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ADAPTABLE FORM & REBIRTH OF FUNCTION:

A DA P T I V E R E U S E TOWA R D S E VO L U T I O N A RY D E S I G N I N ARCHITECTURE by: B.Smart


BRANDON J. SMART A Thesis presented to the Faculty of NewSchool of Architecture + Design Masters of Architecture 2013: NewSchool of Architecture + Design


ABSTRACT Adaptable form and rebirth of function gives architecture the ability to adapt over time; both formally and programmatically. The modern world is demanding constant change to meet the needs of changing communities, lifestyles, and aesthetics, making these adaptable practices essential. This thesis investigates the implementation of architectural adaptive re-use and its benefits over time as a natural process of ecological succession. Adaptive architecture and re-use of its parts deals with directional chance, a gentle and unpredictable temporal shift in the whole basis of a building’s structure and function. Adaptive architecture guarantees diversity, complexity, and continuity of a particular place specific to the changes and needs of its users. This hypothesis has for its ultimate aim to maximize the holistic lifecycle of a building and allow for user adaptability over time. Designing a building’s elements and systems with the lifecycle of technical levels independently from the lifecycle of functional levels is at stake. The durability of technical systems and their materials can be extended by making a more sustainable building as a whole. The design goal is to provide a systematic assembly of the building’s parts and systems allowing for three dimensional spatial reconfiguration, growth, and simple component exchange.


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APPROVED BY:

Kurt Hunker Graduate Program Chair signature: date:

Mitra Kanaani Instructor of Record

signature: date:


TABLE OF CONTENTS 01 | Shift to Urbanism: Flexible Solutions

10

[Introduction]

1.1 | Introduction: Shift to Urbanism

12

1.2 | Adaptive Reuse

14

1.3 | Metabolism Movement

16

1.4 | Open Building Plan

20

02 | Urban Sprawl: San Diego’s Future

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[Argument/Position]

2.1 | Le Corbusier “Plan Voisin” Masterplan

26

2.2 | Urban Sprawl

28

2.3 | San Diego’s Future Growth

30

03 | Adaptable Architecture: Surviving the Test of Time

32

[Case Studies] 3.1 | Ludwig Mies van der Rohe housing complex, Germany

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3.2 | Lucien Kroll’s La MéMé complex in Brussels, Belgiumw

38

3.3 | Wohnanlage Genter Strasse, Otto Steidle & Partners building 1972

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3.4 | NEXT 21 Osaka Gas Project, Japan 1993

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3.5 | Habitat 67, World Expo 1967, Moshe Safdie, Montreal, Canada

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04 | Adaptable Building Design [ Thesis Design]

50

4.1 | Site Analysis & Datascape

52

4.2 | Program Analysis & Structure

54

4.3 | Urban Ecology & Building Form

60

4.4 | Kit-of-Parts Wall System

62

4.5 | Building Plans

64

4.6 | Adaptable Residential Units

66


4.7 | Hierarchy of Building Parts

70

4.8 | Transformable Stage

72

4.9 | Suistainability & Thermal Analysis

76

4.10 | Building Elevations

78

4.11 | Volume Shift: Passive Shading & Natural Light

80

4.12 | Building Evolution: Density Fluctuation

82

05 | Thesis Conclusion: Long Term Architectural Solutions [Conclusion] 5.1 | “Open Building� Typology

84

5.2 | Urbanization & Pollution

88

5.3 | Long Term Architectural Solutions

92

5.4 | Thesis Statement: Conclusion

95

06 | References: List of Tables & Illustrations [Sources] 6.1 | Referances: Bibliography

6.2 | List of Tables & Illustrations

86

98


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Figure 0.1: Architecture of Density by Michael Wolf (2008)


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01

Shift to Urbanism:

Flexible Solutions


INTRODUCTION “Architects must consider whether to think of buildings as complete artifact or perpetual works-in-progress” -Jonathan Hugehes. (Russel) Metropolises have drawn over seventy percent of the world’s population to cities in the last decade alone (United Nations: Figure 1). This change has occurred too quickly for urban design and architecture to main-tain the high quality of built environment necessary for communities to flourish. Building designs are being rushed and only meet adequate standards for the immediate demands. Many buildings are environmentally harmful and lack intelligent design techniques that conform to the fast changing demands of the modern world and its contextual urban fabric. The urban environment is a permanent form in which complex human interactions and life take place. As the modern world changes rapidly, buildings and infrastructure must in turn constantly adapt to satisfy the demands of large populations. To accommodate for the massive increase in residential living, architects and urban planners have quickly produced mass housing complexes, many of which are repetitious concrete housing projects which provide people with an overly simplified “box” of poor quality 80%

PERCENTAGE OF WORLD POPULATION

60%

Rural = Urban =

40%

20%

0% 1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

2020

2030

2040

Figure 1.1: Percentage of World Population: Urban vs. Rural by United Nations (2001)


1.1 | Introduction: Shift to Urbanism

which is near-identical to every other living space in the complex. The inhuman living standards inherent in these fixed design systems have provided unwanted physical and social living conditions from which poverty can emerge. As seventy percent of humans shift to urban living, residential development must be re-evaluated to accommodate for future changes and to adapt specific characteristics to the users’ tastes. We have seen buildings in the past that were torn down due to their failure to meet such adequate standards (Pruitt-Igoe 1954). Many low-income housing projects provide fixed building forms and systems that are vulnerable to unforeseen long-term changing needs. One famous mass housing failure was Missouri Yamasaki 1954 Pruitt-Igoe low-income housing in St. Louis, Missouri (Figure 2). The simplicity and repetition proved too dense for human living and was ultimately disconnected from the urban fabric (Figure 3). Designed for low income residents, it only succeeded in segregating the inhabitants into one social class. This master-plan created some of the most treacherous living conditions which resulted in dangerously run down slums filled with gangs and violence.

Figure 1.2: Building Demolition of Pruitt-Igoe by Missouri Yamasaki (1954)

There is much to learn from the housing mistakes of the past. Human life demands a sense of place, of quality, as well as a connection to the greater whole of the city. It is impossible for a single architect to design mass housing projects that cater to residents of varying cultures and that can meet each individual’s needs, and it is necessary for architects to be aware of this fact. Figure 1.3: Masterplan of Pruitt-Igoe by Missouri Yamasaki (1954)

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ADAPTIVE REUSE Developing the future architecture of an existing city is a complex process that must necessarily draw from existing patterns, flows; the city’s past and its future potential. Many architects disregard the buildings’ context to satisfy the client and create a design that is cost effective. The key to making a strong city, however, is to create a strong community through the character of the architecture. Architects’ methodology must begin to incorporate adaptive reuse for the benefit of future cities if they are to avoid removing the history of a city’s built environment as it already exists. Adaptive re-use revises the function of a building and preserves the integrity of the architectural space. For a building to accommodate change, it must have a functional value as well as a commodity value. Buildings that offer an open arrangement of space and a flexible structural framework have the greatest potential for re-use. One way to evaluate the flexibility of a design is the cellular organization of its structure (Figure 4). Buildings categorized according to their cellular structure forms could be shaped and scaled according to their occupancy loads and uses, allowing for some level of flexibility. Cellular organization is present in many traditional building types, such as railways stations, schools, and atrium buildings, because planners were aware of their being adapted to new uses over time. Single-space structures and cellular structures sharing open space are commonly the best building types for re-use since they are not constrained by their particular function. The re-use of building structures

Figure 1.4: Building types organized with respect to their cellular structure.


