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23 MARCH - 5 MAY | BERLIN - germany

cover image RODRIGO ALMEIDA Bahia chair [2010] wood, leather, pvc rope 57x64cm h74cm photo: Marcos Cimardi

Brunno Jahara Campana Brothers Carlos Motta móveis CIMO Domingos Tótora Lina Bo Bardi jerzy [Jorge] Zalszupin Joaquim Tenreiro José Zanine Caldas Maneco Quinderé Oscar Niemeyer ,Ovo Paulo Mendes da Rocha Rodrigo Almeida SÉrgio Matos Sergio Rodrigues Zanini oe Zanine

ZEITLOS – BERLIN and VANISHING POINTS proudly present – during the Spring 2012 in Berlin – BRAZILIAN DESIGN: MODERN & CONTEMPORARY FURNITURE; the largest and most important exhibition ever held about Brazilian design in Europe. With over 80 pieces representing modern and contemporary Brazilian design, the exhibition offer visitors a comprehensive overview of the theme as it presents two distinctly different moments of Brazilian design: the modern period, from the 40s, also known as the ‘Golden Years’, which, following the architectural movement that emerged in Brazil at that time, had a powerful influence from Bauhaus school with a new architecture in which concrete and glass materials were strongly present and visible. The current period, that begun in the late 80’s along with all other creative movements that remained virtually stagnant for a long period of more than 20 years. Brazilian furniture design could not be better represented, first in the modernist aesthetic freeing themselves solidly from the traditional European influences and creating their own language through their Zanines, Sergios, Tenreiros and many others. Through its diversity, irreverence, creativity and sustainability, the current Brazilian design has achieved unequivocal external recognition, either through international awards received or by the absorption of key pieces for a selective and highly competitive international market. Solo exhibitions of contemporary exponents of Brazilian design can be seen in important spaces around the world as well as an ever growing amount of pieces being acquired by major museums in the world and by important private collectors of the majority of these designers. The exhibition in Berlin was organized by ZEITLOS – BERLIN Gallery and curated by the architect Luciana Nemer Wiegmann – responsible for the modernist selection – and the designer Zanini de Zanine – responsible for the contemporary selection. Among the pieces presented, highlight is given to the Three Feet chair, by Joaquim Tenreiro; Peixe bench, by the Campana brothers [first ever appearance after only being shown 20 years ago in the duo’s first exhibition]; an unseen sideboard by José Zanine Caldas, as well as many other limited edition and unique pieces from private collections. BRAZILIAN DESIGN: MODERN & CONTEMPORARY FURNITURE exhibition is a unique and important opportunity to get a comprehensive idea about Brazilian furniture, designs in Europe. We wish to thank Ambassador Everton Vieira Vargas and Mr. Ludwig Koehne who generously supported the preparation and accomplishment of this exhibition.

[UWE MÖNNIKES & Raul Schmidt Felippe Jr.]

low tech high meaning [MARIA HELENA ESTRADA]

The architect Paulo Mendes da Rocha, has often said that ‘The object is a story about us.’ Today we can expand this idea and say that the object is a story about our time. From a historical perspective, there are two significant moments from where we can begin to talk about Brazilian design. The first began during a period of courage and talent in the 50’s, when a new architecture began to be born in Brazil made of concrete and glass, distinctly modern. Architects and artists found inspiration in this aesthetic expression for furniture design that would compliment these new spatial structures. Designers searched and adventured into unknown paths; the results became classics of our generation. The second moves away from its modernist source due to a great creative vacuum, the long and desolated silence of 20 years of Brazilian military dictatorship, when almost all expression fell silent.

JOAQUIM TENREIRO Three Feet chair [1947] Five types of solid wood 54x65cm h66cm photo: André Nazareth for Mercado Moderno

This unfortunate period prevented the progress of these concepts that were being shaped from wood and steel: Joaquim Tenreiro, the master of rosewood; Sergio Rodrigues, who is still refining his process after 60 years in the profession; José Zanine Caldas, the first to take advantage of laminated wood; Paulo Mendes da Rocha, whose chair became a best seller 60 years after its creation and Lina Bo Bardi, the great master, an Italian who discovered the richness of Brazilian culture.

Consequently, contemporary design only began to be consistent at the turn of the millennium. In our peculiarities, unexplored Brazilian values were reborn. There is a reversal of the gaze once focused only on European aesthetic, now turning to our original traditions. It is a moment where craft is transposed into a contemporary language. It is also the time of freedom and courage to explore the creation of a new language, despite the technological or market resources of international design. So what is Brazilian Design within the international scene? In truth we don’t have a single formal identity, or even a single direction to point towards. We also don’t have traditions or historical background that can prevent us from creating something new. It is possible that freedom, lightness and spontaneity are what define us. From our historical deficiency of resources emerged a new perspective for contemporary creation – a design of possibilities. Without an industry willing

CAMPANA BROTHERS Peixe bench [1989] Folded steel plate 208x55cm h110cm

to invest in new materials and technologies the current generation of Brazilian designers are coherently establishing new concepts, defined by necessity. This lack of resources accentuates the imagination, expands the creative possibilities and stimulates the search for new solutions. The use of colors, textures, unusual materials and crafts refer to our creative universe. It is a ‘low tech’ concept leading to ‘high meaning.’ Brazilian Design: Modern & Contemporary Furniture highlights many new talents, the work of Domingos Tótora, for his sensitivity and expertise in creating highquality handicrafts made with recycled cardboard; Carlos Motta, with his ability to alternate between the use of light and heavy woods; Rodrigo Almeida, for his constructive coherence in the accumulation of unusual materials and Zanini de Zanine for his eclectic creation and mastery of various techniques. And last but not least Fernando and Humberto Campana, with their great exuberance and irreverence, which for the past 20 years broke numerous paradigms with their explosive works like the Peixe bench – the beginning of everything.

BRAZILIAN MODERNIST DESIGN [LUCIANA NEMER WIEGMANN, CURATOR] One cannot speak about contemporary Brazilian design without referring to the modernist period in Brazil from the 1940’s to 1960’s. Those were decades of great political changes and economic growth, favouring the development of local industry, aiming to modernize the country. These were times of optimism and an expansion of cultural expressiveness. There was room for new art forms that valued the national culture, such as Bossa Nova, the Brazilian film industry and new trends in the field of architecture and design. In this context, and in the search for new forms of expression that would connect with the emerging European ideas during the 1920’s, a group of designers and architects based their ideas on a loose interpretation of European concepts and conceived an original, innovative design language expressing Brazilian elements. We are displaying in this exhibition the works of architects and designers that, for their singularity and relevance, exemplify these decades with all of their effervescence.

