BRAZIL: p03 According to most Brazilians, health should be the priority for mayors
COMMUNITY: p05 October 09th - 22nd 2012
Choro is the latest wave of Brazilian music to find new fans in the UK
www.brazilianpost.co.uk â€˘ Issue n. 73
UK: WORLD-CLASS CENTRE
New agreements signed by David Cameron and Dilma Rousseff open a range of opportunities to Brazilian students in the UK. One of them extends to 10,000 the number of students from Brazil who will benefit from scholarships to study in UK universities. Read more on pages 2 and 8 >>
02 | October 09th - 22nd 2012
Front Page EDUCATION
At the gates of the university UK has great academic environment for professional development
Mortimer, Marketing & Media LTD CEO Marcelo Mortimer email@example.com Editor-in-chief Ana Toledo firstname.lastname@example.org English Editor Kate Rintoul Portuguese Editor Guilherme Reis Cool Hunter Zazá Oliva Entertainment Ricardo Somera Econommy Christiano Holanda Fashion Nathália Braga Food Saulo Caliari Ombudsman Allyson Leandro Profile Rômulo Seitenfus Sport Tico Silvério Travel Janinne Veloso
UK universities attract many foreign students
By Guilherme Reis Visiting Brazil in early October, the UK Prime Minister, David Cameron, signed a number of bilateral cooperation agreements with President Dilma Rousseff. As well as partnerships involving economic and cultural areas, agreements were also reached in the education sector that will be welcomed by all Brazilians who are already abroad and also for those wishing to leave the country to study and improve career with an international university experience. Under the Science Without Borders Program, three agreements were signed. One of them extends the number of Brazilian students who will benefit from scholarships to study in UK universities to 10,000 by 2015. Another was the firming of the artnership agreement between the Federal University of Rio
Grande do Sul (UFRGS) and BG Group for the development of research by doctoral students from two universities with scholarships funded by the British group. The University of Brasilia (UNB) and British Petroleum (BP) also signed an agreement aiming to develop studies and research in the area of oil and gas, specifically in Brazil’s Parnaíba River. Today, 1,101 Brazilians are studying in the UK with the help of scholarships, 691 for undergraduates, 166 for part-doctoral, 75 for full doctoral and 169 for full PhD. As many Brazilians who study here have a European passport, it’s hard to know the exact number of Brazilina students in the UK. According to data from the British institution, Higher Education Statistics Agency, there are about 2,000 Brazilian students in UK universities see the map that shows from where comes foreign students on page 8).
New mentality Marketing Director of UKstudy agency, which has partnered with over 40 UK universities, Luciano Baldauf believes there has been a change in the profile of Brazilians coming to study in the UK. “Previously, many Brazilians came to study English, making the most of the opportunity to work here legally during their course, because the British immigration was not as strict with international students as it is today,” Luciano told The Brazilian Post. “With Brazil’s growth in the global economy, many families and students themselves have realized that studying a specialized course abroad is one of the best investments in a future professional career back in Brazil, this has meant that the demand for higher education and post graduate opportunities here in the UK has grown significantly,” he added. Continued on Page 8 >>
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Brazil | 03 SOCIETY
Health, the number one concern For most Brazilians, health should be the priority for mayors By Guilherme Reis On Sunday October 7th Brazilians went to the polls to choose mayors and council members, as The Brazilian Post wrote in the last edition. For almost three months candidates have worked speeches and presented their proposals for several areas of public service. Transport, education and security were at the centre of debate, but one theme stood out: health. Marking a deliberate choice in emphasis as two recent surveys showed that is the voterâ€™s biggest concern. A Survey released by Ibope Institute in May revealed that health comes first in the ranking of concerns with the vast majority, 61 per cent of voters. In the same study this was followed by Public Security (16 per cent), Education (11 per cent), Drugs (9 per cent) and Employment (4 per cent). Another survey, released by the Datafolha Institute, in July showed that the urban health care system is seen as main problem and should be the highest priority for the next mayor in the view of voters in six Brazilian capitals. Candidates have been quick to respond and strategies on improving health were, by far, the most quoted in Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo during this election campaign season. Given this, it seems pertinent to reflect on the challenges faced in municipal health care, to throw some light on the subject and to discuss one of the most serious problems in Brazil. The Brazilian Post spoke with the doctor Frederico Fernando Esteche, a specialist in family and community medicine. What has led this change in priorities and people to put health ahead of the equally serious problems of education and safety? The feelings of helplessness and dependency when we are sick are a society issue of any country. Serious illness is the most critical period of our lives. It is at this point that the human being is faced with the fragility of their existence. Furthermore, achievements in health policy reinforced and extended with justice, the notion of social rights, culminating in the construction of the SUS (Unified Health System) in Brazil. What are the challenges faced in the municipal health care sector? Ensuring access to the system through a strong and solid primary health program. Modernisation of local management, which unfortunately remains controlled by the more archaic forms of government, where political statement is deemed more important than technical capacity and therefore making tendering for local managers a plausible idea. A need for more resources and better management. This binomial cannot be separated as it provides better quality. Qualifying of management is a function
Family Health Strategy is well regarded by the population, but needs more investment contributed by all and this has been happening over the last few years through teaming and continuing education programs. The management teams should be independent of the mayor, the clerk and the political party. The team must remain the same to maintain its cognitive patrimony, so that new reformers of health do not lose the thread. This is being done but it is a challenge to continue this model. The health systems also needs structured information based on patients experience, to support and qualify the management based on data from the real needs of the individual, and moves to ensure that medical professionals meet the demands of the system. Today, in addition to long standing issues in remote areas, there is shortage of doctors in capital cities and major metropolitan areas. This problem is serious: how can you even contemplate improving health without a doctor? The Family Health Strategy can be considered the primary responsibility of the municipalities in relation to health. How do you evaluate the program? What are the strengths and what needs to be improved? Today the Family Health Strategy (FHS) is one of the services offered by SUS with better evaluation by the population,
according to the survey of CNI-Ibope. The primary point for the approval of the FHS is that it is the base of the system, the gateway and coordinator of care, offering a full and inter-and multidisciplinary care. Public health systems taken that were taken as a reference (Canada, England and Cuba) have shared similarity of having a solidified and strong Primary Health Care (PHC). In Brazil, the organizational model is the Family Health Strategy. It was from the same deployment that our indicators have shown a positive development, the creation of Community Health Workers is a model for the rest of the world. However, many challenges remain. Despite progress, the coverage of care is lower than the country needs. Today Brazil has about 50 per cent of the population covered by FHS teams, but unfortunately not all of these teams are complete, in many there is a lack of doctors and/or other professionals. Another important detail is that most doctors working in FHS teams have never received proper training (specialization) to act within them. The medical professional trained and prepared in the FHS are those who did their residency in family and community medicine. Another important question that we must take into account is the fact that the training of professionals in health care, from graduation to post graduation, is
governed by the labor market and not by social necessity and system of the country. Efforts are being made to correct this deficiency in training, but this is relatively small. Another key challenge is to ensure access to the system, upholding of quality care and quick resolution. For this to happen the issue of coverage and the promotion of professionals are essential. Teams must have autonomy, structural conditions and resources so they can take responsibility for the care of their people. Currently the national average of municipal budgets for health is 23 per cent, although, according to Constitutional Amendment 29, they are only required to spend 15 per cent in this sector. Is this level of investment enough? The evils of SUS financing are found a complex and unfair tax system. There is a real need to review the distribution of powers between states, municipalities, the Union and the â€œfinancier logicâ€? that guides investment in the country. Added to this the fact that Brazil is the only country with a universal health care system in which private spending is greater than the public. How is it possible for these future candidates to make it look as though you are prioritising health without it actually being a major budget priority?