1.2 | Adaptive Reuse 15

has become a popular industrial aesthetic in many American cities, since it provides a connection to past architecture while allowing for the rebirth of the building’s elements, materiality, program, and spatial atmosphere.Characteristics of adaptable structures include modest scale, simple forms, low density and height, generous interior or exterior open space, separable parts, and durable, “patchable” construction. Adaptive re-use can occur in many scales from individual buildings to “Main Streets” to entire

Figure 1.5: Entrance of Energy Resource Center in Downey, California by The Gas Company (1995)

districts—all of which are examples of ecological succession with respect to the buildings involved. Moreover, adaptive re-use can extend beyond the conservation of our cultural legacy. Old buildings can be economical through tax credits and lower acquisition, demolition, and material costs (Reuse). For example, the Environmental Resource Center in Downey, California, reused its old office building, decreasing site work costs by 50% (Figure 5). Adaptive re-use of whole buildings conserved natural resources and reduced the energy required to extract,

Figure 1.5.2: Interior of Energy Resource Center in Downey, California by The Gas Company (1995)

process, and transport building materials (Figure 6). Open space was preserved by avoiding the urban sprawl that accompanies new development, and employment increased due to the fact that rehabilitation is labor-intensive. Overall, the physical and social fabric of the community was strengthened. This design was cost effective and a highly sustainable solution for the given site. Adaptive re-use should always be considered as an available option when planning urban spaces, for the benefit of both the community and the environment.

Figure 1.6: Old warehouse with new core for the Energy Resource Center in Downey, California by The Gas Company (1995)


METABOLIST MOVEMENT Researching the Metabolist avant-garde movement in Japan around the 1950-1970s provides insight into one form of transformable architecture, partly through their use of the “capsule”, or additive unit, as will be discussed below. The Metabolist’s design methodology was to create buildings that would foster flexibility for social, economic, and cultural changes to take place over time. This possibility was largely due to the structural invention of the space frame which allowed for minimal structural impact, with large open floor plans or new artifical ground.

Figure 1.7: Hiroshima Japan after the Atomic Bombings by The United States of America (1945)

It was considered the last avant-garde movement to change modern architecture (Metabolism Talks), and was founded and led by Kenzo Tange, a famous international architect. The group’s philosophy comprised an ambitious vision of accelerated urbanism and advanced technology, existing in parallel with an untainted natural techno-utopia. After the United States of America bombed Japan, the Japanese had to rethink entire master planning notions for their cities from the infrastructure up (Figure 7). Land was very scarce, so the Metabolist group proposed many radical floating cities or mega-structures which would be built over existing roads or neighborhoods, creating cities above cities (Figure 8). With these radical ideas they maintained a sense of culture and links to the past so as to conform their designs to public standards of architecture while still forging the rebirth of Japan. In the 1940s space frame mega-structures consolidated minimal impact

Figure 1.8: Stratiform Structure by Kiyonori Kikutake (1972). Above: section, Below: Model


1.3 | Metabolism Movement 17

on the original ground condition with elevated surfaces to embrace life, program, and reduce density. Another concept which recurred in the Metabolist Group is the implementation of the moveable capsule, or inter-changeable unit. They designed modular structures that comprised of prefabricated capsules which could plug in to the design as needed. Each capsule could have different purposes, places, and could be programmed individually giving way to an evolving archi-tecture. Many of their designs became reality during Japan’s world expo in 1970 (figure 9). This was a breakthrough in architecture as each component was granted inter-dependent functions giving rise to constant adaptation of the program, spatially configuration, and circulation with just a simple re-configuration of capsules.

Addative Capsules Figure 1.9: Largest space frame ever built; Big Roof, Tange et al, Expo ‘70 by Kenzo Tange (1970)


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“We have gradually come to realize that the survival of humanity depends on the symbiosis of the many life forms on our planet and we can no longer believe that the machine, scientific technology and the human intellect are all powerful.” -M to S. (Contemporary Japanese Architecture) The machine-like mechanical model of the modern movement was later replaced by a biological one in which the parts, like living cells, could come to live and die while the entire organism goes on living (Metabolism Revisited). The architect’s job, then, is not to propose ideal models for society but to devise spatial equipment that the citizens themselves can operate. The equipment, with which it is possible to achieve metabolic architecture, is comprised of prefabricated and interchangeable modular space units that can be interchanged within the structural frame as necessary. The architectural idea of the capsule has the possibility of being regionalized with locally produced, renewable materials. This strategy overcomes the homogenizing effect of mass produced, generic architectural elements and reduces the carbon footprint of buildings. Furthermore, as energy usage in buildings has become a focus of attention in our global efforts to build sustainably, the promise of enhanced quality control through prefabrication has become more attractive. “The essential difference between life and a machine is that a machine has eliminated all needless ambiguity being constructed solely on functional, rational principles, whereas life includes such elements as waste, the indefinite and play. It is Figure 1.10: Kenzo Tange Resident by Kiyonori Kikutake (1958)


1.3 | Metabolism Movement 19

a flowing structure forever creating a dynamic balance.� (Kisho Kurokawa) One of the first residential works of the Metabolist movement was the residences of Kiyonori Kikutake. He implemented the idea of an artificial ground by raising the house fifteen feet off the thereby creating a space for the children to play and cars to park (Figure 10). Kikutake designed each functional component of the building as independent from any hierarchical order. The main vertical concrete columns stood alone providing the structure for the floor plates and roof. The interior was the optimal open building plan with transformable partition walls allowing the space to be open or divided into separate rooms. Kikutake also incorporated the metabolic idea of an additive capsule (figure 11). When his children were born, he was able to attach a modular capsule to the floor plate structure adding a room to the house for their present life needs. Once the kids went to college, the capsule was removed, substantiating the practical advantages of his design.

