUNTS: For 3 times deduct 5%, for 6 times deduct 10%, for 12 times deduct 15%. POLICY: All ads to be prepaid. Ads are accepted at our discretion. Your canceled check is your receipt. Please, include address and phone number, which will be kept confidential. DEADLINE: The 25th of the month. Late material will be held for the following month if appropriate. TO PLACE AD: Send ad with check, money order or your Credit Card number (plus your name and expiration date) to: BRAZZI L P.O. Box 50536 Los Angeles, CA 90050-0536. Seeking ladies 18 45 years old to correspond w th American men for friendshi . and companionship. FREE r all ladies. Write: TigerLilie 2709 Lookout Dr., Suite 520, Garland TX 75044 USA  Single American white male, 39, attractive, gree eyes, brown hair, in New York, wants to meet "thin and attracti e" Brazilian lady 20-35 for r lationship or more. Write, se d photo. T. Schlesinger, 69-4 108th Street, Forest Hills, NY 11375  Single nice looki g American businessman, 1.8, 70 kg, looking for serious co promise with a beautiful Brazi ian girl with family connectio s to hotel or auto business fo partnership. Will be in Brazil anuary 1999. Fax (805) 547- 469 E-mail: email@example.com m  Tall, blonde, blu -eyed, L. A. business owner, seeks petite, dark-skinned Bras 'Mira to be my woman. (800) 60 -5869 
portugues. Apenas amizade. Tenho 18 anos. Luciene Pinto, Rua Leonardo da Vince, No. 13, Senador Camara, Rio de Janeiro, CEP: 21831-100 Brazil.  Fr ien d sh ip/Ma rr i a ge/Co rrespo n dence. Men, ladies, worldwide. Large information packet $2 (no inmates). Ladies in Brazil, about 80 names, addresses (no pictures) $12. Agarwal, Box 10020, Glendale, CA 91209  PSYCHOTHERAPY
Emotional & psychological help -Elizabete Almeida MFCC licensed psychotherapist. English/Portuguese. Reasonable rates. (310) 281-7536. ] RENTAL
Guaruja/Coberturinha 2Q/2B - 6 blocos da praia. Mes: $350 + Temporada: 150/week. Brasil: 011-55-11-263-8675, Los Angeles: (310) 785-1822 (Maria) 
TRANSLATION & INTERP.
MAN SEEKS MAN
Dialog() Translates from and to Brazilian Portuguese: http:// www.brazilstudy.com 
Very handsome, professional, 40's WM seeks s'ncere, VGL/ black/Brasil man. ruly love the music from Caet o to Nana to Gil and more! aybe we can make music! I'm red thing! (323) 227-8935 
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Westerner, 38, Ii ing in Hong Kong, 5'10", 160 lbs, athletic, banker, wants to eet Brazilian males visiting H ng Kong for sex or relationship Prefer 30 and up, tall, not thin, ell endowed. E-mail tfontana hotmail.com 
Receba seu cartao de socio do Club Brasileiro enviando $2.00 porano corn seu nome e endereco para A TTT SERVICES - (909) 627-2171 - 12400 Cypress, 88, Chino, CA 91710 e tenha 10% de desconto na passagem para o Brasil. 
Touristic services in Salvador da Bahia: Dialog°, http:// www.brazilstudy.com 
Gostaria de corr sponder-me corn brasileiros ( ), latinos (as), ou americanos ( ) que falem
brazzil-ADS (213) 255-8062 51
Boston Books Livraria Plenitude
(800) 532-5809 Consulate Consulado do Brasil
(617) 617-542-4000 Dentist SyIvio P. Lessa
(617) 924-1882 Food & Products Brasil Brasil
(617) 561-6094 Jerry's Cachaca
Mov. Social Humanista
(310) 281-6652 Samba La -Esc. de Samba (562) 437-1939 Consulate
Cheviot Hills Travel
New Port Tours
(213) 651-2664 Dentist Gilberto Henriques
(213) 464-0524 Events Promotion Brazilian Nites Prod. (818) 566-1111 Samba & Saudade
Br Online Travel
Via Brasil Travel
Brazil TV & Production
Miami S Florida Airlines
New York N. Jersey Books Luso-Brazilian Books
(800) 727-LUSO Clubs & Associations
Approach Student Ctr
Brazilian Ch. of Corn.
(714) 731-7788 Health & Fitness
(800) 468-2744 Vasp (800) 732-8277 Banks
Hands of Care Mas. Ther.
Publications The Brazilian Monthly
(213) 937-3835 Instruction
Brasil Brasil Cult. Ctr
Bossa: Braz. Jazz Guide
(800) 732-VASP Attorney
(562) 863-3463 Food & Products
Nelson Auto Body
(800) 321-6336 TV
(617) 666-5410 Instruction
Braz. & Amer. Lg. Inst.
(510) 444-8100 Auto
Musical Instruments Tamborim & Samba (415) 871-2201 Physician Dr. Guilherme Salgado (415) 832-6219 Printing M. C. Printing (510) 268-8967 Publications
Brazilian Corn. Bureau
(212) 916-3200 Brazilian Trade Bur.