SERGIO RODRIGUES Oscar chair [1956] Solid wood, straw mesh 65x65cm h80cm photo: Andre Nazareth for Mercado Moderno

opposite page JOAQUIM TENREIRO floor light [1950] rosewood, translucent glass 40x30cm h145cm photo: Andre Nazareth for Mercado Moderno

JOAQUIM TENREIRO Shelf [1950] rosewood, brass 90x16cm h100cm photo: Ana Cristina Paschoal Alves

opposite page JOSÉ ZANINE CALDAS sideboard [1970s] solid wood, transparent glass 150x50cm h82cm photo: Artur Assis for Vanishing Points

With the aim of harmonizing architectural design with its internal fittings, some architects started to design the furniture for their projects as the local production of furniture wasn’t suitable for their Modernist environments: Lina Bo Bardi created the Bowl Chair for her Glass House; Paulo Mendes da Rocha designed the Paulistana chair for the Paulistano Club in São Paulo; Jorge Zalszupin began his design career producing furniture for the club’s clients; Oscar Niemeyer in partnership with his daughter, Anna Maria Niemeyer, created a furniture collection that resembles his architectural style, expressing lightness in curved forms. Modern Brazilian furniture design was moulded within all these influences. Some of these designers such as Lina Bo Bardi, Zanine Caldas Jorge Zalszupin and the furniture manufacturer CIMO also bet on the intention to modernize the industry, proposing innovative solutions in the mass production of furniture. CIMO, with its new production methods, became the largest furniture factory in 1950s Latin America.

Others were able to recognize, appreciate and incorporate the richness of Brazilian popular culture and its traditions into their design, such as Joaquim Tenreiro, a pioneer of Modern design. Tenreiro was the first to propose furniture design that suited Brazilian needs. Sergio Rodrigues uses cultural references and Brazilian traditions to create chairs that define the Brazilian way of sitting. Zanine Caldas, who found inspiration in Bahia with the canoe makers and local craftsmen; and finally Lina Bo Bardi, the Italian-Brazilian architect and designer, who has revealed the beauty of Brazilian culture. These are the designers who, with their own characteristics, intertwined their work with the commonplace: the Brazilian identity allied to modern trends as a seal of authenticity and quality in their work. This was essential to make them known and their works timeless.

OSCAR NIEMEYER & ANNA MARIA NIEMEYER Rio chaise [1978-1979] ebonized plywood, woven cane seat, removable leather headset 60x170cm h87cm photo: Andre Nazareth for Mercado Moderno

RODRIGO ALMEIDA Ă frica chair [2006] wood, pvc rope 70x52cm h81cm photo: Marcos Cimardi

BRAZILIAN CONTEMPORARY DESIGN [ZANINI DE ZANINE, CURATOR] It is with great pleasure and pride that I have had the opportunity to witness and participate closely in the significant growth of Brazilian furniture design on the international scene. As a designer I can surely say that we are part of a versatile and capable generation, determined to reveal our daily lives and our culture through our designs. Brazil’s strengthening economy has encouraged the development of not only this sector, but also all other areas where creativity is crucial; visual arts, literature, theatre, dance and music. With newly gained confidence, our eyes turned to regionalism and past traditions to express our vast territory and multicultural backgrounds. This is a starting point for us to become not only more interesting designers but also a globalised nation. The current production of Brazilian furniture with its unique proposals and concepts captures the diversity present in our people. The use of recycled materials and the ability to subvert them alongside the traditional use of wood are now allied to the new technological developments that have been recently established with the new era of growth in our country. By incorporating craft and handmade techniques into our designs we have become so sophisticated as to be perceived as commonplace by much of today’s furniture industry.

BRUNNO JAHARA Batucada collection [2010] Anodized aluminum variable dimensions photo: Jahara Studio

ZANINI DE ZANINE Moeda chair [2010] Perfurated steel plate 120x60cm h80cm photo: Zanini de Zanine

opposite page ,OVO

Huevo Revueltos object [2000] lacquered paint 7.5cm diameter photo: Ruy Teixeira

The selection of pieces displayed in Brazilian Design: Modern & Contemporary Furniture aims to promote Brazilian design to a broader audience, as well as to demonstrate the authentic regionalism shown by gathering nine of the most active and talented designers that represents the very best of Brazilian furniture design today: Carlos Motta, Rodrido Almeida, Bruno Jahara, Domingos T贸tora, ,Ovo, S茅rgio Matos and myself. Welcome to a new Brazil. A country more mature, more responsible but with the same charm as always. A Brazil that shows its cultural identity through its furniture design.


B R U NNO J A H A RA [ 19 7 9 ] Born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, but aesthetically and technically trained in Europe. Brunno set up his design consultancy, Jahara Studio, in São Paulo, focusing on the creation and production of objects and furniture. Brunno Jahara is a product designer; his style often combines organic shapes with tropical inspiration. He brings to his work references from Brazil, as well as his initial education at the Faculty of Brasília. These combine with the more technically sophisticated design he explored in Europe, in particular at the advanced and magic world of ‘Fabrica’. Fabrica, is a renowned laboratory of design and experimental communication in Europe, is the ideal hub for those wanting to develop the concepts of applied product design; as well as the optimum academy for explorers of production capacity, and of aesthetic and functional concepts. It is certainly the right place for the restless and curious brain, far from the ‘intuitive exoticism’ of the Brazilian School. It was a place that transformed Brunno’s cultural knowledge, a ‘school of life’ in which he has actively taken part, absorbing the most relevant and advanced concepts, then bringing them back to Brazil. Before moving to Brazil however, Brunno had the opportunity to display the knowledge he acquired in Europe, showing his ‘personal universe’ in exhibitions around the world in places such as La Triennale in Milan, Fondazione Bevilacqua La Masa in Venice, Centre Georges Pompidou, Centre Design Marseille, Tokyo Designers Block, Milan Furniture Fair, Amsterdam Design Week, Sapporo Designers Week, Miami Design District, New York Design Week and in other venues in Venice, Milan, Versona, Marseille, Amsterdam, Sapporo, Brasília, São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. In the right place and at the right time, moulded from his experiences in Europe, Brunno has begun his own activity in São Paulo, tackling subjects such as sustainability and the recycling of industrial material, and the same time travelling to other creative areas such as graphic design, installations, interior design and jewellery. Global, but still locally inspired, Jahara’s work faithfully represents his diverse training in Europe and Brazil, bringing a fresh reading of the different cultures and societies were he has lived.

