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CONNECTING GREATER RIVERDALE TO THE LAKE


PLG 720: Advanced Planning Studio II School of Urban and Regional Planning Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada This report has been prepared as part of the partial fulfillment of the 4th Year Advanced Planning Studio of the School of Urban and Regional Planning, Ryerson University.

Kaylan Bubeloff Jean Chung Alexander Davies Shahinaz Eshesh Zachary Henderson Alexander Jarzabek Evan Kataoka Curtis Laurin Sze Francis Lee Karen Lei

Clients: Paul Young, Health Promoter, South Riverdale Community Health Centre Michael Holloway, Advocate, Ward 30 Bikes Course Coordinator: Donald Verbanac November 2014


Table of Contents Part I - Greater Riverdale Background Study and Cycling Precedents 1.0 Introduction...........................................................................................................................................9 1.1 Overview of Client....................................................................................................................... 10 1.2 Scope of Study .......................................................................................................................11-12 1.3 Study Context ............................................................................................................................... 13 1.4 Assumptions ................................................................................................................................. 14 1.5 Methodology ................................................................................................................................ 15 2.0 Stakeholders ................................................................................................................................16-17 3.0 Demographics of Riverdale .......................................................................................................... 18 3.1 Health Statistics of Ward 30 ..................................................................................................... 18 4.0 Planning Policies and Guidelines ............................................................................................... 19 4.1 Policies and Regulations .....................................................................................................19-20 4.2 Guidelines ...................................................................................................................................... 21 4.2.1 Ontario Bikeways and Design Guidelines.................................................................... 21 4.2.2 City of Toronto Streetscape Manual............................................................................... 22 4.2.3 National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) Urban Bikeway . Design Guide.......................................................................................................................... 22 4.2.4 City of Toronto Guidelines for the Design and Management of Bicycle Parking...................................................................................................................................... 23 4.3 Municipal Plans............................................................................................................................. 24 4.3.1 City of Toronto Bike Plan.................................................................................................... 24 4.3.2 The Green Standard............................................................................................................. 24 5.0 Development Opportunities......................................................................................................... 25 5.1 The Port Lands ........................................................................................................................26-27 5.2 Pan Am Games and the Canary District ........................................................................28-29 5.3 Additional Sites Proposed for Development................................................................30-31 6.0 Future Transportation Infrastructure ........................................................................................ 32 4


6.1 Gardiner Expressway............................................................................................................................ 32 6.2 Cherry Streetcar Plan ....................................................................................................................33-34 6.3 Relief Line ................................................................................................................................................ 35 6.4 Leslie Barns Development.................................................................................................................. 36 7.0 Health Benefits of Cycling ...................................................................................................................... 37 7.1 Health and Well-Being...................................................................................................................38-39 7.2 The Healthy Cities Project.................................................................................................................. 40 8.0 Cycling Infrastructure Typology .....................................................................................................41-42 8.1 Cycling Infrastructure Safety ............................................................................................................ 42 9.0 Cycling Infrastructure Best Practices .................................................................................................. 43 9.1 Case Studies of Cities .......................................................................................................................... 44 9.1.1 Toronto........................................................................................................................................45-46 9.1.2 Canada.........................................................................................................................................47-50 9.1.3 Europe ........................................................................................................................................51-54 10.0 Other Benefits of Cycling Infrastructure in Cities......................................................................... 55 11.0 Existing Conditions................................................................................................................................. 56 11.1 Inventory of Existing Neighbourhood Assets ...................................................................56-64 11.2 Existing Routes..............................................................................................................................64-70 11.3 Curb to Curb Width Map.................................................................................................................. 71 11.4 Analysis of Current Active and Motorized................................................................................. 72 11.4.1 Cyclist Travel Patterns................................................................................................................ 72 11.4.2 Cyclist Demographic Characteristics................................................................................... 72 11.4.3 Pedestrian and Motor Vehicle Intersection Volumes...............................................73-76 11.4.4 Dangerous Intersections and Pedestrian Fatalities........................................................ 77 11.5 North-South Street Profiles............................................................................................................. 78 11.5.1 Introduction............................................................................................................................78-79 11.5.2 How to Read Guide..................................................................................................................... 80 11.5.3 Broadview Avenue...................................................................................................................... 81 5


11.5.4 Logan Avenue....................................................................................................................... 82 11.5.4 Carlaw Avenue..................................................................................................................... 83 11.5.6 Pape Avenue......................................................................................................................... 84 11.5.7 Jones Avenue........................................................................................................................ 85 11.5.9 Greenwood Avenue........................................................................................................... 86 11.5.10 Coxwell Avenue................................................................................................................. 87 11.5.11 Other North-South Street Profiles.............................................................................. 89 11.5.12 Discussion of East-West Streets................................................................................... 90 11.6 Lake Shore East Intersection Profiles................................................................................. 91 11.6.1 Lake Shore Boulevard East Trail..................................................................................... 91 11.6.2 Don Roadway...................................................................................................................... 91 11.6.3 Carlaw Avenue.................................................................................................................... 92 11.6.4 Leslie Street.......................................................................................................................... 92 11.7 Port Lands Street Profiles....................................................................................................... 93 11.7.1 Carlaw Avenue.................................................................................................................... 93 11.7.2 Villiers Street........................................................................................................................ 94 11.7.3 Commissioners Street...................................................................................................... 95 11.7.4 Unwin Avenue..................................................................................................................... 96 11.7.5 Discussion of Martin Goodman Trail........................................................................... 99 11.8 Summary of Findings.............................................................................................................. 98 11.8.1 North-South Summary Table...................................................................................98-99 11.8.2 Lake Shore East Intersection Summary Table........................................................100 11.8.3 Port Lands Street Analysis Summary........................................................................101 11.9 Cross Sections..................................................................................................................102-105 11.10 Intersection Diagrams................................................................................................106-116 PART II - Quick-Start Vision

12.0 Introduction....................................................................................................................................119 12.1 What is a Quick-Start?.............................................................................................................119 12.2 Objectives....................................................................................................................................120 12.3 Assumptions...............................................................................................................................120 12.4 Methodology..............................................................................................................................120

13.0 Route Selection.............................................................................................................................121

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13.1 Proposed Routes.............................................................................................................121-122 13.1.1 North-South Riverdale Route......................................................................................123 13.1.2 Lake Shore Boulevard East Crossing.........................................................................123 13.1.3 Port Lands Alignment.....................................................................................................123 13.2 Evaluation Criteria Terminology..............................................................................................124 13.3 Evaluation Criteria............................................................................................................... 125 13.3.1 Matrix....................................................................................................................................125 13.3.2 Discussion...........................................................................................................................125

14.0 Preferred Route..................................................................................................................................... 14.1 Proposed Design for QSR............................................................................................................. 14.2 Discussion of how this route achieves goals of accessing X, Y, etc...............................

15.0 Implementation................................................................................................................................... 15.0 Implementation.............................................................................................................................. 15.1 Public Consultation........................................................................................................................ 15.2 Public Awareness and Engagement........................................................................................ 15.3 City Sector Approach to Cycling Infrastructure Implementation................................. 15.4 Private Sector Roles in Cycling Implementation................................................................. 15.5 Cycling Pilot Project....................................................................................................................... 15.6 Wayfinding........................................................................................................................................ 15.6.1 Branding and Marketing....................................................................................................... 15.6.2 Signage Typologies................................................................................................................ 15.7 OME (Order of Magnitude Estimate)....................................................................................... PART III - Next Steps and Future Vision

16.0 Riverdale Cycling Master Plan......................................................................................................... 16.1 Phase One.......................................................................................................................................... 16.2 Phase Two.......................................................................................................................................... 16.3 Phase Three....................................................................................................................................... 16.4 Phasing Beyond............................................................................................................................... 17.0 References..............................................................................................................................................

18.0 List of Figures........................................................................................................................................ 19.0 Appendix................................................................................................................................................

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Part I Greater Riverdale Background Study and Cycling Precedents

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1.0 Introduction

Riverdale is a complex neighbourhood with a diversity of

cultures, built form, and uses. well as allowing connections to public amenities such as parks and community services are key features that would make Riverdale a more favorable location to reside.

Figure 1.1. View of downtown Toronto from Riverdale Park

Riverdale and Ward 30 have one of the highest cycling rates in the city (Toronto Cycling, 2012). However the growth of cycling infrastructure is currently behind the rate of other infrastructure dvelopment in the city.

The neighbourhood of Riverdale is located in the City of Toronto in Ontario, Canada. Riverdale is a complex neighbourhood with a diversity of cultures, built-form and uses. The majority of the area has been completely developed yet the neighbourhood continues to experience rapid transformation. Likewise, there is a growing demand for infrastructure improvement as the neighbourhood density is very high, parklands are scarce and there is a need for easier accessibility to downtown. Adding this proximity to public transit connections such as the subway and streetcars as

While the City of Toronto relies heavily on automobiles as the predominant form of transportation, cycling rates are on the rise across the city and especially in Riverdale itself. In fact, Riverdale and Ward 30 have one of the highest cycling rates in the city (Toronto Cycling, 2012). However, the growth of cycling infrastructure has been incrementally slow and is currently behind the rate of other infrastructure development in the city. Riverdale’s existing cycling infrastructure is poorly connected to major destinations and there are improper linkages between cycling routes. There is room for improvement to create dedicated separated bike paths, extended routes, and/or increased route options. Furthermore, the neighbourhood of high cycling usage would benefit from the ability to conveniently access cycling routes for various comfort levels and different age groups for the purposes of leisure, work, or recreation. The purpose of this studio project is to identify cycling opportunities to connect residents of Riverdale and beyond to the shores of Lake Ontario both physically and psychologically.

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1.1 Overview of Client

Figure 1.2. South Riverdale Community Health Centre

The clients for this project are the South Riverdale Community Health Centre and the Ward 30 Cycling Advocacy Group. The South Riverdale Community Health Centre is a community-based organization offering primary health care services and health promotion programs. The South Riverdale Community Health Centre (SRCHC) engages in various areas of interest affecting community health and wellbeing including food security, air quality, environmental conditions, and development impacts. SRCHC has identified cycling and walking in Ward 30 as a relevant issue of community health and advocates for increased cycling lanes, traffic calming, and mutual respect when users share the road (SRCHC, n.d.). Likewise, the preliminary research as well as the results of the report will influence the community who

are direct users of any cycling projects undertaken in Riverdale. Accordingly, the Ward 30 Cycling Advocacy Group is secondary client to the undertaking of this report. The Ward 30 Cycling Advocacy Group’s goal is to bring about positive change for commuter and recreational cyclists in the area by promoting the need for proper and safe cycling infrastructure to all users. The group are advocates and leaders for the promotion of cycling using public engagement and awareness in their ward and Toronto as a whole. The individuals that the study group will report to for findings and results are Paul Young, Health Promoter of South Riverdale Community Health Centre and Michael Holloway, Advocate for Ward 30 Cycling Advocacy Group.

Figure 1.3. Bells of Danforth 2013

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1.2 Scope of Study

The scope of the study will focus on the neighbourhood of Riverdale located in the east end of Toronto. Riverdale, for the purposes of this study, is defined in accordance to the Ward 30 boundaries identified by the City of Toronto’s political ward profiles. The perimeter consists of The Don River on the westernmost border, Danforth Avenue on the northernmost border, Lake Ontario on the southernmost border, and a sequence of Coxwell Avenue, Jones Avenue, and Leslie Street on the easternmost border (City of Toronto, 2011). The boundaries of the study area do not extend further east than Coxwell Avenue as residents past this border are efficiently serviced by Lake

Ontario assets that are closer to them than those prevalent in the Port Lands such as Woodbine Beach, Beaches Park, and Ashbridge’s Bay Park. This study area was selected because it represented our clients’ scope of interest as professionals and advocates for South Riverdale and Ward 30. In other words, the scope of the study is in line with the request of the clients who commissioned this report. For the purposes of this report, the terms Greater Riverdale, Riverdale, study area, and Ward 30 may be used interchangeably to describe the area detailed above.

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1.3 Study Context Vision Statement: To enable residents of Greater Riverdale to lead a healthy and active lifestyle by improving physical and psychological connections to the waterfront through safe and accessible active transportation infrastructures.

Riverdale is going through immense change, which is the catalyst that has propelled the need for improved cycling infrastructure in the area to promote active living, good health, and an alternative mode of transportation.

The benefits of cycling have become increasingly well known in recent years, and more people are considering moving from four wheels to two

Cycling can help children and adults alike reach the recommended daily amounts of physical activity, as well as help in the fight against obesity. In fact, approximately 90% of Toronto youth The catalysts seen within the study area are not meeting the recommended include: amounts and many residents are not physically active during their leisure • Redevelopment, revitalization, and time (Get Active Toronto, 2011). regeneration efforts in and around the Active transportation through walking Port Lands and cycling can reduce the risk of • Gentrification, densification, and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, demographic and lifestyle changes stroke and cancer. For instance, active within Riverdale and its subtransportation, such as walking, can neighbourhoods help decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease by 31% (Toronto Public Health, • Existing natural resources and 2012). Additionally, research has shown recreation facilities such as: that the increase in physical activity • Woodbine Beach and by 10% can lead to annual health Kew-Balmy Beach care savings of up to $150 million • Cherry/Clarke Beach and the (Katzmarzyk and Janssen, 2004). As a result, not only having an active lifestyle Cherry Beach Sports Facilities benefits health physically and mentally, • Tommy Thompson Park and the but it also leads to economic benefits. Leslie Street Spit The goal of this project is to create a • Increased use of the Martin viable cycling infrastructure plan that is Goodman Trail as a cycling realistic and cost effective to promote link between downtown and the healthy living. Residents of Riverdale will Beach neighbourhood enjoy the benefits of a more accessible community and ensures that current and The overarching purpose of the future demands for cycling infrastructure research project is to identify are met. The proposed route will allow opportunities and develop solutions for everyone who uses it to enjoy one of connecting people to Lake Ontario both the greatest natural features in a more physically and psychologically through sustainable and healthier fashion. cycling infrastructure that may be used Overall, improved connectivity will by non-cycling modes. These solutions bring positive change along the Lake will enable residents of the area to lead Shore Boulevard East, within Riverdale healthier lifestyles.

itself, and beyond. The study period will be three and a half months, from September 2014 until December 2014, and data will be gathered within the City of Toronto’s Ward 30 boundaries as previously defined

Objectives Eight specific objectives will be presented: 1. Raise awareness about existing assets within Greater Riverdale 2. Identify potential for existing and future walk friendly and cycling destinations 3. Identify constraints, barriers, and deterrents between Lake Ontario and Riverdale 4. Address various types of cycling lanes and their distinctions, as well as the re-allocation of space

5. Identify and evaluate potential north-south routes that can directly link Lake Ontario with Riverdale and beyond 6. Select a preferred route that may be considered as a Quick-Start project 7. Develop an implementation strategy for the Quick-Start project 8. Determine the cost-effectiveness of walking and cycling infrastructure investments along with other environmental improvements and co-investments

90%

Of Toronto youth are not meeting the recommended daily amount of physical activity. (Get Active Toronto, 2011).

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1.4 Assumptions The aim of the study is to identify cycling opportunities as a health promotion tool specific to the urban network. The study assumes that the users of bicycle lanes and paths in the Greater Riverdale area vary in commuter type such as purpose of use, level of experience, age, and mode used (bike, stroller, foot travel, skateboard, rollerblades, etc). The study assumes that there may be other users aside from cyclists who use existing and future cycling routes such as joggers, skateboarders, and those who rollerblade. The study will not address the general aspects of safe cycling and educational guides to the public on common safe practices.

The report does not provide prescribed health recommendations to health practitioners or families. Likewise the extent of the study does not include scientific reasoning for the health benefits associated with cycling. The study is limited to the resources and technical information available for public access. Furthermore, this report utilizes current provincial and municipal policies and guidelines regarding the application of cycling infrastructure in Toronto. Nevertheless, the report acknowledges that the political influence on cycling in cities varies according to city councilors, mayors, and applicable policies. Overall the report relies on the accuracy of the data collected from notable publications and governmental statistical tools.

The neighbourhood context will be evaluated, however no recommendations will be made in regard to revitalization of the built-form or creation of potential destinations for residents. Nor will the report provide recommendations for landscape remediation or revitalization for Riverdale. There will be a spillover effect where the people who use the bike path connecting Riverdale to the lake may be coming from outside of the defined study area boundaries. These individuals will not be accounted for in the study.

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1.5 Methodology Overall, the scope of the analysis is contained largely within the City of Toronto for the purpose of seamless application to the study area.

Regarding education and awareness of cycling within Greater Riverdale, this study will encourage cycling through the identification of existing destination assets in the area, as well as the safe cycling infrastructure in the area. Constraints, barriers, and deterrents between Lake Ontario and Riverdale will be identified in this study to help develop the best route. This data will be collected in the field, and through existing community commentary on the subject. Also site specific data such as demographics, development proposals, and traffic counts were collected from reputable sources such as the City of Toronto. Key documents for potential developments and plans for the area were examined to identity relevant information for potential population growth and new destinations. This study will not conduct additional community engagement sessions to gather information on existing constraints, barriers, and deterrents.

The report evaluates best practices of cycling and cycling infrastructure in Toronto, North America, and Europe as case study examples. The justification for selecting North America is to highlight applications of cycling in Canada, which carries similar policies and demographics. Europe was selected due to its progressive institution of cycling as a norm to society and some cities exhibit excellent best practices for cycling. These case studies are used to identify different cycling paths, barriers, and signage that may be applied in Riverdale.

Utilizing all relevant findings, street analyses were undertaken to determine several cycling routes as options to initiate a Quick-Start north-south cycling route. The report will conclude by developing both a short-term Quick-Start north-south cycling route and a long-term overall network plan for Riverdale. It will address the proposed cycling infrastructure’s connection to health both mentally and physically.

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2.0 Stakeholders A safe, comfortable and bicycle-friendly environment requires an ongoing collaboration between a number of stakeholders within the local community, advocacy groups, government agencies, recreational agencies and more. Government agencies can be seen as the facilitators of change while advocacy groups tend to be the drivers of change. City staff from departments in; Transportation Planning, Policy and Development, Economic Development, Urban Development Services and the Toronto Police are some of the major stakeholders in cycling. Their responsibilities include public consultation, development and maintenance of cycling infrastructure. Non-profit advocacy groups were formed to raise awareness and promote change to facilitate increased cycling in the city. Cycle Toronto is one of the largest advocacy organizations in Toronto. They are a member-based group with representatives from

different municipal wards that campaign for specific cycling needs in their community. The Toronto Centre for Active Transportation (TCAT), initially formed as an advocacy group, is now also engaged in the research and education aspects of the cycling and pedestrian environment (About TCAT, n.d.). The local community is especially important as a stakeholder because they are the most sensitive to change, or lack thereof. This includes residents, associations and businesses. Those at the local level are the most knowledgeable about cycling needs and the most receptive to the benefits that improved cycling infrastructure would bring. BIAs (Business Improvement Areas) can be crucial to the increase of cycling activity as many destinations are concentrated on major streets. There are six BIAs in Ward 30, in which five of these are located on Danforth Avenue and Queen Street East. In addition, there is the East Chinatown District at Gerrard Street and Broadview Avenue that is not a BIA but is represented by the Chinese Chamber of Commerce Toronto.

Figure 2.1. Heritage Toronto walk group at the former site of the Riverdale railway station

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BIAs in Ward 30:

1. The Danforth

2. Danforth Mosaic

3. Gerrard India Bazaar

4. Greektown on the Danforth

5. Leslieville

6. Riverside District

Merchants often oppose cycling advocacy for the belief that the introduction of bike lanes and the removal of on-street parking would subsequently reduce business activity. However, studies have shown that pedestrians and cyclists visit businesses the most often, and spend the most money per month compared to those arriving by car (A study of Bloor Street in Toronto’s annex neighbourhood, 2009). The increased promotion of cycling
in BIAs has the ability to accelerate implementation of cycling infrastructure where they are needed the most on major streets. Resident associations such as Gerrard East Community Organization, The Pocket, and Danforth East Community Association are neighbourhood associations within the study area that can either help to promote or discourage cycling activity. It is important to consult with these associations and include them in the public engagement process as they are pivotal in lobbying for change in the neighbourhood.


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3.0 Demographic Profile

The demographic composition of Riverdale consists of 53,290 people in 2011, which is a population growth of 0.9% from the 2006 Census (City of Toronto, 2011). The edian household income in 2006 was $53,100 (City of Toronto, 2006). The median age of this population is 39 years old with the most dominant population cohort between 25-44 years old (City of Toronto, 2011). In other words, Riverdale is predominantly composed of adults ranging in age from 25-44 followed by the 45-64 cohort. There is a population decline from 2006, of young persons ages 5-24 and adults 30-44 which may be due to young families relocating to the suburbs. Overall there are 41% of couples that have children while 38% of other couples have no children in Ward 30.

Couples with

Couples without Children

Children

41%

Median Age

38% Population Growth

39

+0.9%

Population 53,290

Median Income

$53,100

3.1 Ward 30 Health Profile Residents of Riverdale are generally seen as healthier relative to other Toronto residents. The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences (ICES) conducted a comprehensive analysis on the prevalence of diabetes in Toronto in 2007. The analysis of the city found that there is an overall low age-adjusted diabetes prevalence rate in the study area and downtown Toronto recorded in 2001 and 2002 (ICES, 2007). The diabetes rate of Riverdale is considerably low at 4.73% and ranked 39 out of all the neighbourhoods of Toronto in 2001 (1=lowest) (ICES, 2007). However, the study area had average levels of reported heart attacks

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and strokes for persons aged 40 years and older between 1999 to 2002 compared to the City of Toronto average (ICES, 2007). Above all, high levels of physical activity particularly in areas of high rates of diabetes will help improve the health of persons with diabetes (ICES, 2007). Overall the study found that moderate to high-density areas with improved levels of infrastructure (public transit and cycling routes) may improve daily physical activity (ICES, 2007). Residents of Riverdale are generally seen as healthier relative to other Toronto residents.


4.0 Planning Policies and Guidelines 4.1 Policies and Regulations The Planning Act

Provincial Policy Statement

The Planning Act says very little in terms of the planning of bike lanes or other active transportation infrastructure. It states that in a site plan control area, drawings of the site must include bicycle-parking facilities (section 41(4)(2)(e)), however it does not state that they must exist. Also, section 41 states that municipalities are not allowed to set any form of condition or requirement in regards to any cycling infrastructure. It only states requirements for space to be allocated for pedestrian walkways, not multi-use pathways. The Act does state in section 51(25)(b) that in the division of land for larger developments it may be requested as a condition that land be dedicated as bicycle pathways, however this has clearly been an underutilized power.

In the Vision section of the Provincial Policy Statement it states that the goal is to encourage land use patterns that support active transportation, and this point is restated in section 1.1.3.2. The document, as per section 1.5.1, wants to support active and healthy communities by planning public streets and spaces to meet the needs of pedestrians and facilitate active transportation and community connectivity. In terms of how it relates cycling infrastructure to built form, section 1.4.3 states that planning authorities shall provide a mix of housing types and densities that effectively use land, resources, infrastructure, and support the use of active transportation and use of transit in areas where it exists/is planned. Finally, an argument could be found for active transportation structure in section 1.8.1, which says that planning authorities shall support energy conservation and efficiency, improved air quality, and reducing emissions. While it is predominantly referring to proper development patterns, bicycle infrastructure would also help meet this vision.

Toronto Development Guide Section 114 of the City of Toronto Act as well as Section 41 of the Planning Act allow the City to set Site Plan Control Areas, within which developments are subject to additional review. Within a site plan control area, several studies may be required before a development will be approved. While there is a Transportation Impact Study listed, it does not specifically reference active transportation, nor is there any specific active transportation study required. Bicycle parking is also not listed within the potentially required Parking Study, nor is any study required regarding bicycle parking.

Ontario Provincial Standards for Roads and Public Works This document contains nothing for the planning of active transportation infrastructure, only using engineering and the materials used in construction.

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Toronto Official Plan The City of Toronto Official Plan divides the city into different areas, including Downtown/Central Waterfront, Employment Districts, Centres, and Avenues. Within Riverdale, the Port Lands and the lands south of Eastern Avenue are considered an Employment District and part of the Downtown/Central Waterfront area, while Danforth Avenue, Queen Street, and the majority of Gerrard Street are considered Avenues. Section 2.2 of the plan states that growth is to be directed to Centres, Avenues, Employment Districts, and Downtown to promote mixed use and encourage walking and cycling, as well as provide public access to all on streets, including pedestrians and bicycles. The plan then goes on to state additional points and goals for active transportation infrastructure in each area of the city. In subsection 2.2.1 (Downtown) it is stated that the desire is to improve safety for pedestrians and cyclists in the downtown. Subsection 2.2.3 (Avenues) claims that steps should be taken to ensure a comfortable and attractive environment for pedestrians and cyclists. Subsection 2.2.4 (Employment Districts) explicitly states that walking and cycling will be promoted by making safer conditions in these areas. More specifically to the study area, Section 2.3.2 on Green Space shows that there is a desire to extend and improve the Martin Goodman/Waterfront Trail and a route for cyclists and pedestrians. Section 2.4 is one of the most significant in the Official Plan for supporting active transportation infrastructure, stating that programs and infrastructure will be introduced to encourage cycling through: •

An expanded bikeway network

Bicycle parking in developments

Bicycle parking at transit stations

Improved street designs

Education and promotion programs

The support for this infrastructure is not limited to section two. Section 3.1.1 on the Public Realm also states that new streets will be designed with adequate space for transit, pedestrians, and bicycles. Additionally, in multiple parts of the plan, bikeways through public ROWs (such as hydro fields) are stated as a possibility.

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Toronto Zoning Bylaw The zoning by-law sets minimum dimensions of parking spaces depending on their form and technology (such as basic rings or bicycle lockers). It also sets requirements for shower facilities at bicycle parking locations. Finally, it sets the required number of spaces that the development is required to provide as well as their conditions, which are as follows: •

For short term parking, 0.1 spaces per unit

• For long-term parking, 0.75 or 1.0 spaces per dwelling, depending on if the development is in Bike Zone 1 or Bike Zone 2 (however the boundaries of these zones are not specified). • Spaces must not be in the unit or on the balcony, and must be within a certain distance of the entrance (depending on the development).


4.2 Guidelines 4.2.1 Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines Four interrelated areas are considered essential to the development of the bicycle as transportation vehicle: engineering, encouragement, education, and enforcement (Ministry of Transportation, 1996). The Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines mainly provides the engineering scope of bikeway design and its purpose is to: provide uniform guidelines both municipal and provincial bicycle facility planners, provide a model planning process with pertinent information for the development and selection of safe bicycle facilities, and to establish engineering standard guidelines for the design, operation and maintenance of bicycle facilities (Ministry of Transportation, 1996). The layout of the Design Guideline is divided into five sections: pertinent bicycle information, bikeway planning, bikeway design, bicycle facility operation and maintenance, and appendices (Ministry of Transportation, 1996). These guidelines are important as they describe, step by step, how to create a study appraisal and justification for the project, the legal requirements, what data needs to be collected, how to form project goals and objectives, and how to analyze the data collected, and finally the most desirable routes will be selected as well as the type of bicycle facility that will be used. These guidelines are a significant base for designing the study.