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(415) 565-3560 Beauty Salon Bibbo (415) 421-BIBO Carmen's International (415) 433-9441 Neyde's
(415) 681-5355 Clubs & Associations
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(310) 826-1443 Legal Services Meiojas & Ferraz
(310) 360-0901 Loans Finance Plus Mort. Corp.
(310) 585-8911 Matchmaker Fogo e Paoao
(310) 450-4586 Music Jazz - Richard Samuels
(818) 798-5424 Physician Nilson A. Santos (213) 483-3430 Psychother/Counsel.
(800) GO VARIG
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(407) 354-5200 Cam. Corn. Brasil- EUA (305) 579-9030 ABABA - Amazon. As. (813) 842-3161 Consulate Consulado do Brasil
(305) 285-6200 Dentists
(212) 768-1545 Food & Products
Bay Area Brasilian Club
(510) 215-2658 Computer
(415) 665-1994 Consulate
Canto do Brasil
(415) 626-8727 JoAo's Restaurant
(408) 244-1299 Little Rio
(415) 441-3344 Michelangelo Café
(415) 986-4058 Mozzarela Di-Bufala
(415) 346-9888 Nino's (510) 845-9303 Porto Brasil
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(510) 215-8202 Ginga Brasil
(718) 937-0574 Restaurants
Escola Nova de Samba (415) 661-4798 Samba do CoracAo
Elizabeth Almeida, M.A.
Samba, Swing & Suor
Dr. Jefferson Si
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(415) 981-8170 Dance Instruction
Hedimo de Si
Balboa Braz. Rest.
(201) 589-5884 Publications
(305) 262-8212 Food & Beverages All Braz. Imp. & Exp. (305) 523-8134 Brazil by Mail
Janete & Pedro Br. Food
(212) 757-3080 Consulting
Modern Lang. Center
(415) 587-4990 Restaur./Night Clubs
(310) 839-8427 Internet & Art Design
(617) 262-9997 Restaurants
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Roberto Sales, DDS
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Bakari Art Studio
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(213) 255-8062 Real Estate
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(310) 693-2844 Culture Planet
(310) 441-9808 Zebi Designs
(310) 391-6530 Auto Repair Cosmo Auto Parts
(213) 259-9818 Banks Banco do Brasil (213) 688-2996 Catering
Cent. 21 - Vlad. Bellemo (714) 406-0121 Cent. 21 - Solon Pereira Cent. 21 Tfinia Sayegh
The Brazilian Sun
(562) 865-2992 Restaurants & Cafes
(310) 657-5070 Brazilian Tropical
(954) 704-1211 Restaurants
(562) 438-3415 Clothes
(310) 455-1772 Clubs & Associations
(305) 374-5235 Real Estate
Dr. Neri Franzon
(305) 541-7819 (305) 776-1412 Publications
Dr. Mario Sanches
Po rao Steak Masters
Brazil-Cal. Chbr of Corn.
(310) 841-6525 Translation/Interp.
Brazilian Int. Affairs
(310) 370-0929 Centro Cultural Gaucho
(213) 256-6548 El Jardin
(310) 854-5881 Travel/Tours
Brazilian Wave Discover Brazil Tours Euroamerica
Around the World Trl.
MILA - Samba School
(310) 391-6098 52
(201) 313-0996 Odyssea Travel Service
San Diego Auto
Clube Bras. San Diego
(619) 295-0842 Sunday Night Cl. Brazil
(619) 233-5979 Import/Export Brazil Imports
(619) 234-3401 Money Remittance Vigo-California (619) 479-V1GO
(201) 491-9196 Travel Agencies Barb Tour Service
(415) 334-0106 (408) 287-9798 Food
(619) 223-7748 Clubs & Associations
(305) 567-1718 Travel Agencies
Brazilian Sociocult. C.
(212) 221-0033 S.O. B. (212) 243-4940
(954) 566-3190 (954) 781-1113
Car Mania Auto Repair
Dana Bahia Rio Braz. Churrascaria
(310) 837-8957 Ginga Brasil (714) 778-0266 (310) 657-6306
Brazil Express California Produce (415) 749-0524 HGC Imp. Wholesale
(202) 775-9180 Varig
(408) 947-8511 Instruction Portuguese - A. Frame (510) 339-9289
(202) 822-8277 Banks
Portuguese Lang. Serv.
(415) 587-4990 Money Remittance Vigo
Banco do Brasil Banco do Est. de S. Paulo
(202) 682-1151 Clubs & Associations
Braz. Am. Cult. Inst.