C ARL O S M O T T A [ 1 95 2 ] In 1978, after a period in the United States learning woodcrafts, Carlos Motta started his own atelier in the neighbourhood of Visa Isabela, São Paulo, where it is still located. Much of Motta’s work sits within the context of the counter-culture movement; surfing, yoga, healthy eating, a natural lifestyle and a respect towards nature. Motta initiated his activities based on these ideals, aiming to combine the work of the furniture maker with his Brazilian identity. These concepts were applied since of the opening of his atelier in an intuitive and less technical manner. The greatest challenge throughout the development of his architecture and design projects has been sourcing materials which are coherent with his ideals; in the beginning materials such as wood found on beaches and recycled packaging crates were used. In order to ensure the continuity of his concepts, a transition to other materials such as Madeira de Redescobrimento [demolition and reused materials] was a natural progression and nowadays this is the main material used. Recently the atelier has begun using wood sourced from FSC [Forest Stewardship Council] certified companies.

CARLOS MOTTA Braz armchair [2006] reclaimed solid wood 89,5x89cm h68cm photo: Romulo Fialdini

opposite page BRUNNO JAHARA Batucada collection [2010] Anodized aluminum variable dimensions photo: Jahara Studio

CARLOS MOTTA Rio chair [2010] eucalyptus solid wood, laminated recycled PET plastic 52,5x46,5cm h83cm

right Sabre armchair [1993] Reclaimed solid wood, upholstery fabric 71x80cm h 83cm

opposite page CARLOS MOTTA Radar chair [2008] Reclaimed solid wood, oxydated steel 67x61cm h72cm photos: Romulo Fialdini

Several partnerships were consolidated over the past thirty years of work, including former staff and companies aligned in the same principles. These partnerships have led to different ways of cooperating in the design of furniture. Now these objects are distributed in several countries such as France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Mexico and Uruguay; there are also permanent agents in every Brazilian capital, in the United States and now in Europe. CARLOS MOTTA Astúrias rocking chair [2002] Reclaimed solid wood, upholstery fabric 77x109cm h75cm photo: Romulo Fialdini

MÓVEIS CIMO cupboard [1950] solid wood, leather padded handles 94x51.5cm h87cm photo: Ana Cristina Paschoal Alves

In the work of the atelier, the encounter with architecture was at the same time peculiar and immediate. From this symbiotic interaction of pure and applied arts designs of unique pieces have emerged including limited editions for galleries and collectors. At the same time architecture has become important as bespoke projects were realized by the atelier including furniture for houses, public spaces, offices, institutional spaces, and even prayer spaces. Carlos’ way of seeing life and work is a constant quest for excellence and the challenge of new inspiration within a socially and environmentally sustainable business.

M ÓV EI S CI M O [1 92 1 - 19 8 2 ] Móveis CIMO was established in the 1920’s by brothers Jorge and Martin Zipperer in the Brazilian state of Paraná. The company started as a wooden boxes factory together with a sawmill. Between the 1930’s and 1970’s it became one of the largest furniture factories in Latin America. CIMO’s importance in the history of Brazilian design lies in having introduced to Brazil rolling technology and for developing numerous manufacturing techniques. These processes were unprecedented at the time, and simplified the process of mass production. CIMO furniture, according to the designer Angelica Santi, represents ‘one of the most significant landmarks between the heritage of handicrafts and the beginning of mass furniture production in Brazil.’ In the 1920’s CIMO started to create chairs by using wood scraps from the manufactured boxes. These chairs were marketed in urban centres like Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. In the 1930’s CIMO branched out to manufacture furniture for theatres and musical halls. The ability to produce large-scale quality furniture enabled CIMO for a brief period to monopolize the furniture market in Brazil. CIMO gradually diversified their production range, introducing furniture to living rooms, bedrooms, offices, schools, and so forth. CIMO also innovated by managing the whole production chain, from the planting of trees to the packaging of its final products. In the 1970’s, the company went into a financial and management crisis, which led to its closure in 1982.

D O M IN G O S TÓTOR A [19 6 0]

left to right DOMINGOS TÓTORA Bowl centerpiece [2007] recycled cardboard d50cm h13cm

DOMINGOS TÓTORA Casca vase [2011] recycled cardboard d22cm h33cm

DOMINGOS TÓTORA Organic vase [2007] recycled cardboard 30x25cm h50cm

DOMINGOS TÓTORA Organic Ribbed vase [2007] recycled cardboard 30x17cm h38cm

opposite page top DOMINGOS TÓTORA

Água table [2008] recycled cardboard, glass d150cm h30cm


Kraft Terra bench [2008] recycled cardboard 180x40cm h45cm photos: Domingos Tótora

At first glance the work of Domingos Tótora appears to be made of wood, or even stone; however they are cardboard combined with glue, formed from a paste in a procedure that is sustainable and contemporary. Born in the city of Maria da Fé, at the top of the Mantiqueira mountain range in Minas Gerais, Tótora took several arts and crafts classes in São Paulo, but only found the substance of his work when he returned to the town of his birth. ‘I had noticed a lot of discarded cardboard by the supermarkets and out of curiosity I decided to test the material.’ Soon the experiment created more than a material and a technique; it spawned a revitalization of the cardboard taking it back to its original state, wood. The paste used is noble in its intention and beautiful in its rustic finish. Tótora revelled in its plasticity and durability, ‘I have been questioned if was I try to reproduce wood or stone, but I do not try to simulate anything. My work has no skin, no paint. What I really like is the roughness of the material.’ According to Tótora, ‘the concept is faithful to the whole process, and the pay-off is that sustainability is about action and not just about discourse. This emphasizes that conception and execution go hand in hand, complementing each other in production. It is all very truthful and healthy, it flows throughout the process, from the beginning to the end.’ The pieces reflect the landscape of Minas Gerais; hills cut by rivers and cultivated land.