Figure 1.11: Addative bedroom capsule to Kenzo Tange Residents by Kiyonori Kikutake (1958)


OPEN BUILDING PLAN “We should not try to forecast what will happen, but try to make provisions for the unforeseen” (Habraken, 1961). According to N. John Habraken’s “Open Buildings,” in order to successfully accomplish building transformations, it is necessary to respect the requirements of the different participants in the design and building process. The aim is to achieve flexibility in building design and construction practices whilst maintaining the capacity for transformation in real time. This design methodology is the building plat-

INFILL

form for adaptable or flexible architecture. Designing with the “Open Building” plan is a systematic approach through the segregation of building elements. This system maximizes the potential for future change of any interior configuration and the incorporation of any new programmatic function. “Open Building” is a multidisciplinary approach applied in building design that supports building adaptability according to different requirements:

SUPPORT

built environment, production and construction methods, the market of products and product technology and, finally, the user’s demand for the suitable place. Many non-residential buildings are constructed according to “Open Building” principles and strategies, most notably office buildings. Habraken’s Open Building establishes “infill” levels for the building’s parts that change faster (“fast cycling elements”/ Durmisevic 2006) and “support” for the building’s parts that are more permanent (“low cycling” ele-

Figure 1.12: Fast cycling elements “Support” level; slow cycling elements “Infill” level by Kamo (2000)


1.4 | Open Building Plan 21

ments/ Durmisevic 2006) (figure 12). This building process allows for the “infill” to be determined for each individual space without affecting the building structure. Separate decisions on the “support” level involve building parts which are common to all users such as: load bearing structure, building-common mechanical and conveyance systems, public areas, and the facade. Taking the “Open Building” plan in more depth was Duffy and Brand’s study of buildings’ functional levels. They identified functions with varying lifecycles in a building and their relationship to the whole.

Life Cycle Change (Years)

1 5-10 25 100 40

Brand’s “layer” diagram (Figure 13) is composed of the six main parts that make up a building’s functions: building site, structure, skin, services, space plan, and staff. The separation and relationship between the building’s functions are crucial in order to ensure the building’s long life span. These functional levels must be designed separately to compose the building as a whole. Fast Rate of Change

Stuff “Infill” Space Services Structure Skin Site Slow Rate of Change

Figure 1.13: Building layers according to life cycle change by Brand (1995)


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The main criteria for “open” systems are independence and exchangeability of its components and subsystems (Habraken). Flexible building systems allow for the possibility to respond to different re-quirements over time. The sub-systems are to be considered adaptable, changeable, and compatible in that each component can be designed as an independent entity, which becomes a part of the a whole. The result of following these construction layers and relationships will generate a user friendly building providing users with freedom of choice with regards to modification, evolution, and individual customization of layout and materiality. This is considered a demountable system that can undergo major reconfiguration and which can even be rebuilt elsewhere, extending the life of the total building system. Designing the demountable components and subsystems of the building with dry-jointing connections allows for reconfiguration without demolition waste. This process of systematization by building parts into different levels—functional, technical, spatial, and physical—leads to a reduction of interrelated connections between functional and technical aspects of the building (Habraken). The interior, material, and spatial flexibility will be derived from following these design features: systematization of building components and subsystems, open system hierarchy, controlled assembly sequences, dry joint connection and simple interface geometry (Multifamily Open Building). On-site construction costs will be greatly reduced by the simplicity of the component connections and assembly of building elements as a standard system.


1.4 | Open Building Plan 23

Buildings would benefit greatly from using this sys-

Functions

Open Building System

tem of design to maintain a high level of satisfaction for the residents but also guarantee the changeability of the mechanical and services systems over time. The downfall of mass production housing after World War II was in the designing of conventional

Interdependency

Components

static building systems. Since our dependence on mechanical and electrical needs are constantly changing, it makes sense for these systems to be easily accessible for quick fixes and for the integration of new systems so as to ensure residents’ needs are being met. The main characteristic of most conventional systems is that they are built in the form of “closed”

Functions

Closed “Static” System

(static) systems, due to the fixed integration of technical systems into functional building systems. Figure 14 demonstrates a “closed” system where two or more functions are integrated into one building

Dependency

Components

element; this is called functional decomposition. The

Figure 1.14: CLosed building system: Functional dependency (2012)

interdependency of building elements is a crucial requirement for a building to have a long life cycle. The use of concrete partition walls with integrated plumbing is set up for failure because if any infrastructure needs to be repaired, demolition is required. Architects must move away from static building systems for the move toward a more sustainable future. “Perhaps the real truth is that environments such as cities and townscapes cannot actually be designed. By their nature they are transient, evolving through unforeseeable ebbs and flows of culture and commerce.” -Tarek Merlin (Jelena)


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Figure 0.2: San Buenaventura complex outside Mexico City (2013)


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02

Urban Sprawl:

San Diego’s Future


ARGUMENT Designing buildings on a large scale poses many social and cultural restraints, foremost of which is to devise a high quality design for diverse environmental, social and cultural conditions, each with program-specific requirements. Studies show that people move houses every 3 to 5 years on average, demonstrating how quickly people require changes in their living requirements (Street Dictionary). Frequent moves are mostly due to the following reasons: the house is the wrong size, the maintenance is overwhelming, the advent of a new born child, the climate, or proximity to work and family (Street Dictionary). These constant changes cause people living in urban complexes to move locations frequently in search of the “perfect” place. It would appear that the inhabitants need more input into design and personal freedom in order to adapt their living quarters to changes in their life. This can be accomplished by moving away from fixed construction toward flexible and adaptable residential living which provides spatial typological variety. The solution is “Open Building” flexibility, defined by Habraken above as the multidisciplinary approach applied in building design that supports building adaptability according to built environment, production and construction methods, the market of products and product technology and the user’s demand for the suitable space. The last century has shown the downfall of many residential master-planning complexes from modernists (Figure 15). The main characteristic of most of these conventional systems is that they were built as Figure 2.15: Urban sprawl neighborhoods


2.1 | Le Corbusier “Plan Voisin” Masterplan 27

a “closed” (static) system. This was predominantly seen in the Industrialization of the multifamily housing after WWII in Russia, the United States, and many European cities. The danger was that the arrogance of the architect master planner might fail to accommodate the wills and desires of the general population resulting in an unsuccessful urban environment that fails to stand the test of time (PruittIgoe: Figure 16). These types of socialist housing complexes were built as “finished products” where

Figure 2.16: Mass housing demolition (1985)

different building parts were fixed together. This created a closed system and a fixed integration of building components at connections. In fixed buildings, elements are very dependent because they were not designed to accommodate for the life cycle of different functional purposes. In 1925 Le Corbusier proposed his ideas for “Plan Voisin” (Figure 17), demolishing the organic street pattern of the entire Marias district in Paris and replacing it with eighteen sixty story cruciform towers arranged in an orthogonal grid with open spaces in between. This design gave precedence to the car and demanded that human traffic be ordered into architectural simplicity. Enforcing this simplistic way of thinking onto the complex issues of mass housing