(415) 695-9258 Music Celia Malheiros
(415) 738-2434 Damien's Intercambio
(415) 595-2274 Fogs na Roupa
(510) 464-5999 Ricardo Peixoto
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spectators and was instantly spellbound. There were six musicians, muscular men, all rather short of stature, wearing black pants and white shirts, over which they wore white ponchos trimmed in royal blue fringe that danced with their arm movements. Their bodies, bent forward slightly, moved up and down in time to the rhythm. Their faces made me want to paint them, with their high cheekbones, their slanted eyes, black as pitch, their hair as glossy as patent leather and their aristocratic hooked noses. These were full-blooded Indians from Uruguay, I was told later, performing their own primitive music, which was unlike anything I had ever heard before. Two of the men strummed guitar-like instruments; one of them frequently compressed his lips against his teeth and emitted a high, piercing whistle, like the sound of a jungle bird. It was an eerie trilling and did not seem human in origin. The two men in the center blew their breath across graduated lengths of bamboo tubes, lashed together with thongs. One of these "pipes" was over two feet in length; the longer the pipes, the deeper the tone. VIGNETTES OF CENTRAL The result was a rippling BRAZIL IN THE NINETIES melody, like water flowing over pebbles. Another man played percussion instruments, small The only sound was that ones, one of which was a thick of their pounding hooves bracelet of cowrie shells and in the soft earth. I got out seed pods around his wrist. The of the truck and walked closer to these beautiful leader, standing closest to the animals whose faces and crowd, struck a drum condrooping ears gave them a structed of a hollowed-out tree look of gentleness. I trunk about two-feet long, over wanted to be closer to which was stretched the hide of them to feel the earth an animal, with the brown and beneath my own feet white fur still attached. The inshudder with their tricate rhythms accompanied by running. their voices singing an unintelligible language was mesmerizJERINE P WATSON
Presidente Prudente, a city of 200,000, is located in the state of Sao Paulo, 400 miles west of the megalopolis of Sao Paulo, a sprawling giant of 13 million people. "Prudench", as the residents say it, is the thriving, throbbing heart of the beef cattle industry and related businesses, including a lifestyle centered around the cowboy, rodeos and all facets of things "western". I was employed by an importer of western goods as the English-speaking liaison between his company and American manufacturers specializing in western clothing, hats, boots, trophy belt buckles, home decor, ropes, tack, etc. In this part of central Brazil, in the oppressive tropical heat from early December through March, it is far too humid to walk for pleasure. The necessary hikes to the market and to the farmacia were about all I could manage until the month of June, when the Brazilian "winter" brought welcome relief to the bustling city. The perfect weather was reminiscent of that in Southern Californiaâ€”not too hot, not too coldâ€”like Goldilock's favorite porridge. One Friday afternoon, I got off work early and strolled along a closed-off street known as "downtown", which is the main shopping area. Merchandise of all kinds is displayed along both sides of a bricked-in street, eight blocks long, and benches are placed strategically along the walkway for shoppers to rest on between purchases. All the store fronts have metal garage doors the merchants pull down and lock at the end of the day, because robbery is rampant and uncontrollable. This same area is off-limits after dark, because of the danger. During the day, especially on Friday, payday, it's jammed with locals. I, too, was wandering around, enjoying the carnival-like atmosphere. I stared at the fake plastic running shoes (for $40) and the real ones (for $150), deciding my old ones could serve awhile longer. In the distance, I heard the sound of a drum, and as I proceeded farther down the brick walk, the throbbing got louder and louder. I approached a large semi-circle ofpeople standing around some sort of entertainment which obviously was the source of the hypnotic music. I edged my way closer to the front row of
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
ing. It was a glimpse into the near-past of this raw, emerging country, a connection back to the Beginnings. From out of the crowd lunged a very obese nun, who walked up to express her appreciation to the group. She was dressed in a snowy starched habit that looked as if she had never, ever, sat down in it. The creases were as sharp as military attire and the endless yards of startlingly white sheeting, stiff as plywood, enveloped her ample body in a myriad of intricate folds and trains. Her face was hidden by .her wimple, a huge cone, extending far beyond her peripheral vision. She was so glowingly "white" in the middle of the tawdry area as to appear a visiting angel. Her crucifix dangled down from her left side, its beads a bright blue, its cross swinging against her voluminous skirt. Her black, bushy eyebrows did not detract from the kind expression emanating from her eyes. Smiling, she turned to join another nun, dressed identically, but as tiny as the first one was large. They began to walk side-by-side, swinging briskly through the crowd, talking animatedly, and I followed close behind, observing their matching black plastic sandals and white socks. Their wimples had been ironed deliberately and carefully, the creases forming the shape of a cross centered on the backs of their heads. As the Mother Superior (she had to have been at least that) stopped to raise her arms in greeting to someone she knew, she looked, for a moment, like a gigantic, benevolent butterfly. I walked on, edging by their radiant cheerfulness, and the scent of sunshine and soap wafted across my nostrils. All of the activity was memorable, but only to me. Everyone else took the afternoon for granted, as part of the weekly scene in downtown Prudente. It was reminiscent of seeing native Americans in Arizona or New Mexico and sensing an inner chord of awareness that THEY were here first and WE are the "newcomers". Brazil, in the central interior, is like an overgrown, rebellious teenager with the IQ of a genius, trying to cope with technical knowledge far beyond the capabilities of the majority of its citizens. In the year 1990, the average life expectancy of a Brasileiro was 60. As recently as 50 years ago, the city of Presidente Prudente had no electricity. There is no observed speed limit in the