Brazil | 04 | October 09th - 22nd 2012 20 SEPTEMBER
Gauchos and their history By Gustavo Viegas The 20th of September is significant for the gauchos (people from Rio Grande do Sul State). Each year on this day they celebrate the ideals of the Farroupilha Revolution, which aimed to secure better economic conditions in Rio Grande do Sul. The Farroupilha Revolution was the cornerstone for the gaucho culture. It was from there that the whole identity of the gauchos, with their traditions and its ideals of liberty, equality and humanity became consolidated. Today the gaucho culture is revered not only in the State but across Brazil and around the world, through thousands of Gaucho Culture Centres. In events and festivities on 20 September, the gauchos reaffirm pride in their origins and love for their land. The State of Rio Grande do Sul was a region designated for the rearing of cattle and beef production that was sold to other regions of the country. In the early 19th century, a tax placed on the gaucho beef made the product uncompetitive, in response beef from Uruguay and Argentina was imported to supply demand. Some gaucho ranchers, proposed new rates for its product to the Brazilian Empire in order to regain market share lost to their neighbors but answers from the state were not forthcoming. Outraged by the indifference of the Court and tired of being used as a shield in several wars in the region, the gauchos took up arms against the Empire. In addition to anger over the abusive tax on beef, this revolution was fueled by ideas of political freedom and the
republican system. Added to this was a general sense of abandonment of the provinces by the imperial government, which had led to a lack of infrastructure and access to democracy and justice. On 20 September 1835 the first battle raged between farroupilhas and imperials troops at Watermill Bridge in Porto Alegre, ending in a farrapa victory that allowed them to take control of the capital. Nearly a year later on 11 September 1836, after some military successes, Antônio de Souza Netto proclaimed the Republic of Rio Grande do Sul indicating Bento Gonçalves as president. The movement lasted for about 10 years, with continuing bloody battles, many of which were won by the vigor of the gaucho, even in the face of large numbers of soldiers and the superior equipment of the imperial troops. The Argentine dictator Rosas (who wanted territorial expansion and was interested in prolonging the revolt) sent emissaries to propose an alliance with the farroupilha leader, David Canabarro, who replied with a patriotic statement: “Lord, the first of your soldiers that transposes the border, provides the blood that will sign peace with the Imperials. Above our love for our Republic is our identity as Brazilians. Yesterday we wanted the separation of our country; today we crave your integrity. If you dare to invade our country, you will find, shoulder to shoulder, the republicans and the royalists of Dom Pedro II.” In February 1845 a peace deal, led by General Luís Alves de Lima e Silva and brokered in Poncho Verde was then sealed. Many of the claims of the gauchos were answered and peace reigned again
in Brazil. There were no losers or winners, but the farroupilhas got what they wanted. This is celebrated across the world today as an exemplary story of the might and courage of a people dedicated to their ideas and a worthy cause. Shall we cut this down? I don’t know if
it is right for a news page? It feels like it should have appeared in the last edition as by the time this appears in the paper it will be 3 weeks ago? If there was some sort of news angle such as why this year was important or different I could see why but it’s just a bit of a strange essay on gaucho history!
Renewable energy: 45% of the Brazilian matrix in 10 years With estimated annual growth of 5.1 per cent, renewable sources of energy will increase from 43.1 per cent to 45 per cent by 2021. The projection is found in the Decennial Plan for Expansion of Energy, produced by the Energy Research Company (EPE). The document is available for public consultation at the Ministry of Mines and Energy until October 31. The goal for the sector is not to exceed 680 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions by 2020. For this to occur, long term plans for each energy source have been drawn up. One of the highlights is the increased production of wind power, which currently underdeveloped, not reaching 1,000 megawatts (MW) of production. This sector’s goal is to reach 16,000 MW by 2021. Another is plans to raise the supply of energy derived from sugar cane, with annual growth of 8.1 per cent. The Ten Year Plan EPE predicts growth in
capacity of the National Interconnected System of 56 per cent by 2021, with emphasis on hydroelectric generation, with controversial development at Belo Monte a significant contributor. The transmission of electricity through the network is expected to reach 150.5 km. The level of service of electricity is currently very close to 100 per cent and growth estimated at is 1.5 million residential connections per year. In the hydrocarbon sector, oil production should jump to 2 million barrels per day (bpd) to 5.43 million by 2021, with the inclusion of operations from 90 production platforms. It is expected that the supply of nonrenewable energy will grow 4.7 per cent annually, while renewable energy will increase 5.1 per cent. Such grand plans do not come cheap, the total required estimated investment for the next ten years is 1 trillion reais (around 3 trillion pounds).