Figure 2.17: Plan for “Plan Voisin” by Le Corbusier (1925)

can destroy communities and create isolated, unnatural urban spaces. Moving away from these past radical designs to allow for a dense and mixed-use urban environment, as well as celebrating the unique and natural individuality of urban life, will allow that very life to happily attach itself onto the architecture it finds there, and indeed adapt it as it sees fit (T. Merlin). Figure 2.17: Layout of “Plan Voisin” by Le Corbusier (1925)


2.2 | Urban Sprawl 29

“We need a new vision of process, not just product‌The world, and our clients, have seen what has been accomplished in other manufacturing fields: ships, airplanes and cars. Higher quality and added scope and features are there, along with lower cost and shorter time to fabricate. The old equilibrium between cost and time no longer holds. The mandate for change has now shifted to architecture. We cannot continue to build architecture at ever higher costs, longer schedules, and lower quality. We must actâ€? (Kieran and Timberlake 2004) America faces a dilemma which has created the worst urban sprawl in the world. Due to the vast amounts of open land, urban areas cannot provide cheap enough living cost compared to the suburbs. American cities are downtown centers for business and entertainment, but have become living places solely for the upper classes who can afford downtown apartments. The rest of the middle and lowerclass citizens are forced to keep inhabiting housing neighborhoods which radiate from the cities for miles and miles. The urban sprawl and massive highway networks, for which California is famous (Figures 18 and 19), has caused devastating harm to the environment and car use has caused pollution rates to soar. For the sake of the environment, it is imperative that polFigure 2.18: Los Angeles highway network (2005)

lution levels be minimized but this can only happen if and when the shift toward multifamily residential

Figure 2.19: Urban sprawl neighborhoods in Large Portion of American Development (2008)

living becomes economically more reasonable than suburban living.


30

San Diego, California has more than 75,000 people employed downtown but only 35,000 of which live in the downtown area (U.S. Census Bureau 2012). Thousands more come downtown daily to vacation, conduct business, shop, dine, attend cultural, educational and entertainment events, and enjoy the world’s finest city waterfront. The future looks very bright and commercial and residential development is envisioned to accommodate up to 90,000 residents and 165,000 jobs by the year 2030, absorbing the majority of the region’s future population growth (U.S. Census Bureau 2012) (Figure 20). San Diego downtown is the perfect testing grounds for this thesis investigation due to the need to accommodate 30,000 future residents. Designing buildings more sustainably with longer lifecycles would be a benefit to the environment and long-term growth of San Diego. Designing mixed-use residential buildings that could adapt to all users’ needs is an attractive idea which would allow the building to accommodate future growth and change. Creating a flexible and adaptable living space would allow residents to remain in the same apartment while still being able to change the spatial layout, number of rooms, location of bathrooms, materiality, and facade configuration to conform to the changing needs of their lives. This would allow people to have a dynamic living space that continually satisfies their changing lifestyle without having move or live miles from downtown. The modular system of components will allow for the building to grow over time as the population of


2.3 | San Diego’s Future Growth 31

downtown increases. To build a multifamily residential building of approximately fifty units using an “Open-Building Plan” and user component interchange could be one way to begin this transition. The building adaptability holds the possibility of letting the community shape their own urban culture instead of having the architect force them to live within static forms. Many open buildings plans have been built from the 1930s onwards but their potential was not fully recognized, such as Lucien Kroll MéMé utopia complex in Belgium. Reinventing adaptable housing with “open building plans” would become economically more competitive with modern residential living and would offer a higher quality of living with less impact on nature. By giving people more adaptable housing at a competitive price to suburban living, the urban sprawl could potentially be contained whilst bringing culture back to the downtown area as can be seen in many vibrant European cities. The effects of dense urban living would drastically cut down the vehicle traffic and bring the majority of the population back into the city. Designing multifamily residential buildings where the life cycle of technical levels would be independent from the life cycle of functional levels, the durability of technical systems and their materials would make for a more sustainable building as a whole. The design goal is to provide a systematic assembly of the building’s parts and systems allowing for three dimensional spatial reconfiguration, growth, and simple component exchange, which could be exactly what San Diego needs. Figure 2.20: Guidlines for future development in San Diego (1967)


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03

Adaptable Architecture: surviving the test of time


CASE STUDIES Ludwig Mies van der Rohe housing complex, Germany: Modern architects saw the social and physical design problems with mass concrete housing and began to implement design solutions. One of the first examples of flexible open building design was by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in 1927. The project was a housing complex in Weissenhofsiedlung, Stuttgart, Germany (Figure 21). The great success of this project is seen in that it houses residents to this very day due to its flexible design. Modern architecture at the time dictated that design was without any ornamentation, an architecture based on basic geometric forms. Using flexible ground plans, Mies van der Rohe wanted to create a healthy atmosphere filled with light and air for the residents. The hypothesis that a minimum of form should guarantee a maximum of freedom proved to be true. The multifamily housing complex became synonymous with “flexible housing” due to the interior layout. This was the first example of “open plan” design adopting a clear span load bearing system and free floor plan for variety in the units’ arrangement (Figure 21). In Figure 22 the floor plans show the variability available to each, ie. how each resident adapted their living space to their wants. The meaning of “typological variety” in the context of multifamily housing Figure 3.22: Various unit layouts in the Residential Quadruplex building in Germany by Mies van der Rohe (1927)

points to freedom of choice for diverse users. It is achieved in Mies van der Rohe’s apartment building by giving architectural flexibility to the individual with respect to spatial configurations. Using dry-joint steel connections allows the system to conform to


3.1 | Ludwig Mies van der Rohe housing complex, Germany 35

Figure 3.21: Residential Quadruplex building in Germany by Mies van der Rohe (1927)

Figure 3.23: Floor plans for the Residential Quadruplex building in Germany by Mies van der Rohe (1927)


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all types of residential building plans with the lowest con-struction costs and simple detail connections.

Lucien Kroll’s La MéMé complex in Brussels, Belgium: Looking at built examples of adaptable, participatory architecture will reveal a residential typology of rarity and beauty. A historic built example of participatory architecture was Lucien Kroll’s La MéMé complex in Brussels, Belgium (Figure 24). He understood the participatory process as having to be set in motion; or at least, that architects must step out of their shoes, so to speak, and put themselves in the shoes of future residents. Architecture must be saved from the architect’s exclusive dominion, and redirected towards participation, with “an action open to new necessities and to decisions that are always provisional and incomplete” (Lucien Knoll). Kroll created a movement around 1967 that rejected all seriality in order to highlight the process of the work’s construction and its evolution over time, with the aid of assorted natural and industrial materials. This project’s scale and complexity enabled him to envisage a structure whose denouement would reach beyond the architectural object to an intricate dynamic entity that would be in continuous exchange with its surroundings (Domus). In the MéMé, everything communicates and opens, each element sees and can understand and meet the other. The floor slabs are open between one level and the next, the walls are cut out, the skylights are transparent everywhere, and the balconies are visible to one another.