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
city proper and no restrictions as far as vehicle emissions are concerned. Clo ds of carbon monoxide flow through open windows of the one-story dw 11ings and the traffic noise is deafen' 24 hours a day. I came to the conclusi in that Brazilian people rarely sleep or at the very least, don't seem to need mu rest. That may be due to the amount f caffeine consumed in the form of Bi azilian coffee. My accommodations in Prude te were luxurious by average Brazili standards. I lived in the home of employer's mother-in-law, a gracio lady named Alcina, whose house w designed by Oscar Niemeyer, the mous architect and designer of the c' of Brasilia. Like most Brazilian horn: s, the house was built of concrete, tile • id marble with dark wood accents. e shadowy interiors and hard surfaces w e
designed to combat the heat but a • tend to amplify the street noises. Th particular house showed grievous sig of obsolescence and was located at t intersection of two of the busiest ci streets in a commercial area that h d once been only residential. One wall if my bedroom was all windows, ea .1 covered with three vertically slid' partitions - one of patterned glass, o of screen and one of louvers. Through the years, the wooden shu ters had developed wood-rot and oft did not function as they had been d , signed to do. There was no way to kee out the traffic noise and the noxio gases that wafted into the room period catty. Brakes screeched, motorcycl: roared, trucks varoomed, horns blew all night long. Many times I was aw •
ened by the loud noise of crashing vehicles or of a passing "boom-box" on the shoulder of a pedestrian. It was impossible to carry on a conversation inside the room and often the hum of the electric fan could not be heard over the din. Alcina, my hostess, did not seem to hear the noise. She has lived in the same house for over 30 years and has grown accustomed to the sounds reverberating from the hard surfaces. When the house was new, hot water came through the pipes and the eight-foot bathtub in the hall bathroom was functional, but with the passage of time, the cost of replac ing the obsolete hot water heater and repairing the rusted pipes leading to the tub was out of all reason. There was no hot water for washing dishes, for bathing or for washing clothes and the faucets in the bathtub had been oxidized and nonfunctional for years. The large glassenclosed shower barely emitted enough water to wet down one's body because of the water pressure. Just above the showerhead, an electrical apparatus hung suspended above the water pipes. There was a gauge on the side, with a black calibrated button, that was supposed to increase the heat of the water when turned in the right direction. The first time I tried to manipulate the shower to warmer water, an electric shock coursed down through my whole body. Later, I mentioned this and everyone laughed, saying that happens all the time. I was content to try and shower in cold sprinkles after that. Alcina is an authentic pioneer woman. She had raised small children in a house built by her husband, close to a river, on their family-owned land about 50 miles southeast of Prudente. During those early years, she had no plumbing, no electricity, no telephone, no modern conveniences. She hauled water in jugs on her shoulders to cook and clean with; she washed clothing by pounding it on a rock at the edge of the river; she boiled the carcasses of wild pigs to render their fat for cooking; she made soap of ashes and lye; she ground corn by hand and did all the other primitive things we think of as having been done many generations ago, not just one. The lack of hot water to a woman with Alcina's history is not considered a deprivation. All her children and their families have the latest in conveniences, but not she, the matriarch of the Madeiros clan. It
appeared to be almost a matter of pride, if not martyrdom. Alcina has a companion that sleeps in the house with her, a young woman from the state of Mato Grosso named Zorai (pronounced Zoe-rai-EEE). A younger woman companion is very common among widowed ladies of Brazil. Alcina also employs another young woman as a maid, who cleans the house, does the laundry and cooks; domestic help is one of the few bargains in modern-day Brazil. Alcina still prefers comida caseira (country cooking) which consists of foods prepared by the same methods used years ago, with emphasis on seasoning with animal fat and sugar. Nutritionally, central Brazil is easily 50 years behind the United States. Brazilians start the day with a demitasse of "coffee", which is very strong, almost bitter, and heavily sweetened with sugar. It is quite common for Brazilians to sip on this mixture throughout the day. Shops and offices all have the standard silver-colored pump thermos filled with the sweetened beverage, surrounded by tiny cups and miniature spoons, which are constantly offered to customers or passersby. Refined sugar is added to nearly everything imaginable, even the fruit juices blended to order in lanchonetes. Fresh fruits are cut up, whizzed in the blender with water or rich top milk, sugar is added, then the mixture is strained into a glass for serving. Sweetened condensed milk is cooked with sugar to three different consistencies: thin, thick and fudge. The different thicknesses have distinct uses, such as toppings, cream fillings and candy and is flavored according to the needs of the cook with coconut, vanilla or chocolate, etc. One afternoon, I helped Alcina put away groceries purchased for a twoweek period; there were 14 large plastic sacks of refined sugar. I asked an English-speaking Brazilian woman about the incidence of diabetes, questioning whether or not she knew if there were