Brazilian ‘choro’ in London By Nathália Braga The distinctive tempo and tune, of samba, like several other Brazilian rhythms has won it a place in the hearts and soles of a growing number of Europeans. Choro is the latest wave of Brazilian music to find new fans. Choro or chorinho (cry or little cry), which could be considered Brazil’s earliest urban music, was born in the streets of Rio de Janeiro suburbs around 1880, when the city was still the capital of Brazil. The music is a Brazilian adaptation of rhythms and ideas that were present in the celebrations of the European elite of the nineteenth century. At that time choro groups were made up of “whiners”, usually a trio of flutes or guitar, a bass and a cavaquinho (or little guitar), to create perfect musical harmony. Traditionally, the word choro come from the sad and melancholic sounds of the guitar but as the groups were always releavtley informal the passage of time has seen the integration of different instruments and styles. This means that today, modern choro is one of the most flexible genres. With a little common sense grounded in a underlying respect for the different sounds of each, any instrument can be part of choro. “Choro is a rich Brazilian musical genre characterized by the virtuosity of the musicians and the elaborated melodies and harmonies. It benefits from the diversity of Brazilian and classical music influences. Its compositions can be considered a transition between classical and popular, both being respected and enforced by musicians from both areas,” the musician Fabricio Azevedo, and member of the group Choro in Roda told The Post the Brazilian. The genre is part of the Brazil’s cultural heritage and predates samba, but for one reason or another not received as much publicity as the genre that has been made an icon of Brazil. To address this and to spread a little bit of Brazilian culture over
the world there are projects in the UK that aim to attract not only the Brazilian public, but also British and others to choro. Here’s where you can find some choro in your life. Clube do Choro UK The Clube do Choro project was created by the musician Gaio de Lima four years ago, though the group spent a long time preparing and working on material and only began preforming at the beginning of 2012. “When I arrived in the UK five years ago, I had a huge repertoire, but no places to play choro. I had the desire to share what I know but it took me this long because I wanted to develop a project that was not just something shallow, I want people here to learn and take Choro forward,” he said. One of these steps included the creation of the group’s comprehensive website (www. clubedochoro.co.uk), where you can find videos from previous events and information about the club. But more than simply a source of information, they hope that the site contributes to the general idea of Brazilian cultural heritage and its dissemination. “If the British do not know what is happening during our presentation, it is very difficult for them to participate, naturally they’ll be in the corner as they are far more reserved. The idea is to get them to participate,” said Gaio. The venue for live performances is also part of achieving Gaio’s aims. The presentations take place on the last Friday of the month at The Globe pub, near by Baker Street station, (which is also close to the museum of Sherlock Holmes - British popular culture icon). The perfroamnce is divided into three parts. First, it is the turn of the musicians who already know the project and are used to playing choro. Then the public can participate, not only singing, but also dancing and playing choro with the musicians. Finally, a special guest from Europe or Brazil takes to the stage to the delight of the audience, that averages at about 120 people.
Clube do Choro UK (by Elias Vieira Photographer) To reach this audience and bring all these musicians together, was a long journey Gaio remembers. “I taught musicians and others who already knew about music. It was hard to do, but the important thing is that now more people know about choro. I know many Brazilians come here in order to absorb the Britsh culture, but end up not leaving anything. And we have a lot to leave, just do it properly and with truth.” Choro in Roda Another London choro group is Choro in Roda, directed by percussionist and vibraphonist Aluá Nascimento, who defines the project as “a meeting of composers who, besides playing choro, also play other styles of Brazilian music like forró and samba”. The project also began this year and the first perfromance took place in June. About 70 people, along with the group of musicians who change from one event to another meet regularly at the restaurant Tia Maria, in Vauxhall. The next event is already scheduled and will be held on 18 October. Because of the variety of instruments and music that can be part of the choro, events always surprise the audience. “We
present ourselves in a circle, there is no stage and the musicians vary based on availability, as after all, all are here to make their name in he London music scene. The songs presented also
vary, making each performance unique”, said Aluá. And so, with groups of choro performing in the UK, Brazil is showing the best of its musical roots.
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“London is known as a dynamic city, and after the Olympic Games it was great to see the city get back to what it is known for: trend setting. This is the place where the best fashion and design is created. The Brazilian Post’s front page headline “London never looked so good” was a very good title, totally true and this Fashion Week was really something to remember”.
- Isabella Cordova, Balneário Camboriú
Community| 07 PROFILE
Thereza Jessouroun: “I try to make movies with a humanist vision” By Rômulo Seitenfus The documentary filmmaker Thereza Jessouroun produces films focused on social issues in Brazil. Combining social responsibility in the creation of her works, Jessouroun reflects on political, humanitarian or cultural particularities of the country. With 15 documentaries, the filmmaker devotes her career to the needy, giving a voice to real characters. When I arrived to meet the director who was exhibiting the film “Coração do Samba” (Heart of Samba), night had fallen and the Odeon Cinema in Panton Street had just opened its doors to receive the audience of Brazilian Film Festival. The film, which looks at the particularities of the samba school Mangueira, reveals all Jessouroun’s talents as a writer and director, extracting the nuisances and uniqueness of carnival culture. Privileged to watch the film at her side, I looked at the face of my interviewee in light reflected from the screen. Seeing tears appear in her eyes, I asked: “Thereza, are you thrilled to watch your film?” to which she gave a huge smile and told me: “I get emotional whenever I watch Mangueira’s drums. They are awesome!” In this exclusive interview for The Brazilian Post, the documentary maker recalls some of her work, tells us what she thinks about the other side of carnival and talks about other issues that matter to her, including world hunger, legalization of abortion, Alzheimer, transvestism and public safety.