Figure 3.24: La MeMe residential building in Belgium by Lucien Kroll (1979)


3.2 | Lucien Kroll’s La MéMé complex in Brussels, Belgium 37

This project is a tribute to the concept of community living and “transparent” society (Domus). The MéMé is translated into a mixture of windows and wood, aluminium and iron panel constructed elements using the modular coordination of assorted elements (Figure 25). The structural grid is such that columns are seemingly random allowing units to vary in size and configuration via moveable partitions. The facade is also composed of a grid and fitted with various de-mountable windows and panels of differ-


38 Lucien Kroll’s La MéMé complex in Brussels, Belgium | 3.2

ing dimensions. The residents select the pieces that would, in the end, make up their unit, allowing units to reflect the desires of the dweller and to anticipate changes for future dwellers (Figure 26). The methodology of the project to “first of all classify the inhabited landscape within ‘global’ human knowledge, and then discuss the means of materialization: everyone has something to contribute” (Lucien Kroll). It was a very original methodology and was devised by stimulating an intuitive and spontaneous knowledge that had a direct impact on reality. This design was the process of function, language, time. Kroll designed the functional building components and varying material languages for residents to construct, change, and remodel their living space over time. It was a organic process taking shape and growing over time giving the appearance of the building to be somewhat chaotic. Although chaotic, it was truly shaped by the complex desires of human life. This design methodology was a remarkable step forward in the reality of adaptable architecture. To let the necessities of human life shape their living quarters generated a specific community with distinct cultural character.

Wohnanlage Genter Strasse in Germany 1972: Another working example of flexible adaptable living is Wohnanlage Genter Strasse, Otto Steidle & Partners Multifamily building in 1972 (Figure 27). This design allowes for constant change; flexibility of “support” for the adaptability of the “detachable unit” and dwelling unit transformation according to user preferences. This was a groundbreaking project in 1972 and the flexibility was made


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Figure 3.26: Interior configuration in La MeMe residential building by Lucien Kroll (1979)

Figure 3.25: Facade panelling variation for the La MeMe building by Lucien Kroll (1979)


40 Wohnanlage Genter Strasse, Otto Steidle & Partners building | 3.3

Figure 3.27: Facade: Wohnanlage Genter Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

Figure 3.29: Dry Joint Connection: Wohnanlage Genter Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

Figure 3.30: Structural Model: Wohnanlage Genter Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)


41

possible by re-adjustable space. To achieve that, components were prefabricated and were not permanently fixed to one-another. The expression and character of the building are simply based on its functionality. The exposed joints, load-bearing structure, facade materiality, and floors are all made into Figure 3.28: Facade: Wohnanlage Genter Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

separate structural components giving true beauty to the whole (Figure 28). The modules are prefabricated reinforced concrete frame. These frames can be merged together and multiplied. Therefore, columns become the key structural element and share loads while allowing beams to join together to form a network. Steidle & partners also took it a step further by having the cables distributed every half-story given flexibility to its volume and having the option of split level or 1.5 ceiling height. The modules are highly maneuverable allowing the space and volume to be expanded or reduced according to the user demands. Connections between removable parts and permanent structure are based on dry joints (Figure 29 & 30), and the residential blocks create variety in unit types and a spatial organization of the different dwelling typologies. The arrangement of the units has changed several times since the original design layout. The Wohnanlage Center is still a living example of Open Building Design and building process.

NEXT 21 Osaka Gas Project, Japan: The next case study, NEXT 21 Committee for the Osaka Gas Project completed in Japan by October 1993 (Figure 31), takes the “Open Building� process and


42

pushes it one step further to include sustainability. The designers tried to ascertain what the most desirable type of urban dwelling in the 21st century was by hiring design professionals in energy, environmental, urban, architectural and utility systems to come up with a revolutionary new kind of living space. NEXT 21 included a variety of up-to-date technologies which were imagined by the developers and later endorsed by the occupants. These various experiments helped discover the optimal living environment which could remain compatible with energy-saving and ecology. NEXT 21 was a new experiment of a new urban typology in which 16 families considered a new relationship between man and city. The design was a IFD (Industrialized, Flexible, demountable) design method. All the subsystems related to one another in hierarchy. The open subsystems hierarchy meant Figure 3.33: Modular Prefabricated Structure for the Wohnanlage Center Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

that each subsystem could only be deployed after the system higher in the order had been removed (Figure 32). The “Open Building” process generated more efficiency in production, construction, flexibility of space and flexible industrial products providing sustainable residential architecture (NEXT 21). The new vision of the multifamily building was to satisfy the needs for adaptability of the housing space by transformations on technical and spatial levels of control. “Systems Building” was a method deployed in this design to adjust the individual components systems of the building so that the main structure,

Figure 3.34: Dry joint structural connection for the Wohnanlage Center Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

external walls, and windows were arranged (Figure 33 & 34). NEXT 21 was a highly flexible architectural


3.4 | NEXT 21 Osaka Gas Project, Japan

Figure 3.32: “Kit-of-Parts” building system for NEXT 21 by Committee for Osaka Gas Project (1993)

Figure 3.31: NEXT 21 by Committee for Osaka Gas Project (1993)

43


44

system due to its component systems being divided into four groups according to the required life cycle of each component and production path. These were later manufactured as separate module systems so that outer walls, baths, toilets, and gardens could be moved (Figure 35). NEXT21 was constructed as a whole, but designed in such a way that its various subsystems could be adjusted with improved autonomy. The “two-step housing supply system” is a system that divides building elements into two groups: long-life elements with high degree of communal utility such as columns, beams and floor slabs, and short-life elements in private areas such as partitions walls, building facilities and equipment (NEXT 21). Grouping building elements in this way meant that planning, construction, and supply proceeded organically. This was a major advantage since the system allowed for the needs of the inhabitants to be reflected while maintain social worth as a city space and as a building. A “3 dimensional street” had been designed as a natural element linked with the Ecological Garden creating a vital common space for communications between dwellers. Each resident was able to enjoy the atmosphere of the regular street while maintaining privacy in their different ways.