Figure 4.1. Bikeway Widths

Figure 4.2. Shared roadway

Figure 4.3. Typical bike lane

Figure 4.4. Buffered bike lane


4.2.2 City of Toronto Streetscape Manual The Streetscape Manual is an urban design reference tool for the improvement of the City’s arterial street network - the Main Streets and Green Streets that define and connect neighbourhoods. The Manual focuses on design quality in the public right-of-way, with an emphasis on coherence, beauty, durability, accessibility, pedestrian amenity and tree canopy (Www1.toronto.ca, 2014). This document is important as it outlines the measurements of Toronto streetscape zones, and provides information on all streets in Toronto. It is significant when investigating the feasibility of potential bicycle routes as for each section of the road it provides: the streetscape type, paving, street trees, lighting, and street furniture.

4.2.3 National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) Urban Bikeway Design Guide

Figure 4.5. Main Street Typical Sidewalk Zone Plan and Section from Streetscape Manual

The NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide provides cities with state-of-the-practice solutions that can help create complete streets that are safe and enjoyable for bicyclists. The intent of guide is to offer substantive guidance for cities seeking to improve bicycle transportation in places where competing demands for the use of the right of way present unique challenges. It outlines the three levels of guidance (required, recommended, and optional) for all categories of bike lanes, cycle tracks, intersections, bicycle signals, and bikeway signing and marking. (National Association of City Transportation Officials, 2011) For each type of infrastructure it also provides a description, benefits, typical applications, design guidance, case studies, maintenance, treatment adoption and professional consensus, as well as renderings and images (National Association of City Transportation Officials, 2011). This design guide is important to the study as it will help lead the type of infrastructure decision specifically, during and after the route selection phase. It will also help in the navigation and safety of bicycle routes through intersections, as well as the placement of other possible infrastructure such as bicycle signals and bikeway signing and marking.

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Figure 4.6. NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide


4.2.4 City of Toronto Guidelines for the Design and Management of Bicycle Parking These Guidelines will provide planners, developers and property managers with information to support the design, construction and management of high quality bicycle parking facilities. These guidelines provide the criteria for good quality long-term and short-term bicycle parking. They also offer bicycle parking in a policy context and demonstrate the city of Toronto requirements in the official plan, Toronto bike plan, zoning bylaws, Toronto Green Development Standard, Vibrant Streets Guidelines, national and international environmental standards and certifications, and provincial policies. This Guide serves as a tool for meeting Official Plan policies and environmental standards such as those set by the Toronto Green Development Standard. Although aimed at new developments, the Bicycle Parking Guidelines can also be applied to existing developments looking to improve bicycle-parking facilities. (Guidelines for the Design and Management of Bicycle Parking Facilities, 2008). These guidelines are important to consider after the desired bicycle route is selected, as bicycle-parking facilities will need to be planned in order to accommodate for the increase in cyclists that will be using the new infrastructure.

Figure 4.7. Guidelines for the Design and Management of Bicycle Facilities

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4.3 Municipal Plans 4.3.1 The City of Toronto Bike Plan

The Toronto Bike Plan establishes a vision for cycling in Toronto. To “shift gears” towards a more bicycle friendly city, the Plan sets out integrated principles, objectives and recommendations regarding safety, education and promotional programs as well as cycling related infrastructure, including a comprehensive bikeway network (The Toronto Bike Plan Study Team, 2001). It consists of six components including: bicycle friendly streets, bikeway network, safety and education, promotion, cycling and transit, and bicycle parking (The Toronto Bike Plan Study Team, 2001). The vision was to create a safe, comfortable and bicycle friendly environment in Toronto, which encourages people of all ages to use bicycles for everyday transportation and enjoyment. Its two key goals were to double number of bicycle trips by 2011, and reduce the number of bicycle collisions/ injuries (The Toronto Bike Plan Study Team, 2001). The city of Toronto Bike Plan is significant to the study because it clearly establishes the city’s vision for cycling and states recommendations for each of the six concepts, such as demonstrating innovative designs and developing a bikeway network information system. This information will help mould our final decisions on bicycle routes and the characteristics of it, as well as additional amenities. It also provides important statistics and detailed background on cycling in Toronto that will help in the justification of our study. In addition to this another important aspect of the plan is its summary of unit cost assumptions, which summarizes the per unit costs assumed for improving existing bikeways and developing new bikeways. This will help in the final phases of the study when estimating total project costs.

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4.3.2 The Toronto Green Standard The air quality section of The Green Standard includes cycling infrastructure as a development feature for new mid to high-rise residential and industrial, commercial, and institutional development. Tier one involves requirements for bicycle parking rates, locations for long-term and short-term bicycle parking, and shower and change facilities. Many of these requirements are consistent with Chapter 230 of the City-wide Zoning Bylaw. Tier two involves optional enhanced bicycle parking rates, and bike share provision. The Green Standard is not particularly significant in the implementation phase of our study, however it is important to note because as new developments arise, especially in areas such as the intersection of Carlaw Street and Queen Street, buildings will become more bicycle friendly and influence those who work and live there to consider or increase cycling.

Figure 4.8. The Toronto Green Standard


5.0 Development Trends

Figure 5.1. Conceptual drawing of the Port Lands near the Don Valley by Waterfront Toronto with separated bike lanes

What development projects are in place? Toronto plans to revitalize the waterfront through a multi-billion dollar project over a long-term plan to enhance economic activity, tourism, and quality of life

There are several key development projects occurring within Riverdale as well as around the study area that will influence the needs and demands of the residents as the demographics and population grows. The following areas are key developments either in progress or are anticipated developments for future. These development projects represent the opportunity to improve cycling infrastructure for the growing population in Riverdale. Likewise the City of Toronto can leverage developers to invest in cycling infrastructure as advocacy for cycling increases amongst the public.

Overall the City of Toronto plans to revitalize the waterfront through a multi-billion dollar project over a long-term plan to enhance economic activity, tourism, and quality of life (City of Toronto, n.d.). The project includes the waterfront area between Coxwell and Dowling Avenues including West Don Lands, East Bayfront, and the Port Lands. The waterfront redevelopment plan will coincide with existing policies and guidelines for the City of Toronto that require connectivity of the waterfront to the city.

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5.1 The Port Lands

The Port Lands are valuable underutilized industrial lands located south of the Don Valley Parkway and Lake Shore Boulevard, and west of Ashbridges Bay. The Port Lands is 988 acres in size which is comparable to the downtown Toronto from Dundas to the north, Parliament to the east, the lake to the south, and Bathurst to the east (1,000 acres) (Waterfront Toronto, 2012). In addition, the Port Lands area is conveniently located within 30 minutes walking distance from the downtown (Waterfront Toronto, 2012).

Waterfront Toronto is the ambassador leading the development and planning initiatives for the Port Lands. Waterfront Toronto is an advocacy group for waterfront revitalization created by the Government of Canada, the Province of Ontario and the City of Toronto to design and implement waterfront renewal (Waterfront Toronto, n.d.). The plan includes designated park space, cycling infrastructure, improved public transit access, and developments for office, residential, and retail. In fact, the plan for the Lower Don Lands allocated over half of the area to development (roughly 102 acres) (Waterfront Toronto, 2014). The plan to improve the Port Lands is an estimated $1.9 billion project that will increase population growth and bring new opportunities for the city’s economic growth. While the plans for the Port Lands are at its earliest stages in planning and implementation, there has been a

completed Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Lower Don Valley as well as several proposed plans. Paula Fletcher, the city councillor presiding over the Port Lands and Ward 30 has conducted several public meetings to consult with the public about their visions for the area in the efforts accelerate the process and get public engagement. There is expressed interest for preservation of natural features, greater accessibility by public transit and active modes as well as vibrant residential and commercial activity (Waterfront Toronto, 2014). The EA for the Lower Don Valley found that the plan for cycling in this area should include pathways along major north-south roads including Don Roadway, Bouchette Street, Carlaw Avenue, and Leslie Street with connections to Cherry Beach, Tommy Thompson Park, and the Martin Goodman Trail to the west of the study area (Waterfront Toronto, 2014).

Figure 5.2. Proposed bike network for the Port Lands

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The New Film Studio District is located in the Port Lands between Don Roadway and Carlaw Avenue and south of Lake Shore Boulevard East Boulevard East to the Waterfront Promenade. The proposed plan aims to create a mixed-use community that strengthens existing film studios and attract the creative class and employment. The Pinewood Toronto Studios, located in the Port Lands, are the catalyst driving the potential for a Film Studio District to attract other film productions, media, and related enterprises (Castlepoint Numa, n.d.). Overall, there are many opportunities for the Port Lands that is an ongoing project for the city which will require due diligence to maximize its potential. The development of the Port Lands will bring greater demand for transportation options between the lake and the greater area for residents as well as

visitors. Furthermore, the plan for a new film studio district may increase local employment. The Port Lands and its plans will need to be evaluated when choosing the most appropriate cycling routes in Riverdale. The former film studio district is located south of Eastern and north of Lake Shore Boulevard East Boulevard as well as the Port Lands between the Don Valley Parkway and Leslie Street. The large industrial warehouses located in this area were found to be ideal buildings for production studios (Riverdale Toronto, n.d.). For several years, this district was home to Cinespace Film Studio till it moved to another location in Toronto in 2014 (Godfrey, 2014). However, Revival 629 located in this film studio district drafted a master plan to build a film industry hub and community to attract the creative class and innovation

Figure 5.3. Master Plan vision by Revival 629 site between Pape Avenue and Revival 629, Figure 5.4. Aerial view of the Old Film Studio District

complete with retail, office, and hotel accommodations (Figure 5.3. Master Plan vision by Revival 629 site). The visions by Revival 629 for this master plan are still at the earliest stages and have yet to be pitched to the city for development. There are development opportunities at the blocks between Eastern Avenue and Lake Shore Boulevard East because most of the parcels were former businesses that required large footprints for industrial activity. Since the decline of the industrial sector, these properties with large footprints have been underutilized and vacant which leaves opportunity to redevelop these lands for other uses. Nevertheless, the development and employment potential to have both film districts will bring investment opportunities and attract international business to the film industry in Toronto. Likewise, the districts may give the city

Figure 5.5. Proposed bike network for the Port Lands

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5.2 Pan Am Games and the Canary District The Canary District is a 35-acre development project under construction outside of the study area as part of the preparations for Toronto hosting the Pan/Parapan Am Games for 2015.

Figure 5.6. Conceptual rendering of the Canary District and park

The Canary district is located to the west of the Don Valley and east of Cherry Street.

85% Currently over 85% of the Canary District construction is completed with several high-rise condominiums and parks presently standing on the site (Canary District, 2014b) 28

The Canary District development will house the athletes during the Pan/ Parapan Am Games competitions, which will be later converted to housing for the public. The mandate of the plan is to create healthy communities through active living and fitness which is seen through the plan which includes several low-rise and high-rise residential buildings with open space and recreational space (Canary District, 2014). Likewise, the plans lay emphasis on green spaces through public squares, laneways, and pedestrian walkways to encourage the Canary District as a walk able community for healthy lifestyles (Canary District, n.d.).

Upon the completion of the Pan/ Parapan Am Games, there will be six months to complete the buildings to be move in ready by April 2016 with retailers opening in July 2016 (Canary District, 2014b). The anticipated high density of this community will require a variety of transportation infrastructure. Cycling paths connecting the Canary District and the Don River Park to neighbouring communities including Riverdale as well as the lake will encourage active living. The plan includes bicycle trails along the Don Valley and Waterfront with a bicycle store to service cyclists in the Canary District and the adjacent communities (Canary District, 2014b). However, presently there are no appropriate means of cycling through the Canary District to Riverdale. Future plans would There will be a need for a cycling route connecting Riverside to the Canary District and the lake.


Figure 5.7. and Figure 5.8. Current construction progress at the Canary District site According to the development proposals database from the City of Toronto, there are nearly 30 development applications affecting Ward 30 (City of Toronto, n.d.). However, there are 14 development applications that are mid-rise to high-rise buildings which will increase the density of the area. In other words, there is a greater need for improved infrastructure and servicing to support the population increase through multi-modal methods.

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5.3 Additional Sites Proposed for Development

According to the development proposals database from the City of Toronto, there are nearly 30 development applications affecting Ward 30 (City of Toronto, n.d.). However, there are 14 development applications that are mid-rise to high-rise buildings which will increase the density of the area. There are development trends occurring along Broadview Avenue, Eastern Avenue, Queen Street East, Dundas Street East, and Carlaw Avenue (refer to Map 1.4.5.4). There is an increase in development along avenues such as Queen Street East as it is effectively connected to the city core through the streetcar routes. Avenues such as Queen Street East, Dundas Street, and Danforth Avenue are identified under the City of Toronto Avenues and Mid-Rise Guidelines as districts for retail-commercial activity as well as mid-rise residential development (City of Toronto, 2010). The City’s guide sets the performance standard for the minimal level of residential development that could occur along these major streets. In other words, there is a greater need for improved infrastructure and servicing to support the population increase through multi-modal methods.

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Danforth Ave

Felstead Ave

Greenwood Ave

Jones Ave

gs ton

Rd

Eastwood Rd

Eastern Ave

Leslie St

Cherry St

Parliament St

Carlaw Ave

Ave

Leslie St

tern

Fairford Ave

Greenwood Ave

Queen St E

Queen St E

Eas

Dundas St E

Carlaw Ave

Shuter St

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave River St

Dundas St E

Gerrard St E

E

Woodbine Ave

Walpole Ave

Riverdale Ave

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Carlaw Ave

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Current Development Plans Legend Study Area Boundary Active Development Proposals Waterfront Toronto Planning Areas Canary District (West Don Lands)

ยง

Lower Don Lands Film Studio District (Old) Film Studio District (New) Port Lands 0

0.25 0.5

1 km

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6.0 Future Transportation Infrastructure The City of Toronto has implemented several projects that will improve the current transportation infrastructure of South Riverdale and the Harbour Front. This will include major changes to the Gardiner Expressway, the Subway Relief line that could run directly through Riverdale with one or several stops, and the Cherry Streetcar Line that will eventually reach Cherry Beach. These plans will not only encourage more people to use the TTC as their mode of transportation but may reduce the amount of traffic along the Lake Shore Boulevard East as there are ideas about removing large sections of the Gardiner just west of Riverdale.

6.1 Gardiner Expressway By 2015 the Toronto City Council will have to make a decision about the fate of the Gardiner Expressway. After reviewing the 2014 report on a proposed plan the city council decided to hold off its decision to see if any other possible options could be a better improvement. Currently there is an exit and the Gardiner where it ends and meets with Lake Shore Boulevard East, which is at the southwestern point of Riverdale. The most considered option came from the developing company First Gulf. Their idea was to realign the eastern leg of the Gardiner so that it ran parallel south of the railway corridor. (Sweet, 2014) The Gardiner would still connect to the Don Valley Parkway but the raised section

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on Cherry Street would be removed. This affects the Lake Shore Boulevard East along the Southern portion of Riverdale, as cars would have more options to go north before they reach the area. This has the potential reduce traffic but there is no way to guarantee its effectiveness. (Winsa, 2014) No matter what there will be some change made to the Gardiner in coming years, however most city councilors are worried that any major changes that would close down any major throughways would cause increased traffic gridlock for upwards of 5 years. Although other options are being explored most have been seen to be too expensive and can only be achieved if higher levels of government could help the city by giving them large grants towards these projects. If the city cannot come up with the money then the only option is to repair any damaged sections.(Church, 2014)

(Left) Figure 6.1. The Gardiner as it exists today (Right) Figure 6.2. The proposed changes to the Gardiner


Proposed Streetscape of Cherry Street (Top) Figure 6.3. Conceptual rendering of the Canary District and Park, (Bottom Left) Figure 6.4. Looking Northwest from the East Side of Cherry Street, (Bottom Right) Figure 6.5. Cherry Street Intersection


6.2 Cherry Streetcar Plan The planned extension of the King Streetcar line would run down Cherry Street eventually ending at Cherry Beach.

Starting on the east side of Cherry Street, the streetcar line will continue south from King Street through the West Don Lands to the CN rail corridor just north of the Gardiner Expressway. This streetcar line would connect this area of Riverdale with the rest of Toronto and will give people alternative options of travel to get to Cherry Beach.(Morrow, 2014) While coming up with the proposal for this line, public consultation went way beyond what was required as there was an emphasis towards creating a plan that the citizens of this area and the rest of Toronto wanted and needed. Being completed by 2016, the first leg of the plan will have the line reach somewhere before Lake Shore Boulevard East and will cost upwards of 300 million dollars. The extension to Cherry Beach is still awaiting approval by city council but being part of Waterfront Toronto’s Revitalization Plan there is a good chance that this project will be approved very easily. (Cherry St. Transit)

Figure 6.6. Cherry Street view north of Front Street intersection from above

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6.3 Relief Line With increased TTC volumes in recent years the City has recognized that there is a need to create a downtown relief line. This line will reduce the traffic volumes during rush hour, as it will give riders more options of how to reach their destination. (Oved, 2014) This line will run directly through Riverdale, it will benefit the community as some people who may have chosen the automobile as their main method of transportation may switch to rapid transit as studies have shown that everything in the east and west of the downtown Yonge/University lines are not well served. This will make subway line very accessible. Metrolinx, TTC, the cities of Toronto and York are all working together to create the plan that will be the best fit for the commuters. One addition for relief plan strategy include adding a rail transit line along Lake Shore Boulevard East, which would run directly through Riverdale reaching Scarborough or the Eglinton LRT Lines. Another would include adding a relief line along King or Queen Street that would also reach into Scarborough or a stop on the Eglinton line. If bike or other modes of active transportation methods can be accommodated on these streetcars, LRTS or subways then that will add to the amount of people who will be using it in Riverdale.

Figure 6.7. Toronto Relief Line Plan

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6.4 Leslie Barns Development

Figure 6.8. Leslie Barns Maintenance and Storage Facility Conceptual Drawing

The Leslie Barns is currently under construction by TTC at Lake Shore Boulevard East and Leslie Street for the home of the new streetcars. The facility is the new storage and maintenance location that will house the new streetcars. The development project is supported with sustainable green standards for the facility as well as an infrastructural upgrade to the tracks located along Leslie Street (TTC, n.d.). Streetscape enhancements such as street lighting and tree plantings along Leslie Street between Queen Street and Tommy Thompson Park will encourage a more enjoyable cycling and pedestrian experience in Riverdale (TTC, n.d.). Under the development plan, there will be streetscape improvements to Queen Street between Rushbrooke Avenue and Hastings Avenue (TTC, n.d.). These streetscape improvements may influence the Quick-Start Route proposal and may become a tool to take advantage of the improvements along these streets.

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7.0 Health Benefits of Cycling

This portion of the Health section evaluates the medical and scientific studies of cycling and the corresponding health benefits and positive outcomes. Cycling is regarded as a form of acceptable physical activity and full body workout with emphasis on the improved cardio respiratory and metabolic functions. Cycling is form of physical activity suitable for adults and children and could potentially be a great family activity and past time. In adults, cycling has strong reference to lowering the chances of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes, high blood pressures, depression, and increasing muscular fitness and improving cognitive functions (Oja et al. 2011). In children,

The World Health Organization (WHO) approximates that 60%-80% of the world population is not partaking in sufficient physical activity to produce health benefits (de Hartog et al. 2010).

obese in contrast to residents in less active communities.

the health benefits include improved cardiovascular endurance, better bone health, and attaining more favorable body composition (Oja et al. 2011). Physical activity for healthy individuals, as recommended by most health practitioners and fitness enthusiast, usually consists of partaking in an activity several times a week of moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes. Ainsworth et al. (2000) (as cited in de Hartog et al. 2010) rates leisure cycling a value of 4 against the metabolic equivalent of task (MET), a measure for physical activity, and is regarded as moderate physical activity. Therefore, an individual cycling daily short distance of 7.5km would easily meet the recommended amount of physical activity in 5 days (de Hartog et al. 2010).

Converting to cycling, even on occasion, will have small degrees of increased health benefits. Oja et al. (2011) found evidence to correlate cycling and improved cardio respiratory fitness among adults with limited participation in regular physical activity through short-distanced commuter cycling of a few kilometers. The correlation may increase up to 30% of improved cardio respiratory fitness with increasing commuting distances. While the association may not be as strong, Hendriksen et al. (2000) (as cited in Oja et al. 2011) found similar cardio respiratory improvements and cycling in adults who partake in regular physical activity. Toronto Public Health (2011) states that Canadians living in communities with higher percentage of cyclists were less likely to be overweight or

Women may gain increased health benefits from cycling as Matthews et al. (2007) (as cited in Oja et al. 2011) established a correlation with reduced risk of all-cause mortality and increased daily cycling. Specifically at moderate intensity, if the travel time is under one hour the risk is reduced approximately 20%, and if the travel time is around 100 minutes the risk is reduced approximately 30%. Cancer risk is also significantly reduced with increased cycling activity (Oja et al. 2011). Despite the positive physical health benefits, cycling and sharing with other users on the road will have certain health risks as well. Cyclists are at increased risk because they are in close proximity to the source of air pollution when they share the road with other vehicles as separated cycling routes are not available. Particulate matter (PM) are very fine matter composed of pollutants in various states of liquid and solids with the ability to infiltrate deep into the lung cavity carrying harmful toxins such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide (Suwanwaiphatthana et al. 2010). A 2008 estimate from the Canadian Medical Association approximated that

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7.1 Health and Well-being 21,000 Canadians die prematurely as a result of air pollution related health issues (Toronto Public Health, 2011). Air pollution is a form of health risk and most vehicles on the road emit such pollutants. While drivers have greater exposure to air pollution, cyclists are at greater risk breathing deeper and more frequently in midst of physical activity (de Hartog et al. 2010). Children are also at greater health risk because of their developing respiratory systems increasing the odds of developing childhood asthma and other respiratory illnesses (Suwanwaiphatthana et al. 2010). Circumstances such as weather, duration of trip, routes, or other road conditions may intensify the pooling of pollutants into specific areas creating pollution hot spots or carrying the pollutants great distances into other areas. Air pollution is difficult to control once released into the air so controlling emission at the source may be the best solution. Harmful air pollution is beyond the control of residents and must be controlled and monitored from higher jurisdictions. Despite the known effects, the health benefits of cycling outweigh the health risks of air pollutants. Gained life expectancy from cycling varies from 3-14 months as opposed to 0.8-40 days lost from air pollution and 5-9 days lost from increased traffic accidents (de Hartog et al. 2010). On average, shifting from automobiles to cycling and the resulting physical activity gained benefits nine times more significantly than the risk imposed by cycling when compared to the life years lost due to air pollution and traffic accidents (de Hartog et al. 2010). Drivers and cyclists share similar risks of being involved in a fatal accident (de Hartog et al. 2010).

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Good health is key to quality environments and livable cities and is responsible for attracting economic growth, skilled professionals, and remaining competitive at a global level (Toronto Public Health, 2011). As Greater Riverdale continues to grow and expand, how a community is built will largely determine the quality of life residents will receive and have access to. The concept of live, work, learn, and play shape urban environments and touch various aspects of health while influencing physical activity with land use and urban design characteristics. Better street connectivity and pedestrian friendly areas contribute to higher levels of physical activity and community engagement (Toronto Public Health, 2011). As we want to connect Greater Riverdale to the waterfront through sufficient cycling infrastructure, an adequate network of routes must be provided for efficient and safe transportation. Clean air, adequate infrastructure, and quality communities add value to a city. As a form of physical activity, cycling has positive mental health attributes that may improve emotions, self-esteem, and mood (Cavill & Davis, 2007). Individuals who regularly partake in physical activity are also less likely to develop characteristics of anxiety or emotional distress when compared to those less active (Cavill & Davis, 2007). Being physically active is a good habit to develop at a young age to increase the likeliness of becoming a continued habit in adulthood. Children with access to neighbourhood cycling infrastructure may be more inclined to ride their bikes while playing to simultaneously receive health benefits. Cycling may therefore be an appropriate family oriented activity strengthening relationships,

as cycling poses fewer restrictions such as age or specific equipment in contrast to other physical activities and strengthens family ties. In a nation-wide ranking through Best Health Magazine in 2009, Toronto ranked #19 for leisure time spent in active pursuits, #14 for lowest stress levels, and #9 for healthiest blood pressure (Johnson, 2009). Through active participation in cycling, Toronto can potentially improve these rankings. As one of the primary tasks for this project to connect Greater Riverdale to the waterfront, we are essentially promoting leisure activity for families, groups, and individuals to participate in when visiting one of the greatest amenities available to the public in Toronto. As residents of one of the largest cities in North America, undoubtedly residents in Toronto will feel pressure from various aspects of life. According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014) physical activity helps positively to relieve stress symptoms from the release of endorphins helping to improve sleep, mood, and energy levels.


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Healthcare Facilities Legend Study Area Boundary

The Greater Riverdale area is well serviced by health care facilities primarily along the major streets of Queen St. E, Broadview Avenue, and Danforth Avenue. See map for more location detail and proximity to other facilities.

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7.2 The Healthy Cities Project The Healthy Cities Project founded by the WHO was inspired by a one-day seminar held in Toronto in 1984 entitled Healthy Toronto 2000. Healthy Cities, fundamentally a global movement towards betterment of health for all populations, encourages higher levels of government to focus on prioritizing health on the agendas of policy and decision makers, while promoting comprehensive local strategies for health protection and sustainable development (WHO, 2014b). Some of the goals of a healthy city include creating a health-supportive environment, to achieve a good quality of life, and the commitment to put health in the forefront of discussions (WHO, 2014b). In addition, the Healthy Cities movement include protecting and promoting health and well-being among residents with the inclusion of social, economic, and environmental determinants of health (WHO, 2014a). While these goals can be interpreted in multiple ways, the basis of the goals seems clear: to provide a good quality of life through local support and healthy means. Cycling can help a city achieve some of the goals for a Healthy City.

Figure 7.1. Healthy Cities Project Framework

As mentioned in the previous section, cycling provides many health benefits and increases physical fitness and endurance levels. As a form of acceptable physical activity, cycling improves health while preserving the natural environment. There is a positive dose response with increased cycling and health outcomes as cycling will lower obesity, weight-gain, and risks of cardiovascular and cancer morbidity (Oja et al. 2011). The costs of cycling are relatively low when compared to initial, maintenance, and fueling costs of a vehicle. Cycling is essentially carbon neutral, as typical bicycles do not release pollutants similar to automobiles. As the Healthy Cities Project essentially originated from Toronto two decades ago, Toronto should place emphasis on improving health through leading by example for other cities to follow. The importance of cycling to individual health and the environment are heavily associated and should be at the forefront of decision making for the health of all residents. Bike Sharing in Barcelona (Bicing) reduced approximately 9,000 tones of carbon dioxide and prevented about 12 deaths a year with correlation to increased physical activity (Rojas-Rueda et al., 2011).