Recalling some of your career, your first movie was “Alma de Mulher” (Woman Soul), which talks about transvestites in Brazil. What gave you the idea to make this documentary? Transvestites were born with the soul of a woman and must be respected for that. When I made the film in 1998, they were viewed as monsters, people would cross the street to avoid passing them. They are people who have feelings, rejected by their families and society. I had read a text from Arnaldo Jabor that talked about transvestites, and decided to do the film.
Why did you decide to try and translate the essence of Brazilian culture in the film, which speaks of Carnival and focuses on the drums of a samba school? People have to know that there is another side of the carnival. Samba is not only naked women dancing down the avenue. Samba is much more than that and making a documentary that shows that was rewarding.
In the film “Fim do Silêncio” (End of Silence), you approach the importance of the legalization of abortion in Brazil. Women who need an abortion because they are not protected by law, have to undergo the surgeries in local garages, putting their live at risk. Do you feel that the mentality of Brazilians is already evolving after the film’s release? How long do you think it will be until abortion is made legal in Brazil? This film had monstrous repercussions in Brazil. Fiocruz (medicine producer) distributed 2,000 copies for free, promoting discussions on the need to legalize abortion. Every week I receive emails from students and people who watched and send me questions about how to develop arguments about abortion. In the documentary, I showed the side of women who suffer because they are not supported when they need an abortion, and they gave testimony of suffering that passed because they cannot access hospitals that can perform a safe procedure. Many have abortions illegally and are therefore criminalised. The film features testimonials from women of different social classes, from three regions of the country, who speak about abortions to the camera, without hiding his face or identity. The legalisation of abortion in Brazil will take ten years, because Catholics and evangelicals that obstruct the law hold power in Congress.
You have produced 15 films, all focused on social issues. Where does this ideology come from? I do not chase an ideology but I try to work with social responsibility, because documentary has a capacity to show who we are. I try to make movies with a humanist vision, seeking to reflect on important issues in our life. I want my work to have an important function. I ensure that they are very publicized and circulated in all channels of Brazilian television and in several countries. I like talking about society and social problems.
To produce the film “Clarita”, which tackles the issue of Alzheimer’s, you were inspired by the story of your mother. How was it to work on an issue so close to your heart? My mother had Alzheimer fore 22 years and I wanted to make a movie narrated in the first person, about how my mother faced this slow death, questioning the meaning of life. Alzheimer is a public health issue in Brazil, there are 25 million people worldwide with this problem, and families do not know how to react to this situation. People get excited and hug me,
Thereza Jessouroun (by Rômulo Seitenfus)
they tell me, “Now I see my mother’s illness differently.” Your film “Vida Severina” (Severina Life) portrays hunger in Brazil. Why ded this project fail to attract supporters? Was it a way of mainlining a well kept secret? Yes. The movie was never released due to lack of sponsorship. Inside the backwoods of the North-east, families are living on minimum wage to sustain ten people. But I could not release the film, nobody is interested in showing a documentary about hunger. People question me and ask why focus on these and other problems like public security in Brazil, for example, which they tell me they have overcome. But how do we overcome such deeply entrenched problems? Every week there are new cases of deaths by stray bullet
in Rio, police firing comes in the slums. Overcome? The problem was alleviated in the south, the stage for the World Cup in two years. I have filmed everywhere. In some parts of the country there is no electricity. In some places, when someone falls ill, the family has to walk 15 hours to reach the nearest hospital. Many children walk ten kilometres to get to school. There are two or three kinds of Brazil. What impressed me most was to see what people do to survive. You will make a documentary about public security in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Can you give us any details? I am in full fund-raising mode. The issue of public security is of great importance in the city of Rio de Janeiro and cannot be considered or solved only for the period of the World Cup and the Olympics, and I’ll show that side.
08 | October 09th - 22nd 2012
Students from China and India accounted for over 35% of all non-EU domicile students at UK HE institutions in 2010/11 Continued from Page 2 >> Luciano recalled that “nowadays even the under and post graduates here in the UK can be paid for part time or freelance jobs so students can work legally for the duration of the visa, which has greatly facilitates the financial aspect, with a more rapid investment return”. Born in Rio de Janeiro, Daniel Rio Tinto, 25, is studying a PhD course in Political Science and International Studies at University of Birmingham. He told to The Brazilian Post that the main difficulty was the high cost of living in the UK and the need for funding. To join a UK higher education institution, Daniel got a scholarship from CAPES, the Brazilian government agency that encourages
academic and scientific work. “The course started recently, but since I got here my whole experience has been very good. It’s a completely different philosophy of teaching, and the PhD makes you part of a team, not just a student. I’m really enjoying it and very happy with the opportunity to do cuttingedge research in my area,” said Daniel, who also said he chose to come to the UK as it is the best place to develop scholarly activity in his area of specialization, International Relations. Metropolitan case In August some British newspapers questioned the reputation of the UK as a good world-class center of higher education after 2,500 London
Metropolitan University students had their visas cancelled when the University’s competence was questioned. More than 30 Brazilians were affected and faced potential deportation, even those who had already paid for their course in full. However, for Luciano Baldauf, from UKstudy said, “these problems are not related to the university’s quality of teaching but with the control of student records and management, you need to be careful not to make generalizations. “It’s not the first time that the London Metropolitan University has faced problems over immigration. In recent years here in the UK, several schools were closed or had their license suspended due to problems in student
London Met students protest outside Downing Street
records and control over them. The British Immigration requires that each educational institution regulated here is responsible for maintaining an updated record, to determine whether students are attending classes, if this rule is not being enforced, school or university will have problems with immigration officals”, he said. It is true that the UK offers a great environment for students and the Brazilians who come here. The opportunities to join a British university are becoming increasingly wider and finding a university here to study at after doing an English course, is no longer a distant reality.