Habitat 67 World Expo 1967 by Moshe Safdie: The last case study we will look at is an extraordinary experimental housing complex made up of modular concrete units for the 1967 World Expo in Montreal, Canada (Figure 36). Habitat 67 World


3.4 | NEXT 21 Osaka Gas Project, Japan

Figure 3.35: Adaptable floor plan layouts for NEXT 21 by Committee for Osaka Gas Project (1993)

45


46

Expo 1967 design, by Canadian architect Moshe Safdie. This project is a visionary step in attempting to redesign urban living, provide affordable housing and create a community complete with shops and a school (Figure 37). Safdie was dissatisfied with suburbia and visualized a new type of urban dwelling that would house a lot of people and yet still provide them with privacy (InHabitat). The success of this methodology was from the diverse arrangement of various apartment types. All of the units were prefabricated on-site, and each has its own rooftop garden space located on the roof of the neighbor below. The on-site mass production of the concrete blocks made the complex affordable. Prefab construction was much more efficient as it was assembled in a factory line process on site. Once the units were built they would simply be lifted by crane into position on the building structurally connected to the units below (Figure 38). 15 different types of housing options were designed by Safdie to accommodate different sizes of families

Figure 3.38: Modular units lifted into place by crane, Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)


3.5 | Habitat 67 World Expo 1967 by Moshe Safdie

Figure 3.36: Building sketch of Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)

Figure 3.37: Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)

47


48

and create a diverse community within the vertical realm (Figure 39). This was originally designed as a temporary building that would be removed after the World Expo was finished, but people’s interest in pur-chasing the living affordable units for $140,000 in a unique urban environment was so high that the building sold out within the first year. The project’s success shows the complexity and diversity of spatial conditions that are suitable for fulfilling a wide range of human lifestyles. Every unit has its own character, view, orientation, layout, and various outdoor spaces which allowed people to choose the perfect home (Figure 40 & 41).

Figure 3.41: Units variety and scale for Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)


3.5 | Habitat 67 World Expo 1967 by Moshe Safdie

This project was a fascinating study in prefab architecture and Safdie’s model for industrialized manufacture of affordable housing offers a good lesson to the success of future urban housing complexes. This proves modular prefabricated design does not have to be regular and robotic in form and has the potential to fulfill complex social human living conditions.

Figure 3.40: Floor Plan for Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)

Figure 3.39: Facade variation, Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)

49


50


51

04

Adaptable Building Design Figure 0.3: Thesis Model Axon View by Brandon Smart (2013)


52

SITE ANALYSIS Easy Village, Downtown San Diego: The proposed site is between 15th and 16th Street at the intersection of Island Avenue (Figure 42). The site is currently a vacant city block on the periphery of the city’s main growth. As San Diego’s density

150ft

increases in future, the East Village will be the first place for potential growth for residential, public, and retail spaces. The surrounding blocks currently

SITE

age spaces, making the area an unpleasant one for

280ft

house numerous warehouses, factories, and storpublic occupancy. This vacant site has great potential to rejuvenate public engagement in the area and to create a future attraction for living and commerce.

Area = 42,000 sqft.

This location is an ideal one for my building design to implement the methodology of adaptable architecture in the sense that the building can adapt to the influx of future residential density as needed. One block to the east of the site is the San Diego Highway which provides direct access to the site (Figure 43). Three blocks to the west is the San Diego Major League Baseball Stadium, bringing in large influxes of people during the seasonal home games. Besides the stadium’s attraction, there is very little retail, few restaurants, and no public space within a mile of the site. This lack of year-long entertainment and social attraction is the main issue with the area, and the reason why people are not drawn towards the East Village (Figure 44). To solve these issues, the building will necessarily have to provide the public with a platform for cultural and social goingson. The building should act as a local hub for retail, residential, and public use, allowing users to create their own perfect premises.

1

San Diego Highway

2

San Diego Baseball Stadium

3

Metro & Bus Hub


53

Figure 4.42: San Diego Google Map

1

Figure 4.43: East Village San Diego

2 3


54 Figure 4.44: Site Analysis: Datascape by Brandon Smart

15th st.

14th st.

13th st.


4.1 | Site Analysis & Datascape

17th st.

16th st.

G st.

DATASCAPE | East Village, San Diego Residential Buildings Food & Restuarant Parking Lots Road TrafďŹ c Public Transport View from the site Wind Direction Suringround Buildings

Market St.

0.2 Mile Radius

San Diego Hwy. Summer Solstice | 7am - 5pm

Island Ave.

Winter Solstice | 8am - 3pm J st.

Spring Solstice | 7am - 4pm K st.

55


56

PROGRAM ANALYSIS

EAST VILLAGE DENSITY

Easy Village Program Density: Through the overlaying of site analysis in Datascape, it was easy to uncover the imbalance in programs (Figure 45).

?

The Easy Village is extremely dense in Residential buildings and warehouse or storage spaces. The

ous imbalance between programs is most likely due

retail/food

and one second hand clothes store exist. This obvi-

parking

from the site, only one grocery store, one restaurant,

warehouses

retail or food. Within the quarter mile walking radius

residential

area only offers street parking and extremely little

to the area’s more recent development. Warehouses

SITE PROGRAM

and storage spaces are slowly being pushed out of the city because of its expansion. Retail, food, and public space are necessary in order to fulfill the basic needs of the elevated residential density in the area. The city is expanding outward pushing the warehouses and storeage spaces out of the city at a slow rate. The need for retail, food, and public space is a necessary in order to fullfil the basic needs of

design solution will be restore this grey site as an

40,000

focus is to satisfy the programmatic void. The first

30,000

this imbalance in the East Village, this design’s main

18,000

Building Program Incorporation: To solve

100,000

the enourmous residential density in the area.

PROGRAMMATIC FORM

entire block of pubic green space, offering public theaters, benches, trees, and open space in which to enjoy the San Diego sun. The ground condition will act as a public catalyst for the future of the East Village, providing it with a cultural center. Secondly, the design implements 18,000 sqft. of retail space, restaurants, and bars, to provide people with a local

public space

place to shop, all within walking distance. Lastly, it Figure 4.45: Program Analysis by Brandon Smart


4.2 | Program Analysis & Structure

57

will offer 50 residential units varying from 1-4 bedrooms apartments. This design will offer a new cultural center for East Village residents while meeting their economic and social desires forming a rich engaging urban ecology.

Media-TIC Building, Barcelona: To provide the most flexible design you must have the most

Figure 4.48: Structure Load: Media-TIC Building by Enric Ruiz Geli (2007)

flexible floor plan; i.e. a column-free space (Figure 46). The Media-TIC building’s innovative truss system provides a good foundation for this type of structure, with suspended floor plates and a cable system providing the maximum “open building plan.” It is composed of 4 rigid braced frames, each with a support beam that transfers their load to the rigid support centers and down to the foundation (Figure 47 & 48). This structural design system allowes for a truly flexible design.