Tótora’s design is one of teamwork and of social conscience, encouraging the participation of the community from the village where he lives and works. Today there are eight people dedicated to this careful process. Tótora says, ‘I put together craft paper, empty concrete bags and glue. This is left and from this I make a mixture of the papier-mâché, but with a different technique. It is a pure work, in natura.’ Those who see or sit in these furniture pieces may not necessarily realize that the material comes from waste products and this, combined with the work’s fluidity, creates its elegance. He never conceives a work as a piece of furniture but a sculpture that will later receive a function. Tótora’s gallery in Maria da Fé is where his pieces are sold and exhibited. There are bowls, vases, beanbag chairs, benches, all inspired by organic shapes and the movement of nature. The products are an example of an applied concept of sustainability, social and economic development, plus a great deal of creativity, functionality and coherence.

J E RZY [ J O R GE ] ZALSZUP IN [19 22] Fascinated by Brazilian architecture, the polish born architect, Jorge Zalszupin decided to move to Rio de Janeiro in 1949. He firstly engaged work with the architect Luciano Korngold in São Paulo and after acquiring the Brazilian citizenship Zalszupin opened his own studio. He acquired a talent for furniture design through the frequent commissions for residential architectural projects, which included the design of furniture. In 1959 he decided to specialize in furniture design. Zalszupin associated himself with a group of craftsmen and founded the studio L’Atelier. The idea of the studio was to implement a work collective. Starting with a small handcraft production, L’Atelier flourished throughout the years and became an industry that at its peak had around 300 workers. In the 1970’s, due to financial difficulties, L’Atelier was sold to a holding. Zalszupin was kept in the company as the art director. In this new phase, other designers were added to the team that allowed the implementation of a singular creative workshop in the company. In the 1980’s, due to an economic crisis in Brazil, L’Atelier interrupted its activities. Zalszupin then worked as an architect together with José Gugliota. In 1986 he left the partnership and continued to work as an architect and designer but less intensively. Due to the quality and historical significance of his furniture, some of his works have been successfully reissued in the market since 2005.

Jorge Zalszupin

Desk[1958] solid wood, glass 160.5x71.5cm h84.5cm photo: Ana Cristina Paschoal Alves

opposite page Joaquim Tenreiro

coffee table [1955] solid wood 82x130cm h26cm photo: Andre Nazareth for Mercado Moderno

JOAQ U I M T E N R E I R O [ 1 9 0 6 - 1 9 9 2 ] Tenreiro is considered the pioneer of modernist Brazilian furniture design. During the 1940’s the local furniture industry produced essentially copies of classic European styles. Tenreiro broke away from these trends and gave form to a new language in furniture making. He supported the idea that Brazilian furniture should have a ‘lightness of form’ a lightness that, according to his beliefs, had nothing to do with the weight itself but rather with elegance and functionality. Tenreiro adjusted the proportion of some of his works scaling their dimensions to a more suitable form and started to use out of fashion materials like woven cane to adapt his design to a tropical climate. Tenreiro had an exceptional ability of providing craftsmanship quality to large-scale manufacturing. Born in Portugal to a family of cabinetmakers, he moved to Rio de Janeiro in 1928 bringing with him the family trade. In 1931 he engaged work as an assistant designer to the furniture makers Laubisch & Hirth, which produced European styled furniture with superfluous embellishments and bulky proportions. In 1942 he was commissioned to design the furniture for a residential project from Oscar Niemeyer. Tenreiro had the opportunity to apply his own ideas of modernist furniture design, which made him known and recognized as a designer. He left Laubisch & Hirth the following year and opened his own furniture studio called Langenbach & Tenreiro. In the following years he opened his first retail store in Rio de Janeiro and subsequently another one in São Paulo. In 1968, he closed the stores and the studio and dedicated his time only to fine arts and sculptures, artistic activities he had alongside his work. Tenreiro developed an exquisite method for casting Brazilian wood. He used its rich hues and tones as a core concept to create his works. The Three Feet chair is a refined example of his techniques, as five types of Brazilian wood are harmonically blended – imbuia, purpleheart, rosewood, ivory and cabreuva. His works as furniture maker and as a fine artist have been displayed in several exhibitions in Brazil and abroad. They are highly disputed in auction houses in America and Europe, with some of his works reaching significantly high prices.

JOAQUIM TENREIRO bar Stool [1961] Iron, two types of solid wood 54x30cm h69cm photo: Andre Nazareth for Mercado Moderno

opposite page LINA BO BARDI Bowl chair [1951] Formed aluminum, painted iron, fabric, brass. d86,4cm h74cm photo: Andre Nazareth for Mercado Moderno

J O S É Z A N IN E C A L D A S [ 19 1 9 - 2001] Zanine started his career in the 1940’s as a scale modeller in Rio de Janeiro. A self-taught architect and designer, he was commissioned by modernist architects like Oscar Niemeyer and Lúcio Costa for his exceptional ability as a modeller exemplified by the solutions given to projects while assembling scale models. Envisaging the potential industrialization in the country, Zanine and Sebastião Pontes founded the company ‘Z Artistic Furniture’ at the end of the 1940’s. The intention of this venture was to use plywood to produce modernist style furniture at affordable prices for the middle classes. In 1964, persecuted by the military regime, Zanine travels to other parts of South America and Africa. This experience shaped his future works as he started to recognize the value of local craftsmanship. He returned to Rio de Janeiro at the end of the 1960’s where he developed several architectural projects using wood structures and applying a modernist style yet maintaining colonial trends. In 1968 Zanine moved to Nova Viçosa in Bahia where he got involved with environmental protection projects. He perceived the local atmosphere with a complete new perspective. The endangered scrublands of the agreste and the skills of local craftsmen, like canoe makers, which inspired Zanine’s new phase. He decided to start a handcrafted production of furniture using felled trees, tree scraps and tree roots. The deforestation process created by the pulp industry abandoned this ‘prime’ raw material. According to Zanine, it was a form of protest against the aggressive destruction of the environment. In 1977 his works were displayed in several locations in Brazil including the Modern Art Museum in Rio de Janeiro [MAM/RJ] and the Art Museum of São Paulo [MASP]. In 1989 he was awarded with the Silver Medal from the French Academy of Architecture and a major exhibition of his work was displayed at the Louvre Decorative Arts Museum in Paris.