Latin America POLITICS
How has Venezuela changed? As Hugo Chavez won his third election, it is a time to reflect on what has changed since his first term 14 years ago Some people see him as a dictator who has considerably reduced freedom of speech and squeezed the political opposition, allied with names as Fidel Castro and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. Others see him as the brain behind a Latin American revolution for a new way of socialism. Hugo Chavez is a polarizing character, he is, perhaps, the most loved and hated politician today. On Sunday 7 October, Venezuela’s population went to the polls to choose its new president for the next six years. Hugo Chavez, who was seeking for a third term, faced his main challenger, Henrique Capriles. It is an important moment to consider what has changed in Venezuela since Hugo Chavez first came to power. By looking at key indicators we can see that poverty and illiteracy levels have fallen but violent crime and inflation have increased. Taking this empirical approach we can have a more enlightened viewpoint about Hugo Chavez and Venezuela, avoiding embarking with no arguments and wellknown rhetoricals from both the right and leftists. Venezuela in numbers • Unemployment has dropped from 14.5 per cent of the total labour force in 1999 to 7.6 per cent in 2009. • Population has increased from 23,867,000 in 1999 to 29,278,000 in 2011. The annual population growth
Chavez supporters in Caracas, Venezuela
was 1.5 per cent in 2011 compared with 1.9 per cent in 1999. GDP per capita has risen from $4,105 to $10,801 in 2011. Venezuela’s inflation has fluctuated since 1999. Inflation now stands at 31.6 per cent compared with 23.6 per cent in 1999. Venezuela has a complicated history concerning currency exchange rates. Compared with 1999 when the exchange rate was under one bolivar to the US dollar, the latest figures from Reuters place it at 4.3 Bolivars
to one dollar. Poverty has decreased - in 1999, 23.4 per cent of the population were recorded as being in extreme poverty, this fell to 8.5 per cent in 2011, according to official government figures. Infant mortality is now lower than in 1999 - from a rate of 20 per 1,000 live births then to a rate of 13 per 1,000 live births in 2011. Violence has been a key concern in Venezuela for some time - figures from the UNODC state that the
murder rate has risen since 1999. In 2011 the intentional homicide rate per 100,000 population was 45.1 compared with 25.0 just twelve years earlier. Oil exports have boomed - Venezuela has one of the top proven oil reserves in the world and in 2011 Opec put the country’s net oil export revenues at $60bn. In 1999 it stood at $14.4bn. These numbers are based on data from sources such as the World Bank, the United Nations and International Monetary Fund.
Colombia peace talks on 17 October Long-awaited peace talks between the Colombian government and Farc rebels are set to begin by 17 October, a week later than originally planned. The Norwegian government, which is hosting the first phase of the talks, said the two sides had agreed to hold a news conference in Oslo on that date. The groundbreaking negotiations, the first direct talks in a decade, are then expected to move to Cuba. The Farc has been fighting the Colombian state since 1964. A statement from the Norwegian foreign ministry the Colombian government and the Farc had announced that they would hold a news conference on 17 October. Diplomatic sources said it was expected contacts between the two sides would
begin two days earlier. This follows a statement from Farc leaders, who said talks would begin then, not on 8 October as first, announced. Representatives are currently in Havana, together with Norwegian and other diplomats, preparing for the official talks. The two sides announced in late August that they were embarking on renewed peace moves, the first since 2002. President Juan Manuel Santos has said he is “cautiously” optimistic about the prospects for peace. But he has rejected rebel calls for a ceasefire, saying military operations would continue until a final agreement is reached. The Farc (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) is the country’s oldest
Juan Manuel announcing the signing of a preliminary agreement and largest guerrilla group. The group’s numbers have fallen from some 16,000 a decade ago to 8,000 today, but
rebel activity has increased in recent months, especially in the south of the country.
10 | October 09th - 22nd 2012
Technology SOCIAL NETWORK
Facebook hits one billion users Facebook now has more than one billion people using it every month. Founder Mark Zuckerberg announced the passing of this milestone on US television on Thursday 4 October The company said that those billion users were to date responsible for 1.13 trillion “likes”, 219 billion photos and 17 billion location check-ins. The site, launched in 2004, is now looking towards emerging markets to further extend its user base. “If you’re reading this: thank you for giving me and my little team the honor of serving you. Helping a billion people connect is amazing, humbling and by far the thing I am most proud of in my life,” Zuckerberg wrote in a status update. Statistics released to coincide with the announcement revealed there were now 600 million users accessing the site via a mobile device - up 48 million from 552 million in June this year. Since its early beginnings In Zuckerberg’s dorm at Harvard University, Facebook users have befriended each other 140.3 billion times. Sustained growth is seen as crucial if Facebook is to maintain its value - the company has seen its share price drop to about $22 (£17) from a starting price of $38. Investors will expect the company to look
Percentage of population using Facebook across six continents at ways of making more from the users it already has as well as seeking to attract new users in areas of the world where it does not yet dominate. “For Facebook the main challenge is not just to grow in terms of numbers, but more importantly to deepen and enrich engagements,” said Eden Zoller, principal
analyst at tech research firm Ovum. Although the service is by far the world’s biggest social network, there are key areas, such as China and Russia, where local competitors still remain the online networking tool of choice. Last month, Mr Zuckerberg visited Moscow, where he made his first TV
chat show appearance, as well as a highly publicised meeting with the Prime Minister, Dmitry Medvedev. It was a public-relations exercise designed to unsettle VKontakte - a network that boasts in excess of 100 million members, compared with Facebook’s seven million, in the country.