Figure 4.47: Structure: Media-TIC Building by Enric Ruiz Geli (2007)

Figure 4.46: Media-TIC Building by Enric Ruiz Geli (2007)


58


ADAPTABLE BUILDING DESIGN Adaptable Building Platform: This innovative design is a flexible machine that can adapt to the users’ needs. The suspended superstructure truss system gives full potential for “open building plan” for each floor and also frees up the ground condition for public space. The building’s hierarchy of elements allows for each component of the building to be independent from each of the others, which in turn allows for each component to be maintained, fixed, or replaced at any point in time without affecting any of the others. The residential units are designed as a Kit-of-Parts System on a modular grid giving the residents full control over their living layout, materiality and window placement. This system actively involves the customer; helping them to determine the shape and function of their accommodation. In turn, this design system will give birth to a new urban typology incorporating individual character into each living space. The evolution of the build-ing is in the hands of the users and so it can adapt to changing forces and residents over time.

Figure 4.49: Thesis Building: Street View by Brandon Smart


URBAN ECOLOGY The implementation of a dynamic design that mirrors community aspects of the suburban environment will allow urban living to maintain a proper ecology for family life. The design operates by offering artificial ground were residents purchase an area and location that best suits their wants (Figure 50). Then, they are able to choose, design, and materialize their own housing unit, giving every unit a unique identity. Figure 4.51: Thesis Form Studies by Brandon Smart

Figure 4.50: Parti Building Sketch by Brandon Smart


4.3 | Urban Ecology & Building Form

RETAIL This formal study is optimized to offer best street location for retail stores and interior market giving set back terraces for each residential unit.

PUBLIC This formal study offers the maximum public space on the ground condition while the overhand of residential units acts as natural shading for the building.

ORGANIC This formal study shows an organic growth as one residential units would stack on one another over time to develop an organic density of spatial conditions.

Public

Retail

Restuarant

Figure 4.52: Formal Building Studies by Brandon Smart

Residential

61


62 Kit-of-Parts | 4.4

KIT-OF-PARTS Interchangeable wall and floor paneling system: (Figure 53) Wall Panels 1) Cladding panels are secured with anodized aluminum clamps fixed to a back panel plate to create a waterproof seal and thermal air barrier for insulation. 2) The panels are fixed to steel mullions which are locked into the floor channels on a 4’x4’ grid. Steel Mullions 3) The floor panels are inserted on the steel structural grid allowing for easily accessible mechanical and HVAC space beneath the floor.

Floor Panels

Rigid Steel Grid

Mech

anica

Spaceframe Floor

l Spa

ce


Siding

Wood

Brick

Stone

Concrete

4ft. 4ft. 4ft.

4ft.

Figure 4.53: Kit-of-Parts Building System by Brandon Smart


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00 | GROUND FLOOR: Public Stage STAGE

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FOOD

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STORE

CAFE

BAR

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B

A

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FOOD STORE

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03 | RETAIL CAFE

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04 | RESIDENTIAL PRODUCED BY AN AUTODE

K EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

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BAR

ROOFTOP LOUNGE

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MECH.

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4.4 | Buildings Plans 65

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08 | ROOFTOP: Restuarant

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07 | RESIDENTIAL

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06 | RESIDENTIAL

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04 | RESIDENTIAL

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05 | RESIDENTIAL

Figure 4.54: Building Plans by Brandon Smart


66 Adaptable Residential Units | 4.5

07 | RESIDENTIAL 6th Floor | Dynamic Residential Layouts and Interior configurations

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06 | RESIDENTIAL Figure 4.55: Various Residential Layouts by Brandon Smart


Residential Units

Layout Flexibility & Variation

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2 BEDROOM Interior sqft. = 1,680 Balcony sqft. = 600

Scale: 3/32” = 1’-0”

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This Unique Design offers a large variety of residential layouts and assembly of materials. The façade

2 BEDROOM Interior sqft. = 2,125 Balcony sqft. = 600

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ADAPTABLE RESIDENTIAL UNITS

paneling Kit-of-Parts system gives each resident 2 BEDROOM Interior sqft. = 2,000 Balcony sqft. = 700

choice of materiality as well as freedom with respect to the locations of windows. The partition walls of each unit can be designed along the restraints of the 4ft. by 4ft. modular floor grid, offering a dynamic arrangement of interior versus exterior spaces. This system allows for adaption of materiality, unit sizes, and interior layout as an evolutionary process of truly flexible design (Figure 55).

3 BEDROOM Interior sqft. = 1,600 Balcony sqft. = 350

2 BEDROOM Interior sqft. = 1,700 Balcony sqft. = 350

2 BEDROOM Interior sqft. = 1,680 Balcony sqft. = 600

1 BEDROOM Interior sqft. = 1,450 Balcony sqft. = 150

1 BEDROOM Interior sqft. = 1,400 Balcony sqft. = 200

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2 BEDROOM Interior sqft. = 2,000 Balcony sqft. = 700


HIERARCHY OF BUILDING PARTS Designing a truly flexible design requires each of the building’s elements to be interdependent, which can be achieved by organizing each element by the life-cycle cost in order to develop the hierarchy of each building component. Structure has the longest life-cycle (100+ years), followed by floors (50+ years), mechanical (20 years), partition walls (520 years), and interior furniture (1-10 years). This element giving the basis of the building construction order. Each element of the building can be deployed as long as the element above it in hierarchical order is deployed first (Figure 58). The building is constructed in this order so that each individual element can be sustained, maintained, and changed over time without affecting any other element of the building. Therefore, this process will allow the building to sustain a high quality of living for hundreds of years as it can adapt and regenerate over and again.

Figure 4.56:Building Section “A”: Retail Space by Brandon Smart

SECTION | A

Scale: 1/32” = 1’-0”

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evaluation formulated the building hierarchy of each


4.6 | Hierarchy of Building Parts 69


Hierarchy of Building Parts

Residential Units

Retail Space

Floor Plates

Structure Truss Frame

Figure 4.58: Hierarchy of Building Parts by Brandon Smart


4.6 | Hierarchy of Building Parts 71

Figure 4.57: Thesis Building Street View Render by Brandon Smart


TRANSFORMABLE STAGE This design aims to generate a central public hub in the East Village in which a variety of social events can occur. The solution is to incorporate a hydraulic stage beneath the building that can create an urban topography for any type of public, private, or city event (Figure 60). The stage consists of 10ft. x 10ft panels that can be raised or lowered a total of 12ft. This allows for a dynamic arrangement of conditions

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK EDUCATIONAL PRODUCT

to conform to a theater stage, outdoor amphitheater, public park, and market space. All of these events could be held at different times of the week, bringing activities, and therefore excitement to the site. The exterior of the stage has operable walls that can enclose the its exterior to allow for private events to take place. The stage sits at the base of the 100ft tall light atrium, creating a spectacular, dynamic space into which natural light can flood. The stage flexibility offers an endless possibility for activities and events to take place on, generating the perfect place for a new cultural center.