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8.0 Cycling Infrastructure Typology A cycling network usually consists of various types of cycling facilities that accommodate different user characteristics. The following summarizes the main types of cycling infrastructure in Toronto (Ontario Ministry of Transportation, 2013)

On-Road Cycling Infrastructure

Figure 8.1

Figure 8.2

Figure 8.3

Shared Roadway with Signed Bicycle Route

Signed Bicycle Route with Paved Shoulder

Conventional Bicycle Lane

Unless cycling is specifically restricted, all roadways are considered to be Shared Roadways where both motorists and cyclists share the same vehicular travel lane.

This is a road with a rural cross-section which is signed as a bike route that also includes a paved shoulder. A paved shoulder is a portion of a roadway which is contiguous with the travelled way, and is used to accommodate stopped vehicles, emergency use, pedestrians and cyclists as well as for lateral support of the pavement structure.

This is a portion of a roadway which has been designated by pavement markings and signage for the preferential or exclusive use of cyclists. Figure 8.3 shows a conventional bicycle lane on Jarvis Street, Toronto.

Figure 8.4

Figure 8.5

Figure 8.6

Contra-Flow Bicycle Lane

Separated Bicycle Lane (with Painted/Physical Buffer)

Raised Cycle Track

This is a portion of a roadway which has been designated for the exclusive use of cyclists by signage along with a physical or marked buffer. This facility type provides additional spatial or physical separation between motorists and cyclists. Figure 8.5 shows a separated bicycle lane along Sherbourne Street, Toronto.

This is a bicycle facility adjacent to but vertically separated from motor vehicle travel lanes. A raised cycle track is designated for exclusive use by cyclists, and is distinct from the sidewalk. Figure 8.6 shows a raised cycle track in Portland, Oregon.

0000 This is a portion of a roadway which has been designated by pavement markings and signage for the preferential or exclusive use of cyclists. Figure 8.4 shows a contra-flow bicycle lane implemented as part of the West-end Bikeways project, Toronto.

0000

0000

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Bicycle Priority Street Sometimes referred to as a ‘Bicycle Boulevard’ or ‘Local Bicycle Street’, this is a low-volume, low- speed street that has been optimized for bicycle travel through treatments such as traffic calming and traffic reduction by means of signage and pavement markings, as well as intersection crossing treatments. Figure 8.7 Bicycle priority street in San Luis Obispo, California

Super Sharrow This is a shared roadway signed by a traditional sharrow but with a painted green strip. Its placement is specifically in the middle of the lane as it reinforces the concept of lane control for cyclists. Its major benefit is showing drivers that cyclists also have the right to use the entire lane and encourages both safety and comfort for all users.

Figure 8.8 Super sharrow in Oakland, California

In-Boulevard Cycling Infrastructure Active Transportation/Multi-Use Path This is a path that is physically separated from motor vehicle traffic by a strip of grass (often referred to as a “boulevard” or “verge”) or paved ‘splash strip’ within the roadway or highway right-of-way. Figure 8.9 Multi-use path along Lake Shore Boulevard East, Toronto

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Other Cycling Infrastructure • Construction/modification of bridges, tunnels and access ramps to accommodate cycling • Improvements to an intersection configuration (including traffic control devices) • Bike racks and other bike storage • Cycling-specific signs (including wayfinding features) • White bicycle lanes - this is reserved for cyclists only. Only cyclists can travel within the path provided, vehicles are restricted from parking within this lane of travel • Yellow bicycle lanes - standard signage used to demonstrate two way cycle travel on motor roadways • Sharrows - road markings used to indicate a shared environment for bicycles and motor vehicles. These are used to remind drivers to share the road with cyclists who may be passing on their sides. • Semi-Actuated Signals – devices used to control traffic lights to change when a bicycle stops upon the three pressure pads • Bicycle boxes – these are used at intersections to designate a space for cyclists to wait in front of vehicles at a traffic light, and to proceed first when the light turns green. When the traffic signal is red motorists stop at a regular stop bar behind the painted area for cyclists.

8.1 Cycling Infrastructure Safety Figure 8.10 Safety Spectrum of Cycling Street Infrastructure

Generally, cycling infrastructure safety relies on the careful design considerations that protect the pedestrian, the cyclist, as well as automotive users. Purpose-built bicycle only facilities are recognized as the most effective to protect cyclists from injuries and accidents as there are stronger elements of separation and route distinction (Cycle Toronto, n.d.). Importance to the infrastructure design for separated lanes and cyclist priority signal intersections reduces conflicts to road users (Cycle Toronto, n.d.). Figure 8.10 shows a simplistic diagram of the spectrum of safety seen in existing cycling street infrastructure. The diagram shows that there is a stronger level of safety as the separation of cycling lanes and vehicle lanes are increased. Furthermore, protected bike lanes reduce the perception people have that cycling is unsafe as well as increase comfort levels for ridership. In turn, purpose-built bicycle only facilities with quality design are important elements to increase ridership which is an important consideration for the Quick-Start Route for Riverdale.

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9.0 Cycling Infrastructure Best Practices

Sherbourne Street Sherbourne Street is home to some of the more improved cycling infrastructure in Toronto. Using a type of infrastructure called a “low block”, a single unified low concrete divider, has successfully segregated motor vehicles from cycle traffic. This has been successful as riders can enjoy cycling without the worry of collision or being obstructed by passing vehicles. The City has also included parking for vehicles so as not to take away from on-street parking. This is a viable option to many major roadways within the GTA to make cycling safer and more appealing. Figure 9.0.1 Sherbourne Street Cycle Path

Simcoe Street Simcoe Street is another best practice using a contra-flow lane. This track was part of a pilot project that included both Richmond Street as well as Adelaide Street. Currently new additions of bollards (flexible poles on separated bicycle lanes) have been added to provide further designation to, and protection of the cyclists as many motorists continue to park or stop within these lanes for periods of time. This type of infrastructure has been successful because “there is no separation device [that] can prevent all motor vehicle obstruction of the cycle tracks as there will always be gaps in between the bollards to provide access to laneways, driveways and bus stops” (City of Toronto, 2014).

Figure 9.0.2 Northbound contra-flow cycle track on Simcoe St.

Figure 9.0.3 Simcoe St. Southbound cycle track

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9.1 Case Studies of Cities 9.1.1 Toronto, Ontario

Fast Facts

Infrastructure

• 19, 780 people cycle to work

• Yellow bicycle lanes: most commonly found on side streets within the downtown core

• 72% of Torontonians support separated bicycle lanes • 2001 Toronto Bike Plan called for 495 kilometres of bike lanes to be added by 2012. However, only 112.9 kilometres, or 23%, have been completed • Between 2001 and 2006, bicycle ridership rose approximately 30% and is expected to increase further • 65% of people who ride a bicycle to work are male, and 35% are female • 58% of people who ride a bicycle to work are between the ages of 25 to 44 • In 2012 another plan was adopted call the Bikeway Trails Implementation Plan, focused towards developing new trails within the GTA • Toronto Bike Month is a once a year event encouraging cycling within the city to get out and ride their bikes to work instead of traveling via car or transit (easy way to push healthy active living)

• Adelaide Street has recently been revamped with new lanes allowing for multi-directional travel for cyclists without issue • White bicycle lanes: best example is the currently proposed cycling paths for Richmond Street as well as Adelaide Street within the downtown core

Figure 9.1.1.1 Proposed protected bike lane on Richmond St.

• Semi-actuated signals: issues with this type of infrastructure have appeared quite consistently where “majority of the detectors are not set at a sensitivity level to detect the presence of a bicycle. This forces the bicyclist to either wait for a motor vehicle to arrive in order to actuate the detector, or to dismount and press the pedestrian push button.” (City of Toronto, 2014) Figure 9.1.1.2 Semi-Actuated Signals at Lascelles Blvd. and Eglinton Ave.

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• Multi-Use Trail Road Crossings - New Trail crossings are designed with parallel bike and pedestrian crossings. Cyclists should ride across the intersection in the marked bike crossing and not in the pedestrian crosswalk. Waterfront Bike Path • It is currently under construction, and is being developed within the Waterfront plan currently being built by the city. It is expected to include multiple modes of paths, including sharrows, protected paths as well as white or yellow bicycle lanes. Eglington Protected Bike Path (Proposed)

Wayfinding Strategies

Analysis

• Currently Toronto has a wayfinding strategy called the Toronto 360 Wayfinding Strategy

Overall Toronto is lacking in several departments of valuable cycling infrastructure when compared to Copenhagen and Amsterdam as well as Montreal. With the lack of funding being one of the largest issues to why Toronto has not yet advanced their infrastructure. Mayoral influence has also had a negative impact as past candidates have made the automobile priority when compared to European governments that have made active transportation a priority

• A Multi-Modal (Auto, Cycle, Walk, Transit) Wayfinding System • Developed in preparation for the Pan Am Games in 2015 • Working in partnership with multiple stakeholders to create a single unified strategy via BIAs • Designed with 5 guiding principles: Consistency, Inclusivity, Sustainability, Transition, and Local Identity

• While studies have been done to examine accidents between cyclists and drivers as well as pedestrians, no major actions have been taken to reduce collisions other than the incorporation of new bicycle lanes and signage

• This newly developed and approved plan will create a walking path along Eglington as well as create a separate path for cyclists to ride along.

• Objective is to allow new tourists and residents to build a mental map of the city by showing the major institutions, as well as sights and important city landmarks

• Expected completion is around 2020.

Other Strategies

• More programs are needed to encourage ridership

• Bike Share Toronto is a rental program for bicycles within the downtown core

• Proposed infrastructure by Ford administration has yet to be implemented

• This system includes approximately 1000 bicycles within the core, in 80 locations within Toronto • The current subscriber amount is at 4,743 riders and the total current trips taken via a Bike Share bicycle have amounted to 1,003,023 trips

Sources

• The Bicycle User Group (BUG) Network is a connective program that allows cyclists to gather ideas and put forth proposals for improving conditions for cycling in workplaces, local neighbourhoods as well as schools.

(Cycleto, 2014), (City of Toronto, 2010). (Statistics Canada, 2006)

• Ride The City app is an easy way of creating routes and finding new paths for cyclists

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Figure 9.1.1.4 Proposed Change Along Eglington

Figure 9.1.1.3 Bicycle Box St. George and Harbord

• “Most other bicycling routes are short, disconnected and unsuitable for commuting or longer trips. There are virtually no north-south bicycle routes that connect residential areas with the downtown core and few east-west routes connecting residential areas with one another.” (ICES, 2007)

Figure 9.1.1.5 Wayfinding Strategy Sign


9.1.2 Canada Montreal, Quebec

Fast Facts

Infrastructure

• 650 km of bike lanes and cycle tracks (2013)

• Shared streets: quiet streets typically marked with sharrows

• Approximately 65 km of protected cycle tracks

• Bike lanes: painted markings to separate bike traffic from automobile traffic; includes contraflow lanes; open year round and plowed in the winter

• 3.8 million annual rides on Bixi Bike Share (2013) • Mode share: Bicycle 3.2%, Public Transit 36.3%, Car 51.1%, Walking 8.5% • Named 11th best bicycling city in the world (1st in North America) by design and planning firm Copenhagenize Design Co.

to downtown; crosses 6 (of 19) boroughs; provides easy connections to train and metro stations

• Street bike path: on-street cycle track separated by a physical barrier from automobile traffic; typically set up with both directions of cyclists in the same path; closed in the winter • Sidewalk bike path: two-way cycle track separated from automobile and pedestrian traffic; set at a different grade from automobile traffic

Figure 9.1.2.1 Street Bike Path in Montreal

• Véloroute: Planning 14 km bike highway crossing the island of Montreal from North to South; easily accessible, no obstacles, no traffic crossings; provides rapid access

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Wayfinding Strategies

Analysis

• Montreal does not have a bicycle specific wayfinding strategy in place

Montreal is the North American leader when it comes to cycling infrastructure, and as such, should be an example that informs cycling design in Toronto. Their strength is in the sheer number of kilometers of cycling lanes built, especially the protected variety. A robust protected lane network will encourage more people to cycle, as it improves safety so dramatically, both real and perceived.

Other Stategies • The city has a cycling growth strategy built into their Master Plan, which includes the completion of the grid of protected cycle tracks, to increase the safety of the network, and to integrate cycling with the existing transit network • The plan also links land use planning to cycling infrastructure planning, and attempts to facilitate the development of denser urban environments that are better suited to cycling

On the other hand, Montreal does not have a specific wayfinding strategy, and thus, will not be able to inform our design in that regard.

Sources (Jacobsen, 2014) (Statistics Canada, 2013) (Symon, 2013) (Ville de Montréal, 2014) (Ville de Montréal, 2004) (Vélo Montreal, 2014)

Figure 9.1.2.2 Montreal Green Cycle Route Figure 9.1.2.3 Street Bike Path

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9.1.2 Canada Vancouver, British Columbia

Fast Facts

Infrastructure

• 406 km of on-street bike lanes

• Local street bikeways: parallel to main arteries on traffic calmed streets

• Four km of cycle tracks (separated on-street paths) • 514 km of off-street pathways • 517 km of shared low-traffic roadways • Mode share: Bicycle 4.4%, Public Transit 29.9%, Car 51.6%, Walking 12.5%

• Arterial bike lanes: painted lane located curbside or adjacent to parking • Separated bike lanes: lanes separated from traffic by curb or parking • Shared-use lanes: sharrow treatment generally on narrower streets • Off-street pathways: full separated from traffic, sometimes from pedestrians

Figure 9.1.2.4 Separated two-way cycle track in Vancouver

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Wayfinding Strategies

Analysis

• TransLink has published the 120-page report “Get There By Bike! Wayfinding Guidelines for Utility Cycling in Metro Vancouver” to address current and future wayfinding

Vancouver is growing as a cycling city, starting to offer more and more on-street infrastructure, after mostly having cyclists relegated to off-street trails. Thus, it is important to take some cues from their strategies as it relates to building ridership and getting infrastructure built back on the streets.

• Principles: Connect places, use consistent names, maintain movement, be predictable, disclose information progressively, help users learn, keep information simple • Includes detailed implementation, design, and other guideline

Their biggest asset, as it relates to this project, however, is their robust wayfinding guidelines. They will be a valuable asset when addressing that portion of the final design.

Sources

Figure 9.1.2.5 Bike Route Signage in Vancouver

Other Strategies • Vancouver strives to make cycling easy, safe, and accessible to as many people as possible • Goals: 15% of all trips less than 8 km are made by bike by 2040; 50% of all cycling trips made by females by 2040; reduce fatalities and serious injuries by 50% by 2040

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(City of Vancouver) (Price, 2010) (Statistics Canada, 2013) (TransLink, 2011) (TransLink, 2013)


9.1.3 Europe Copenhagen, Denmark

Fast Facts

Infrastructure

• 50% of the population cycle on a daily basis

• Cycle tracks: separated by grade and by curbs from both cars and pedestrians; cost DKK 8 million (CAD 1.52 million) per kilometre

• 1.27 million km cycled daily (2012) • 340 km of cycle tracks • 23 km of cycle lanes • 43 km of green cycle routes, with plans for additional 67 km • First cycle track created in 1905 • Mode share: Bicycle 36%, Public Transit 33%, Car 25%, Walking 6%

• Cycle lanes: same grade as road, marked by broad white line; cost DKK 500,000 (CAD 95,000) per kilometre • Green cycle routes: paths that run through open, recreational areas such as parks and waterfront; routes avoid roads with heavy traffic, crossing them safely and comfortably by bridge or with special traffic signs and signals • Cykelslangen (Cycle snake): harbour bridge for cyclists opened June 2014; the first elevated two-way cycle track in Copenhagen; allows cyclists to avoid congestion on the street and provides a safer, more direct route across the harbour

Figure 9.1.3.1 Bicycle Snake Bridge (Cykelslangen)

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• Green wave: dynamic traffic management that favours cyclists on many main arterial roads; cyclists maintaining speeds of roughly 20 km/h are able to surf a wave of green traffic lights; small lights embedded in the cycle track turn on and off to inform cyclists if they are keeping the correct pace

Wayfinding Strategies

Other Strategies

• Regional signage systems are placed throughout Copenhagen, directing recreational paths between cities and towns

• “We bike to work” national campaign to promote and increase awareness; started in 1997 as a pilot project with 30,000 participants; currently between 75,000 and 110,000 participants; survey results show 35% of participants report that they are more inclined to cycle and 10% are new cyclists

• Cyclists can travel in both directions on the many one-way streets in the central city

• Aim to enhance sense of security and opportunity for high speed travel to retain current cyclists and attract new cyclists

• Cyclists have their own traffic lights, blue painted crossings at major intersections • A major road into the city, Nørrebrogade, is a bus, bicycle and pedestrian boulevard. The road closure has decreased car traffic fall by 60% from 15,000 to 6,000 a day and number of cyclists have increased by 20% between 2008 -2012

Figure 9.1.3.2 Regional Signage System

• Bike lanes are prioritized for snow removal before car lanes to maintain the volume of cyclists in the winter

Analysis The vast bicycle infrastructure has made Copenhagen one of the best cycling cities in the world. The high number bike tracks and green routes connecting various recreational areas and waterfront throughout the city has made Copenhagen a safe, high connective and mobile network for cyclists. Thus, these strategies are essential in addressing connecting the Greater Riverdale to waterfront.

Sources

Figure 9.1.3.3 Signage of Copenhagen’s Green Cycle Route

(City of Copenhagen– Bicycle Account, 2012), (City of Copenhagen- Cycle tracks and cycle lane, 2013), (Cycling Embassy of Denmark, n.d.), (Hoj, 2014), (Lindholm, 2014), (VCTA, 2014)

Figure 9.1.3.4 Nørrebrogade, a bus, bicycle and pedestrian boulevard

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9.1.3 Europe Amsterdam, Netherlands

Fast Facts

Infrastructure

• Bicycles outnumber cars by a factor of four to one in the city

• Protected bike paths are physically separated by verge, hedge, parking lane from the roadway

• Estimated 881,000 bicycles • Bicycle travel has grown by 40% over the last two decades • Approximately 50% of the population cycle on a daily basis • Two million kilometres cycled each day • 767 km of cycle paths and bike lanes (513 kilometres of dedicated cycle paths) • Mode share: Bicycle 38%, Public Transit 25%, Car 37%, Walking 6%

• Central Station bicycle garage is a three-storey parking structure built in 2001 to accommodate 2,500 bicycles

• On-road bike lanes are marked by a dashed line or a solid line. Dashed lines may be used by motorists as long as it does not obstruct cyclists

• Amsterdam uses dynamic traffic management to benefit cyclists. The Green Wave allows cyclists to pass 11 green traffic lights over a distance of 500 metres without stopping

• Bike Street is where bicycles are the main form of transport and cars are considered “guests”

• Ferry departure times are coordinated with the recommended bicycle route

• Nesciobrug (Nescio Bridge) is 779 m long, spanning 163.5 m over the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal; estimated cost was USD 11,000,000

• Cycling has a 60% modal share in the downtown area

Figure 9.1.3.5 Nescio Bridge

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Wayfinding Strategies

Analysis

• Wayfinding signage is placed throughout Amsterdam. There are 888 signs on 130 posts. Together they give directions to 36 destinations: boroughs, villages, towns and cities.

Amsterdam is a city of bikes. Sufficient bicycle infrastructures are essential to accommodate the high number of cyclists daily. Thus, it is important to provide adequate bicycle parkings and facilities to retain and attract new cyclists in Toronto. Also, high priorities for cyclists at major intersections are essential to provide a safe and connective network.

Figure 9.1.3.6 Wayfinding Signage in Amsterdam

Other Strategies • The main network is designed to include as few intersections as possible, with priority for cyclists at the intersections that remain

Sources (Amsterdamize, 2011), (Fietsberaad, 2010), (Hembrow, 2009), (Kevlahan, 2012), (Iamsterdam, 2014), (Mark W., 2011), (Tagliabue, 2013)

• A preference for bicycle paths on shopping streets • Average waiting time at traffic lights are at most 30 seconds • Bike thefts was a major problem in late the 1990s. As a result, an important tool was implemented. AFAC (Amsterdam Bicycle Processing Centre) processes and checks for registered bicycles that have been removed by urban district councils in Amsterdam due to abandon or badly parked bicycles. This helps decrease vandalism and theft throughout the city. Additionally, engrave depot is employed throughout the city of Amsterdam to supply a unique code to bicycles at no charge

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Figure 9.1.3.7 Three levels bike garage


10.0 Other Benefits of Cycling Infrastructure in Cities

Economic Benefits Active transportation infrastructure such as bike lanes have an important impact towards a city’s economy. Pedestrians and cyclists are main customers for retail shops in an urban neighbourhood. Studies have been conducted to determine how bike lanes impact a neighbourhood’s businesses in three main neighbourhoods in Toronto: Bloor-Annex Neighbourhood, Bloor-west Village, and Danforth Avenue. In all three studies, only 20% of customers drive to the businesses (Ryerson Planning and Consulting, 2014). Majority of the consumers arrived by transit, foot, and bicycle, and reported to spend a monthly amount of $100 or more than those who drove (Clean Air Partnership, 2010). Similarly, Portland has conducted a study to measure the importance of the bicycle industry, such as manufacturers and distributors, retail and repair shops, etc., to Portland’s economy. Approximately $90 million is generated by bike-related industry in 2008. New companies in the bicycle-related sector increase from 98 in 2006 to 143 in 2008 and providing between 850-1150 jobs throughout different neighbourhoods in Portland (Maus, 2008). Not only does bicycle infrastructure impact businesses, but it also impacts personal finance. The annual costs of bike ownership are much lower than the costs of car ownership. The total annual cost of owning a car in Canada is approximate $9200, based on 20,000 kms driven annually (CAA, 2014). While the annual cost of an average-quality bike is around $100-300 (TCAT, 2012). Additionally, the implementation of bicycle infrastructure will reduce financial burden for governments. Canada’s health care expenditure has been increasing tremendously over the century. In 2013, the total health care spending in Canada reached $211 billion, averaging $5,988 per person, (Canadian Institute for Health Information, 2013). Studies suggest that increases in physical activity by 10% in Canada translate to annual direct health care savings of up to $150 million (Katzmarzyk and Janssen, 2004). The increase in bicycle infrastructure will attract more cyclists, thus increasing physical activity. It will also help reduce the medical costs and financial burden of a government.

Environmental Benefits Cycling is an environmentally friendly mode of transportation as it produces zero emissions. In Canada, the environmental cost of motor vehicle use is estimated $14-36 billion/year (Campbell and Wittgens, 2004), which contributes to air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and noise pollution. The high car-dependent society has led up to 16,000 premature deaths in Canada each year and 10,000 suffering from respiratory disease, such as asthma due to the increase of air pollution (David Suzuki Foundation, 2014). Air pollution has also led to more smog days along with heat waves in Canada. Transportation accounts for 57.8% of greenhouse gas emissions in Ontario in 2011 and on-road transportation accounts for 77.5% of transportation greenhouse gas emissions (Environmental Commissioner of Ontario, 2013). Cycling plays a significant role in reducing emissions, not only does it produce zero emissions, but it also replaces short trips by vehicles that has high emissions rates. For each 1% of motor vehicle travel replaced by walking or cycling, motor vehicle emissions is reduced by 2-4% (Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure, 2011). The reduction in emission can help combat climate change and air pollution, which can reduce the chances of health problems, such as asthma, heart disease and cancer.

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11.0 Existing Conditions 11.1 Inventory of Existing Neighbourhood Assets The following pages will have existing neighbourhood assets maps: • • • • • • • •

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Bicycle Shops Built Heritage and Historical Sites Educational Facilities Key Destinations Land Use Natural Features Parks and Outdoor Recreation Facilities Toronto Community Housing Corporation Buildings


BROOM WAGON CYCLERY

( !

Carlaw Ave

VELOTIQUE

gs ton

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( !

Queen St E

( !

BEACH TOYZ

Eastern Ave

Leslie

Cherry St

Front St E

POLLY'S RECYCLE

Leslie St

Eastern Ave

E

E

Eastwood Rd

Dundas St E

( !

St

Fairford Ave

Kin

BIKE SAUCE

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Woodbine Ave

Jones Ave

Broadview Ave

BISEAGAL

( WARREN CYCLE WORKS !

( !

Queen St E

St King

( !

CYCLEPATH

rr Ge

Gerrard St E

Jones Ave

Shuter St

( !

COGS CYCLE

( !

Carlaw Ave

Dundas St E

Bayview Ave

CYCLE SOLUTIONS

( !

Hanson St Felstead Ave

Walpole Ave

Riverdale Ave

EZRIDERS

Coxwell Ave

Rd

River St

( !

Va lley

Logan Ave

Parliament St

dal e

Carlaw Ave

or Blo Ro se

( !

Greenwood Ave

St E

CYCLEMANIA Danforth Ave

Pape Ave

( !

St

t

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Comm

y St

Cherr

Bicycle Shops ( !

CAPPEL'S CUSTOM CARTS

ยง

Legend Study Area Boundary ( !

0

Bicycle Shop

0.25 0.5

1 km

57


Danforth Ave

Felstead Ave

Carlaw Ave

Greenwood Ave

Jones Ave

gs ton

Rd

Eastwood Rd

Eastern Ave

Leslie St

Parliament St

E

Leslie St

Eastern Ave

Ave

Cherry St

ern ast

Fairford Ave

Greenwood Ave

Queen St E

Queen St E

Carlaw Ave

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave Shuter St

Dundas St E

Jones Ave

River St

Dundas St E

Gerrard St E

St E

Woodbine Ave

Walpole Ave

Riverdale Ave

Kin

y arkwa

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Coxwell Ave

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Pape Ave

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Logan Ave

Va lle

Carlaw Ave

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Don Va

tE or S Blo Ros ed

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Comm

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Cherr

Built Heritage and Historical Sites Legend

ยง

Study Area Boundary Riverdale Heritage District Historical Properties 0

58

0.25 0.5

1 km


Logan Ave

Riverdale Ave

Eastern Ave

Front St E

St

E

Fairford Ave

Greenwood Ave

! (

Eastwood Rd

Eastern Ave

Queen St E

Woodbine Ave

gs ton

Rd

St E

Lake Shore Blvd E

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Cherry St

Carlaw Ave

E

Jones Ave

( !

Dundas

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Leslie St

( !

Queen St E

St King

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( ! Carlaw Ave

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave River St

Shuter St

! ( ( ! ( !

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Jones Ave

Dundas St E

( !

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Hanson St

( !

Kin

Parliament St

! (

( !! (

Connaught Ave

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( !

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Coxwell Ave

( !

Danforth Ave

( !

Pape Ave

( !

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Carlaw Ave

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Educational Facilities Legend Study Area Boundary

ยง

School Type ( !

English Public School

( !

English Catholic School

( !

Private School

0

0.25 0.5

1 km

59


DANFORTH MUSIC HALL

Dundas St E

( JIMMIE SIMPSON RECREATION CENTRE ! ! RALPH THORNTON CENTRE (! ! ((

i n er Ex pr e s sway

Lake

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( CINESPACE !