4G to become available this month Superfast 4G services will be available in 10 cities across the UK by the end of the month, the owner of Orange and T-Mobile said today. EE, formerly known as Everything Everywhere, will launch its range of 4G products and services on 30 October in London, Bristol, Birmingham, Cardiff, Leeds, Sheffield, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Liverpool and Manchester. The 4G network, which offers speeds up to five times faster than 3G, will be available on the Apple iPhone 5 as well as devices from HTC, Samsung, Nokia and Huawei. The announcement comes after regulator Ofcom last night agreed to make remaining 4G airspace available to other operators sooner than planned - averting a legal challenge from the likes of rivals Vodafone and O2 owner Telefonica. Making the airwaves ready for use earlier will allow other operators to offer their services by spring next year, much sooner than the earlier predictions of October 2013. EE chief executive Olaf Swantee said: “This is a significant milestone for the UK and for the people and businesses of our country who will now be able to enjoy the huge
advantages of superfast 4G technology for the first time.” EE said customers in a further six cities Belfast, Derby, Hull, Newcastle, Nottingham and Southampton - will have access to 4G by the end of the year. The group then plans to roll out the service to further towns, cities and rural areas next year, with population coverage of 70 per cent and rising to 98 per cent in 2014. The 4G services will allow uninterrupted access to the web on the go, high definition movies to be downloaded in minutes and TV to be streamed without buffering. Ofcom’s decision to make the services available to other operators earlier than planned came after a meeting hosted by the Department of Culture, Media and Sport. Culture Secretary Maria Miller said the Government expects that 4G services will boost the UK’s economy by around £2 to £3 billion. She said: “Delivering 4G quickly is a key part of our economic growth strategy. I am grateful to the mobile operators for their co-operation in bringing forward vital 4G services.”
CHRISIANO HOLANDA firstname.lastname@example.org
Briefings… U.S. Stocks March Higher
Financial and materials shares led gains as the Dow Jones Industrial Average rose 80.75 points, or 0.6%, to 13575.36, the largest single-day gain since Sept. 13.
Firms Agree on Plan For Alaska Pipeline
A consortium of energy companies said it is moving forward with a project to build an Alaskan naturalgas pipeline to export liquefied natural gas to Asia, at a potential cost of more than $65 billion.
GE Engine Failure Caused by Assembly Error GE said the failure of an aircraft engine on a Boeing jet in Shanghai was caused by an assembly error, adding a second source of concern about the company’s newest engine.
French Leaders Soften Capital-Gains Tax Plan
The government of France’s Socialist President François Hollande bowed to pressure from business leaders, saying it would soften its plan to increase taxes on capital gains next year.
Fed Reconsiders Its Message
Federal Reserve officials are considering another revamp of their communications policies.
Heading out of the storm Official figures released, in The Economist suggest that the economy had shrunk for three successive quarters, resulting in a cumulative loss of 1.3%. GDP is now scarcely higher than when the coalition government took office in May 2010. Small wonder that an otherwise ebullient crowd at this summer’s Paralympic Games booed the Chancellor of the Exchequer, George Osborne. This year has been widely written off. The IMF was due to revise its outlook
soon after The Economist went to press. The Office for Budget Responsibility, the fiscal watchdog, will probably follow in December, when Mr Osborne gives his autumn statement on the economy and public finances. And misery is giving way to despair about where growth will come from. Hopes that a recovery would be driven by exports and investment have been dashed. Two-fifths of British exports go to the euro zone, where recession is deepening. The economies in China and India are cooling.
The only people cheerful about the state of Britain’s economy these days are those with a point to prove. For the opposition Labour Party, and for a host of American pundits, Britain’s travails perfectly illustrate the disastrous consequences of government austerity. For right-wing Conservative MPs, on the other hand, they demonstrate the insanity of rigid employment rules. Take a scythe to labour-market regulations and taxes to get the country going again, they insist.
The Nokia effect Nokia contributed a quarter of Finnish growth from 1998 to 2007, according to figures from the Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (ETLA). Over the same period, the mobile-phone manufacturer’s spending on research and development made up 30 per cent of the country’s total, and it generated nearly a fifth of Finland’s exports. In the decade to 2007, Nokia was sometimes paying as much as 23 per cent of all Finnish corporation tax. No wonder that a decline in its fortunes (Nokia’s share price has fallen by 90 per cent since 2007, thanks partly to Apple’s ascent) has clouded Finland’s outlook. Are any other economies so reliant on one company? The researchers at ETLA calculate Nokia’s value-added to work out its importance to Finland, but such data are not widely available. A look at firms’ sales as a percentage of GDP (see table) offers a cruder indication of clout. We used the Dow Jones Global Index to identify firms whose revenues ranked highest in the country of their listing. Firms like ArcelorMittal, Essar Energy and China Mobile make the top ten because of their choice of domicile; their economic activity mainly takes place elsewhere. Oil-and-gas firms feature heavily, although that may simply show that certain economies are dependent
on a certain type of activity rather than a specific firm. Lower down the list the presence of Sands China, a casino developer and operator whose sales are 13 per cent of Macao’s GDP, reflects the importance of gambling to the territory. Strip these sorts of firms from the list and only one resembles Nokia: Taiwan’s Hon Hai, an electronics manufacturer. Yet Nokia made 27 per cent of Finnish patent applications last year; the corresponding figure for Hon Hai was 8 per cent. Although numbers are falling,
Finland is home to the greatest number of Nokia employees; Hon Hai’s staff is mostly in China. It is a similar story with other firms. Sales of Nestlé, a consumergoods company, weigh in at 15 per cent of Swiss GDP but its share of Swiss jobs is punier than Nokia’s in Finland. Samsung, whose revenues are twice Nokia’s, has half its clout as a share of GDP: South Korea’s economy is more diversified. The importance of Nokia to Finland looks like a one-off.
goods and services. Since 2007 the pound has dropped nearly a quarter on a tradeweighted basis. A devaluation in the early 1990s helped Britain export its way out of recession. Can it repeat the trick now? The emerging economies of Asia and Latin America seem a better long-term bet than Britain’s established markets. But the combined share of British exports going to the three emerging-market giants—China, India and Brazil—is less than 5 per cent. Britain can boast neither
the large natural-resource endowments nor the focus on production of capital goods, like machine tools, that appeal to rapidly industrialising economies. And firms have been lamentably slow to build trade links with these fastgrowing economies. That may be a legacy of Britain’s past imbalances: when the domestic economy was strong, there was little incentive for its firms to go to the trouble of finding customers in unfamiliar markets.