many cases in Brazil. She answered, "Come to think of it, I do seem to know a lot of people with that disease!" Doctors and clinics for the treatment of diabetes advertise heavily in the newspaper. Diabetes is prevalent in Brazil, as is AIDS. The number of new cases of AIDS for the year 1996 were more than double the number projected. The majority ofmacho Brazilian men staunchly refuse to believe the disease is a threat to heterosexuals and that having more than one sexual partner can prove to be deadly. One gentleman told me he thought Americans were entirely too concerned about AIDS and, in fact, assured me his personal physician ridiculed the danger to heterosexuals with more than one sexual partner. Trying to convince this person otherwise was an exercise in futility. A Visit to theFamily Fazenda When I arrived in Brazil, I spoke no Portuguese, but I am fluent in Spanish, which enabled me to be understood. The difficult part was trying to understand what others were trying to tell me, in Brazilian Portuguese. After nearly three months, I realized the lyrical Frenchsounding words were beginning to make sense. At least, some of the phrases were. I jabbered in my Spanish-Portuguese mixture and used a lot of sign language and mime, which often resulted in gales of laughter from my listeners. My employer spoke excellent English, but he wasn't always nearby and I was on my own at the house where I lived and in my wanderings around the town. It seemed to me I was the only American in the city, other than a few exchange. students I had heard about. I had packed three dozen paperback books purchased from a second-hand store before leaving the United States, confident they would keep me reading for at least four or five months. Much to my astonishment, I had read every single one in less than five weeks. I could not understand the television or the radio, there was essentially "no one to talk to" in the evenings, so I read. And read. And wrote letters, begging my friends to send books. I found the local library three blocks from the house, but was shocked to discover there were only eight books in English on their shelves. I read all of those, too, including an ancient edition of archaic plays and essays. Weekends moved slowly by when
I had nothing to read and had washed and hung my weekly laundry. So it was with a great deal of enthusiasm I accepted an offer to visit the familyfazenda when my employer called early one Saturday, saying he had to drive there to tend to some ranching business and I was welcome to go along. He had said he would pick me up in 30 minutes, but 30 Brazilian minutes equates to a minimum of 45 American minutes. Eventually, he and one of his ranchhands, a carpenter, picked me up and off we drove, leaving the noise and the odoriferous city behind us. Soon we were out of the city limits and immediately the land as far as the eye could see looked like a meticulously maintained farm. The earth in this part of Brazil is brick red, iron rich and the grasses are emerald green. As we drove past endless fields of lush tropical land, I marveled at the countless shades of green scattered across the picturesque landscape. Many crops are planted in undulating parabolas with windbreaks of tall eucalyptus trees standing like wise old sentries, nodding in the breeze. Here and there appeared a white ranchhouse, or fazenda, with a red-tiled roof; magnificent horses with glossy coats grazed in the fields, swishing their tails rhythmically. There are no billboards, no highway gridlocks, no freeways; just the hugeness of the countryside of Brazil, which is as big as Forever. There were very few other vehicles on the road and after we turned off the main highway, we didn't see any others. After an hour's drive, we came to the long double row of large mango trees planted by Alcina' s husband many years earlier, put there near the shoulder of the highway in order to share the fruit with anyone passing by who might be hungry. At the end of the mango trees stood the double pillars of the entry road into the ranch proper, which led up to the large house down a rocky, tree-shaded lane, one-third of a mile long. Handsome wire fences kept the cattle in the fields on each side of the road. We drove toward the house, a large cloud of red dust trailing behind us, the silvercolored steers raising their soft brown eyes to glance our way, then ignoring our arrival to lower their heads and eat again. The twin-rutted gravel road bent to the left, dipped down into a rain-washed slough, then curved back to the right.
BRA77IL - OCTOBER 1998
We approached the ranchhouse from the back and, when the motor was turned off, the stillness swept over the truck as palpable as a fog bank. We had parked in between the house proper and a large outbuilding, in front of a connecting porte-cochere. The outbuilding housed the "outdoor" kitchen; most upper-class Brazilian fazendas have two kitchens. I was told the "outdoor" one was primarily for cooking things that might emit unwanted cooking odors in the main house. The structure of the ranchhouse was of beige stucco; unusual circular stained-glass windows faced the breezeway and the large veranda was floored in dark red tiles. I got out ofthe truck and stood on the "porch", facing the vista of the open land beyond. The Madeiros family has owned this property as far back as anyone can remember, since colonial times, and their ownership includes many hundreds of hectares. As far away as the horizon in all directions, the property was theirs. On this land, they raise beef steer for market, which are divided into pastures according to age. Alcina's husband had built this fazenda for his family's recreation place, or weekend getaway. Alcina's daughter and son had inherited the property and the interior of the house was divided into two complete living areas around a central "sala". Each side was comprised of three bedrooms and two baths, with another half-bath near the shared formal living area. The central dining room housed a tremendous table cut in one piece from a mahogany tree growing in the Amazon forest. The wooden slab, weighing nearly a ton, was floated by barge down the Amazon River, then trucked inland to thefazenda. Ten strong men working a crane managed to heft the piece of wood into the house and onto its pedestals. The resulting table, shining with the patina of years, could easily seat 20 people. No one lives at the fazenda permanently; the caretaker and his wife, who lived in a small house nearby, keep the house in perfect condition with the beds made and food ready to prepare in the event anyone in the family wishes to drive in for a few days' rest. The high ceilings of the house and the cool tile floors were more than inviting after the noise and heat of the city. A wide veranda stretched across the front of the house, facing a tranquil swim-