LINA B O B A R D I [ 1 9 1 4 - 1 9 9 2 ] The prolific architect Lina Bo Bardi, completed her studies from the College of Architecture at Rome University’s in 1940. She worked as a designer, illustrator, stage designer and publisher. In 1946 she married the art critic Pietro Maria Bardi and the couple decided to build their future in Brazil, a country that according to Lina ‘everything was possible’. Fascinated by the rich diversity of the local culture, Lina envisaged a perfect environment for modernity to flourish from this latent dynamism. Lina’s finest talents as an architect and designer are characterized in the way she merged her European intellectual modernist concepts of the 1920’s together with elements of the local culture. A good example of this style is the Art Museum of São Paulo [MASP-1968], a landmark of her rationalist architecture which Lina defined as ‘poor architecture’, due to the combination of elementary geometrical forms along with coarse materials like exposed concrete. Lina‘s venture into furniture design happened in 1948 when she started the Studio d’Arte Palma. It was a short-lived attempt to industrialize the production of furniture using plywood, a novelty at the time in Brazil. She also used other

MANECO QUINDERÉ Pernambuco light [2011] stainless steel 200x50cm photo: Maneco Quinderé

alternative materials such as canvas, leather and local fabrics. Her intention was, as she mentioned in an interview to the Habitat magazine, to explore the ‘structural simplicity and beauty of the grain patterns and the hues of Brazilian woods.’ During this period, she created a chair for first headquarters of the Art Museum of São Paulo [MASP]. This chair has been described as modern, plain and easy to fold. A few years later Lina designed her own residence in São Paulo. Known as the Glass House, this modernist project houses today the Lina Bo and P. M. Bardi Institute. Due to the poor choice of furniture available in the local market at the time, she designed the furniture for her own residence. An example of this period is the famous chair Bowl [1951], with its plain metal feet and canvas seat. She moves to Salvador as a result of an offer to found and manage the Bahia Art Museum [MAM/BA]. Lina was an assiduous researcher of local tradition and she found in Bahia a fertile environment to develop her work, as popular traditions there were thriving at that time. Examples of her work during this period include the ‘Giraffe Chair’ especially designed for the Benin Museum in Salvador and the ‘Frei Egidio’ chair, inspired in a 5th Century Franciscan chair. Both chairs were designed together with Marcelo Ferraz and Marcelo Suzuki.

M ANECO Q U I ND E R É [ 19 6 3 ] Maneco’s first role as an artist exceeded his role as a light designer. Maneco Quinderé started his path as a lighting designer on theatre stages that were transformed into canvas, using a balance of colours and light. From his early work, his particular talent and own signature developed in a clear and decisive manner. On stage he has done plays, ballets and operas. He has had the opportunity to accomplish his anthological work in similarly. Very often his presence on the stage was not only remarkable, but also groundbreaking. Making him one of the most rewarded lighting designers in Brazil, having been awarded the Molière and Mambembe prizes, prizes from the APTR [Associação dos Produtores de Teatro do Rio de Janeiro], Sharp, Shell and from the APETESP [Associação dos Produtores de Espetáculos Teatrais do Estado de São Paulo]. The theatre is his first passion, and is the seed from where his work grew. Maneco’s designs translate with the same agility across ballet, opera and music. Maneco contributed to concerts of mayor Brazilian artists such as Chico Buarque, Maria Bethânia, Caetano Veloso and Gal Gosta. Since in 2006 his lighting designs started to gain new applications within architecture and interior design - always with traces of his work in theatre and opera. His success was immediate across Brazil, and his work spread a new language of lighting in houses, restaurants, shops, and public spaces. From this new

MANECO QUINDERÉ Itaipava lamp [2010] wood d80cm h100cm photo: Maneco Quinderé

opposite page OSCAR NIEMEYER Praiana chaise [1978] Ebonized plywood, leather 61x190cm h56cm photo: Andre Nazareth for Mercado Moderno

challenge was born another, even more fascinating, lamp design. Maneco’s work represents elegance, a dialogue between the artist and light. The pieces were conceived with the sensibility of a product designer and the competence of a lighting designer. Maneco works with the fundamental functionality of the object to enrich the light created. It is evident that Maneco’s experience on stage is fundamental in the conception of his scenographic designs that are also pieces of sophisticated engineering. Low energy consumption bulbs are explored generosity, bringing an awareness of efficiency and sustainability to the products. ‘Let it be’, they say to welcome the arrival of the cold light technology. We can only use the same expression to welcome the work of Maneco.

OSCA R N I E M E Y E R [ 1 9 0 7 ] The architect that designed the government buildings of Brasilia, Oscar Niemeyer, is still active at the age of 104 and is undoubtedly the most renowned Brazilian architect and the most influential worldwide. He graduated as an architect from the School of Fine Arts in 1934. Oscar Niemeyer is known for his skilful use of reinforced concrete. In 1936 he was part of the group of architects that designed the Ministry of Health and Education in Rio de Janeiro. This project, which was based on Le Corbusier’s drafts, is considered to be one of the first landmarks of Brazilian modernist architecture. The brief time spent with Le Corbusier was significant in his career and according to Lucio Costa, it was responsible for the awakening of the genius inside Oscar Niemeyer. Some of Niemeyer’s most renowned projects include the government buildings in Brasilia [1956-1960], the Pampulha Complex in Belo Horizonte (1940-1944), the Ibirapuera Park in São Paulo [1951], the French Communist Party Headquarters in Paris [1965] and the Contemporary Art Museum in Niteroi [1991]. In 1988, Oscar Niemeyer and the American architect Gordon Bunshaft were jointly awarded, the Pritzker Prize [the most prestigious architectural prize by the Hyatt Foundation in Chicago]. In the 1970’s, while exiled in France, Niemeyer started to dedicate himself to furniture design in partnership with his daughter, Anna Maria Niemeyer. He chose plywood to create his designs due to the potential of this material to create curved shapes integrating the supports and also for the easy assembly methods it provided. Acknowledgment of his furniture design was confirmed through the various exhibitions in Europe, which took place at the Georges Pompidou Centre, in Paris; the Cologne International Fair, in Germany; the Milan Furniture International Fair and the Chiostro Grande, in Florence, in Italy.