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Blvd E

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( SOUND ACADEMY !

Key Destinations Legend Study Area Boundary

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( !

Community Centre

( !

Film Studio

( !

Library

( !

Performance Venue 0.25 0.5

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st ing

Leslie

Carlaw Ave

Ki

Leslie St

Eastern Ave

Gard

Greenwood Ave

( JONES BRANCH !

QUEEN/SAULTER BRANCH

tE ng S Front St E

( MATTY ECKLER COMMUNITY CENTRE !

OPERA HOUSE

Queen St E

d ood R Eastw ( GERRARD/ASHDALE BRANCH !

Woodbine Ave

RIVERDALE BRANCH

Fairford Ave

Coxwell Ave

Gerrard St E

G

tE

rd S

a err

Connaught Ave

Shuter St

( !

Carlaw Ave

River St

Dundas St E

Logan Ave

Bayview Ave

Riverdale Ave

Greenwood Ave

Parliament St

Pape Ave

Carlaw Ave

y arkwa

Rd

Felstead Ave Hanson St ( EASTVIEW COMMUNITY CENTRE !

Jones Ave

Ave dview Broa

Va lley

( PAPE & DANFORTH BRANCH ! FRANKLAND COMMUNITY CENTRE

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tE or S Blo Ro s ed ale

( Danforth Ave ! ( !

1 km

Rd


Danforth Ave

Felstead Ave

Ge

ton gs

Woodbine Ave

Greenwood Ave

Jones Ave

Eastwood Rd

Eastern Ave

Leslie

Carlaw Ave

Leslie St

Eastern Ave

Ave

St

Cherry St

Parliament St

E

ern ast

Greenwood Ave

Queen St E

Queen St E

Carlaw Ave

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave Shuter St

Dundas St E

Jones Ave

River St

Dundas St E

Gerrard St E

tE

Fairford Ave

Rd

Walpole Ave

Riverdale Ave

dS rrar

Kin

d

Coxwell Ave

ay arkw lley P

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Pape Ave

Va lle

Logan Ave

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Carlaw Ave

sed

D on Va

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Land Use t

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ission

Comm

Legend

Cherr y St

Study Area Boundary Zoning Category Commercial Residential Employment Light Industrial Employment Industrial Open Space Open Space Natural Open Space Recreation Open Space Cemetary Residential

ยง

Utility and Transportation Unassigned To Be Determined 0

0.25 0.5

1 km 61


Danforth Ave Hanson St Felstead Ave

Walpole Ave

Carlaw Ave Blvd E

Connaught Ave

Coxwell Ave

Greenwood Ave

Fairford Ave

Eastwood Rd

Queen St E

Kin

t

Cherr y St

Natural Features Legend Study Area Boundary ( !

Street Tree Green Space Wetland Coniferous Forest

ยง 62

Forest Swamp Conservation Area

! ( 0

Bird Nesting Area 0.25 0.5

1 km

d

nR

o gst

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ission

Comm

Shore

E

St

Lake

St

Leslie

Cherry St

Front St E

Greenwood Ave

Carlaw Ave Eastern Ave

St E

Eastern Ave

Leslie St

Queen St E

King

Jones Ave Dundas St E

River St

Shuter St

Gerrard St E

Jones Ave

Dundas St E

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave

Riverdale Ave

ard

rr Ge

Woodbine Ave

Pape Ave

Logan Ave

Parliament St

y arkwa

Rd

Carlaw Ave

lley P D on Va

tE or S Blo Ro sed ale Va lley


WITHROW PARK EAST VIEW PARK

Coxwell Ave

Eastwood Rd

Carlaw Ave

Eastern Ave

Woodbine Ave

Queen St E

St

MCCLEARY PARK BRIMELY BOAT COMPANY

( !

St ioners

iss Comm

y St

Cherr OUTER HARBOUR MARINA

( CHERRY BEACH SPORTS FIELDS !

( !

NORTH SHORE PARK

CHERRY BEACH

Parks and Outdoor Recreation Facilities Legend

TOMMY THOMPSON PARK

ยง

Study Area Boundary Major Parks ( !

Recreation Point

( !

Swimming Pools

0

0.25 0.5

1 km

63

d

nR

sto

g Kin

Leslie

Front St E

E

GREENWOOD PARK

Eastern Ave

E

Cherry St

St King

St

Fairford Ave

( !

Leslie St

Queen St E

ard

rr Ge

Connaught Ave

JIMMIE SIMPSON PARK

MONARCH ( PARK !

Greenwood Ave

Logan Ave

Gerrard St E

Dundas St E

River St

Shuter St

Felstead Ave

Walpole Ave

Jones Ave

Dundas St E

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave

Parliament St

RIVERDALE PARK

Carlaw Ave

Rd

Jones Ave

( !

Pape Ave

Va lley

Greenwood Ave

Danforth Ave

Carlaw Ave

tE or S Blo Ro s ed ale


Danforth Ave

Logan Ave

Dundas St E

( ! ( !

Leslie St

Queen St E

Eastern Ave

tE

( !

( !

Carlaw Ave

E

( !

Eastern Ave

Queen St E

St

Gard

i n e r Ex p r e s s way

lvd E

hore B

S Lake

t

ers S

ission

Comm

y St

Cherr

Toronto Community Housing Corporation Buildings, 6+ Units

ยง

Legend Study Area Boundary ( !

0

64

TCHC Building 0.25 0.5

1 km

d

nR

sto

g Kin

Leslie

Cherry St

Front St E

St

Eastwood Rd

Connaught Ave

( !! ( (! ! ((! ! ( ( ! ( !

S King

! (

Gerrard St E

Carlaw Ave

River St

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave

Parliament St Shuter St

( !

Jones Ave

Dundas St E

( !

ard

rr Ge

( !

Woodbine Ave

( ! ( !! ( (! (! ! ( ( (! Riverdale Ave ! ( !

Hanson St Felstead Ave Felstead Ave

( !

Coxwell Ave

( ! ! (

Greenwood Ave

Rd

( !

( ! ( !

Jones Ave

ale Va lley

( !

Pape Ave

( !

Carlaw Ave

or Blo Ro sed

Greenwood Ave

( ! St E


11.2 Existing Routes The following pages will have existing infrastructure maps: • • • •

Existing Sidewalk Infrastructure Walking Travel Time and Travel Distance to Cherry Beach Existing Cycling Infrastructure Cycling Travel Time and Travel Distance to Cherry Beach

65


Felstead Ave

Woodbine Ave

Rd gs ton

Eastern Ave

Leslie St

Cherry St

Parliament St

Carlaw Ave

Eastwood Rd

Greenwood Ave Leslie St

Eastern Ave

Ave tern

Greenwood Ave

Jones Ave

Dundas St E

Queen St E

Queen St E

Eas

Gerrard St E

Carlaw Ave

Shuter St

E

Fairford Ave

Jones Ave

River St

Dundas St E

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave

Riverdale Ave

Kin

y arkwa

d St rrar Ge

Coxwell Ave

d

Pape Ave

yR

Logan Ave

Va lle

lley P D on Va

ale

Carlaw Ave

Danforth Ave

tE or S Blo Ros ed

rs St

sione

is Comm

y St

Cherr

Existing Sidewalk Infrastructure Legend Study Area Boundary Sidewalk Infrastructure Sidewalk on both sides Sidewalk on one side only

ยง

No sidewalk Walkway Pending 0

66

0.25 0.5

1 km


Danforth Ave

Felstead Ave

Walpole Ave

E

Greenwood Ave

Fairford Ave

Rd

Woodbine Ave

Eastwood Rd

Greenwood Ave Leslie St

Eastern Ave

Eastern Ave

Lake Shore Blvd E

Leslie

Carlaw Ave

Ave

St

Cherry St

Ea

Carlaw Ave

Queen St E

Queen St E

Jones Ave

Shuter St

rn ste

Dundas St E

River St

Dundas St E

Gerrard St E

Jones Ave

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave

Riverdale Ave

gs ton

y arkwa

d St rrar Ge

Kin

d

Coxwell Ave

yR

Pape Ave

Va lle

Logan Ave

ale

Carlaw Ave

sed

lley P D on Va

Ro

t

ers S

ission

Comm

y St

Cherr

Walking Travel Time and Travel Distance to Cherry Beach Legend CHERRY BEACH

ยง

Study Area Boundary

50 min / 4.0 km

5 min / 0.4 km

55 min / 4.4 km

10 min / 0.8 km

60 min / 4.8 km

15 min / 1.2 km

65 min / 5.2 km

20 min / 1.6 km

70 min / 5.6 km

25 min / 2.0 km

75 min / 6.0 km

30 min / 2.4 km

80 min / 6.4 km

35 min / 2.8 km

85 min / 6.8 km

40 min / 3.2 km

90 min / 7.2 km

45 min / 3.6 km

95 min / 7.6 km

0 Note: Average walking speed of 80 m/min assumed

0.25 0.5

1 km

67


Danforth Ave

Ge

Rd gs ton Kin

Woodbine Ave

Eastwood Rd

Gerrard St E

Eastern Ave

Leslie St

Parliament St

Cherry St

Logan Ave

tE

ail

d E Tr

ore Blv

h Lake S

dS rrar

Fairford Ave

Coxwell Ave

Pape Ave

Carlaw Ave

Logan Ave

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave River St

te

t

ers S

ission

Comm

il

n Tra

odma

in Go

Mart

y T ho m pson Pk

y St

St Leslie

Cherr o Go rtin a M

l rai nT a dm

Tom m

Eas

Leslie St

Eastern Ave

Eastern Ave

ve rn A

Hanson St

Dundas St E

Queen St E

Queen St E

G reenwood Ave

Dundas St E

Carlaw Ave

Dundas St E

Greenwood Ave

d

Monarch Park Trail

Strathcona Ave

yR

Shuter St

ra eT il

O akv al

Va lle

Logan Ave

ale

Jones Ave

sed

Jones Ave

Ro

Existing Cycling Infrastructure Legend Study Area Boundary Cycling Infrastructure Bike Lanes Contra-Flow Bike Lanes Cycle Tracks Major Multi-use Pathway

ยง 68

Minor Multi-use Pathway Park Roads Cycling Connections Sharrows

0

0.25 0.5

1 km


Danforth Ave

Felstead Ave

gs ton

Woodbine Ave

Jones Ave

Greenwood Ave Eastern Ave

Lake Shore Blvd E

Leslie

Carlaw Ave

Leslie St

St

Cherry St

Parliament St

E

Eastern Ave

Ave

Eastwood Rd

Greenwood Ave

Queen St E

Queen St E

ern ast

Carlaw Ave

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave Shuter St

Dundas St E

Jones Ave

River St

Dundas St E

Gerrard St E

St E

Fairford Ave

Rd

Walpole Ave

Riverdale Ave

d rrar

Kin

ay arkw

Ge

Coxwell Ave

d

Pape Ave

yR

Logan Ave

Val le

Carlaw Ave

ale

lley P Do n Va

tE or S Blo Ros ed

t

ers S

ission

Comm

y St

Cherr

Cycling Travel Time and Travel Distance to Cherry Beach CHERRY BEACH

Legend Study Area Boundary 5 min / 1.5 km

ยง

10 min / 3 km 15 min / 4.5 km 20 min / 6 km 25 min / 7.5 km 0

0.25 0.5

1 km

69 Note: Average cycling speed of 18 km/h assumed


The following diagram provides a visual image of the barriers, pathways, and destinations that exist for cyclists in Riverdale. Cyclists are most challenged when they wish to connect to the Port Lands and the Lake as most north-south routes terminate well before the crossing at Lake Shore Boulevard East. In addition, edges such as highways, waterways, and Lake Shore Boulevard East make it difficult for pedestrians and cyclists alike to traverse through Riverdale.

Figure 11.1 Lynchian Diagram of Riverdale

70


11.3 Curb to Curb Width Map Danforth Ave

Felstead Ave

Ge

Carlaw Ave

Greenwood Ave

d

Coxwell Ave

Jones Ave

Eastwood Rd

Eastern Ave

St Leslie

e ission Comm

Leslie St

Ave

Cherry St

Parliament St

tern Eas

Eastern Ave

tE

Fairford Ave

Greenwood Ave

Queen St E

Queen St E

Carlaw Ave

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave Shuter St

Dundas St E

Jones Ave

River St

Dundas St E

Gerrard St E

rd S

Kin gs ton R

Walpole Ave

Riverdale Ave

rra

Woodbine Ave

Pape Ave

ay arkw

Logan Ave

l le y P

d

Carlaw Ave

D on Va

tE or S Blo Ros eda le V alle yR

rs St

y St Cherr

Road Widths Legend Curb to Curb Measurement 7.1 m - 7.4 m 8.4 m - 8.6 m 9.5 m - 9.8 m 11.8 m - 13.0 m

ยง

13.4 m - 13.6 m 13.7 m - 14.2 m 14.3 m - 14.7 m 14.9 m - 15.3 m 0

0.25 0.5

1 km

71


11.4 Analysis of Current Active and Motorized 11.4.1 Cyclist Travel Patterns Limited data is available, however, the following can help provide insight into the cycling culture in the study area. The bicycle mode share in the study area is 4.42%, which is considerably higher than the average for Toronto as a whole, 1.3%. Considering its proximity to downtown and to many destinations, this was to be expected. However, it compares favorably to all adjacent wards, with the highest share amongst them, and 5th highest share in the city overall (Toronto Cycling Think & Do Tank, 2013). Additionally, cyclists in the study area take an average number of daily trips greater than 2.50, which is amongst the highest in the city. Most downtown and shoulder area wards are in the 2.51 to 2.78 trips per cyclist per day category (Toronto Cycling Think & Do Tank, 2013).

11.4.2 Cyclist Demographic Characteristics Cycling throughout Toronto is dominated by males, with a 66% share in the city (34% females), however, the study area has an over-representation of female riders, with 37.3% of cyclists identified as female (Toronto Cycling Think & Do Tank, 2013). No specific data was found for the study area on its own, however, cycling is a means of transportation across all age demographics. Cycling peaks in the age 35-44 cohort, who account for nearly 30% of all cycling trips. The age 45-54 cohort was not far behind, at roughly 23%, while age 25-34 riders represented nearly 20% of all cycling trips. Ridership drops considerably with both younger and older groups. It can be assumed that this holds true in the study area (Toronto Cycling Think & Do Tank, 2013).

72


Eastern Ave

Queen St E

St E

Front St E

Coxwell Ave

Queen St E

t

ers S

ission

Comm

St

lvd E

hore B

S Lake

K

Leslie

Carlaw Ave

Eastern Ave

Cherry St

King

St E

Pedestrian Volume by Intersection

y St

Cherr

Legend Study Area Boundary 24 Hr Pedestrian Volume

ยง

!

10

!

50

!

100

!

250

!

500

!

750

!

1,000

!

2,500

!

5,000

!

10,000

0 Note: Data displayed is in absolute numbers

0.25 0.5

on

st ing

Woodbine Ave

Jones Ave

Pape Ave

Logan Ave

Dund as

Eastwood Rd

Connaught Ave

Shuter St

G

tE

rd S

a err

Gerrard St E

River St

Dundas St E

Felstead Ave

Walpole Ave

Riverdale Ave

Bayview Ave

Parliament St

Carlaw Ave

Rd

Greenwood Ave

Danforth Ave

Ave dview Broa

tE or S Blo Ro sed ale Va lley

1 km

73

Rd


Rd

Coxwell Ave

tE

Kin

gs ton Eastern Ave

Queen St E

Queen St E

St E

Cherry St

King

E

Woodbine Ave

Greenwood Ave

Jones Ave

Logan Ave

D un d a s S

St

Eastwood Rd

Connaught Ave

Shuter St

ard

rr Ge

Gerrard St E

River St

Dundas St E

Felstead Ave

Walpole Ave

Riverdale Ave

Bayview Ave

Parliament St

Carlaw Ave

Ave dview Broa

Pape Ave

Danforth Ave

tE or S Blo Ro s ed ale Va lley Rd

Front St E

lvd E

ore B ke Sh

La

t

ers S

ission

Comm

Cherr y St

Vehicle Volume by Intersection Legend Study Area Boundary 24 Hr Vehicle Volume

ยง

!

7000 - 18999

!

19000 - 30999

!

31000 - 42999

! 0

74

43000 - 54999

0.25 0.5

1 km


Queen St E

St E

K

Coxwell Ave

tE

Queen St E

on

st ing

Rd

Eastern Ave

Cherry St

King

Eastern Ave

Eastwood Rd

Woodbine Ave

Greenwood Ave

Jones Ave

Pape Ave

Logan Ave

Dun das S

Connaught Ave

Shuter St

G

tE

rd S

a err

Gerrard St E

River St

Dundas St E

Felstead Ave

Walpole Ave

Riverdale Ave

Bayview Ave

d

Carlaw Ave

Parliament St

Danforth Ave

Ave dview Broa

tE or S Blo Ro sed ale Va lley R

Front St E

hore ake S

L

Blvd E

t

ers S

ission

Comm

y St

Cherr

Combined Pedestrian and Vehicle Volumes by Intersection Legend Study Area Boundary

ยง

Combined Pedestrian and Vehicle Volumes Percentage of Total Volume by Mode 24 Hr Pedstrian Volume 24 Hr Vehicle Volume 0

Note: Pie charts sized by total of pedestrian and vehicle volumes at intersection

0.25 0.5

1 km

75


11.4.3 Pedestrian and Motor Vehicle Intersection Volumes Pedestrian volumes tend to increase further north, closer to Danforth Avenue, where there is not only a major rapid transit line, but also a very busy shopping and dining district. Pedestrian counts also tend to increase around the various east-west streetcar routes that bisect the study area. Lake Shore Boulevard East presents a problem, as it is a high speed, high volume street which separates most of the community from the assets located on and around the waterfront. The high traffic volumes and very low pedestrian counts suggest a number of things. First, the land use may not be conducive to utilitarian pedestrian trips, and secondly, the streets and intersections may not have been designed in a particularly pedestrian-friendly way. The above data can help guide the criteria that will be used to test the long list of options for a single quick-start north-south route. It would be advisable to avoid, where possible, intersections that are heavily trafficked by motor vehicles, unless there is a compelling reason not to. For example, a heavy retail area may have heavy traffic, but may also be desirable from a cyclist’s point of view because of the high number of potential destinations. Furthermore, it may be desirable from a business standpoint as well, as a cycling route could draw more business to the area. Furthermore, the data above also provides a strong idea of the biggest challenges that may lie in connecting the neighbourhood to the waterfront.

76


11.4.4 Dangerous Intersections and Pedestrian Fatalities

A study in 2013 listed the top 10 most dangerous intersections for pedestrians in Toronto (Dale, 2013) (The Globe and Mail, 2013). None of the listed intersections were located within the study area. An additional study highlighted the top 50 most dangerous intersections for cyclists in Toronto (Verster, 2013) (Andrew-Gee, 2013).

•1. Lake Shore Boulevard East and Carlaw Avenue

•15. Gerrard Street East and Greenwood Avenue

•16. Broadview Avenue and Gerrard Street

It should be noted that the study area contained the most dangerous intersection for cyclists in the city. Lake Shore Boulevard East and Carlaw Avenue also had the highest recorded vehicle count, as noted above, in the study area. The intersection was also one pedestrian shy of being the intersection with the lowest pedestrian count recorded. This represents a tremendous issue for the final design of the north-south route, as crossing Lake Shore Boulevard East safely will be of utmost concern. Gerrard Street and Greenwood Avenue is the intersection of two main arterial roads, which may be a contributing factor to the danger. Greenwood Avenue is equipped with bicycle lanes at present, which would contribute to a higher rate of cycling than streets without the infrastructure, perhaps creating a higher rate of conflict with automobiles. The intersection seems fairly benign otherwise, so it is unclear where the dangers manifest for this particular intersection. Finally, the intersection of Broadview Avenue and Gerrard Street presents a problem as the geometry is irregular. Gerrard Street approaches at an angle, and the adjacent developments fronting the street have the potential to obscure sight lines through the intersection. Like Gerrard and Greenwood, it is also the intersection of two main arterial roads through the area. There were two pedestrian fatalities in the study area in 2013 (Hains, 2014). They occurred at Broadview Avenue and Dundas Street East and at Gerrard Street East and Carlaw Avenue. The circumstances of these collisions were not provided. However, the intersection at Gerrard and Carlaw has an elevated rail line running diagonal just to the south and to the east, which may present problems with light, shade, and sightlines.

77


11.5 North-South Street Profiles 11.5.1 Introduction In order to select a Quick-Start Route, an examination of the continuous north-south roads in the area must be performed. The following section analyzes the roads that span the area, most significantly the roads that provide a minimally obstructed path for cyclists from Danforth Avenue in the north and across the train tracks that sever the area. These analyses take into account current cross sections, speed limits, parking restrictions, elevations, existing infrastructure, and directionality. The major intersections at Lake Shore Boulevard East will also be examined in section 1.6, and the significant roadways in the Port Lands will also be examined using this same format in section 1.7. The information from these diagrams, along with the additional information provided in the summary tables in section 1.8, will be imperative to the selection of a list of routes to be considered for the Quick-Start Route.

78


Danforth Ave

Felstead Ave

Greenwood Ave

gs ton Kin

Woodbine Ave

Jones Ave

Leslie St

Eastern Ave

Eastern Ave

Cherry St

Parliament St

Carlaw Ave

Ave tern

Eastwood Rd

Dundas St E

Queen St E

Queen St E

Eas

Gerrard St E

Carlaw Ave

Shuter St

Fairford Ave

Jones Ave

River St

Dundas St E

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave

Riverdale Ave

Rd

y arkwa

E d St rrar e G

Coxwell Ave

d

Pape Ave

yR

Logan Ave

Va lle

Carlaw Ave

ale

lley P D on Va

tE or S Blo Ros ed

t

ers S

ission

Comm

y St

Cherr

North-South Street Inventory Legend Study Area Boundary

ยง

North-South Streets Existing Trail Not Carried Forward For Street Analysis Carried Forward For Street Analysis 0

0.25 0.5

1 km

79


11.5.2 STREET NAME

11.5.2 How to Read Guide

Intersection Reference # (see section 11.10)

8 Hour Traffic Counts

XX# 9,210

Current Photo

Existing Contraflow Bike Lane

Direction of One-Way Street

Existing Bike Lane

Cross Street

Parking Info: See Section 11.8 Destinations: See Section 11.8 Topographic Info: See Section 11.8

Lane Markings on Road

Street Name

Cross Section Reference #

(see section 11.9)

CS-X MAX 40

N

End of Street Analysis Zone

80

Existing Bicycle Infrastructure on Cross Street

Speed Limit Begins


11.5.3 BROADVIEW AVE

BR1 21,916

Danforth Ave

CS-A

BR2 CS-A

BR3

Riverdale Ave

MAX 50

Gerrard St E

13,971

CS-A

BR4

Dundas St E

11,380

CS-A

BR5

Queen St E

11,386

CS-A

N

BR6

MAX 40

Eastern Ave

12,712

81


11.5.4 LOGAN AVE

LO1

Danforth Ave

CS-B McConnell Ave

CS-C MAX 40

CS-B

LO2 CS-B

LO3 9,210

Bain Ave Riverdale Ave

MAX 30

Gerrard St E

CS-D

LO4 11,893

Dundas St E

CS-E

LO5 11,325

Queen St E

CS-E

LO6

Eastern Ave

9,797

CS-F MAX 50

N 82

Lake Shore Ave E


11.5.5 CARLAW AVE

CA1 12,495

Danforth Ave

CS-G Strathcona Ave

CS-G

CA2

MAX 30

Riverdale Ave

CS-H

CA3 14,765

Gerrard St E

CS-H

CA4 14,577

Dundas St E

CS-H

CA5 15,696

Queen St E

CS-H

CA6 16,318

CS-H

N

Eastern Ave

MAX 40

Lake Shore Blvd E

83


11.5.6 PAPE AVE

PA1

Danforth Ave

19,252

CS-H Strathcona Ave

CS-H

PA2 CS-I

Riverdale Ave MAX 40

CS-J

PA3 10,097

Gerrard St E

CS-E

PA4 8,677

Dundas St E

CS-E

PA5

MAX 40

Queen St E

8,561

CS-K

N 84

PA6

MAX 50

Eastern Ave


11.5.7 JONES AVE

JO1 13,245

Danforth Ave

CS-D

Strathcona Ave

CS-D

JO2 11,491

Gerrard St E

CS-D

JO3 10,707

Dundas St E

CS-D

N

JO4

MAX 40

Queen St E

8,225

85


11.5.8 LESLIE ST

LE1

Gerrard St E

CS-G

LE2 7,076

Dundas St E

CS-G

LE3

MAX 30

Queen St E

11,557

CS-H

LE4

Eastern Ave

11,682

CS-H MAX 50

N 86

Lake Shore Blvd E


11.5.9 GREENWOOD AVE

GR1 19,161

Danforth Ave

CS-D

GR2 12,563

Gerrard St E

CS-D

GR3 12,297

Dundas St E

CS-D

N

GR4

MAX 40

Queen St E

9,716

87


11.5.10 COXWELL AVE

CX1 19,270

CS-H

CX2 CX3 10,612

Gerrard St E

CS-A

CX4 12,050

Dundas St E

CS-A

CX5

MAX 40

Queen St E

12,633

CX6 13,430

CS-H

88

Gerrard St E

CS-A

CS-H

N

Danforth Ave

Eastern Ave

MAX 50

Lake Shore Blvd E


11.5.11 Other North-South Street Profiles Booth Avenue

Rushbrooke Avenue

Booth Avenue, or the section relevant to the list of potential Quick-Start Routes, is a short two way street that connects Eastern Avenue to Lake Shore Boulevard East. It is the furthest west connection within the study area, making it the best available connection to Lake Shore Boulevard East for any lanes that could potentially come down Broadview Avenue. There is a single travel lane in each direction that allows traffic to travel at a speed of 50 km/h, and parking is only permitted on the west side of the street. Currently there is no bike infrastructure located along the street or within the immediate vicinity, with the Eastern Avenue bicycle lanes terminating further east.

Rushbrooke Avenue is one of two roads near the southern terminus of Jones Avenue at Queen Street. Rushbrooke Avenue is the northbound road, with a posted limit of 30 km/h and one travel lane. Any bicycle traffic taking this route would spend minimal time along Queen Street before returning to either Jones Avenue or Rushbrooke Avenue, depending on the direction of travel. Parking alternates between the sides of the street, with parking for residents along the west side of the road for the first fifteen days of the month and the east side for the remaining days. The only day of the month that there would be parking on both sides is the day that the cars must be moved between the two sides. This road may be of value as it connects the southern terminus of the Jones Avenue bicycle lanes with the Eastern Avenue bicycle lanes, which quickly connect to Mosley Avenue and Leslie Street.