BRA7_ZIL -OCTOBER 1998
ming pool. A hammock swung gently o an fro at one end of the porch and a se e of peace permeated the whole place. Adjacent to the "outdoor" kitchen a roofed-in area is used as an outsit e dining room The long table is ano r solid wooden slabâ€”three, four inch s thickâ€”again cut in one piece from a tree, with the grooves and roughness f the original bark still on the sides. T e scarred top has been polished to a flue slickness and the grain of the old wo d peeks through the peeling shellac. I s t down at one end of this table after y employer and his carpenter drove aw y to tend to their ranch business. As t e sound of the truck's motor faded in t e distance, I marveled at being alone the middle of Brazil, with the alien scen s and sounds and sights hammering at u y senses. To the right of the table, a Ion , narrow water trough collected overflo water from the tall cistern at the far ed e of a mango grove. The sound of the co I water flowing through the pipe w music. Just beyond the trough was other grove of palm and avocado tre s and beyond those were coffee plant their blooms white and frothy. In t e distance I could see the silver meanderings of the Parana River, whi separates the states of Sao Paulo a Parana. On the top of the breeze, I d tected the smell of the green river wat r and the faint scent of sweet blossom Gentle hills marked the horizon and wind made the fronds ofthe palms ben dance and whisper with a gentle sib lance. A rooster crowed not too far awa Above me, a black and yellow bumbl bee thrummed his efforts to probe th thick passion vine that had grown int leafy walls encircling the table. Th ceiling of the veranda is 20 feet from th ground and across from the table, tremendous bar-b-que pit brandished th smoky black residue of succulent feast Butterflies, dragonflies, a blue jay rasp ing, a stray dog licking my bare toes, herd of vanilla-colored steer grazing o a hillside off to my rightâ€”I wanted t it inhale deeply to retain all of it at a primal cellular level. The four eight-foot-Ion benches along the sides ofthe table wer hand-made and sturdy, with supportin backs, the tops of which were burnishe smooth from years of resting arms. A pair of brilliant green parrot squawked from a nearby tree-top, inter rupting my reverie and I heard bustlin
noises from the kitchen. Lourdes, the caretaker's wife, was beginning to prepare a mid-day meal. The odor of sauteing garlic filled the air and I knew the men would be returning soon. After eating a typical Brazilian meal of filet mignon, rice, beans, deep-fried mandioca (manioc), couve (chopped turnip greens, fried), sliced tomatoes and lettuce with a perfect flan for dessert, we bid adieu to the fazenda and drove off into the fields to check on a herd of three-year-old steer. When the grazing cattle heard the truck horn, they ran toward the truck en masse and began to circle around it, like a living river of huge, horned animals. The only sound was that of their pounding hooves in the soft earth. I got out of the truck and walked closer to these beautiful animals whose faces and drooping ears gave them a look of gentleness I wanted to be closer to them to feel the earth beneath my own feet shudder winl their running. In seconds, my employer called me back into the truck, explaining they weren't as gentle as they looked and it would be much safer to observe them from inside the cab. On the way back to Prudente, I asked about the lack of insects. After walking in the grasses around the fazenda, I had not sustained a single insect bite nor had I seen any "bugs", other than flies. My Brazilian host said at certain times ofthe year, there were a few insects, but not many. It appeared the rich soil and the lush grasses kept the steer at maximum health and, somehow, discouraged the infestation of. insects encountered in many American meadows and fields. We arrived back in town shortly after dark and that night I slept soundly, completely oblivious to the unceasing traffic noises outside my bedroom windows. A Typical Brazilian Dinner Party A few weeks after my visit to the fazenda, my hosts invited me to join them for dinner with a few friends at their home, which is the entire seventh floor of a high-rise condominium. The
building itself is constructed of pink limestone, rising up ten floors above street level. The parking garage is comprised of two basement floors, entered through a guarded entry occupied by an attendant around the clock, who releases the electrically-locked gates when he recognizes a tenant. Elegantly landscaped grounds surround the building and an Olympic-sized swimming pool fills the back section of the brick-walled property. The foyer and community reception rooms on the first two floors are pink marble; two elevators, one for guests and tenants and one for service personnel, shuttle occupants quietly up and down the narrow shaft. From the moment one enters the oversized glass entry doors, the atmosphere of hushed exclusivity, of elitism and secluded, protected luxury permeates the very air. On the seventh floor, one exits the elevator to face opaque leaded-glass double doors with antique brass handles opening into a large, marble entry hall. Directly across from the entry and down wide marble steps awaits the main sala, with walls of warm apricot and millwork ofglossy white. Two 12-foot sofas are angled into the wall to the left; chairs and settees are placed in such away as to invite intimate conversation in three different areas; a game table awaits in front of a free-standing entertainment center that doubles as a wet bar; tasteful original oils grace the walls; the skyline of the city and the countryside beyond stretches to the horizon in a bird's-eye vista from the balcony beyond; sliding bamboo wall-sized partitions in front of the plate glass doors and windows keep out the hot sun's rays; and to the right, up more marble steps, heavy double doors lead to the formal dining room. When I arrived for the dinner at 8:30, there were already several couples present and the atmosphere of relaxed conviviality strengthened as more guests entered through the double doors. Most of the people gathered around the game table exchanging pleasantries with many eruptions of spontaneous laughter, none ofwhich I could understand. Small bowls of assorted nuts and dried fruits dotted the tables in the large room and three different kinds of pĂ˘tĂŠs were passed around for sampling. Shortly after midnight, the heavy doors leading to the dining room were opened. Dominating the entire room was the spectacular centerpiece on the glass din-