, O VO g er s o n o li veira [ 1970] & lu cian a martin s [1967] Since the beginning, 20 years ago, Luciana Martins and Gerson de Oliveira have been developing a work located on the boundaries of design and art. Fearless to experiment and open to new paths, they treasure creation with intelligence. Their works have the power to conciliate concision with the capacity to astonish. A chair that hides a black cube that is only revealed when it receives the user’s weight; billiard balls that dislocate from their original function to be used as hangers; objects that draw multiple routes. There are several examples of a production that instigates a confusion to our perception, making our relationships with the works not a consumption (an immediate and often alienated use), but a fruition that does not get hindered in the first experience, but brings new nuances as time passes. It is in this capacity to go beyond its function, to play with our perception and to make us think, disrupting our parameters; that is where Ovo’s artistic resides and pulses – creation of works to be used but also to be seen and collected. Objects to be kept, in the original sense of the word, maintained and preserved. Even if at first sight, the pieces reveal themselves perfectly functional on use, there is also an element of surprise in the design. The pieces are malleable; they allow different combinations, configurations and arrangements to fulfill desires and needs that vary throughout a single day or an entire life. In several pieces it is the unrolling of the shape and/or of the function that provides this flexibility. The pieces can be on the ground and rise to the walls then go back to the ground, gaining new functions at each phase of the trajectory. Racks, shelves, benches, tables, chairs, couches interchange their functions. The objects are hybrid, dynamic, and flexible, breaking the boundaries of classification. The liberty is also manifested in the selection of materials: the selection rambles from metal [stainless steel, aluminum, iron], to wood [laminated, mdf], fabrics, glass, acrylics, and although not abusing colours, they do not run way from them.

,OVO Ciranda table [2000] stainless steel, transparent glass 283x124cm h85cm photos: Ruy Teixeira

Without falling in the asepsis of modernism that would act as a shackle impeding the flights of poetry, the furniture developed by Luciana Martins and Gerson de Oliveira have clarity in their conception and construction. They seek for the just, synthetic and depurated shape of the divine creation that gives its name to their studio: egg [ovo]. Concise and surprising: they communicate the time when they were conceived but are also predestined to transcend it.

PAUL O M E N D E S D A R O C H A [ 1 9 2 8 ] the Hyatt Foundation of Chicago awarded, in 2006, Professor Paulo Mendes da Rocha [Architect, urban planner and designer] the Pritzker Prize. Undoubtedly one of the top Brazilian architects, Mendes da Rocha graduated in 1954 from the Architecture and Urban Planner Department, of the Mackenzie University [São Paulo]. In the 1960’s he was part of a group of architects called the Paulista School. This group followed the ideas of Brutalist Architecture, which used repetitive angular geometries employing pre-fabricated concrete slabs. His first relevant project happened in 1958 when he designed a large sports facility for the Paulistano Athletic Club in São Paulo. This project presented him with an award in the 4th International Biennial of São Paulo in 1961. He also designed furniture for the same project, like the Paulistana armchair that stands out for its lightness and elegance. This armchair is part of the collection of the Museum of Modern Art [MoMA] in NewYork. In 1961, he was invited to teach Architecture at the University of São Paulo [USP]. In 1969, during the military regime, he was removed from his academic post only to return in 1980. In 1998 he retires from his academic life but continues developing projects in his own office in São Paulo. In 1997, the 10th Dokumenta in Kassel honoured him with an exhibition room, endorsing the international recognition of his work. Some of his best-known projects include the Brazilian Museum of Sculpture [MuBE-1995], the Museum of the Portuguese Language [2006] and the renovation of the São Paulo State Art Gallery [Pinacoteca do Estado], in 1993 – for this project he was bestowed in 2000 with the prize ‘Mies van der Rohe Award for Latin American Architecture.’

Paulo Mendes da Rocha Paulistana armchair [1957] stainless steel structure, leather seat 72x74cm h82cm photo: Ana Cristina Paschoal Alves

opposite page ,OVO Tiras armchair [2010] stainless steel, velvet, linen, suede 64x75cm h 81cm


Tiras stool [2010] wood, stainless steel 59x43cm h 40cm photos: Ruy Teixeira

R O D R I G O A L M E ID A [ 19 7 7 ] It is important for an object to communicate, to be part of its time and to represent its culture. Beyond the cultural and material layers that influence formal realization of an object there is an immaterial aspect that is the Brazilian lifestyle and style of living. Rodrigo Almeida represents several of the aspects of Brazilian culture, a young culture with less tradition in object design and realisation, but with distinctive historical and aesthetical references stemming from the mixture of races that form the Brazilian people. It is design that is originated, above all, from the adaptation of raw materials, which is ‘found’ and not ‘sourced’, versatile and always eclectic. From the combination of a pair of sneakers and their own sole a desk lamp is born - this single edition piece has since then evolved to gain the arm of a monkey puppet. Unexpected! In an objective analysis of the creative process it is difficult not to refer to the people that collect waste, those that, although being left at the corners of our society, daily find their survival with dignity and creativity. There is a lot of the true Brazil in Rodrigo’s process and work. In the sixties the ‘Tropicalism’ movement led by the musicians Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil applied this legacy, and creating a fusion of different musical influences to create a cinematic music, charged of images of the Brazilian culture. This important movement in the Brazilian arts was named Tropicalism after an installation by the iconic artist Helio Oiticica, the master of the fusion of body and soul of different Brazilian cultures of the period. Tropicalism in Brazilian design has also appeared much later with the work of Campana Brothers and found in Rodrigo’s work a strong ally; combining different materials, objects, textures, colour and language that communicate between themselves in an experimental basis.

From Tropicalism, where a cohesive post-modernism was adopted with a light accent, denouncing an absolute independence, Rodrigo’s work continues a strong design story, self-referring and successful in Brazil and around the world. It is not a coincidence that Rodrigo’s design is executed in single edition pieces [therefore closer to an artistic work than a serial product] and is being recognized in worldwide exhibitions and museums willing to display Brazilian design and its history.