Figure 11.2 Cycling at Tommy Thompson park

89


11.5.12 Discussion of East-West Streets Currently there are no north-south roads that lead directly from Riverdale down to Lake Ontario. As such, there is no individual north-south route that will connect Danforth Avenue to the shores of Lake Ontario without at least one east-west segment. These east-west segments will be integral to the final selection of the north-south route and as such should be brought under consideration within this report. This section will provide an analysis of the east-west segments of road that may prove critical in the selection of the Quick-Start Route.

Dundas Street East

Riverdale Avenue

Eastern Avenue

Mosley Avenue

Throughout much of Riverdale, Dundas Street East is a road offering one traffic lane in each direction for automobile traffic, as well as one bicycle lane in each direction and on street parking. Left turn lanes are provided at significant intersections at the expense of on street parking immediately adjacent. With a posted speed limit of 40km/h and existing bicycle lanes, the use of Dundas Street East could be easily incorporated into any selected route as it already has the necessary infrastructure and limits automobile traffic to a posted limit equivalent of that along the major north-south streets. The Dundas Street bicycle lanes also connect to the existing lanes on Jones Avenue and Greenwood Avenue and provide a potential connection into downtown.

Riverdale Avenue is being considered as an east-west connection due to the lack of continuity of Pape Avenue at the train tracks. The short section of Riverdale Avenue between Pape Avenue and Carlaw Avenue is exceptionally wide, considering it is also how automobile traffic along Pape Avenue is redirected around the tracks. It has a posted limit of 40km/h and rush hour restricted parking, however as the road is only one lane in each direction the removal of parking during rush hours does not introduce any additional traffic lanes to the street. During school hours parking has additional restrictions and traffic is slowed further due to a crossing guard at the intersection of Riverdale Avenue and Pape Avenue, serving the school on the south-west corner.

Eastern Avenue is the final major east-west road in Riverdale before Lake Shore Boulevard East when traveling southbound, and many streets in the area find their terminus there. The road has two major configurations: two lanes each way with rush hour restricted parking west of Logan Avenue and East of Leslie Street, and one lane each direction with all day parking and a bike lane between the two streets. As with Dundas Street East, the eastern section of Eastern Avenue has the potential to be integrated into a Quick-Start Route as the infrastructure already exists along the street, while the western portion would require additional infrastructure to be installed. Additionally, while the eastern portion limits cars to a posted speed of 40km/h, the western portion of the road has a posted limit of 50km/h, considerably faster for someone riding a bicycle even in a painted lane.

Mosley Avenue is a small street that connects Eastern Avenue and Leslie Street. Parking on Mosley Avenue is restricted to the south side only, however on the south side it is available throughout the day. There is no posted speed limit along the street, and as such cars are permitted to travel at 50 km/h, however as the street is quite short it would prove difficult and inefficient for many vehicles to do so. This street would prove useful as a connection between Eastern Avenue and Leslie street as it is a shortcut that allows bicycles to avoid Eastern Avenue’s northern curve west of Leslie Street.

90


11.6 Lake Shore East Intersection Profiles 11.6.1 Lake Shore Boulevard East Trail Running along Lake Shore Boulevard East, this off road trail provides a major east-west connection that spans Riverdale. It provides access to the downtown core in the west and Ashbridges Bay Park in the east. With this trail comes significant infrastructure already in place, including bicycle signals in all four directions at the crossing at Leslie Street, as well as signals along the route of travel at Carlaw Avenue and Don Roadway. While the speed limit of Lake Shore Boulevard East is considerably higher than the majority of the roads within Riverdale, the off road trail is set back from the road for a significant portion, increasing the feeling of safety for cyclists. The major concerns come at intersections, where train tracks force cars forward and can potentially block the way for cyclists. Additionally, train tracks cross the path at more than one point and can pose a threat for cyclists if their wheels were to get caught in the tracks.

11.6.2 Don Roadway The crossing at Don Roadway is the westernmost crossing of Lake Shore Boulevard East within the area, situated under the Gardiner Expressway off-ramps to the eastbound Lake Shore Boulevard East. At this point Lake Shore Boulevard East is six lanes wide and requires three phases to cross. The eight hour traffic counts for the intersection are 11,046, considerably lower than the other crossings. This may be attributed to the fact that cars exiting the Gardiner Expressway bypass this intersection via the off-ramp bridge, meaning that the only cars passing through are those continuing along Lake Shore Boulevard, coming from Don Roadway, or exiting the Don Valley Parkway to access Don Roadway or Lake Shore Boulevard East. Currently there is no existing bicycle infrastructure at the intersection itself, with the exception of a short off road trail along Don Roadway and the Lake Shore Boulevard East Trail itself.

91


11.6.4 - Leslie Street

Lake Shore Boulevard Crossings

The easternmost intersection in the area is the one at Leslie Street, which experiences an eight hour traffic volume of 25,646 cars. There are seven lanes that cyclists must cross to get from the north side to the south, six of which are for through traffic and one of which is for vehicles turning onto Leslie Street. This intersection has great potential as it is currently under construction, however that very construction has also closed the median upon which pedestrians used to be able to take refuge should the walk signal not be long enough. This intersection does have the largest amount of pre-existing cycling infrastructure, however, with bicycle signals along all four crosswalks that connect the Lake Shore Boulevard East Trail on the north side and the Martin Goodman Trail running on the east side of Leslie Street on the south side.

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Figure 11.6.1. Leslie Street and Eastern Avenue Intersection

11.6.3 Carlaw Avenue The central crossing within the area, Carlaw Avenue is the first all way and the first signalized intersection that cars exiting the Gardiner Expressway will arrive at. Lake Shore Boulevard East is seven lanes wide here (six for through travel and one for turning) and also has a railroad track running down the centre of the intersection. The eight hour traffic count at this intersection is 26,975 cars, making it the highest of all three intersections in the area. At this intersection there is no pedestrian refuge in the median due to the train tracks, and as such the entire intersection must be traversed during the green light. The only bicycle infrastructure at this intersection is the east-west bicycle signal for those traveling along the Lake Shore East Trail, however that signal is irrelevant for those attempting to travel to the lake from Riverdale. This may be the case, however, as the Lake Shore Boulevard East Trail is the only cycling infrastructure at the intersection.


Clockwise from top left: Figure 11.6.2. Carlaw Ave and Eastern Ave aerial view, Figure 11.6.3. Leslie Street and Eastern Ave intersection, Figure 11.6.4. Carlaw Ave and Eastern Ave streetview, Figure 11.6.5. Don Road and Eastern Avenue street view 11.6.6.Don Road and Eastern Ave aerial view,

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11.7.1 CARLAW AVE

11.7 Port Lands Street Profiles

Lake Shore Blvd E

CS-H

CR1 6,149

N

94

MAX 50

Commissioners Ave


11.7.2 VILLIERS ST

VI1

Saulter St S

CS-J

VI2

Don Roadway

CS-L

Cherry St

N

VI3

MAX 50

95


11.7.3 COMMISSIONERS ST N

CO1 3,631

CS-M

CO2

Carlaw Ave

6,149

CS-M

CO3

Logan Ave

CS-M

CO4

Don Roadway

4,420

CS-H

CO5 5,622

96

Leslie St

MAX 50

Cherry St


11.7.4 UNWIN AVE

UN1

Leslie St

CS-I

Cherry St

N

UN2

MAX 50

97


11.7.5 Discussion of Martin Goodman Trail

Within the Port Lands themselves there is already considerable curb separated bicycle infrastructure that can be utilized to help connect the neighbourhood to the lake. Off road trails currently exist along Leslie Street, Cherry Street, and along part of the waterfront on the south side of Unwin Avenue. While the infrastructure is present and will be connected to in order to bypass the shipping channel and complete the connection between Riverdale and the lake, there arise issues in terms of its design and completeness. The largest design issue is the crossing at Cherry Street to connect to the Lake Shore Boulevard East Trail, which requires several phases to cross it. The trail, however, provides invaluable access to Cherry Beach at its southern end. The main issue in terms of continuity is that the Martin Goodman Trail is discontinuous, not crossing the northern end of the Leslie Street Spit. Cyclists are forced off the path and onto the unsigned Unwin Avenue, where they must travel alongside construction trucks and high speed vehicles before rejoining the trail at Leslie Street.

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11.8 Summary of Findings 11.8.1 North-South Street Analysis Summary Broadview

Connects To

Activities & Destinations

Posted Speeds Traffic Volumes (8hr intersection counts)

Number of Travel Lanes

Directionality (twoway un less otherwise

Existing Bike Infrastructure

Parking

Pro Carlaw

Pape

Bloor bike lanes westbound Dundas bike lanes Strathcona contraflow lane Strathcona contraflow lane Riverdale Park trails toEastern bike lanes eastDundas bike lanes Dundas bike lanes wards Lower Don River Trail bound Eastern bike lanes, Lower Eastern bike lanes Dundas bike lanes eastLower Don Recreation Trail Don Recreation Trail Lower Don Recreation Trail bound Riverdale East Park and Withrow Park, Tiverton Withrow Park Matty Eckler Community Sports Facilities Avenue Parkette Gerrard Carlaw Centre Queen Alexandra Public Jimmie Simpson Park Parkette Pape Avenue Public School School Morse Street Playground John Chang Neighbourhood Gerrard Square Shopping Lower Don River Trail Lakeshore Links Indoor Golf Park Centre 40 km/h 50 km/h At Danforth: 21,916 At Gerrard: 13,971 At Dundas: 11,380 At Queen: 11,386 At Eastern: 12,712

2 lanes each direction

Two-way

noted

Road Width

Logan

12.6 m to 14.3 m

30 km/h 40 km/h 50 km/h At Gerrard: 9,210 At Dundas: 11,893 At Queen: 11,325 At Eastern: 9,797

1 lane each direction

40 km/h

40 km/h 50 km/h

At Danforth: 12,495 At Gerrard: 14,765 At Dundas: 14,577 At Queen: 15,696 At Eastern: 16,318

At Danforth: 19,252 At Gerrard: 10,097 At Dundas: 8,677 At Queen: 8,561

1 lane southbound from 2 lanes each direction from Danforth to Riverdale Danforth to Riverdale 2 lanes each direction south 1 lane each direction south of Riverdale of Riverdale

One-way northbound Gerrard to Danforth One-way southbound DanOne-way southbound forth to Riverdale Eastern to mid-block north of Lake Shore 7.1 m to 15.5 m

7.1 m to 14.2 m

Two-way

7.2 m to 14.2 m

Bike lane northbound from Bain to McConnell Bike lanes both ways from None Gerrard to Dundas None None Single contraflow lane northbound from mid-block north of Lake Shore to Eastern Danforth to Simpson: one Danforth to Riverdale: east North of tracks: Both side side only all day side only, all day with rush hour restrictions Simpson to Dundas: both Riverdale to Gerrard: both Both sides with rush hour Tracks to Queen: east side sides all day sides, restricted both ways restrictions only, all day Dundas to Lakeshore: west both rush hours Queen to Eastern: both side only South of Gerrard: both sides sides all day with rush hour restrictions

Topography

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Connects To

Activities & Destinations

Posted Speeds Traffic Volumes (8hr intersection counts)

Number of Travel Lanes

Directionality (twoway un less otherwise

Jones

Leslie

Greenwood

Pro Coxwell

Dundas bike lanes

Dundas bike lanes Eastern bike lanes westbound Lower Don Recreation Trail

Dundas bike lanes

Dundas bike lanes

Robertson Parkette, Earl Earl Grey Senior Public Riverdale Collegiate Haig Jr. Public School School Institute Monarch Park Collegiate Kempton Howard Park Leslieville Jr. Public School Felstead Avenue PlayInstitute Blake Street Public School Woodgreen Community ground Coxwell Avenue Parkette St. Patrick Catholic SecRiverdale Collegiate Centre Goodlife Fitness Institute Leslieville Yoga ondary School Monarch Park Playground Gerrard Square Shopping St. Joeseph Catholic Greenwood Parks and Rec Main Sewage Treatment Centre School (Elementary) Duke of Connaught Jr and Playground Leslieville Jr. Public Leslie Street Allotment Sr Public School Woodbine Park School, Gardens Ashbridges Bay Leslie Grove Park 30 km/h 40 km/h

30 km/h 50 km/h

At Danforth: 13,245 At Gerrard: 11,491 At Dundas: 10,707 At Queen: 8,225

At Dundas: 7,076 At Queen: 11,557 At Eastern: 11,682

Existing Bike Infrastructure

Parking Topography

100

At Danforth: 19,161 At Gerrard: 12,563 At Dundas: 12,297 At Queen: 9,716

40 km/h 50 km/h At Danforth: 19,270 At Hanson: 8,818 At Fairford: 11,606 At Gerrard: 10,612 At Dundas: 12,050 At Queen: 12,633 At Eastern: 13,430

1 lane each direction

1 lane each direction north of Gerrard 1 lane northbound Gerrard to Queen 2 lanes each direction south of Queen

1 lane each direction

2 lanes in each direction

Two-way

One-way northbound between Queen and Gerrard

Two-way

Two-way

13.7 m to 14.3 m

7.3 m to 18.8 m

13.9 m to 15.3 m

12.5 m to 19.0 m

Bike lanes from Danforth to Queen

None

Bike lanes from Danforth to Queen

None

noted

Road Width

40 km/h

Both sides all day

North of Queen: east side only South of Queen: both sides with rush hour restrictions

All day both ways

North of Eastern: both sides with rush hour restrictions South of Eastern: restricted both sides both rush hours, both ways


11.8.2 Intersection Analysis Summary Don Roadway

Carlaw

Leslie

Traffic Volumes

11,046

26,975

25,646

Number of Lanes

Crosses 6 lanes (5 travel, 1 turn) and one channelized turn lane

Existing Bike Infrastructure

Pedestrian Island

Crosses 7 lanes (6 travel, 1 turn) and 1 railroad track in Crosses 7 lanes (6 travel, 1 turn) the median

None

None

Median with sufficient space for pedestrians to wait

None

Intersection is equipped with bike paths at all four crossings parallel with crosswalks, connecting the Lower Don Recreation Trail to the north with the Martin Goodman Trail to the south Median with sufficient space for pedestrians to wait

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11.8.3 Port Lands Street Analysis Summary Commissioners

Carlaw

Villiers

Pro Unwin

Bridges a gap in the Martin Goodman Trail Martin Goodman Trail at Cherry St between the Waterfront and Leslie St

Connects To

Martin Goodman Trail at Cherry St and at Leslie St

None

Activities & Destinations

Shipping channel turning basin, Cirque de Soleil site

Shipping channel turning basin

None

None

50 km/h

50 km/h

50 km/h (not posted)

50 km/h (not posted)

At Cherry: 5,622 At Don Roadway: 4,420 At Carlaw: 6,149 At Leslie: 3,631

At Commissioners: 6,149

No data

No data

2 lanes each direction

2 lanes each direction

Two-way

Two-way

Two separate, parallel two-way sections

Two-way

16.5 m to 26.1 m

14.3 m to 14.7 m

North Side: 11.2 m to 12.6 m South Side: 8.4 m to 9.1 m

7.1 m to 7.9 m

None

None

None

None

Both sides, all day

No parking

Both sides, all day

None

Posted Speeds Traffic Volumes (8hr intersection counts) Number of Travel Lanes After Effects Directionality (two-way un less otherwise noted

Road Width Existing Bike Infrastructure Parking

102

2 lanes each direction 1 lanes in each direction


11.9 Cross Sections

103


104


105


106


11.10 Intersection Diagrams Broadview Avenue

107


Logan Avenue

108


Carlaw Avenue North

109


Pape Avenue

110


Jones Avenue

111


Leslie Street

112


Greenwood Avenue

113


Coxwell Avenue

114


Carlaw Avenue South

Villiers Street

115


Commissioners Street

116


Unwin Avenue

117


118


Part II Quick-Start Vision

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12.0 Riverdale Cycling Network Vision

Vision Statement: To enable residents of Greater Riverdale to lead a healthy and active lifestyle by improving physical and psychological connections to the waterfront through safe and accessible active transportation infrastructures.

One of the goals to achieve this vision is to create a Quick-Start Route (QSR) in Riverdale that can be quickly implemented to help residents with improved cycling infrastructure and cycling route options within the area. The QSR will be accompanied by a wayfinding strategy with the intention promoting the QSR and cycling as a viable transportation option. Cycling has the potential to become a popular mode of transportation in the city and in Greater Riverdale due to its convenience and health benefits. However, cycling is being hindered by the lack of cycling infrastructure that can connect people to their destinations safely and efficiently. Greater Riverdale has fewer than 20 kilometres of dedicated on-street bicycle infrastructure and is home to the most dangerous intersection for cyclists in the City of Toronto (Verster, 2013). Also, this report recognizes that there are no existing cycling routes that connect Danforth Avenue to the Lake Shore Boulevard East. The existing north-south cycling routes are disjointed and lack consistency raising issues of safety and unreliability for travel. Considering cycling ridership is increasing in Toronto and Riverdale has a higher percentage mode share of cyclists than the city average, there is necessity for expansion and improvement to the current cycling network to accommodate the growth in Riverdale.

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The Riverdale Cycling Network Vision aims to provide recommendations for the implementation of a Quick-Start cycling route in the study area during the next ten years. In addition, the proposal includes a Riverdale Cycling Master Plan providing general recommendations for additional cycling routes that may be installed in sets of four phases. Overall, the Riverdale Cycling Network Vision strives for the excellence of accessible cycling infrastructure in Greater Riverdale as a part of a long-term plan.

12.1 Quick Start Project A Quick-Start project is a cost efficient, relatively affordable, and at times less invasive method of implementing necessary infrastructure for immediate improvements. Quick-Start in this context refers to a north-south cycling route project that could be implemented within a short time frame at minimal costs. The implementation of this project inhibits any type of major construction that would close roads or impede on traffic for extended periods of time. Cycling Quick-Start projects typically utilize existing cycling networks with improvements made to the route in design or pathway extensions. The Quick-Start project may consist of some or all of the following elements: paint, signage, buffers (painted buffers, bollards, and so on), wayfinding methods, route extensions, and pavement. The proposed plan aims to provide a Quick-Start option that consists of new and repainted bike lanes and a wayfinding strategy that will help cyclists travel through the neighbourhood, to other destinations, and the waterfront as promoted in this study. To ensure that this project is effective without extensive disruption, it is important for the Quick-Start project to be connected to the existing cycling network resulting in better integrated roadways for local residents.


12.2 Objectives

12.3 Assumptions

The goal of this Quick-Start project is to identify a North-South route available for quick implementation that provides access to safe and dedicated routes to travel towards the waterfront area. The proposed new infrastructure will be in the form of signed and separated cycling lanes identified through the use of road paint and street signs that will provide information about the cyclist’s location. Above all, the Quick-Start provides an opportunity for others to enjoy the Greater Riverdale experience through physical activity and the opportunity to lead healthier lifestyles.

The proposed plan is an establishment of the research and analysis identified during Part I of this report. The plan remains as a guide for cycling infrastructure in the study area with specific focus and detail on a Quick-Start Route option. Technical and infrastructural considerations of routes through engineering renderings were not considered in the report. The extent of the evaluation is based on existing conditions experienced on the roads and within Greater Riverdale. The report did not seek public consultation with stakeholders or residents prior to the selection or design of the proposed plan. The results of the study will not guarantee that the Quick-Start Route will be realized in Greater Riverdale. Primarily, the report aims to encourage the discussion and implementation of cycling infrastructure in Riverdale.

12.4 Methodology In Part I, the existing conditions of the study area were evaluated to provide the background knowledge to identify the needs of the community. Likewise, best practices of cycling were evaluated for locations in Canada and Europe. In order to classify a route as a potential Quick-Start option, major north-south roads of Riverdale were studied using a three-point assessment system. The evaluation of roads and locations are based on statistical information, field research, and secondary sources. The roadway analysis in Greater Riverdale and the existing cycling network will guide the selection of five distinct cycling route options. Utilizing all relevant findings, an analysis was undertaken to determine several cycling routes as options for a north-south cycling route. Through a criteria matrix comparing and contrasting route options, a preferred route will be selected. The costs associated with the routes will be considered and evaluated. The preferred route will evaluate the costs in Canadian Dollars associated with implementing the Quick-Start Route capturing capital costs only. The Riverdale Cycling Master Plan refers to relevant research conducted and existing plans for the locale to produce the proposed vision.

121


13.0 Route Selection 13.1 Proposed Routes

After careful examination of the information and data presented in Section 11.0 Existing Conditions, the top five potential routes were chosen, as shown on the map above.

122


Danforth Ave

Felstead Ave

Carlaw Ave

Blvd E Shore

ton gs Kin

rail man T

Lake

Trail

Good

in er Expres s way

Lake

lvd E

eB Shor

Martin

Cherry St

Parliament St

Carlaw Ave

Eastern Ave

Gard

Woodbine Ave

Logan Ave

Broadview Ave

Bayview Ave

Eastern Ave

Ave tern

Eas

Dundas St E

Queen St E

Queen St E

Eastwood Rd

Leslie St

Shuter St

Fairford Ave

Gerrard St E

Jones Ave

River St

Dundas St E

Walpole Ave

tE rd S

Rd

y arkwa

Riverdale Ave

rra Ge

Coxwell Ave

d

Greenwood Ave

yR

Jones Ave

Va lle

Pape Ave

ale

Carlaw Ave

sed

lley P D on Va

Ro

rs St

sione

is Comm

Cherr y St

Unwin

Ave

il

n Tra

odma

in Go

Mart G rtin Ma

oo

an dm

Proposed Routes

il Tra

Legend Final Short List of Routes 1: Broadview-Eastern-Booth 2: Logan-Carlaw Split 3: Pape-Riverdale-Carlaw

ยง

4: Jones-Rushbrooke-Leslie 5: Greenwood-Dundas-Leslie 1, 2, 3: Don and Leslie Crossings 4, 5: Leslie Crossing Existing Cycling Infrastructure 0

0.25 0.5

1 km

123


13.1.1 North-South Riverdale Route The Riverdale portions of the routes above where chosen based on the existing road conditions described in Section 11.0 Existing Conditions, and also considers the effectiveness, directness, and safety measures for cyclists enroute towards Lake Shore Boulevard East. Additionally, emphasis was placed on streets that were physically well-suited (e.g. road width) to include cycling infrastructure, or had existing cycling infrastructure in place.

13.1.2 Lake Shore Boulevard East Crossing Analysis of the current conditions of the intersections determined that Leslie Street as the most favourable point for crossing Lake Shore Boulevard East. The intersection is currently equipped with bicycle crossings and signals, and existing connections to Lake Shore Boulevard East Trail from the Martin Goodman Trail.

A second crossing was identified at Don Roadway, however, this crossing would require the construction of cycling crossing facilities as none currently exist. Nonetheless, the Lower Don River Trail, the Lake Shore Boulevard East Trail, and the smaller multi-use path would all be linked together with the new crossing completed. Thus, both intersections were included in the routes identified above for further analysis.

A third potential crossing exists at Cherry Street, however, it is currently unsuitable for large volumes of cyclists as intersection crossing is very segmented. There are plans in the future for the reconfiguration of the intersection as part of the Proposed East Bayfront LRT and Port Lands LRT plans by the TTC. As such, the Cherry Street crossing was eliminated due to the complications and future plans that currently exist. The focus turns to the aforementioned crossings on Lake Shore Boulevard East.

13.1.3 Port Lands Alignment The routes selected on the south side of Lake Shore Boulevard East were chosen based on existing road conditions, similar to those north of Lake Shore Boulevard East. However, the determining factor would be reconnecting to the existing Martin Goodman Trail system either at Cherry Street or Leslie Street. The selection of the reconnection to Martin Goodman trail would depend on the crossing selected at Lake Shore Boulevard East. In the case of the Leslie Street crossing, no on-road sections would be necessary as it links directly to the Martin Goodman Trail.

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13.2 Evaluation Criteria The five short listed routes were compared along the following criteria: • Directness: A measure of how direct the route is relative to the number of turns or barriers that exist. The entirety of the route was evaluated with emphasis on the portion between Danforth Avenue to Lakeshore Boulevard East. The most direct route would have the least number of turns, and would allow cyclists to arrive at their destination in a quick and efficient manner. • Centrality: A measure used to describe the physical location of the route relative to the study area. A route closer to the centre of the neighbourhood is more likely to have a larger catchment area, and has the ability to serve a wider range of amenities in general. • Connectivity: A measure of how well the proposed route interacts with existing cycling infrastructure and network. The more connections the route makes to the existing cycling network would be given a higher score. • Topography: A description of the elevation changes along the route. Routes with longer portions of flat land were given the higher score. Also, the slope of the route was considered in terms of the speed and energy that is exerted by the cyclist. For example, a steep path with a shorter climb was valued higher as less energy would be exerted by the cyclist than a gradually sloped path with a longer climb. • Traffic Volume: A comparison of relative traffic volumes of vehicles on the proposed routes. The lower the traffic count, the higher the score attached to the route. • Traffic Speed: A comparison of relative traffic speeds on the proposed routes based on posted speed limits. Slower vehicle speeds are safer for pedestrians and cyclists. The slower the speed limits, the higher the score attached to the route.This category is a measure for safety. • Impact: A measure of the impact cycling would have on the current traffic conditions, including the number of vehicle travel lanes and existing parking. This category indirectly relates to the rationality for the implementation of a cycling route at this location based on the least disruption it would have to the study area. Routes with the least impact scored the highest. • Infrastructure Needs: A comparison of the relative need for new infrastructure along the route. This is measured in length (kilometres) of new bike lanes required, as well as other elements, such as intersection crossings or bike signals. Routes with the least infrastructural needs will score higher in the criteria. • Estimated Costs: An estimate of the total capital cost in Canadian dollars of implementing the route. This measure was not included in the total score, but is taken into account when deciding the optimal route. A large difference in cost may lead to one route being more favourable over another if its total scores were very similar from the above criteria.

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13.3 Evaluation 13.3.1 Matrix

Directness

1. Broadview-Eastern2. Logan-Carlaw Split Booth O

3. Pape-RiverdaleCarlaw

4. Jones-RushbrookeLeslie

5. GreenwoodDundas-Leslie

O

Centrality Connectivity

O

Topography Traffic Volumes

O

Traffic Speeds

O

Impact

O

O

O

6.10 km

7.20 km

Don Roadway/ Lake Shore Blvd E crossing $61,000 + intersection

Don Roadway/ Lake Shore Blvd E crossing $72,000 + intersection

O

Infrastructure Needs

8.17 km

New Bike Lanes Other Major Work

O

Don Roadway/Lake Shore Blvd E crossing

Estimated Cost

$81,700 + intersection

O

O 4.36 km

Don Roadway/ Don Roadway/ Lake Shore Blvd E Lake Shore Blvd E crossing crossing $43,600

Total

13.3.2 Discussion The evaluation above has resulted in the selection of Jones-Rushbrooke-Leslie route being the preferred alignment for a QSR. The route scored very well across all criteria that produced a combined score higher than the other four routes. The estimated cost was on the lower end of the cost scale, increasing its desirability. (Refer to ## costing section).