ing table. It was made entirely of tropical fruits resting in a shallow basket at least three feet in diameter. The basket had been propped upward on one side at a 45-degree angle to better display its contents: picture-perfect clusters of purple grapes, persimmons, each one shiny and plump without a single blemish, large fresh figs the color of ripe eggplant, bright green oranges, small yellow bananas, Argentinian apples of rosy hue tinged with gold, pale yellow maracuja, proud Brazilian pineapple. All formed a perfect complement to the casual elegance of the decor. Around the fruit basket small fruit plates of English bone china were grouped with fruit knives and forks. To one side, large dinner plates were stacked for buffet service with ecru linen napkins folded and fanned for easy reaching. As we served ourselves from the fruit basket, the cook and a serving woman began to place steaming dishes on the glass sideboard; mouth-watering aromas filled the room. First was a heavy wooden bowl, shallow and wide, filled with lettuce torn into bite-sized pieces, around which was a halo of lustrous, dark green watercress. On top ofthe two greens was a circle of sun-dried tomatoes and two smaller wooden bowls of salad dressings flanked the sides. One dressing was a pale green creamy concoction and the other was an olive oilbalsamic vinegar base in which floated paper-thin fresh garlic slices and chopped green onion. Next to the green salad rested a mauve-colored gelatin ring made of purĂŠed beets and cream cheese, served on a bed of soft green lettuce and decorated with slices of purple beets on the sides and in the center. The adjacent wooden platter held a pale yellow rectangle of corn and cheese pudding, baked to a golden brown and cut into easy-to-manage squares. Then another wooden bowl with the familiar Brazilian white fluffy rice and a bowl of pink beans, cooked with garlic and pork. At the end of the sideboard a very large ceramic platter held two Chateaubriands, roasted to perfection, each precut in thick slices, the pink middle of each a delight to the hungry eye. There were forty guests with forty hefty appetites waiting to enjoy this feast and many went back for seconds. Six Chateaubriands were prepared for the dinner and there was very little left over.
When the dinner plates were taken away to the kitchen, the desserts were brought out, with appropriate china and silverware. Brazilians never serve onl\. one dessert and this evening was no exception. First was a flan ring, with caramel sauce made from condense(' milk; then Brazilian "sweet potatoes'. whipped with cream and sugar anu served like a,pudding; next a large wheel of dessert cheese and the grand finale, e, wondrous lemon torta, similar to a deep dish Key lime pie. The meringue o unbaked egg whites seemed to float just over the top of the pale green filling and the crust was buttery-crunchy, melt-in the-mouth delicious. It was a beautiful meal and a beauti ful evening with beautiful, sophisticated people. I sat outside on the balcon before dinner, alone, listening to the sofi background music and to the lilting Poi' tuguese conversation from inside. looked out over the rooftops and twin kling lights below, then off into th,.. distant hills where the open country 01 Brazil is never very faraway. I knew thi-, was very much like the daydreams oi my childhood when I really believed in the Magic Carpet that would carry me away, softly and fearlessly, to distani lands full of new and exciting experi ences. Jerine P. Watson, a graduate of Southern Methodist University with a B.A. in Spanish, is a freelance writer/editor living in north Texas. She spent most of 1997 in Presidente Prudente, Sao Paulo, working as liaison between an importer of western goods and American manufacturers. While there, she lived with the importer's mother-in-law in a large home designed by Oscar Niemeyer, the architect who designed the city of Brasilia After three months of hearing everyone around her speak Portuguese, she was finally able to carry on a reasonable conversation and make herself understood. The opportunity to live in Brazil and to love Brazil and Brazilians was the most profound experience of her life. Jerine P. Watson can be reached at Jerinew(kaol.com for further information
BRAZZIL - OCTOBER 1998
Speak Portuguese like a Diplomat!
What sort of people need to learn a foreign language as quickly and effectively as possible? Foreign Service personnel, that's who. Members of the United States diplomatic corps are assigned to embassies abroad, where they must be able to converse fluently in every situation. Now you can learn to speak Brazilian Portuguese just as these diplomatic personnel do—with the Foreign Service Institute's Programmatic Portuguese Course. Tens of thousands of dollars were spent by the United States government in developing this course. It's by far the most effective way to learn Portuguese at your own convenience and at your own pace. The Programmatic Portuguese Course consists of a series of tape cassettes and an accompanying textbook. You simply follow the spoken and written instructions, listening and repeating. By the end of the course, you'll find yourself learning and speaking entirely in Portuguese! This course turns your cassette player into a "teaching machine." With its unique "programmatic" learning method, you set your own pace— testing yourself, correcting errors, reinforcing accurate responses. This Programmatic Course comes in two volumes, each shipped in a handsome library binder. Order either or save 10% by ordering both: O O
Basic Portuguese Vol. 1. 16 cassettes (19 hr.), 783-page text, $215. Intermediate Portuguese Vol. 2. 18 cassettes (16 hr.), 618-page text, $245. (CT residents add sales tax.)