SÉRG I O M A T O S [ 1 9 7 6 ] Born in Paranatinga, Northeast Brazil, the designer Sérgio J. Matos has been living in Campina Grande for the past ten years, city that he has adopted since the beginning of his training as an industrial designer. Sérgio’s initial encounter with design has occurred in 2004, when, interning at a company specialising in mass furniture production. From here he developed his first collection. He is currently a professor at the same university that awarded him his diploma. Sérgio incarnates, more than many colleagues, the narrow relationship of a designer with his homeland. Being born in a region next to the indigenous ‘Xingu’ reserve, immersed in its culture and surrounded by the diversity of the forest, Sérgio has learned to master and work with natural materials. His designs has a unique relationship with Brazilian culture, easily noticeable in the colours and materials used in the production process. The concepts of the objects come from the memories of the Brazilian countryside, his childhood and its furniture, objects and other details of the vernacular that passed in front of his eyes. Handicraft is the greatest added value in his artistic language, as he says handicraft ‘is like an unpolished stone’ that should simply be polished to make it more commercial. His identity, in a regionalism that has characterised Brazilian design for fifty years, reflects the culture, the working techniques, the society’s modus vivendi, the popular celebrations, and environments frequently

SÉRGIO MATOS Xique-Xique coffee table [2010] carbon steel frame, wood d120cm h30cm photo: Sérgio Matos

opposite page RODRIGO ALMEIDA Erê bench [2009] wood, beads, leather, plastic d42cm h38cm photo: Marcos Cimardi

SÉRGIO MATOS Balaio chair [2011] carbon steel frame, cotton thread 110x110cm h75cm

opposite page top SÉRGIO MATOS Carambola stool [2010] carbon steel frame, cotton thread diam 50cm h 50cm

bottom SÉRGIO MATOS Balão chair [2011] carbon steel frame, cotton thread 120x80cm h 75cm photos: Sérgio Matos

visited by the artist. All of this has moulded his language with the Brazilian territorial diversity enriching his design work that has served as inexhaustible reference. Recently launched in 2011, the hamper chair is one of the most successful expressions of regionalism in his recent range of designs; breaking the forces of globalization and the homogenization of aesthetics, giving place to pure and simple exaltation of the local. The formula to reach such a result is to observe the surroundings, with the qualified view of the masters of the production chain, to seek the hampers used to sell fruits in a public market at Campina Grande, and use this as a reference for his creation. Another raw material that is used is the rope from hammocks, a tradition in the Brazilian state of Paraíba. Sérgio’s state is well represented in the Brazilian design scene and famous for its quality products, proud of its regionalism, its immense space and the different cultures that influence his work.

SERGIO RODRIGUES [1927] In 1951, Sergio Rodrigues graduated from the National School of Architecture in Rio de Janeiro. He started his career as a designer and within the same decade – time when Brazilian modernist architecture consolidated – he became one of the most important designers in Brazil. Rodrigues is an exceptional connoisseur of wood and the potentials presented by this material in furniture making. It is his favourite raw material, which he sometimes combines with leather, woven cane or upholstery to create designs, which, despite being of a modernist style, carry a touch of traditional. In 1955, Rodrigues started, along with other partners, the Oca Store, in Rio de Janeiro. The Oca Store was also used as an art gallery and it became an important meeting point for intellectuals and artists. Several art and furniture exhibitions were displayed in its space, which helped promoting modernist furniture in Brazil. In the beginning of the 1960’s Rodrigues left Oca. The international recognition of his career came in 1961. The richly upholstered armchair Mole [known as ‘Sheriff’ in English] was awarded the first prize on the International Furniture Competition in Cantu, Italy. At the age of 84 and still active, Rodrigues work is extensive and has an important meaning for modernist and contemporary design. In the 1950’s he designed furniture for government buildings in Brasília. In 1987, he was awarded, for the ensemble of his work, the Lapiz de Plata [Silver Pencil Prize] at the Buenos Aires Architecture Biennial. In 2006, his chair ‘Diz’ was awarded the first prize in the furniture category at the Brazilian House Museum in São Paulo. His works were displayed in several exhibitions in Brazil and abroad including the 2009 Milan International Furniture Fair with the series ‘Sergio’.

ZAN I N I D E Z A N I N E [ 1 9 7 8 ] Born in 1978 in Rio, ‘only because there was no hospital at the small town of Nova Viçosa’ Zanini was brought up in the shadow of his father José Zanine Caldas, an architect and self-taught designer, who was 60 years old when he was born. Zanini was brought up in the creative universe of his father, moving from city to city: Nova Viçosa, Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, Paris, and back to Rio de Janeiro where Zanini still lives. In Zanini’s upbringing was crucial in his development, attending places such as the drawing room of Lucio Costa during talks with his father or when he witnessed the urbanization of Brasilia and the work of Oscar Niemeyer; discussions on architecture by his father with Tom Jobim in Leblon, Rio de Janeiro and opportunity to see Juarez Machado working in Paris. Zanini has also saw the sculptures of Amílcar de Castro in Minas Gerais; the informal affection exchanged between his father and Jorge Amado at the Communist Party Fair in Paris; also visits to Sergio Rodrigues’ workshop, where his father left with a dismantled Moleca chair for their living room. Most of all, Zanini has absorbed the freedom in which he was brought up, which was fundamental for his choice of a life as a designer. In his twenties, Zanini after the death of his father, he realized that he had been at the side of a true master of Brazilian culture. Aiming to continue the family tradition he joined the industrial design diploma at the University PUC in Rio de Janeiro, where his father’s name was cited as a reference during classes. While still a student Zanini designed his first furniture pieces winning a ticket to Milan. During his studies he decided to intern at Sergio Rodrigues’ atelier. Zanini studied with Rodrigues closely for a year. It was a period of maturing as a designer, as well as the discovery of another master.

ZANINI DE ZANINE Ipê bench [1947] solid reclaimed wood 54x65cm h66cm photo: Zanini de Zanine

opposite page Sergio Rodrigues Parati chair [1963] solid rosewood. suede upholstery 70x70cm h70cm photo: Ana Cristina Paschoal Alves

Later in 2002, Zanini completed his degree and chose an independent path; he decided to produce and patronize his own work, and learn from being in practice. His desire was to translate the liberty in which he was brought up into his work. Zanini has accomplished his goals with impressive eclecticism, mirroring his work in his personality, his hometown, his routine, without any attachment to trends and fads. Zanini soon gained new experience, meeting new people. He started to organize the production and distribution of more industrialized objects and received invitations to work with important Brazilian brands. It was at this moment that Zanini rediscovered Reduzino Vieira, his father’s right-hand man for 30 years. With this partnership, he developed limited editions objects using old demolished beams and columns that soon became part of the narrative of his work, such pieces are often auctioned in the major collector circles worldwide. Parallel to these unique pieces Zanini carries on the development of industrial projects for several brands, including a famous Italian brand. Zanini is a lover of furniture, design and Brazil, he accepted the role with motivation, determined to have it as an important chapter of his career.