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3.27 km

$32,700


14.0 Preferred Route The preferred Quick Start cycling route consists of Jones Street, Queen Street East, Rushbrooke Avenue, Eastern Avenue, Mosley Street, Leslie Street, The Martin Goodman Trail, and Unwin Avenue. As Jones Street and Eastern Avenue already have existent bicycle lanes that are in adequate condition travelling in both directions on each roadway, it is not necessary to install any upgrades as part of the initial Quick Start program. In addition, this Quick Start route benefits from the Martin Goodman Trail extending alongside Leslie Street from Lakeshore Boulevard East to Unwin Avenue, and therefore no supplementary cycling infrastructure is necessary along this length of roadway. The Martin Goodman trail begins again at 475 Unwin Avenue, and from here cyclists can travel the rest of the Quick Start route on this trail until they reach the lake.

The Kinetix Consulting Group proposes that... 1.

6.

10.

Eastbound and westbound marked shared-use lanes (sharrows) are installed on Queen Street East, between Jones Avenue and Rushbrooke Avenue

Northbound and southbound bicycle lanes are installed on Leslie Street from the southern end of the plaza entrance/exit intersection to Lake Shore Boulevard East

A cyclist refuge island is installed at the Rushbrooke Avenue/Eastern Avenue/ Mosley Street intersection, with green base paint covering the area of the island and crossings from Rushbrooke Street to the island, and from the island to Mosley Street

2. A southbound contra-flow bicycle lane and northbound bicycle lane are installed on Rushbrooke Avenue, from Queen Street East to Eastern Avenue

3. An eastbound bicycle lane is installed on Mosley Street from Eastern Avenue to Leslie Street

4. A northbound bicycle lane is installed on Leslie Street from Eastern Avenue to Mosley Street

5. Northbound and Southbound marked shared-use lanes with green base paint (super sharrows) are installed on Leslie Street from Mosley Street to the southern end of the plaza entrance/exit intersection

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7. Eastbound and westbound bicycle lanes are installed on Unwin Avenue from Leslie Street to the continuation of the Martin Goodman Trail at the Outer Harbour Marina, 475 Unwin Avenue

8. One standard bicycle box is installed in the southbound direction on Jones Street, for left turns on to Queen Street East. One two-stage turn queue box is installed at the Eastern Avenue and Leslie Street intersection, in the northbound direction on Leslie Street, leading to the the second stage at the east leg Eastern Avenue, to proceed west on Eastern Avenue

9. A high visibility ladder crosswalk and parallel green bicycle crossing is installed across Queen Street East on the east leg of the Queen Street East and Rushbrooke intersection

11. High visibility green bicycle paint crossings are installed across all legs of the Leslie Street/Eastern Avenue intersection

12. Two high visibility green bicycle crossings are installed at the Leslie Street and Unwin Avenue junction, to safely connect the Martin Goodman Trail with the newly installed bicycle lanes on Unwin Avenue. In addition, two stop bars are installed in front of the current stop sign locations


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Jones Avenue from Danforth Avenue to Queen Street East

Figure 14.1. Jones Avenue existing conditions

Figure 14.4. Jones Avenue existing streetview

129


Danforth Ave

Ravina Cres

Jones Ave

Harcourt Ave

Strathcona Ave

Jones Ave

Baird Ave

Shudell Ave

Jones Ave

Hunter St

Boultbee Ave Boultbee Ave

Jones Ave

Myrtle Ave

Gerrard St E

Endean Ave

Sproat Ave

Jones Ave Dagmar Ave

Dundas St E

Mallon Ave

Jones Ave

Figure 14.2. Existing conditions

Chatham Ave

Hazelwood Ave

130 Queen St E


Queen Street East from Jones Avenue to Rushbrooke Avenue The short distance (approximately 50 metres) on Queen Street East, between Jones Street and Rushbrooke Avenue, operates as a two-way minor arterial roadway with two travel lanes in each direction, and the two middle lanes accommodate the 501 east and west Queen Streetcar tracks. Daytime-only on-street parking on the north side of Queen Street East begins at the intersection of Rushbrooke Avenue and Queen Street East. This section of the QSR will be implemented using marked shared-use lanes (sharrows) and signage eastbound and westbound, between Jones Avenue and Rushbrooke Avenue, as there is insufficient width in this section of Queen Street to accommodate bicycle lanes and also maintain the existing travel lanes and on-street parking. Sharrows are intended to help guide cyclists to position themselves on the roadway for safety and to encourage drivers to share the road with cyclists. Sharrows also remind drivers that are parking their vehicles to be alert and aware of cyclists when they open their doors.

Queen Street East and Rushbrooke Intersection: High Visibility Ladder Crosswalk Implementation and Bicycle Crossing

In total, two bicycle boxes are proposed to be implemented, at two different intersections along the Quick Start route. Bicycle boxes benefit both drivers and cyclists at intersections, because when cyclists clear the intersection ahead of cars they are more visible, and less likely to have to squeeze around a right turning vehicle, which is also more comfortable for drivers (www1.toronto.ca, 2014). The QSR intersection of Queen Street East and Jones Street will be implemented using one standard bicycle box in the southbound direction on Jones Street, for left turns on to Queen Street East, to encourage safer intersection crossing and turning on to Queen Street East.

One high visibility minor road ladder crosswalk with green bicycle crossing is proposed to be implemented at the Queen Street East and Rushbrooke Avenue intersection in order to safely connect pedestrian as well as cyclists from the northbound Rushbrooke Avenue bicycle lane to the Queen Street East westbound Sharrows. The distance from the Jones Street/Queen Street East intersection with traffic lights to this proposed crosswalk is approximately 50 metres. Although the minimum required distance between traffic control signs is 200 metres, this minimum has been reduced in the downtown core or in densely built up areas where numerous pedestrians cross the roadway (Transportation Services, 2013). In this instance, there is considerable foot traffic along Queen Street East and in order to avoid the risks associated with cycling on the sidewalk, a crosswalk and cycle crossing is recommended to improve safety for pedestrians and cyclists crossing at this location.

Jones Ave

Jones Ave

Queen Street East and Jones Avenue Intersection: Bicycle Box with Loop Detector Implementation

Queen St E

Figure 14.4: existing conditions

131

Queen St E

Figure 14.5. Proposed implementation


Figure 14.6. Bicycle crossing alongside crosswalk

Figure 14.7. Bond Street and Dundas Street East crosswalk

132


Rushbrooke Avenue from Queen Street East to Eastern Avenue Between Queen Street East and Eastern Avenue, Rushbrooke Avenue functions as a one-way local roadway travelling north, with one travel lane. On-street parking rotates bi-monthly and is located on the west side of the street from the 1st to the 15th and switches to the east side from the 16th to the end of the month. To accommodate both a contra-flow bicycle lane on the west side of the street travelling south, and a bicycle lane travelling north, Kinetix Consulting proposes that the alternate side parking regulations be rescinded and replaced with parking at all times (with the exception of overnight non-permit parking) on the east side of the street. This will allow for a 3 m northbound travelling lane, a 2.2 m parking lane on the eastern side of the street, a 1.7 m contra-flow lane on the west side of the street, and a 1.8 m bicycle lane travelling northbound on the east side of the street, in between the travel lane and the parking lane. This reallocation will not result in any fewer parking spaces on the street overall.

Figure 14.7: Contra-flow bicycle lanes

Figure 14.8: Proposed roadway (with the exception of the left side parking lane)

133


Figure 14.10. Proposed implementation

Rushbrooke Ave

Queen St E

Rushbrooke Ave

Figure 14.9: existing conditions

Eastern Ave 134


Eastern Avenue from Rushbrooke Avenue to Leslie Street and Mosley Street from Eastern Avenue to Leslie Street As Eastern Avenue has an existing westbound bicycle lane in good condition from Rushbrooke Avenue to Leslie Street, as well as street lights and crossings at Leslie Street and Eastern Avenue, this leg of the route will be used for cyclists travelling northbound from the lake, up into Greater Riverdale. From Eastern Avenue to Leslie Street, Mosley Street operates as a two-way local roadway, travelling eastbound and westbound. On-street parking is located on the south side of the street. As this leg of the route will only accommodate cyclists travelling southbound toward the lake, one bicycle lane is proposed. The roadway is wide enough (approximately 13 m) to provide one 1.8 m bicycle lane on the south side of the street travelling eastbound, without impacting travel lanes or on-street parking.

Rushbrooke Avenue/Eastern Avenue/Mosley Street Junction

from Rushbrooke Avenue, green paint covering the area of the island, and a green crossing leading out of the island into the Mosley Street bicycle lane. The island will be enclosed by curb blocks lining the perimeter, with the exception of the two openings on the north and south sides. Six reflective bollards will also be placed along the perimeter of the island, with two on each end and two in the middle. Figure 14.11: Pedestrian refuge non-raised island in Surrey BC

Figure 14.12: Pedestrian/cyclist refuge island, utilizing the same configuration as the proposed refuge island

This intersection of the QSR is especially complex as it involves three separate streets in conjunction with one another. Cyclists travelling south toward the lake must cross Eastern Avenue in order to continue travelling the QSR along Mosley Street. Kinetix Consulting proposes a cyclist refuge island be installed at this intersection, as there will be a demand for cyclists to cross the road, but a signalized crossing would result in traffic congestion and there will not be enough cycle traffic to warrant one. It is not necessary for the roadway to be reconfigured as there is already a painted island at this junction and the new cyclist refuge island would cover the same precise area as the existing island. The minimum width of a cyclist refuge island is 1.8 m, and the proposed island will be 2 m in width. It is proposed that the total area of the island is approximately 58 m2, and it will remain level with the roadway. There will be a green cycle crossing into the island

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Figure 14.13: Curb blocks being utilized as a buffer between the road and sidewalk


Marigold Ave

Leslie St

Rushbrooke Ave

Eastern Ave

Mosley St

Ave

Marigold Ave

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Figure 14.14: existing conditions

Eastern Ave

Mosley St

Figure 14.1.15: Proposed implementation

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Leslie Street from Eastern Avenue to Lakeshore Boulevard East Leslie Street from Eastern Avenue to Mosley Street This section of Leslie Street currently operates as a two-way minor arterial roadway, with two travel lanes in each direction, including on-street parking (restricted during rush hour) on the west side of the street. The roadway is wide enough to maintain all travel lanes and existing parking conditions, as well as provide one bicycle lane travelling north, on the east side of the street, however a lane reconfiguration will be necessary. As the total width of the street is approximately 14 m, the new travel lanes will be approximately 3.125 m each, leaving 1.5 m to accommodate the new bicycle lane.

Leslie Street from Mosley Street to the Southern End of the Plaza Entrance/Exit

The Southern End of the Plaza Entrance/Exit to Lake Shore Boulevard East

The short distance on Leslie Street (approximately 50 m), from Mosley Street to the southern end of the plaza entrance/exit continues from the last leg as a two-way roadway, with two travel lanes in each direction, as well as on-street parking. As this section of roadway must accommodate bicycle infrastructure travelling in both direction, it is not wide enough to provide bicycle lanes, and thus it is proposed that this section of the QSR be implemented using marked shared-use lanes with green base paint (super sharrows). In order to provide space for wider sharrow/travel lanes on the outside of the roadway in each direction, a street reconfiguration is necessary. This process will result in two outside traffic lanes that are 4 m in width, and two inside traffic lanes that are 3 m in width, as the total roadway width fluctuates from approximately 14 m to 15 m. The two super sharrow lanes will extend the entire length of this leg, including the intersection.

Leslie Street continues to operate as a two-way roadway, with two travel lanes in each direction, however at this leg the roadway widens to approximately 15 m to 18 m (including a traffic control island in the middle of the two centre lanes near the intersection). Therefore the roadway is wide enough to provide bicycle lanes within the existing cross-section, without impacting travel lanes, although a street reconfiguration will be necessary. Kinetix Consulting proposes that in this section of the QSR, all four travel lane widths will decrease to 3 metres each and two 1.5 metre bicycle lanes travelling in each direction will be installed on the north and south sides of Leslie Street.

Leslie Street and Eastern Avenue Intersection: Two-stage Turn Queue Box Implementation One two-stage turn queue box will installed at the south leg of Leslie Street, leading to the east leg Eastern Avenue, at the Eastern Avenue and Leslie Street intersection. As the traffic lights at this intersection do not provide advanced green signal indications and this junction hosts high traffic volumes, this style of bicycle box will prevent cyclists from having to merge into traffic and will provide a safer way to make left turns. While this configuration typically results in increased delay for cyclists as they must receive two separate green signal indications to turn left, it will increase cyclist comfort and safety at this intersection.

Figure 14.16: Example of super-sharrows

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Figure 14.17: bicycle lane example and diagram of the 2-stage turn queue box


Leslie St

Eastern Ave

Figure 14.19. Proposed implementation

Eastern Ave

Leslie St

Figure 14.18: existing conditions

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Leslie Street and Lake Shore Boulevard East Intersection In order to increase the safety of this widespread intersection, it is proposed that the existing cycle crossings across each leg of the intersection be painted green. Green paint is highly visible and works as a warning sign for motorists to be more alert of those crossing the green areas. In addition, in order to maintain the traffic control island located at the north leg of the intersection it is proposed that bicycle paths be implemented where the sidewalks on the northeast corner and northwest corner currently exist. The north-west sidewalk will be maintained as the entire corner is paved and accessible for pedestrians, and the bicycle path will be 1.5 m wide and painted green. A curb cut will need to be made where the sidewalk currently lines up with the north end of the traffic control island, so that the bicycle lane merges into the raised green bicycle path to the intersection. The northeast corner will be implemented the same as the north-west, however in addition the sidewalk will be shifted further east as to make room for the green bicycle path adjacent the street.

st Trl a E d v l B e

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Figure 14.20: existing conditions

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t Trl s a E d v l Shore B lvd E

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Lake Shore Blvd East Trl

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Figure 14.22: Proposed implementation: Dutch-style intersection

Figure 14.23: Green bike lane implementation technique

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The Martin Goodman Trail from Lakeshore Boulevard East to Unwin Avenue e Blvd E

e Blvd E

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Figure 14.24: existing conditions

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Figure 14.25. Proposed implementation


Figure 14.26.The Martin Goodman Trail

Figure 14.27. Community garden located at the QSR leg of the Martin Goodman Trail

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Leslie Street and Unwin Avenue Intersection In order to safely connect the Martin Goodman Trail on the east side of Leslie Street with the newly installed bicycle lanes on Unwin Avenue, it is necessary to install two green bicycle crossings. The crossing on the north side of the intersection will be primarily for cyclists travelling westbound from the Martin Goodman Trail, on to the Unwin Street westbound bicycle lane. The south side crossing will be primarily for cyclists travelling eastbound from the Unwin Avenue bicycle lane to the Martin Goodman trail. These crossings will provide direction for cyclists and help to navigate them to the next step of the route. They will also provide safer crossing and more visibility for drivers travelling around the Unwin-Leslie bend, and in and out of the Leslie Street Spit entrance.

Martin

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Figure 14.29. Proposed implementation


Figure 14.30. Green bicycle crossing

Figure 14.31. Green bicycle crossing

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Unwin Avenue from Leslie Street to the Martin Goodman Trail at 475 Unwin Avenue Unwin Avenue operates as a two-way combination of private and local roadway between Leslie Street and the Martin Goodman Trail at 475 Unwin Avenue. This section of the road has one travel lane in each direction, as well as paved shoulders in each direction, and there is no on-street parking dedication. The QSR proposes simple road widening is required here to incorporate the existing unpaved shoulder into the roadway and transformed into bicycle lanes. This widening will expand the roadway from approximately 7.2 – 7.8 metres, to widths of 9.5 metres to 10.2 metres, allowing for bicycle lanes of 1.8 metres and eastbound and westbound traffic lanes from 3.0 to 3.3 metres each. This widening process will not be as elaborate as typical expansion and widening road projects as there will be no curb, gutter, or catch basin removal and replacement necessary. In addition, where Unwin Avenue meets the Martin Goodman Trail at 475 Unwin Avenue, it is proposed that a green bicycle crossing is implemented to connect cyclists travelling westbound on Unwin Avenue to the Martin Goodman Trail on the south side of the street.

Figure 14.31. A street shoulder transformed into a bike lane

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Figure 14.33. Proposed implementation

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15.0 Implementation The successful implementation of the Quick-Start Route relies on the guiding principles to promote healthy and active living that is and through partnerships, promotional tools and public awareness

connected

safe, accessible,

well

Implementation requires a multi-faceted approach that includes public consultation, public awareness and engagement, planning partnerships, consultation, city approval, funding, and costing. The plan should set SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-specific) objectives for the implementation of the the QSR (Way2Work, n.d.).

15.1 Public Consultation In an interview with Christina Bouchard (personal communication, November 4, 2014), she discusses the public and how their input is an important influence in decision-making in the city. Primarily in the City of Toronto, to create a designated space for cycling is indicative of creating change. These changes may include moving, narrowing, or eliminating parking and

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travel lanes, a subject usually met with opposition and negativity. In addition, some local residents are opposed to cycling infrastructure in their neighbourhood potentially affecting property value in a negative manner. As a result, the institution of cycling lanes may lose support from local councillors if the residents in the ward are against implementing cycling infrastructure. To

promote cycling among communities and engage in public awareness, the City may embark on public outreach events with divisional partners, conduct planning studies, and respond to public feedback accordingly.


15.2 Public Awareness and Engagement

Cycling and the Waterway would require public awareness and engagement with the local community to promote cycling in Riverdale. It is important to engage the local community with cycling awareness and public participation. Engaging the public through social media is a quick and low-cost method to spread information about cycling and the Waterway. Social media participation among youth and young adults are dominating more conventional methods of knowledge publication such as news outlets. The ease and simplicity of publishing news, sharing posts and other viral information makes social media a very powerful tool to engage youth and young adults. Collaborating with existing organizations and public advocacy groups such as Ward 30 Bikes from Cycle Toronto can promote relevant cycling information and facts through their communication streams. Likewise, information regarding campaigns, events, and benefits could be shared

through online or in print mediums. Collaboration among local schools is another method to engage youth to increase their intake of physical activity. Secondly, cycling advocacy groups and associated community groups may establish partnership programs with schools and public events. Physical activity may be regarded as a lifestyle choice and cycling can be an opportunity to encourage students to be more physically active and utilize the Waterway as their method of travel to school. Advocacy groups may hold after school programs at high schools for interested students to teach them how to perform simple bicycle repairs and maintenance or arrange for group cycling activities to the waterfront. Elementary schools may participate in classroom competitions to encourage family cycling activities to accumulate hours for prize incentives. Lastly, collaboration with advocacy groups and social

media could occur through planned group cycling activities on weekends or holidays to encourage new cyclists or casual riders who are apprehensive to cycle year-round. Fitness gyms and studios may utilize the cycling facility as a part of their exercise routine. Safety on the road is a concern to many avid cyclists and cycling in larger groups increase visibility and safety. Likewise, the visibility of groups of cyclists along shared roadways increases community awareness of cyclist presence. A community cycling launch event for the Waterway could be introduced to excite existing and new riders. The street could be blocked off for the portion of the day for the launch event. Furthermore, a fundraiser for non-profits or other relevant issues may be created alongside the cycling launch event to create a stronger community.

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15.3 City Sector Approach to Cycling Infrastructure Implementation

Implementing cycling infrastructure from the City perspective is a multi-layered process that requires due-diligence to ensure stakeholders, the public, and financial concerns are met. The City relies on recommendations from a local community groups or councils with suggestions for cycling routes. Suggestions from local groups are useful as they tend to know the local road network best and may be informative of specific local needs and issues. In her interview Christina Bouchard (personal communication, November 4, 2014), City Staff will initiate a process to identify potential cycling routes to become the basis of a network implementation plan. A list of potential routes will be compiled and wait for approval in principle for a network planning document. Cycling lanes are dedicated

legislative parts of a roadway and cyclists abide by the same set of laws as vehicular drivers as a result it needs to follow the Highway Traffic Act. A municipality however has the authority to pass bylaws exempting cycling lanes from certain restrictions. Cycling infrastructure is generally more inexpensive to implement starting at a base cost of $10 per linear meter that may consist of simply painting a cycling lane on a roadway. Cost will increase when additional infrastructure such as pavement markings and signage are required. Costly premier facilities include curb reconstruction and lane adjustments. Other implementations methods include a proposed recommendation from a local community group or councils with suggestions for cycling routes. Suggestions from local groups are useful, as they tend to know the local road network

best and may be informative of specific local needs and issues. Also a cycling project may be suggested during the process of an Environmental Assessment (EA) of a local area to make the process more streamlined. Potential studies may not always lead to constructing cycling lanes but may be instrumental to suggesting changes in the modes of transportation. While this method is less common in the City of Toronto, cycling infrastructure can be planned for in advance in the instance of constructing a new roadway. Other municipalities are more likely to utilize this method, as the existing roadway network in Toronto is already quite extensive.

A municipality has the authority to pass bylaws exempting cycling lanes from certain restrictions. 149


15.4 Private Sector Roles in Cycling Implementation The major approach for delivering cycling infrastructure projects involves companies in the private sector working in partnership with public sector entities. The private sector’s role in the partnership include: reducing the financial burden on the public sector, allowing risks to be transferred from the public to the private sector, and increasing the value for money spent for infrastructure services by providing lower cost, and more efficient and reliable services (Kwak, Y., Chih, Y., & Ibbs, C., 2009). However, many of these projects are held up or terminated due to issues such as complex decision making, poorly defined sector policies, inadequate legal/ regulatory frameworks, lack of strong government commitment

and objectives, and lack of mechanisms to attract long-term finance (Kwak, Y., Chih, Y., & Ibbs, C., 2009). An example of a method often used in bicycle infrastructure implementation is “following the pavers” (CITE, originally in private sector section). This tactic involves private sector companies investigating what roadways are already being reconstructed, and then persuading the city to install bicycle infrastructure during this time, while it can be more easily implemented (Hollingworth, 2014). The City of Toronto may construct cycling infrastructure in advance under the recommendation of the private sector alongside the construction or repaving of roadways to reduce costs.

15.5 Cycling Pilot Project Generally, bicycle network implementation requires an EA study in the City (Hollingworth, 2014). EA studies could range in the $400,000 mark for proposed cycling networks which is a costly exercise for bicycle route implementation (Hollingworth, 2014). However, the AdelaideRichmond cycling route was introduced as a pilot project complete with ballards yet it did not require an EA study as it was considered to be a short-term venture (Hollingworth, 2014). The QSR project could be introduced

in a similar fashion as a cycling pilot project in the City testing a low-cost north-south connection cycling route with a wayfinding strategy. A branded wayfinding strategy specific to a cycling route is a first in Canada and would warrant a pilot project.

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15.6 Wayfinding A comprehensive Wayfinding Strategy can be used to promote cycling in Greater Riverdale and the City of Toronto. The Wayfinding Strategy aims to bridge the knowledge gap among current cycling misconceptions for residents while providing cycling awareness. Through the Quick-Start Route and the Wayfinding Strategy, these may become the first phase of cycling implementation in Greater Riverdale to encourage greater ridership among city dwellers. The effectiveness of the QSR as a link between Greater Riverdale to the Lake requires signage and marketing strategies to change the perception and barriers between the city and the lake. Psychological connections may be developed through wayfinding evidently improving the connectivity of Greater Riverdale to the lake. This may also pose as a suggestion that leading a healthy lifestyle is possible through detailed signage. These signs will guide and inform local residents of the QSR and its connection to the lake. Wayfinding can be used to generate awareness and broaden the interest for cycling among commuters, recreational activity, and family activities (Way2Work, n.d.).

The Wayfinding Strategy has two main implementation components: 1. Branding and Marketing 2. Signage

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Cycling promotion and health promotion can be one in the same due to natural health benefits involved with cycling. One method is to fine-tune wayfinding signage and other cycling infrastructure to promote health through informing cyclists with certain health knowledge. As cyclist travel through certain designated cycling routes, wayfinding signs will include information directing travellers towards popular amenities and destinations. Usually such signage will include distance remaining from the destination and include an area map. We recommend an addition of approximate time required to reach the destination. To help incorporate some informative health knowledge, we propose informational signage for commuters with the option to walk or bike with health information for both forms of commute. Time measures and calories burned will be approximated based on average commute time and speed that may not be accurate based on individual characteristics. The purpose of recommending health informative signage is to engage cyclists and pedestrians and illustrates the approximated calories burned. Our signage is intended to encourage continued physical activity through identifying health benefits on display. Other health tips may include positive associations with life expectancy, cardiovascular improvements, and muscular fitness development. To further engage with the local community, signage may also include information regarding businesses carrying cycling equipment, repair facilities, and bicycle rentals to help support local economy.


15.6.1 Branding and Marketing

The Waterway symbolizes Toronto’s major water asset, Lake Ontario, as a destination and attraction for people in Greater Riverdale and beyond.

Branding can be used as a marketing strategy to promote the QSR in Greater Riverdale to potentially attract locals and tourists including commuter, leisure, and recreational uses. Brand identity could be the name, phrases, sign, symbol, or design that creates an original image and strong recognition (Way2Work, n.d.). The brand identity should include the values of the project, benefits, and values of the organizations participating in the completion of the venture (Way2Work, n.d.). Overall, the marketing should be consistent, relevant, distinctive, and easily communicated. Figure 15.6.1-2 (Cycling Campaign for Cycle Derby) shows how cycling could be promoted using vibrant and eye-catching posters with phrases to brand its objective. Likewise, Cycle Superhighway in London (Figure 15.6.1-1) uses a unique logo and naming that intuitively understood as a priority laneway for cyclists. The Riverdale Cycling Master Plan will herein refer to the QSR as “The Waterway” as a proposed branding name (Figure 15.6.1-3). This cycling route is a passageway for cyclists to arrive to Lake Ontario through a branded and dedicated laneway.

Figure 15.6.1.1 (above): Waterway Conceptual Logo, Figure 15.6.1.2 (right): Cycling Campaign for Cycle Derby

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15.6.2 Signage Typologies

15.6.2 Signage Typologies The signage will be applied along the QSR and across Greater Riverdale at major intersections and where turns occur. The types of signage aim to improve directionality and neighbourhood connectivity of Greater Riverdale. The two sign typologies are the narrow totem sign and the directional sign. The Riverdale Cycling Master Plan (see section 16.0) proposes the signage may be built at various major points and intersections in Greater Riverdale with a focus on key destinations and calories burned. The selected wayfinding design should be legible, consistent, and informative (Designworkplan, n.d.).

Figure 15.6.2.3

Figure 15.6.2.4

Figure 15.6.2.5

Ajax Directional Cycling Signage

Arlington County Directional Cycling Signage

Cycle Superhighway Signage in Colliers Wood in London

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(Figure 15.6.2-2) The narrow totem sign will be located at three locations: Danforth Avenue and Jones Avenue; Leslie Avenue and Lake Shore Boulevard East; and Cherry Street and the Martin Goodman Trail at Cherry Beach.