BIUDICIEFORUITI THE LANGUAGE SOURCE Suite P706, 96 Broad St., Guilford, CT 06437 (203) 453-9794 • Fax (203) 453-9774
The Foreign Service Institute's Portuguese course is unconditionally guaranteed. Try it for three weeks. If you're not convinced it's the fastest, easiest, most painless way to learn Portuguese, return it and we'll refund every penny you paid. Order today! Our 56-page Whole World Language Catalog offers courses in 96 languages. Call or write for your free copy. Our 25th year.
To order by phone, please call toll-free 1-800-243-1234 Or fill out coupon below and send to: I.
BUDICFFORLIM® Suite P706, 96 Broad Street, Guilford, CT 06437 Yes! I want to speak Portuguese like a diplomat. Rush me the course volumes I've checked below. 0 Vol. I: Basic 0 Vol. II: Intermediate (CT residents add sales tax.) I understand that if I'm not completely satisfied, I may return the course materials within three weeks and receive a full refund. Name Address City
Method of Payment: O Enclosed is my check or money order, for $ O Charge to my credit card: U VISA 0 MasterCard AmEx 0 Diners Club 0 Carte Blanche 0 Discover Card Card # Signature
Exp. Date UI
SPANISH 30 Castsettcstt : Tr4,10 Bortits 5295.00
FRENCH 30 Cassettes I- Trtple Bonus 5295.00
ITALIAN GEFJ,IIAN 3 ,:' - Cas6otes 30 Ca-S.sf,Itt., - Trtpla 130ntts ! Triptt Bonus $295.00 5295.00
JAPANESE 30 ot,ssettott, I Triple ftnnus 5255.00
MANDARIN CHINESE 30 Cassettes lattple ES-ales S295.00
RUSSIAN 30 C; ssetteF, +T pc Bettis $295.00
BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE t30 Cassettes *Triple 00110s S295.00
I Learn Foreign Languages..incrednly Fas Conversing in a foreign language is a major SOCiAl and business asset... and brings new life to the worlds of travel, entertainment and relationships. The technique of accelerated learning, as conveyed by these proven foreign language courses, allows anyone to comfortably converse in a new language within 30 days.
A Hard-to-find language programs are no longer hard to find' We now publish all U.S.Foreign Service Institute language courses. A • • •
typical Course includes: Cassette Album (12-18 hoL rs) 250+ page Text Language Dictionary
Just $225.00 per course El Amharic O Arabic, Saudi O Bulgarian O Cantonese O Czech CI French Level 11 O French Level III
O GreekEl Hebrew O Hungarian O PersianEl Thai 0 Ukrainian 1 Vietntanese
ecelemted learning, developed by famed learning expert Dr. Georgi Lozanov, is based on the pmnise of involving both hemispheres of the brain in the education process. The analytical Or logical left side of the brain, when properly activated with the musical or artistic right side of the brain, both increases the speed and heightens the retentiun of learning. Utilizing these untapped mental capacities of your learning ability is the basis of this unique, ai,,0,0,4000.: highly effective course. You will learn the language stresSleisly, s a • child does, by hearing new vocabulary and phrases in „ alternately load, whispered and emphatic intonations, all rueompanied by slow rhythmic music in digital stereo. Tins perfect combination of music and words allows the two halves of the brain to work together to dramatically facilitate your assimilation of the new language. The first 15 (memory) tapes of this 30-tape package help activate the learning capacities of the brain. The second „! 15 (study) tapes are the very same tried and proven tapes used by the Foreign Service Institute to train career diplomats. This marriage of two concepts literally gives •you two courses in one, providing the best of both worlds in 1a4uage instruction. Best Valuer With a total of 32 cassettes plus study materials, this program represents the best \nlue available today in language instruction. Compared to other programs, the Accelerated Learning Series outperforms them with wice the audio and 20 times the study material. To correctlz converse in a foreign language, you must understand the meanings and intent of the native speaker. If, after 30 days of listening to the study am2lmemory tapes, you are not comfortably understanding and conversing in your new language, return them for a full relUnd.
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Professional Cassete Center 408 S. Pasadena Ave.. Dept. BR Pasadena, CA 91105
CALL TOLL-FREE 24 HOURS OR FAX vOUR ORDER TO 1.626.5854.8180
Charge the full price of any course —$295.00 — or make 5 interest-free payments of just $59.00. Please add $14 S&I-E. CA residents add.8.25% sales tax.
Triple Bonus!! You will 41.90 treceive: • Two 90-minute Vocabulary Tapes: • The 100 -page How to Learn A Foreign Language • The Lonely Planet Dictionary & Phrasebook