Made in Britain Just over a mile from Liverpool John Lennon Airport, named after one of Britain’s most successful exports, sits the Halewood operations of Jaguar Land Rover, boasting foreign sales could even make a Beatle envious. The Tata-owned car factory ran extra shifts to keep up with demand over the December holidays and an expansion to the facility, that could create 1,500 jobs, is reportedly under consideration. JLR is also already building a new engine plant
in Wolverhampton. Other car firms are enjoying similar success. In 2010 Nissan invested over £400m in its state-of-the-art Sunderland factory, which produces for export to more than 90 countries. As Britain’s economy stumbles toward a likely second recession, hopes are pinned on exports, particularly to faster-growing parts of the world. Chancellor George Osborne flew to China this week and marvelled at that country’s hunger for
12 | October 09th - 22nd 2012
by Tico Silvério
The departure of Lewis Hamilton from McLaren to Mercedes may have left many questioning the driver’s motives and decision. Hamilton, 27, was with the British team for 14 years, will face the biggest challenge of his career next season. Leaving McLaren, who despite the ups and downs always figure as one of the candidates for the title, for Mercedes, who have failed to get significant results despite the presence of Michael Schumacher, Hamilton will have to use everything he has learned on the track to use to take his new team to the podium. Several factors may have influenced Hamilton, who insists that the prospect of this challenge was his motivation, but the greater freedom in negotiations with
private sponsors, greater participation in relation to the car mount, being a teams number 1 driver and especially the great salary, (which were reduced by McLaren) were key in the 2007 world champion’s decision. The upcoming season is sure to be the beginnings, with frequent adaptations to the new car and strengthening the new team, in fact experts believe that Mercedes will only be truly competitive in 2014. But even in this new environment and team, Hamilton will not be spared, and will have to prove himself and others in each race that he switched to Mercedes to become a champion once again and not to simply increase his bank balance.
Examples for Adriano The Emperor, if we can still call him that, continues his battle to get back to action. Bruises, weight gain and with training difficulties are Adriano’s the main enemies in his attempt to keep playing football. It is apparent that the problems go beyond these and that the player has totally lost his motivation, which in the world of football has more influence than a serious injury. What better time then to remind Adriano and others of some encouraging examples? Ronaldo is one of those great examples, the former player suffered with serious injuries his entire career, but his motivation and desire to win, meant he could overcome these in style and return to the pitch. Equally, the legendary Tulio Maravilha, who in spite of his 43 years continues to display the motivation of
a child in their quest for long dreamed thousandth goal. However, no amount of good examples will be any use to the Emperor, unless he can exorcise his own ghosts, a return to form is a challenge that only Adriano can win on his own.
The return of the renegade Who could have predicted that the best player in the world in 2007, would go on to become a renegade today? This is the story of Kaka, the player partly responsible for many titles including the World Cup 2002, Champions League 2006/07, the Italian Championship 2003/04, La Liga 2011/12, but who today has been left on the bench both by his current team (Real Madrid) and country. Alleged disagreements with manager Jose Mourinho have created rifts and seen Kaka left out of the Spanish club’s plans, who have reportedly advised the midfielder to move to another club in order to find more opportunities. Yet Kaka has always made clear his desire to win and continue at Real Madrid, working hard, in spite of Mourinho’s indifference. This has paid off, with the player having some chances, appearing in recent matches and with technique worthy of his old title, he seems to have finally succeeded in impressing Mourinho, and hence Mano Menezes, Brazil’s manager who has summonedKaka to appear in upcoming friendlies. Many say that the return of Kaka to Real Madrid’s starting line-up is associated with recent misunderstanding between Ozil and Mourinho, while the lack of victories and the need for an experienced player with leadership led Mano Menezes to call in the player. Whatever the
reasons for this return to glory from the once renegade Kaka, for us football lovers it’s simply a cause for joy
Sport | 13 FOOTBALL
Ferdinand is left out and Terry retires as England’s problems continue By Jamie Jubon English national team manager Roy Hodgson named his squad earlier this month for the upcoming World Cup qualifiers against San Marino and Poland, opting to again leave out the experienced Rio Ferdinand. Prior to naming his squad, Hodgson had allegedly discussed Ferdinand’s international future with fellow passengers on the London Underground as he journeyed back from Emirates Stadium after watching Arsenal beat Olympiakos in the UEFA Champions League. Hodgson supposedly told a packed tube train that Rio’s England career was ‘at the end of the road’ and that he wouldn’t be picking the Manchester United defender for the duration of his time as Three Lions manager. This candid confession is made all the more surprising given that it comes merely a week after another former England captain, John Terry, announced his international retirement. Terry, who lifted the Champions League trophy with Chelsea in May, has endured a turbulent England career. On the pitch, he rarely let his country down, displaying outstanding leadership qualities and performing with the same bravery and heroism that he does for his club team week after week. Off the pitch though, it was a whole different story. He was sacked twice as England captain, the first time for conducting an affair and conceiving a baby with his best friend and teammate Wayne Bridge’s girlfriend. The second time, for using racist language at an opponent during Chelsea’s Premier League match with QPR in October 2011. The player he abused was Anton Ferdinand, ironically Rio’s younger brother. Terry and Ferdinand have not played for England together since, and the feeling before this summer’s European Championships was that Rio was not particularly enthusiastic about playing alongside the man who had used racist terms towards his brother. Terry was picked for the Euros, and Ferdinand not. However, Terry’s subsequent decision to retire from England duties, due to the FA’s independent panel finding him guilty of using racist terms, had left many wondering whether Rio’s England career would recommence. However, Hodgson’s decision to again leave the 33-year-old out, and his comments to passengers on the Jubilee Line, indicate that will not be the case. There was certainly a space for Rio in the squad. England are not blessed with an array of top-quality centre-backs, in fact they’re currently not blessed with an array of top-quality players in any position. Uncapped Stoke City defender Ryan Shawcross has been named in the in the final 25, whilst Hodgson has also strangely chosen three left-backs to
Rio Ferdinand and John Terry: old times make up his squad. Chelsea’s Ashley Cole, Leighton Baines of Everton and Arsenal’s Kieran Gibbs have all been selected, making Ferdinand’s case for inclusion all the more compelling. It is clear that the England manager, who succeeded Fabio Capello earlier this year, is attempting to build towards the future by bringing in younger players who he believes can make a major impact on the next World Cup in Brazil and beyond. Steven Gerrard and Frank Lampard are now the last members of the so-called ‘Golden Generation’, the players that were meant to bring England their first major international trophy since 1966. The duo, along with the likes of David Beckham, Michael Owen, Paul Scholes as well as Terry and Ferdinand, were part of a teamsheet that, on paper at least, matched up extremely well with most countries on the planet. Football is not played on paper though, as former England manager Sven-Goran Eriksson once remarked, and three successive quarter-final appearances was the best that the star-studded generation could muster. Nowadays, one quick browse through Hodgson’s 2012 England team and it’s easy to see why most Englishman would love to wind the clock back seven or eight years to a period when the country possessed some truly top-quality football players. There is a real dearth of talent in the English game at the moment, and the country have struggled to find a replacement for most of the ‘Golden Generation’. Lampard and Gerrard are still continually picked in the starting XI despite being well into their thirties, because of the simple fact that nobody has yet proven themselves capable of replacing them.