The narrow totem sign will be designed and implemented along with the implementation of the QSR as a branding strategy to direct people towards the lake. The sign will include a map that identifies the current location within Greater Riverdale identifying the lake as the final destination along with other major attractions along the route (Figure 15.6.2-2 Riverdale The Waterway Conceptual Rendering). The key feature of the narrow totem sign is to display the entire QSR (Figure 15.6.2-1) and existing cycling connection networks in Greater Riverdale. The sign will also include active transportation modal information of the average duration of travel time in minutes and average calories burned travelling on foot or by bicycle to reach Lake Ontario (Figure 15.6.2-2). The sign will be located at three locations: Danforth Avenue and Jones Avenue; he Waterway sign will be Leslie Avenue and Lake Shore at three locations: Boulevard East;located and Cherry Street and Danforth Avenue and Jones the Martin Goodman Trail at Cherry Avenue; Leslie Avenue and Beach.

Lake Shore Boulevard East; and Cherry Street and the Directional signage isGoodman a navigation tool Martin Trail at Cherry cyclists use to get a quick snapshot Beach.

of upcoming destinations, kilometres travelled, calories burned, and average time travelling by bicycle (Figure 15.6.2-5, 15.6.2-6). The directional signage will be located along the QSR where there are intersections and turning points.

(Figure 15.6.2.6, 15.6.2.7) The Waterway directional signage

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15.7 Order of Magnitude Cost Estimates

The total estimated cost of the Quick Start Route implementation in full is approximately $95,685.

This estimate includes all roadway bicycle infrastructure, intersection bicycle infrastructure, and wayfinding signage.

All bicycle infrastructure costs totalled approximately $80,885, while wayfinding infrastructure will be approximately $14,800. Most of the bicycle infrastructure costs were derived from the Walk Cycle Waterloo Region plan, while wayfinding costs are based on the Toronto 360o Wayfinding

Strategy. $38,644 has been included in the total cost as a 25% contingency for the roadway reconfigurations, striping existing wide lane, marked shared-use lanes, and sidewalk implementation. These contingencies include aspects such as site preparation, traffic control, administration, design, turn lane painting, additional signs, sign removals/ additions, markings, curb ramps, trees, minor repairs, etc. These cost estimates do not include planning, property, utility relocations, engineering, maintenance, and taxes.

Figure 15.7.1: Toronto 360 Wayfinding Strategy Figure 15.7.2: Walk Cycle Waterloo Region

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Figure 15.7.3: Quick Start Route Costs

Connecting Greater Riverdale to the Lake - Quick Start Route Roadway Bicycle Infrastructure

Bicycle Lanes

Application to RoW

Implementation Strategy

Infill/Gap bike lanes on urban roadways: reallocate and stripe existing roadway (road diet)

Reconfigure lanes

Paint existing pavement (no urban resurfacing and pavement marking Infill / Gaps bike lanes on removals required; urban roadways: stripe cost for existing wide lane painting/signing bike lane only)

Construction Cost

Quantity

Cost

Contingency

$30,000

km

0.9775

$29,325.00

25%

$10,000

km

0.3868

$3,868.00

25%

Infill / Gaps marked shared-use lanes

Paint “sharrows” on existing lanes where posted speed <50 km/h

$150

each

10

$1,500.00

25%

Green paint

Green paint for crossings/sharrows

$3.50

Sq ft.

2150.6

$7,527.10

25%

TOTAL Intersection Bicycle Infrastructure

$42,220.10 Bicycle Box with Loop Detector

Misc.

TOTAL TOTAL CYCLING INFRASTRUCTURE Wayfinding Narrow Map Totem

High visibility ladder crosswalk - minor road Green paint Curb blocks Bollards Curb cut Sidewalk Stop Bar

Narrow map totem Directional 1 blade sign

$3,000.00

each

2

$6,000.00

N/A

$1,500.00

each

1

$1,500.00

N/A

$3.50 $35.00 $196.00 $48.00 $55.00 $5.00

Sq ft. each each m Sq m m

7950.5 26 6 3 19.1 11.55

$27,826.75 $910.00 $1,176.00 $144.00 $1,050.50 $57.75 $38,665.00 $80,885.10

N/A N/A N/A N/A 25% N/A

$3,500 $215

each each

3 20

TOTAL PROJECT TOTAL TOT

$10,500 $4,300 $14,800 $95,685.10 $115,906.38

25% N/A N/A $38,644.40

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Part III

NEXT STEPS AND FUTURE VISION

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Riverdale Cycling Master Plan 16.0 Riverdale Cycling Master Plan

Legend Study Area Boundary Existing Cycling Infrastructure Bike Lanes Contra-Flow Bike Lanes Cycle Tracks Major Multi-use Pathway Minor Multi-use Pathway Park Roads Cycling Connections Sharrows

Proposed Cycling Network Phase 1

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Riverdale Cycling Master Plan in Context 10 15

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Phase 3 Phasing Beyond Not Shown on Map

1 The Waterway (QSR) Wayfinding Strategy for the Waterway

7 Eastern Cycling Route Extension 8 Wayfinding Strategy (Riverdale)

13 Carlaw Shipping Channel Bridge

10 Danforth Cycling Route

16 Railway Cycling Highway Corridor

11 Commissioners Cycling Route

17 Bridges over Railway Corridor

12 Carlaw Crossing at Lake Shore

18 Connection to Toronto Islands

14 Cherry and Lake Shore Intersection Reconfiguration 15 Broadview Cycling Path Carlaw-Logan Split Cycling Route Waterfront Bike Parking Strategy 9 3 2

4 Physical Infrastructure Improvement 5 Jones and Greenwood Revitalization 6 Don Roadway Crossing Reconfiguration

159 www.yourannualreport.com


The Riverdale Cycling Master Plan is a long-term vision for Greater Riverdale to create better linkages within its boundaries and the city as a whole. The plan consists of recommendations for additional infrastructure improvements and cycling infrastructure to the existing cycling network. The First Phase, previously discussed in section 14.0, is a quick start route and wayfinding strategy for immediate implementation. The Second Phase targets the need for a minimum grid cycling network in Ward 30 with improvements to existing cycling infrastructure and a universal implementation of signage. The Third Phase is primarily focused on the vision for cycling in the Port Lands similar to the direction of the Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Lower Don Lands. Phasing beyond visions are broad ideas for cycling in Greater Riverdale addressing edges such as the Lake and the railway. The following recommendations would require open public consultations and meetings with various stakeholders prior to the planning and implementation stages. Overall the visions aim to address the barriers to cycling that are prevalent in Greater Riverdale by improving cycling infrastructure, intersection reconfigurations, and signage.

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Danforth Ave

Greenwood Ave

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Carlaw Ave y St

The Waterway signage will be placed throughout the QSR. This will ensure an effective pathway system to provide clear direction, inform and educate cyclists, and promote greater use of the Quick Start Route. Refer to Section 15.2 for details on the Wayfinding Strategy for the Waterway. 161

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The Waterway is the project and branded name for the selected QSR. The Waterway is the first stage of implementation for a complete north-south cycling route in the Riverdale Cycling Master Plan which is explained in detail in Part II.

Jones Ave

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0.25 0.5

1 km


16.2 Phase Two Recognizing the lack of a central cycling network in the study area, the Carlaw/ Logan Split Cycling route is proposed along with several infrastructural improvements and strategies 3) Carlaw and Logan Split Cycling Route A uni-directional bicycle lane is proposed for both Logan Avenue and Carlaw Avenue, between Danforth Avenue and Lake Shore Boulevard East. The bicycle lane on Logan Avenue will travel north while the bicycle lane on Carlaw Avenue will travel south. This is recommended as the width of each roadway does not allow for two bicycle lanes. Together these two lanes will add a major component to the network allowing local residents to cycle to and from the waterfront from these access points.

4) Physical Infrastructure Improvement Physical infrastructure improvement are for existing cycling networks that require better separation from cyclists and the automobile through physical buffers, curb cuts, or painting.

Figure 16.2.1: Blind spot mirrors: mirrors at traffic lights can be implemented to prevent collisions by revealing cyclists and pedestrians hidden in driversâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; blind spots. It has been successfully implemented in Greater Manchester and Netherlands. Blind spot mirrors can be implemented and installed in Riverdale community and the rest of Toronto to increase safety and raise awareness of cyclists on the road.

Figure 16.2.2: Traffic signal operations for cyclists: This is an advanced signal detection for the bicycle lane that helps to shorten the delay for bicycle boulevard crossings. Signal treatments reduce bicycle delay and offer priority to cyclists over other road users while increasing bicycle safety by allowing cyclists a head start through the intersection.

Figure 16.2.3: Bicycle semi-actuated signals: Bicycle semi-actuated signals will be implemented throughout Riverdale. Cyclists will be detected by the sensor loop without waiting for a motor vehicle to arrive in order to actuate the detector, or to dismount and press the pedestrian push button for a green light to cross the intersection. A loop detector signage will be integrated at the intersection along with the semi-actuated signals to instruct where cyclists should wait to request a green light shown as Figure 4.

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4) Physical Infrastructure Improvement

Figure 16.2.4.Bicycle Stairway: Wheeling ramps are recommended on pedestrian stairways to help cyclists going up or down a stairway. Retrofitted ramps make stairways more accessible to cyclists and are a low cost solution in providing safe and accessible crossings for cyclists.

Figure 16.2.5. Railings for cyclists: A micro design implemented successfully in Copenhagen. Railings for cyclists can be installed throughout major intersections. This allows cyclists to grasp the high railing by hand or rest their feet on the foot railing (Figure 5) without getting off their seat or putting their foot down (Figure 6) while waiting for a red light.

5) Reconfigure Jones and Greenwood Cycling Lanes Part of the physical infrastructure improvement is to reconfigure Jones and Greenwood Cycling Lanes. The current street configuration on Jones Avenue and Greenwood Avenue have cyclists travelling between moving vehicles and parked automobiles. In other words, the parked vehicles are against the curb while cyclists travel beside cars which can be unsafe. Currently parking lanes are on both sides of the street. In order to provide safer cycling routes, a street reconfiguration is needed for both streets to use parking as a

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buffer between cyclists and moving automobiles. Bike lanes will be placed next to the curb on both sides of the street and protected by the parking lanes. Bike lanes will be sheltered from active traffic by parked cars. As shown in FIGURE 9, signage can also be implemented to identify

Figure 16.2.6. Green wave: This is a dynamic traffic management system that favours cyclists on main traffic arterial roads. It detects oncoming cyclists that are approaching the intersection where the traffic light will stay green if it detects five or more cyclists together. This allows cyclists to surf a wave of green traffic lights throughout the city without stopping, allowing a more efficient and faster commute for cyclists (Lindholm, 2014). This can be implemented throughout Toronto to help reduce cycle travel time and make cycling more attractive in comparison to the automobile.

Figure 16.2.7. Poster showing parking pattern with the addition of a new protected bicycle lane in Ohio

Figure 16.2.8. Bike lanes buffered by parking in Chicago.


6) Don Roadway Reconfiguration Crossing A crossing reconfiguration is required in order to provide a safer crossing at Don Roadway and Lake Shore Boulevard East for cyclists. Bicycle specific signals and advanced signal detection in the bike lane are recommended at the crossing. This will help shorten the delay at crossings for cyclists and gives them priority over other road users. In addition, the link will bridge the gap between the Lower Don Recreation Trail and the cycling path along Don Roadway south of Lake Shore Boulevard. New pavement and coloured markings are recommended at the crossing to guide cyclists across the intersection and to provide a safe crossing for cyclists, similar to those existing currently at the Leslie Street and Lake Shore Boulevard intersection. Figure 16.2.9: An example of a bicycle “elephant feet” crossing with coloured paint.

7) Eastern Cycling Route Extension Existing cycling route along Eastern Avenue travels between Logan Avenue to Leslie Street in Riverdale. The vision recommends extending the route to the western and eastern edges of the study area, and to co-ordinate with the neighbouring wards to extend them further.

8) Wayfinding Strategy for Riverdale The implementation of a wayfinding strategy for Greater Riverdale that would increase the number of cycling signs across the study area similar to those proposed in the first phase

10) Danforth Avenue Cycling Route Currently, Danforth Avenue bike lanes only reach to Broadview Avenue in the study area. Separated bicycle lane extensions traveling in each direction are recommended for the portion of Danforth Avenue in the study area. This section of Danforth Avenue is partly maintained by three BIAs – The Danforth, Greektown on the Danforth, and Danforth Mosaic. Through collaboration with these BIAs, separated bicycle lanes can be proposed to attract increased foot traffic and patrons to the businesses and establishments. These bicycle lanes will also serve to build Toronto’s overall cycling network by adding a safer east-west route.

9) Waterfront Bike Parking Strategy - Improve Bicycle Parking in Riverdale Sufficient bicycle infrastructure is essential to accommodate increasing cycling activity. This section recommends parking strategies that can be implemented in the area. The Guidelines for the Design and Management of Bicycle Parking Facilities has identified two types of bicycle parking: (City of Toronto, 2008) ● Long-term bicycle parking, also known as “bicycle parking space – occupant/Type 1 bicycle parking”. It includes bicycle racks in an enclosed, secured area with controlled access; or individual, secure enclosures like bicycle lockers. ● Short-term bicycle parking, also known as “bicycle parking space – visitor/Type 2 bicycle parking”. It includes bicycle racks in an easily accessible location; available for public use; sheltered or

unsheltered; does not protect bicycles from vandalism or theft attempts. Bicycle infrastructure connects people to Lake Ontario, primarily for recreational uses. Thus, more short-term bicycle parking is needed throughout Greater Riverdale and existing recreation destinations, such as Cherry Beach. The City of Toronto has identified that short-term parking should be easily accessible, that racks should be provided as a secure point for locking up and that it is best if racks are protected from the weather. The following pictures are examples that can be integrated in the Greater Riverdale community to provide sufficient bicycle parking that will meet the demand. Innovative and attractive bicycle racks can also be implemented to enhance the streetscape.

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It is important to provide adequate bicycle parking and facilities to retain and attract new cyclists in Greater Riverdale.

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16.3 Phase Three The third phase is principally focused on the long-range vision for cycling in the Port Lands, which references the visioning and planning that presently exists in the area (section 5.0). The following elements of this phase aims to better connect northern Riverdale to the Port Lands through improved intersection reconfiguration, new infrastructure and new cycling routes. The vision and implementation for phase three is reliant on various stakeholders that seek to develop and plan sequential stages of the Port Lands.

11) Commissioners Cycling Route It is recommended to introduce a high quality separated bicycle lane on the full length of Commissioners Street between Cherry Street and Leslie Street. This plan has been proposed for the Port Lands and under the Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Lower Don Lands. This additional bicycle route will offer cyclistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s second options when traveling east and west (other than Lake Shore Boulevard) to further connect to the Leslie Street Spit and waterfront.

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12) Carlaw Grade Separated Lakeshore Boulevard East Crossing A Lake Shore Boulevard East crossing is proposed in this phase at Carlaw Avenue to remove the existing barrier that currently exists for pedestrians and cyclists who wish to cross the intersection. A grade separated crossing is proposed at the intersection of Carlaw Avenue and Lake Shore Boulevard East to avoid the high motor vehicle volumes on Lake Shore. This overpass will allow pedestrians and cyclists to cross Lake Shore safely and quickly while also bypassing the rail tracks that run across the intersection.


13) Carlaw Shipping Channel Bridge A shipping channel bridge is recommended to connect the North and South sides of the Port Lands at Carlaw Avenue. This bridge will provide better access to Cherry Beach, the Leslie Street Spit and Tommy Thompson Park for residents and visitors. The proposed bridge is in line with the environmental assessment for the Lower Don Lands and plans for the Port Lands. The bridge could be designed to become an attractive feature for Riverdale.

Figure 16.3.1: Cherry Street bridge

14) Cherry Street and Lake Shore Boulevard East Intersection Reconfiguration The current pedestrian crossing at the Cherry Street and Lakeshore Boulevard East intersection allows for cyclist and pedestrian movement but in very segmented steps. Cherry Street and Lake Shore Boulevard East require safer means of travel for users to prevent the occurrence of accidents. Cyclists traveling from the Lower Don River Trail will have to cross the intersection in four segments in order to connect to the Martin Goodman Trail. The new Cherry Street LRT plan proposed by the City of Toronto hopes to redesign this intersection to allow for a more direct crossing.

Figure 16.3.2: Red arrows showing current segmented crossing at Lake Shore and Cherry Street

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16.4 Phasing Beyond The following are broad visions of the endless possibilities that lie ahead for Riverdale that provide general solutions for cyclists and pedestrians that wish to overcome the hard edges of Riverdale. Phasing beyond is an ambitious planning vision that requires multi-level consultation from various individuals and organizations. These visions require major infrastructural upgrades and additions, as a result there are high costs associated with these projects.

15) Broadview Cycling Path The Central Waterfront Secondary Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Transit Plan proposed a potential long term transit services that extend streetcar service to the rest of Port

Lands area. FIGURE 22 illustrates the potential transit service extension on Broadview Avenue and Leslie Street, south of Eastern Avenue to the Port

16) Railway Cycling Corridor Highway The GO train rail corridor runs east and west across Ward 30. Bicycle highways can be easily accessed by local neighbourhoods and give cyclists a safe, smooth ride while eliminating as many stops as possible. Residents living near the boundaries of the study area will have a more direct and shorter route to cycle to work.

17) Connecting the Port Lands to Toronto Islands The Toronto Island Ferry is the main form of transportation from the harbourfront to the Islands. It is proposed that a cycling bridge be constructed over the Eastern Channel at either points of Cherry Beach or Leslie Spit to provide additional access to the Islands from the Port Lands. Accessibility is key to promoting popular destinations.

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Lands. Bike lanes can be implemented on Broadview Avenue, from Danforth Avenue to Commissioner Street, along with the proposed streetcar extension on Broadview Avenue. This will allow the Western side of the Riverdale community a more direct and simple cycling route to the Port Lands and Lake Ontario. Figure 16.4.1 (left): Central Waterfront Secondary Plan Transit Plan, Figure 16.4.2 (below): Rendering of bicycle highway attached to existing railway corridor, Figure 16.4.3 (bottom): pedestrian and bicycle bridge in Knoxville, Tennessee


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18.0 List of Figures Figure 1.1. Carr, S. (2012). Riverdale Park. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/simoncarr/7447350366/ Figure 1.2. Van Horne Construction,. (2014). South Riverdale Community Health Centre. Retrieved from http:/ www.vanhorne.ca/south_riverdale_community_centre.html Figure 1.3.Ward 29,. (2013). Bells on Danforth. Retrieved from http://29bikes.ca/tag/bells-on-danforth/ Figure 2.1. The final Heritage Toronto walk group of the year was demonstrated at the former site of the Riverdale railway station. (2010). Retrieved from http://wayoutinthemargin.blogspot.ca/2010/10 heritage-library-to-library-in.html Figure 4.1. Ministry of Transportation. (2012). Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines. Figure 4.2. Ministry of Transportation. (2012). Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines. Figure 4.3. Ministry of Transportation. (2012). Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines. Figure 4.4. Ministry of Transportation. (2012). Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines. Figure 4.5. Ministry of Transportation. (2012). Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines. Figure 4.6. NACTO,. (2011). NACTO Urban Bikeway Design Guide. Retrieved from http://nacto.org/wp-content uploads/2011/03/NACTO_UrbanBikeway_DesignGuide_LRez.pdf Figure 4.7. City of Toronto,. (2008). Guidelines for the Design and Management of Bicycle Parking Facilities. Retrieved from http://www1.toronto.ca/city_of_toronto/city_planning/transportation_planning/files/pdf/ bicycle_parking_guidelines_final_may08.pdf Figure 4.8. City of Toronto,. (2014). Toronto Green Standard. Retrieved from https://www1.toronto.ca city_of_toronto/city_planning/developing_toronto/files/pdf/lr_res_tech.pdf Figure 5.1. Waterfront Toronto. (n.d.). Port Lands. Waterfront Toronto. Retrieved from http://www.waterfronto ronto.ca/explore_projects2/port_lands Figure 5.2. Waterfront Toronto. (2012, August 8). Port Lands Acceleration Initiative Media Briefing. Waterfront Toronto. Retrieved from http://www.waterfrontoronto.ca/uploads/documents/port_lands_media_ briefing_august_8_2012_1.pdf Figure 5.3. Revival 629. (n.d.). Site Plan. Retrieved from http://revival629.ca/css/i/site_plan.jpg Figure 5.4. Aerial view of the Old Film Studio District Revival 629. (n.d.). Where Ideas Meet. Revival 629. Retrieved from http://revival629.ca/ideas Figure 5.5. View of the Revival 629 Film Studio Revival 629. (n.d.). Where Ideas Meet. Revival 629. Retrieved from http://revival629.ca/ideas Figure 5.6. Conceptual rendering of the Canary District and park Montana Steele. (2012). Canary District Park.Canary District. Retrieved from http://montanasteele.com/wpcontent/ uploads/2012/04/canary-district-park.jpg Figure 5.7. Conceptual rendering of the Canary District and park Montana Steele. (2012). Canary District Park. Canary District. Retrieved from http://montanasteele.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/04/canary-district- park.jpg Figure 5.8. Current construction progress at the Canary District site Canary District. (2014, September-October). 2015 Pan American/Parapan American Games Site. EarthCam.Retrieved from http://www. earthcam.net/projects/kpmb/ Figure 6.1. The Toronto Star,. (2014). Gardiner Expressway: Developer First Gulf comes up with new compromise. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2014/03/04/gardiner_expressway_ developer_first_gulf_comes_up_with_new_compromise.html

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Figure 6.2. The Toronto Star,. (2014). Gardiner Expressway: Developer First Gulf comes up with new compromise. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2014/03/04/gardiner_expressway_ developer_first_gulf_comes_up_with_new_compromise.html Figure 6.3. Toronto Transit Commission,. (2007). Conceptual rendering of the Canary District and park. Retrieved from http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2008/pg/bgrd/backgroundfile-9415.pdf Figure 6.4. Toronto Transit Commission,. (2007). Looking Northwest from the East Side of Cherry Street. Retrieved from http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2008/pg/bgrd/backgroundfile-9415.pdf Figure 6.5. DTAH,. (2014). Overhead View of Cherry Street Intersection. Retrieved from http://dtah.com/project/cherrystreet-design-charrette/ Figure 6.6. Toronto Transit Commission,. (2007). View North of Front Street Intersection from Above. Retrieved from http://www.toronto.ca/legdocs/mmis/2008/pg/bgrd/backgroundfile-9415.pdf Figure 6.7. FSlocal,. (2013). Subway Development Plan. Retrieved from http://www.fslocal.com/blog/toronto-fantasysubway-maps/ Figure 7.1. World Health Organization (2014a). Healthy cities. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/ environment-and-health/urban-health/activities/healthy-cities Figure 8.1. Flack, D. (2010). Toronto is getting more sharrows, but do they actually protect cyclists? Retrieved from http://www.blogto.com/city/2010/05/toronto_is_getting_more_sharrows_but_do_they_actually_ rotect_cyclists_/ Figure 8.2. Letourneau, D. (2012). Ben Hill Griffin Bike Lane Conversion. Retrieved from http://bikewalklee.blogspot. ca/2012/10/part-2-of-report-new-improved-bikeped.html Figure 8.3. Lynette, A. (2011). Toronto Police officers travel south using a bike lane on Jarvis street Toronto. Retrieved from http://news.nationalpost.com/2011/07/13/debate-on-jarvis-bike-lanes set-to-continue/ Figure 8.4. Zaichkowski, R. (2014). Fermanagh contra-flow lanes are painted. Retrieved from com/blog/2014/09/infrastructure-fermanagh-contra-flow-lanes-are-painted/

http://bikingtoronto.

Figure 8.5. Kitching, C. (2013). Toronto officially opening cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first separated bike lanes on Sherbourne. Retrieved from http://toronto.ctvnews.ca/toronto-officially-opening-city-s-first separated-bike-lanes-onsherbourne-1.1318809# Figure 8.6. Maus, J. (2011). The new cycle track on cully, part of a large-scale road reconstruction project is now complete. Retrieved from http://bikeportland.org/2011/05/19/riding-portlands-first-real cycle-track-on-cullyblvd-53320 Figure 8.7. BIKAS. (2012). Some innovative bike facilities in San Luis Obiso. Retrieved from wordpress.com/2012/05/17/some-innovative-bike-facilities-in-san-luis-obispo/

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Figure 8.9. Mosher, G. (2012). More off-road bike trails are in the pipeline. Retrieved from http://torontoist.com/2012/02/ more-off-road-bike-trails-are-in-the-pipeline/ Figure 9.0.1. NOW Magazine. (2014). Sherbourne Street Cycle Path. Retrieved from news/story.cfm?content=190469

http://www.nowtoronto.com/

Figure 9.0.2. City of Toronto. (2014). Northbound contra-flow cycle track on Simcoe St. Richmond Adelaide + Peter and Simcoe Streets. Retrieved from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=a49833501bac7410VgnV CM100000 1d60f89RCRD Figure 9.0.3. City of Toronto. (2014). Simcoe St. southbound cycle track. Richmond-Adelaide + Peter and Simcoe Streets. Retrieved from http://www1.toronto.ca/wps/portal/contentonly?vgnextoid=a49833501bac7410VgnV CM100000 1d60f89RCRD Figure 9.1.1.1. CycleTo. (2014). Protected bike lane on Richmond Street. Protected bike lane on Richmond Street. Retrieved from https://cycleto.ca/sites/default/files/images/Richmond_2014.img_assist_custom-520x312.png

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Figure 9.1.1.2. City of Toronto. (2014). City of Toronto Semi-actuated signals. Retrieved from http://www.thestar.com/ content/dam/thestar/yourtoronto/the_fixer/2013/11/08/cyclists_cant_trip the_light_if_the_sensor_doesnt_work/the_fixer.jpg. size.xxlarge.letterbox.jpg. Figure 9.1.1.3. BlogTO. (2010). City of Toronto Bicycle Boxes at St. George. Retrieved from upload/2010/10/20101007-bike-box-cyclist2.jpg

http://www.blogto.com/

Figure 9.1.1.4. CycleTo. (2014). Protected Bike Lanes on Eglinton. Retrieved from http://cycleto.ca/sites/default/files/ images/Rendering%20 %20Eglinton%20Ave%20in%20Scarborough%20v2.img_assist_custom-245x182.jpg Figure 9.1.1.5. City of Toronto. (2014). Toronto Wayfinding Strategy. Retrieved from http://www1.toronto.ca/City%20 Of%20Toronto/Transportation%20Services/Walking/Files/ima es/01_prototype%20sign.jpg. Figure 9.1.2.1. Joe Cyclist. (2013). Street bike path in Montreal. Retrieved from http://averagejoecyclist.com/wp-content/ uploads/2010/12/Montreal-traffic-signals.jpg. Figure 9.1.2.2. Cacouna. (2014) Montreal Green Cycle Route. Retrieved from http://lh4.ggpht.com/_Zba38r3 TGdVL9ete4I/AAAAAAAACyM/9CytjrKvYbU/IMG_4228_thumb.jpg?imgmax=800

Df4/

Figure 9.1.2.3. Châteauneuf, Lëa-Kim. (2014). Street Bike Path. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/leakim/14036508846 Figure 9.1.2.4. (2010). Separated two-way cycle track in Vancouver. Retrieved from com/2010/06/woman-on-bike-with-sign-2.jpg?w=600.

http://pricetags.files.wordpress.