ZANINI DE ZANINE Pássaros shelves [2008] Solid wood, steel cables 70x40x4cm h variable

opposite page ZANINI DE ZANINE Espécies armchair [2009] reclaimed solid wood 67x59cm h64cm photos: Zanini de Zanine

CAMPANA BROTHERS Sushi Chair [2003] electrostatic painted, iron, carpet, rubber, EVA, fabric 90x100cm h100cm Cartoon Chair [2007] Stuffed Disney toys, fabric, stainless steel 80x120cm h70cm photos: Ana Cristina Paschoal Alves

SPECIAL GUESTS C A M P A N A B RO T H E R S FER NA ND O CA M P A NA [ 1961] & HU MBERTO CAMPAN A [ 1953] The Campana brothers, Humberto and Fernando, are one of the best known contemporary design duos in the national and international scene. Humberto Campana, despite having graduated in law, started a sculpture and jewellery studio in the 1980’s. Fernando Campana joined his brother in 1984 after graduating in architecture from the Faculty of Fine Arts in São Paulo. In 1989 they made their first exhibition, Desconfortáveis, which displayed iron chairs that confronted the lack of identity in Brazilian design during the 20 years of military dictatorship. This exhibition represented not only the start of the Campana Brothers’ career but also the beginning of a new trend in Brazilian design. Humberto and Fernando, spent their childhood in a small town in the countryside and at the age of 18 moved to São Paulo. The antagonistic experiences of rural life and the urban chaos of São Paulo are some of the sources of inspiration for the duo. Avid observers of society, they redefine aesthetics by noticing the creativity of the poorest sectors of the population in using recycled materials to create utilitarian objects that go beyond their formal role, crafting in the process symbolic messages of a culture. Their work has experimental and innovative aspects, especially concerning the choice of resources. They use materials such as bathroom drains, PVC pipes, soft toys and many others. By using these objects out of context and added to other materials with completely different characteristics, they gain a new life and unexpected form. Since 1989 the Campana brothers have taken part in several design exhibitions such as their solo show at MoMA in 1998 and the retrospective of their works [more than 150 pieces] at the Vitra Design Museum in Germany between May 2009 and January 2010. Several of their works are part of the permanent collections of the Vitra Design Museum [Weil am Rhein, Germany], the Centre Georges Pompidou [Paris, France], the Museum of Decorative Arts in Montreal [Canada], the Association Vadoz and Jacqueline Bruno Danese [Milan, Italy] and from the Museum of Modern Art of São Paulo. In 2008, Design Miami awarded the Campana Brothers with the Designer of the Year prize.

Maneco Quinderé Mesa Jardim light [2011] solid wood table with tempered glass 50 x 50 x 35 cm photo: Maneco Quinderé

stilwerk Mall [ground floor] & Design Galerie ZEITLOS – BERLIN in stilwerk Berlin [3rd floor] Kantstraße 17 - 10623 Berlin - D phone: +49 [0] 30 31 51 56 31

project coordinators Christian F. Carls [ZEITLOS – BERLIN], Mario Schulz [Communication & Marketing ZEITLOS – BERLIN], Luciana Nemer Wiegmann [Berlin] & Arturo Isola [Brazil].


exhibition design [architectural concept] SCC Arquitetura [Arturo Isola] & Studio Zanini [Zanini de Zanine] - contemporary. Luciana Nemer Wiegmann - modernist [Paulo Ayres – assistant]. Laura Barbi [signage system]

Nadine Barth [national pr] phone: +49 172 4214402 | aboli lion [international pr] phone: +49 [0] 1577 1973 311 + 49 [0] 30 31 51 56 31 claudia euler [national & international pr assistant] phone: +49 [0] 1522 1760 986 contact info [not press] Luciana Nemer Wiegmann [Curator] phone + 49 [0] 0163 8386689 website organized by ZEITLOS – BERLIN & VANISHING POINTS DESIGN exhibition concept Uwe Mönnikes & Raul Schmidt Felippe Jr. general project manager Raul Schmidt Felippe Jr. project managers Uwe Mönnikes [ZEITLOS-BERLIN] & Ana Cristina Paschoal Alves [Vanishing Points Design] project management consultancy Laura Barbi

graphic & website design Laura Barbi website programming Paulo Barcelos videos Pontos de Fuga - Brazil © images the authors © texts the authors © biographies Luciana Nemer Wiegmann [modernist designers] & Arturo Isola [contemporary designers] image processing Artur Paola Assis translation & revision Craig Louis Harrison-Smith, Manuela Antunes & Marcelo Granja [english]; Manfred von Conta & Susanna Mende [german] printed by Laserline Berlin catalogue circulation 2000 copies published by ZEITLOS – BERLIN & VANISHING POINTS DESIGN for the exhibition BRAZILIAN DESIGN: MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY FURNITURE 23 march - 5 May | Berlin - Germany © all rights reserved

AC KNO W L ED G M E N T S Special thanks to Mr. Alberto Vicente [Mercado Moderno – MEMO]. Thanks to Ambassador Everton Vieira Vargas and Rodrigo Maffei Libonati [Embassy of Brazil in Berlin]; Mr. Ludwig Koehne [Kranunion]; Counsellor Helena Maria Gasparian [Embassy of Brazil in London]; Daniela Figueredo; Dirk Spender [Regionalmanagement City West]; Ederaldo Carvalho da Silva; Emma Moore & Lucas Bori [wallpaper* magazine]; Equipe do Anil; Fernanda Guerrero; Francisco de Assis Soares; Françoise Squecco; Henrique Palma; Irene Palma; Leonardo Domingues; Luiz Prado; Marcelo Vasconcellos; Marc Joory; Mercado Moderno [MEMO], Nathalie Felippe; Niclaas Wiegmann; Mike Palm & Christiane Albrecht [Copa Living]; Dr. Sylvia Nielius & Gerrit Haaß [stilwerk Centermanagement Berlin]; Raimund Wiese; Regina König, Ludmila Mönnikes, Despina Svobodova & Lukas Bzinkowski [ZEITLOSBERLIN]; Roberta Guedes; Roberto Treptow; Rosana Vicente and Walter Lo Conte.



STILWERK MALL & GALERIE ZEITLOS-BERLIN kantstraĂ&#x;e 17, 10623 berlin - germany

Brazilian Design  

Brazilian Design: Modern & Contemporary Furniture Berlin Exhibition Catalogue

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