Arsenal’s Jack Wilshere was the most highly-rated of the young English midfielders and had proven his quality by breaking into the Arsenal first team at the age of 18. He also produced a couple of wonderful performances in the Champions League against Barcelona before a horrible injury in August 2011 ruled him out for a period of 14 months. He is only just making a comeback now for the Arsenal reserve team, and he is widely regarded in this country as the one outstanding young player that England can hopefully look to over the next ten years or more. Before his injury, his movement and ball manipulation could have been reminiscent of a young Andres Iniesta, and both Arsene Wenger and Roy Hodgson will be praying that Wilshere can return to the same level of consistency he was performing at prior to his injury. England also have to be careful not to place too much pressure on the 20-yearold Wilshere. The last ‘boy wonder’ to emerge from these shores was a certain Wayne Rooney. At 18 years of age, Rooney lit up the European Championships in 2004 with a series of virtuoso displays, before a metatarsal injury prematurely curtailed his tournament. Despite a relatively impressive England record of 76 appearances and 29 goals, it could be argued that whilst playing for his country, ‘Wazza’ has failed to live up the standard he set himself eight years ago. In fact, his winning goal against Ukraine in this summer’s Euros was his first goal in a major international tournament since he burst onto the scene in the 2004 competition. A big problem with Wayne Rooney is his suspect temperament, illustrated by the
fact that shares the ‘honour’ of being the most red-carded England player, having been sent off twice for his country. Wilshere has been involved in minor incidents off the pitch, but on it he seems to possess a far more level-headed demeanour. As long as the English press do not expect Jack Wilshere to come back from injury and win the next World Cup in Brazil single-handedly, as they so often expected from Rooney, his temperament, as well as his talent, could well be conducive to ensuring he fulfils some of his potential whilst in an England shirt. As well as Wilshere, there is his club team-mate Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain, who enjoyed a fine end to last season, and Manchester United’s Tom Cleverley, who does possess a certain amount of natural talent. However, the problem for England at the moment is that they are mixing players who are well into their thirties and perhaps not good enough to start every game any more, with players who have little or no experience at all such as Cleverley. There is a real shortage of players at their peak of their careers. Providing England qualify, I can only see it being a real challenge for Hodgson’s squad just to compete with the top nations in Brazil in 2014 let alone beat them. Compare them to Brazil who can call upon Neymar, Hulk, Daniel Alves, Alexandre Pato and Thiago Silva, all players with pretty substantial experience of big games, and it shows just how difficult it will be for the Three Lions. England’s long, long wait for international success looks like continuing for a while yet.
Focus-Brazil 2012 | 14 | October 09th - 22nd 2012 LONDON SAINTS FOOTBALL CLUB
Bringing the Brazilian game to London
Childreen playing at London Saints The swing, the improvisation, the disconcerting dribbling, the trick of losing a marker, scoring great goals and celebrating them in style like the punch in the air immortalized by PeléThe Brazilian way of playing football is unique. We carry five stars on our chest and enchanted the world with our footballing magic. It is precisely this spirit that the London Saints Football Club wants to capture and convey to its football players, be they Brazilian or not. Founded just six months ago as the result of the initiative Brazilians Glauber Bittar and Thimoteo Wesley Alves, the London Saints Football Club offers football classes for all children aged 4 to 17. With a team that includes a physiotherapist, nutritionist and physical trainer, the club currently has 60 student-players divided into three classes that train two to three times a week. “We have players of various nationalities, British, Brazilians, Belgians, Spaniards, Italians, Portuguese, Dutch. It is much like London, cosmopolitan. Said Glauber, who graduated in Physical Education at the State University of Goiás to The Brazilian Post. Glauber also explained that the London Saints Football Club works to achieve two goals. This first is to provide, through football, an environment of personal growth for young people. “Football is a tool of social articulation, it teaches people to face challenges, respect opponents, teamwork, learn to lose and have self confidence,” explained Glauber. The second is to assist those dreaming of a professional career in football.
Under-17 team The club is well on the way to achieving these, already a member of the London Football Association and with a team in the under-17 Tandridge Youth Football League. Glauber and Thimoteo, are also calling for more players of all ages to join so that more teams are put into different categories to compete for championships wearing the colours of London Saints. The call is also extended to those over 18 as the club has partnered with Roger Henrotay, football agent licensed by FIFA, and other London clubs. “Our mind is professional. Our desire is that all
our athletes have basis to achieve their dreams,” said Thimoteo, who played professionally in Brazil. In a city like London, where diversity is so great and access to sport is so broad, the London Saints Football Club provides a learning environment for the young and professionalism for those who are lloking to forge ahead with a career in football; the sport most adored around the world, with the unique touch of Brazilian identity. If you’re interested and want to be part of this team, please contact Glauber or
Thimoteo by email londonsaintsfc@ yahoo.com or phone 077 3777 3768.
Badge with references from Brazil and the UK