Figure 9.1.2.5. Translink. (2014). Bike Route Signage in Vancouver. Retrieved from images/content/getting_around/cycling/ctl_bike_route_signage. shx.

http://www.translink.ca/~/media/

Figure 9.1.3.1. BenL. (2014). Bicycle Snake Bridge – Cykelslangen. Retrieved from http://caa.org.nz/wp uploads/2014/08/cykelslangen_foto_ursula_bach1.jpg.

content/

Figure 9.1.3.2. Ramblers Highway. (2010). Signage of Copenhagen’s Green Route. Retrieved from http://ramblershighway. files.wordpress.com/2010/10/dsc06015-e1288215807749.jpg. Figure 9.1.3.3. Ramblers Highway. (2010). Regional Signage System. Retrieved from wordpress.com/2010/10/dsc06044.jpg. Figure 9.1.3.4. Copenhagenize. (2013). Norrebrogade Street. Retrieved from 503_11728bc65a_z.jpg. Figure 9.1.3.5. Bicycle Dutch. (2012). Nescio Bridge. Retrieved from nesciobrug.jpg.

http://ramblershighway.files.

http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3051/2966931

http://bicycledutch.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/

Figure 9.1.3.6. Bakfiets. (2007). Three levels bike garage. Retrieved from http://www.bakfiets-en uploads/2007/05/amsterdam-fietsflat.jpg.

meer.nl/wp-content/

Figure 9.1.3.7. Bicycle Dutch. (2013). Wayfinding Signage in Amsterdam. Retrieved from http://bicycledutch.files. wordpress.com/2013/03/wayfinding.jpg?w=547&h=310. Figure 11.6.1 Map.toronto.ca, (2014). Maps. [online] Available at: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map.jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2 [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 11.6.2. Map.toronto.ca, (2014). Maps. [online] Available at: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map.jsp?app=TorontoMaps_ v2 [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 11.6.3. Google Maps. (2010). [Toronto, Canada] [Street map] retrieved from: https://www.google.ca/ maps/@43.661575,-79.3294205,3a,75y,151.12h,90t/data=!3m4!1e1!3m2!1sG9EhhvM8HxnRTWJbWqwyTw!2e0 Figure 11.6.4. Google Maps. (2010). [Toronto, Canada] [Street map] retrieved from: https://www.google.ca/ maps/@43.6550944,-79.3375266,3a,75y,95.04h,90t/data=!3m4!1e1!3m2!1sVo67aIltN4YsgTa2DQNx6g!2e0 Figure 11.6. Google Maps. (2010). [Toronto, Canada] [Street map] retrieved from: https://www.google.ca/ maps/@43.6508479,-79.3468329,3a,75y,0.3h,89.81t/data=!3m4!1e1!3m2!1so-geXX-tfwuRorJl9XqSZQ!2e0 Figure 11.6.6. Map.toronto.ca, (2014). Maps. [online] Available at: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map.jsp?app=TorontoMaps_ v2 [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 15.6.1.1. Waterway Conceptual Logo, (2014). Rendering by Shahinez Esh Esh

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Figure 15.6.1.2. Katapult. (2006). Cycle Derby. Retrieved from http://www.katapult.co.uk/work/cycle-derby/ Figure 15.6.2.3. Ajax. (n.d.). Wayfinding. Town of Ajax. Retrieved from http://www.ajax.ca/en/exploreoutdoors/resources/ wayfinding.jpg Figure 15.6.2.4. Bikearlington. (n.d.). Wayfinding. Retrieved from http://www.bikearlington.com/tasks/sites/bike/assets/ Image/WayFinding-2.jpg Figure 15.6.2.5. Westminister Cyclists. (n.d.). Cycle Superhighway Logo. Retrieved from http://media-cache-ec0.pinimg. com/736x/cd/bc/23/cdbc23cd98f5e578c5482ee9371edc8a.jpg Figure 15.6.2.6. Waterway Conceptual Logo narrow totem, (2014). Rendering by Shahinez Esh Esh Figure 15.6.2.7. Waterway Conceptual Logo directional sign, (2014). Renderding by Shahinez Esh Esh Figure 15.7.1. Steer Davies Gleave,. (2012). Toronto 360 Wayfinding Strategy (pp. 1-68). Toronto. Figure 15.7.2. Region of Waterloo,. (2014). Walk Cycle Waterloo (pp. 1-65). Waterloo. Figure 15.7.3: Quick Start Route Costs Figure 14.1. Torontohousing.ca, (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.torontohousing.ca/tchc/webfm_send/2983 [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 14.2. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Existing map Jones Figure 14.3. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Jones Figure 14.4. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Existing map Queen Figure 14.5. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Queen Figure 14.6. Torontoist.com, (2014). [online] Available at: http://torontoist.com/attachments/toronto_marcl/Allotment_ Gardens_3.jpg [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 14.7. Jnyyz.files.wordpress.com, (2014). [online] Available at: http://jnyyz.files.wordpress.com/2014/07/dsc03575.jpg [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 14.8. Hiddencityphila.org, (2014). [online] Available at: http://hiddencityphila.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/ IMG_0902.jpg [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 14.9. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Existing map Queen Figure 14.10. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Queen Figure 14.11. 4.bp.blogspot.com, (2014). [online] Available at: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Gbo9W48hGQI/UEJ07KqfG9I/ AAAAAAAABVc/Ykr5xfHDJ7c/s1600/2%2BMartin%2BGoodman%2BTrail.JPG [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 14.12. Surrey.ca, (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.surrey.ca/city-services/11088.aspx [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 14.13. 4.bp.blogspot.com, (2014). [online] Available at: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Gbo9W48hGQI/UEJ07KqfG9I/ AAAAAAAABVc/Ykr5xfHDJ7c/s1600/2%2BMartin%2BGoodman%2BTrail.JPG [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 14.14. Surrey.ca, (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.surrey.ca/city-services/11088.aspx [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 14.15. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Existing map Mosley Figure 14.16. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Mosley Figure 14.17.Upload.wikimedia.org, (2014). [online] Available at: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7a/ Bike_Lane_Toronto_2011.jpg [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 14.18. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Existing map Leslie Figure 14.19. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Leslie Figure 14.20. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Existing map Leslie Figure 14.21. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Leslie

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Figure 14.22. Torontohousing.ca, (2014). [online] Available at: http://www.torontohousing.ca/tchc/webfm_ send/2983 [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Figure 14.23. Urban Communter. (2013). Going Dutch? Ontario’s Cycling Strategy Released! Retrieved http:// urbancommuter.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/2013-08-25-bike-ottawa-ontario-cycling-strategy-08.jpg Figure 14.24. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Eastern existing Figure 14.25. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Eastern implementation Figure 14.26. Hanselman, J. (2014). Central Pkwy bike lanes causing parking confusion. Retrieved from http:// mediad.publicbroadcasting.net/p/wvxu/files/201407/BikeLane1.JPG Figure 14.27. anselman, J. (2014). Central Pkwy bike lanes causing parking confusion. Retrieved from http:// mediad.publicbroadcasting.net/p/wvxu/files/201407/BikeLane1.JPG Figure 14.28. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Eastern existing Figure 14.29. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Eastern existing Figure 14.30. Pedestrian-bicycle bridge in Aarschot, Belgium Du Jardin, F. (2012). Pedestrian bicycle bridge Aarschot. Retrieved from http://www.west8.com/projects/pedestrian_bicycle_bridge_aarschot/ Figure 14.31. Cacouna. (2014) Montreal Green Cycle Route. Retrieved from http://lh4.ggpht.com/_Zba38r3 Df4/TGdVL9ete4I/AAAAAAAACyM/9CytjrKvYbU/IMG_4228_thumb.jpg?imgmax=800 Figure 14.32. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Unwin existing Figure 14.33. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Implementation map Unwin implementation Figure 15.7.3: Region of Waterloo,. (2014). Walk Cycle Waterloo (pp. 1-65). Waterloo. Figure 15.7.3: Quick Start Route Costs, Steer Davies Gleave,. (2012). Toronto 360 Wayfinding Strategy (pp. 1-68). Toronto. Figure 16.2.1. Traffic lights with mirror in Haarlem, Netherlands. http://urbancommuter.files.wordpress. com/2013/08/2013-08-25-bike-ottawa-ontario-cycling-strategy-08.jpg Figure 16.2.2. Urban Communter. (2013). Going Dutch? Ontario’s Cycling Strategy Released! Retrieved http:// urbancommuter.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/2013-08-25-bike-ottawa-ontario-cycling-strategy-08.jpg Figure 16.2.3. City of Toronto. (2014). City of Toronto Semi-actuated signals. Retrieved from http://www. thestar.com/content/dam/thestar/yourtoronto/the_fixer/2013/11/08/cyclists_cant_tripthe_light_if_the_sensor_ doesnt_work/the_fixer.jpg.size.xxlarge.letterbox.jpg Figure 16.2.4. Figure 7. Cycle Works. (n.d.). Wheeling Ramps. Retrieved from http://cycle-works.com/ wp-content/products/en/other/wheeling-ramps/images/gallery/Wheeling-Ramps02.jpg Figure 16.2.5. Copenhagenize. (2010). Holding On to Cyclists in Copenhagen. Retrieved from https://www.flickr. com/photos/16nine/1937348962/sizes/l Figure 16.2.6. Moores, N. (2009). New Bikeway Pavement Markings for Canada. Retrieved from http://tcat.ca/ sites/all/files/nmoores-bike-summit-pdf-09-TAC.pdf Figure 16.2.7. Hanselman, J. (2014). Central Pkwy bike lanes causing parking confusion. Retrieved from http:// mediad.publicbroadcasting.net/p/wvxu/files/201407/BikeLane1.JPG Figure 16.2.8. Expire Meter. (2012). Tickets For Parking In Bike Lanes See Mild Increase. Retrieved from http:// theexpiredmeter.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Protected-bike-lanes.jpg Figure 16.2.9. Leyendecker K. (2011). Elephant’s feet and colour marking. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/ photos/katsdekker/6102931263/ Figure 16.3.1. Toronto Port Authority - Ship Channel Bridges and Approaches. Retrieved 27 November 2014, from http://www.torontoport.com/Airport/Business-At-BBA/Filming/Ship-Channel-Bridges-and-Approaches.aspx

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Figure 16.3.2. Google Maps. (2014). [Lake shore boulevard east and cherry street] [Street map]. Retrieved from https://www. google.ca/maps/place/Toronto,+ON+M5A/@43.6489774,-79.3558021,554m/data=!3m2!1e3!4b1!4m2!3m1!1s0x89d4cb17b2eb1f b9:0xcf9c846d622b0c83 Figure 16.4.1. Portlandsconsultation.ca,. (2014). Central Waterfront Secondary Plan. Retrieved 27 November 2014, from http:// www.portlandsconsultation.ca/node/23 Figure 16.4.2. Zhang, K. J. (2012). Bicycle Highway. Retrieved from http://kjzhang.freehostia.com/bicycle_highway.html Figure 16.4.3. Pedestrian-bicycle bridge in Aarschot, Belgium Du Jardin, F. (2012). Pedestrian bicycle bridge Aarschot. Retrieved from http://www.west8.com/projects/pedestrian_bicycle_bridge_aarschot/

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Page 149 The Centretown BUZZ,. (2012). Getting involved in the future: Public meeting on the Community Design Plan a success. Retrieved 27 November 2014, from http://www.centretownbuzz.com/2012/06/20/getting-involved-in-thefuture-public-meeting-on-the-community-design-plan-a-success/ Page 151 Iconarchive.com,. (2014). Glyphish Iconset (200 icons) | Glyphish. Retrieved 27 November 2014, from http://www. iconarchive.com/show/glyphish-icons-by-glyphish.html Page 153 Iconarchive.com,. (2014). Glyphish Iconset (200 icons) | Glyphish. Retrieved 27 November 2014, from http://www. iconarchive.com/show/glyphish-icons-by-glyphish.html Page 160 he Huffington Post,. (2014). Cycling in Toronto: Why Canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t We Get it Right?. Retrieved 27 November 2014, from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/ron-dembo/biking-in-toronto_b_4115784.html Page 166 The standard Post-and-Ring bicycle parking rack. http://cycletoronto.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/bike-parkingtoronto-ring-and-post.jpg NC Bike Ed,. (2014). Bicycle Parking in Commercial Areas. Retrieved 27 November 2014, from http:// humantransport.org/ncbikeed/?page_id=132 Hub, I. (2014). The Indy Bike Hub Welcomes CIBA Annual Meeting - Indy Bike Hub Blog | BGI. Blog.bgindy.com. Retrieved 27 November 2014, from http://blog.bgindy.com/blog/indybikehub/the-indy-bike-hub-welcomes-cibaannual-meeting Weinreich, M., Kristensen, M., Hauschildt, L., & Madsen, J. (2014). Bicycle parking â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to do or not to do! : Cycling Embassy of Denmark. Cycling-embassy.dk. Retrieved 27 November 2014, from http://www.cycling-embassy. dk/2010/11/15/bicycle-parking-%E2%80%93-to-do-or-not-to-do/ Santa Monica Spoke,. (2009). Bike Parking. Retrieved 27 November 2014, from https://santamonicaspoke. wordpress.com/committees/bike-parking/ Bike rack in Wroclaw, Poland. http://images.mbpost.com/original/281658.jpg Page 167 Du Jardin, F. (2012). Pedestrian bicycle bridge Aarschot. Retrieved from http://www.west8.com/projects/ pedestrian_bicycle_bridge_aarschot/

Maps Eshesh, Shahinaz. (2014). Lynchian Diagram of Riverdale. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Study Area Context. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Business Improvement Areas. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Current Development Plans. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Healthcare Facilities. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Bicycle Shops. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Built Heritage and Historical Sites. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Educational Facilities. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Key Destinations. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data.

183


Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Land Use. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Natural Features. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Parks and Outdoor Recreation Facilities. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Toronto Community Housing Corporation Buildings, 6+ Units. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Existing Sidewalk Infrastructure. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Walking Travel Time and Travel Distance to Cherry Beach. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Existing Cycling Infrastructure. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Cycling Travel Time and Travel Distance to Cherry Beach. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Pedestrian Volume by Intersection. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Vehicle Volume by Intersection. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Combined Pedestrian and Vehicles Volume by Intersection. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). North-South Street Inventory. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data. Laurin, Curtis. (2014). Proposed Routes. Adapted from City of Toronto Open Data.

North-South Street Profiles Diagrams Davies, Alexander. (2014). Broadview Avenue [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Broadview at Gerrard [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Broadview South of Dundas [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Broadview South of Gerrard [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Carlaw at Danforth [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Carlaw at Riverdale [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Carlaw North of Dundas [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Carlaw South of Dundas Resurfacing [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Carlaw South of Eastern [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Carlaw South of Lakeshore [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Commissioners East of Carlaw [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Commissioners East of Don Roadway [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Commissioners Street [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Coxwell at the Tracks [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Coxwell North of Gerrard [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Coxwell South of Dundas [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Coxwell South of Eastern [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Coxwell South of Gerrard [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Greenwood at the Tracks [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Greenwood North of the Tracks [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Greenwood North of the Tracks 2 [Photo].

184


Davies, Alexander. (2014). Greenwood South of Dundas [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Greenwood South of Gerrard [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Jones at the Tracks [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Jones North of Dundas [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Jones North of Gerrard [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Jones North of Queen [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Jones South of Danforth [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Leslie Closure [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Jones South of Danforth [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Leslie Closure [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Leslie North of Gerrard [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Leslie North of Queen [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Leslie North of Queen 2 [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Logan at Eastern [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Logan Lanes [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Logan at Withrow Park [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Logan North of Lanes [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Logan at Lakeshore [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Pape Bridge South Side [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Pape South of Danforth [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Pape South of Queen [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Pape South of Tracks [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Unwin Avenue [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Villiers East of Don Roadway [Photo]. Davies, Alexander. (2014). Villiers West of Don Roadway [Photo]. Cross Section Diagrams Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section A [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section B [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section C [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section D [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section E [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section F [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section G [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section H [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section I [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section J [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section K [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net).

185


Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section L [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Henderson, Zach. (2014). Cross-section M [Diagram] (Adapted from http://www.streetmix.net). Intersection Diagrams Davies, Alexander. (2014). Intersection Broadview Avenue [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca maps/map.jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Logan Avenue [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Carlaw Avenue North [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map .jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Pape Avenue [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map. jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Jones Avenue [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map. jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Leslie Street [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map. jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Greenwood Avenue [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map. jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Coxwell Avenue [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map. jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Carlaw Avenue South [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map. jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Villiers Street [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map. jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Commissioners Street [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map. jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2). Davies, Alexander. (2014). Unwin Avenue [Diagrams] (Adapted from: http://map.toronto.ca/maps/map. jsp?app=TorontoMaps_v2).

186


QSR Database

19.0 Appendix

Parking

Street Sections

Direction of Street

Jones from Danforth to Gerrard

Two-way

Danforth to Dundas

Both

All day

83 Jones

13.7 m to 14.3 m

Jones from Gerrard to Dundas

Two-way

Danforth to Dundas

Both

All day

83 Jones

13.7 m to 14.3 m

Jones from Dundas to Queen

Two-way

Dundas to Queen

Both sides

All day

83 Jones

13.0 - 14.3 m

Queen from Jones to Rushbrooke

Two-way

Jones to Rushbrooke

North side

Weekdays- 5:00 am - 6:00 pm, Weekends 8:00 am 8:00 pm, no stopping 7:00 am - 9:00 am mon-fri

501 Queen Streetcar

12.5 m - 12.7 m

Section of Roadway

Side of Street

Rushbrooke from Queen to Eastern

One-way North

Queen to Eastern

Both sides

#1 NB: Eastern from Rushbrooke to Leslie

Two-way

Gas station to just east South side of Marigold Ave

#2 SB: Mosley from Eastern to Leslie

Two-way

Eastern to Leslie

South side

Hours/Restricted Hours

TTC

Both sides

1 lane each direction 1 lane each direction

2 lanes each direction

No parking 12:01 am to 7:00 am except by permit

1 lane each direction N/A

12.6 m - 13.3 m

13.9 m - 14.5 m Queen to Lakeshore

1 lane each direction

1 lane going North 8.7 m 12.6 m - 13.1 m No parking 12:01 am to 7:00 143 (Rusbrooke/Eastern am except by permit Downtown/Beach /Mosley area = 14.7 1 lane each direction Express m)

Leslie from Eastern to Mosley Two-way

Number of Lanes

No parking 12:01 am to 7:00 am except by permit

2 lanes each direction

Restricted during Rush hour 83 Jones

Leslie from Mosley to south end of Loblaws/Tim Hortons Intersection

14.0 m - 15.1 m

Leslie from south end of Loblaws/Tim Hortons Intersection to Lakeshore

15.1 m m - 18.8 m

2 lanes each direction

2 lanes each direction

2 lanes each direction (Lakeshore to Commissioners), 1 lane each direction (Commissioners to Unwin)

Leslie from Lakeshore to Unwin

Two-way

Lakeshore to Unwin

Both sides

No dedicated parking

83 Jones (from Leslie to Commissioners)

N/A

Unwin from Leslie to Martin Goodman Trail

Two-way

Leslie to Martin Goodma Both sides

No dedicated parking

N/A

9.5- 10.2 (highest 10.8 around bend, lowest: 9.3)

1 lane each direction

Martin Goodman Trail to Cherry Beach

Two-way

N/A`

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Intersections

Intersection Characteristics

N/A

Number of Lanes Danforth East-bound - 2 lanes (inc. 1 turning), Danforth West-bound 2 lanes (1 turning), Jones - 1 lane each way (+1 turning)

Jones and Strathcona

3-way junction (Jones terminates north of Danforth) 3-way junction (Baird Ave. slightly south of Strathcona on East side of Jones)

Jones and Gerrard

4-way junction

Jones and Dundas

4-way junction

Jones and Queen

3-way junction

Queen and Rushbrooke

3-way junction

Rushbrooke and Eastern Ave

3-way junction

Mosley and Eastern

3 way junction

Mosley and Leslie

3-way junction

Leslie and Eastern

4-way junction

Leslie and Loblaws/Tim Hortons entrance

4-way junction

Leslie and Lakeshore

4-way junction (wide island on Lakeshore)

Leslie and Commissioners

4-way junction (N Service Road on east side of Leslie is private)

1 lane, crosswalk Jones- 1 lane each direction + 1 turning NB and SB, Gerrard- 2 lanes each direction with streetcar Jones- 1 lane each direction + 1 turning NB and SB, Dundas- 1 lane each direction + 1 turning NB and SB Jones - 1 lane NB, 2 lanes SB (including 1 turning), Queen - 2 lanes each direction Rushbrooke 1 lane NB, Queen 2 lanes each direction, no traffic lights or crossing Rushbrooke 1 lane NB, Eastern 1 lane each direction, no traffic lights/crossing Mosley 1 lane each direction, Eastern 1 lane each direction, no lights/crossing Mosley 1 lane each direction, Leslie 2 lanes each direction, no crossing/lights Leslie- 2 lanes each direction NB and SB, Eastern Ave.- 2 lanes EB, 1 lane WB + turning lane Leslie- 2 lanes each direction, entrance east leg: 2 lanes each direction, west leg: 1 lane each direction Leslie- NS: 2 lanes each direction NB and SB+ turning lane and island, SS: 4 lanes NB (1 turning right, 1 turning left), 2 lanes SB. Lakeshore- 4 lanes EB (inc. left turning), 4 lanes WB (inc. left turning) Leslie: 2 lanes NB (inc. turning), 1 lane SB, Commissioners- 2 lanes WB, 1 lane EB + turning

Leslie and Unwin

3-way junction (Leslie st south turns into Tommy Thompson Park entrance, open only on weekends)

1 lane each direction around bend

Unwin to Martin Goodman Trail

no roadway junction

1 lane in each direction

Jones and Danforth

187

Street Width


n

Existing Cycling Infrastructure Streetscape

Sidewalks adjacent Sidewalks adjacent Sidewalks adjacent

Type

Location

Type of Cycling Infrastructure Implementation

New RoW Widths

Construction Cost

Quantity

Cost

Contingency

Bike lane

1 lane each direction N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Bike lane

1 lane each direction N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Bike lanes

1 lane each direction N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Sidewalks adjacent

N/A

N/A

4

$600.00

25%

N/A

N/A

N/A $150.00 1.7 m contra-flow, 1.8 m bike lane, 3 m travel lane, 2.2 m parking lane $10,000

Each

Sidewalks adjacent

km

0.3116 km

$3,116.00

25%

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

$5,000

km

0.1504 km

$752.00

25%

4 travel lanes x 3.125 m, 1.5 m bike lane $30,000

$3,459.00

25%

Outside travel lanes- 4 m, inside traffic lanes- 3 m

km 0.1153 km each, per Sharrows- $150, square 6 sharrows, Green paint- $3.50 ft 2150.6ft²

$900 + $7,527.10 = $8427.10

25%

4 travel lanes x 3 m, 2 bike lanes x 1.5 m

$30,000

km

0.0772 km

$2,316.00

25%

N/A

Sidewalks adjacent Bike lanes Sidewalk adjacent on north side, boulvard on south side N/A

1 lane each direction (southern lane ends just before intersection N/A

N/A

1.8 m bike lane, 2 travel Paint bike lane on south side of street, going east bound lanes x 3.6 m, 3 m parking (1.8 m) lanes

N/A

Reconfigure roadway, but keep 4 lanes of traffic, and add bike lane to east side of street going northbound (1.5 m)

n Sidewalks adjacent

n Sidewalks adjacent

n Sidewalks adjacent n

N/A

N/A N/A

Paint Sharrows on outside lanes travelling in each direction Paint contra-flow bike lane on west side of street, paint bike lane on east side of street going north (1.7 m contra-flow, 1.8 m bike lane)

N/A N/A

Boulevards

Paint sharrows on outside lanes in each direction, with green paint (outside lanes = 4 m, inside lanes= 3 m) Reconfigure roadway, but keep 4 lanes of traffic, and add bike lanes going NB on east side of street and SB on west side of street (1.5 m each)

Off-road multi-use path East side of street Paved shoulder on south side, nonpaved on north side N/A N/A

N/A N/A keep existing 1 lane each direction, reconfigure roadway with existing paved shoulder, and add bicycle lanes in 2 travel lanes x 3.25 m, 2 each direction bike lanes x 1.5 m

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

$30,000

km

0.785 km

$23,550.00

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Off-road multi-use path South of Unwin

25% N/A

TOTAL: $42,220.10 Type of Cycling Infrastructure Implementation

Construction Cost

Quantity

Cost

Contingency

2

N/A N/A

N/A

e

g

.

s g

N/A 1 bike box on north leg of Jones, bicycle crosswalk parallel to existing crosswalk High visibity laddar crosswalk with bicycle lane- minor road, on east side of Rushbrooke and across the east leg of Queen (shift existing crosswalk one street east, over to this location)

$3,000

Each

1 $3,000

Each, crosswalk- $1500, per sq green paint- $3.50 foot

green bike lane + refuge island (2 m), on west side of Rushbrooke, into middle island, exiting right on to Mosley

green paint$3.50, bollards$196, curb blocks$35

N/A

N/A

Two-stage turn queue box (Ottawa style bike box) on east leg of Eastern Ave, coming from south leg of Leslie

$3,000

N/A

$1,500 + 1 and $819.42 = 234.12ft² 2319.42

N/A

N/A

per sq foot, 945.93ft², 6, $3,310.76 + $1,176 + $910 = N/A each, 26 5396.76 each

N/A

N/A

N/A

each

1

$3,000

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Dutch style intersection for north west corner and south west corner of intersection (includes curb cutes and green paint), and green bike crossing across east leg of intersection

Curb cut- $48, green paint$3.50, sidewalk$55

per m, per sq foot, 3 m, per sq 6157.0ft², m 19.1 sq m

$144 + $21,549.50 + $1,050.50 = $22,744

sidewalk - 25%

N/A Green bicycle crossing --> connecting Leslie off-road path to new west-bound Unwin bike lane ****** green bicycle crossing - minor side road (across Leslie Street Spit entrance) --> connecting new east-bound Unwin bike lane to existing off-road Leslie street path + Stop bars at both stops Green bicycle crossing connecting west-bound bicycle lane with the Martin Goodman Trail

N/A

N/A

N/A

$2,146.27 + $57.50 = $2203.77

N/A

$463.40

N/A

Green paint$3.50, stop bar$5.00

N/A

per sq foot, 613.22ft², per m 11.55 m per sq Green paint- $3.50 foot 132.40ft²

Total:$39,127.58 PROJECT TOTAL: $81,347.68

188

Connecting greater riverdale to the lake  

Ryerson student report for Ward 30 Bikes

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