Figure 4.59: Building Section “B”: Light Atrium by Brandon Smart

SECTION | B

Scale: 1/32” = 1’-0”


4.7 | Transformable Stage

73


Figure 4.60: Stage Configurations by Brandon Smart

74

STA

GE

|P

ub

lic

STA

GE

Pa

rk

| Am

phi

the

ate

r

PUBLIC

AMPHITEATER

The public stage configuration can

The Amphiteater stage configuration

change daily to create a dynamic

can be a perfecet place for daytime

space with fluid movment, seating, and

outdoor performances for free events

small gathering areas. This constantly

or it can be closed during nighttime for

changing space will keep the public

private paid musical events as it offers

engaged and interacting over time.

optimal acoustics.

OPEN PUBLIC PARK | A dynamic undulating space offering various spaces for public enjoyment. STA

GE

|M

STA

ark

et

GE

| Th

eat

er


4.7 | Transformable Stage

STA

GE

|M

STA

ark

et

GE

| Th

eat

er

MARKET

THEATER

San Diego is known for its weekend

The typical Theater stage is perfect for

farmers markets bringing in local

all professional events offering seating

goods. This simple stage set up can

for up to 300 persons. Local dance,

offer an ordered central walkway with

music, and broadway performances

stands for each farmer to place and sell

could hold paid events to bring week-

their goods to the public.

end entertainment for the locals.

CLOSED AMPHITEATER EVENT | Exterior walls are closed for a private nightime event space.

75


8

7

R

TE

IN

W

E

TIC

LS

SO

6

ER

E

TIC

LS

SO

MM

SU

5

3

4

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1) Hydraulic Stage 2) Mechanical Open/Closed Wall 3) HVAC & Mechanical Space 4) Floor Connection w/ Steel Truss 5) 4ft. Spaceframe Floor Plates 6) Operable Shading Device 7) Kit-of-Parts Partition Wall System 8) Suspension Cable Connection

2

1

Figure 4.61: Detailed Building Section by Brandon Smart


77

4.8 | Suistainability & Thermal Analysis

SUISTAINABILITY NO SHADING = 116ยบ

Adaptive Re-use: The buildings parts are all as120

sembled in a hierarchical order allowing each comDue to this process of building design, all parts of the building can be recycled or re-used leaving the

110

TEMPERATURE (F)

ponent of the building to be demounted or replaced.

115

105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60

building with zero demolition waste. This building

Temperature Level | Exhibit Space glazing | Dry Bulb Temperature (black) | Operative Temperature (red)

aims to minimize its impact on the environment during construction and long into the future. THERMAL INDEX = 8 vs 3

Building Form: The form of the building is spe-

8 7 6

cifically shaped to act as a passive thermal shaddesigned with an optimal overhang to create natural shading from the summer sun which reaches the res-

4

INDEX

ing device. The outward angle towards the top is

5

3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3

Friday

idential units (Figure 61). During winter months, each

Saturday

Sunday

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

AUGUST 2012

living space has operable shading devices to block direct sunlight from entering the interior spaces. NORTH = 81ยบ

Thermal Analysis: Using thermal analysis calculated at different times of the year. The building without a passive design form and shading devices

85

TEMPERATURE (F)

programs, the thermal load of the building could be

90

would heat up to 116 degrees (Figure 62. With the

80

75 70

65

60

Temperature Level | 50% shading facade | Dry Bulb Temperature (black) | Operative Temperature (red)

sustainable implementation of passive shading, natural wind ventilation, and operable shading devices, the thermal load is reduced to 94 degrees (figure

WEST = 94ยบ

x) during summer months and 81 degrees (figure x) during winter months. Overall, this large passive mechanical cooling systems almost completely saving both the environment and energy costs. In the long run this design will have a very low ecological

85

TEMPERATURE (F)

reduction of thermal load will reduce the need for

90

80

75 70

65

60

Temperature Level | 50% shading facade | Dry Bulb Temperature (black) | Operative Temperature (red)

footprint on the natural environment. Figure 4.62: Thermal Analysis by Brandon Smart


78 Building Elevations | 4.9

Figure 4.63: City Skyline Render by Brandon Smart


Figure 4.64: Building Elevations by Brandon Smart

Elevation_North

Elevation_West

Elevation_South

Elevation_East


80

VOLUME SHIFT

Figure 65: Outward Volume Shift: Light Atrium Diagram by Brandon Smart

Figure 4.66: Residential Floor: Atrium Space Render by Brandon Smart


4.10 | Volume Shift

Volume Shift: The outward shift in the building generated more interior space between residential units for natural light to flood all floors of the building (Figure 65). This open atrium also allows free circulation between residents on all 8 floors formulating a street condition were social interactions take place (Figure 66)

81


BUILDING EVOLUTION Density Fluctuation: The building is unique and allows for residents to occupy living space as the residential growth of downtown San Diego becomes more dense. The structural skeleton and open floor plans allows for units to be built and taken away freely at any point in time as all building parts, partition walls, and mechanical space can be stored and re-used for future residents. The diagrams in figure 67 show the building plan ranging from empty to full capacity. The building is always changing, offering a fragmented building of parts that are specific to each user’s cultural taste with the goal of allowing them to create their perfect lifestyle within the urban realm.

1) Building Density = 0% 2) Building Density = 35% 3) Building Density = 70% 4) Building Density = 100%

Figure 4.67: Building Density Fluctuation by Brandon Smart


4.11 | Building Evolution 83

CLOSED SHADES | Residential Units with exterior shades closed


Figure 4.68: Building Model: Verticle Light & Circulation Atrium


4.12 | Building Model

Figure 4.70: Building Model: Plan

Figure 4.69: Building Model: Axon View

85


86

Figure 0.4: Tokyo Compression by Michael Wolf (2008)


87

05

Conclusion: Long term Architectural Solutions


CONCLUSION Open Building Typology: This vision aims for a future where customers will be able to purchase high quality manufactured building components with a high degree of design flexibility at a low cost. Inspirational, unconstrained building design will be combined with highly efficient industrialized production. This will be a radical break from the current resource based construction to ultra efficient “Open Building Manufacturing”. With manufacturing in factories and fast on site assembly due to an open system of component’s products, it will guarantee diversity of supply for the market. The main aspects for design and construction of open building systems are: functional decomposition, systematization of building components and subsystems according to independent levels, open system hierarchy and base element specification, controlled assembly sequences, dry joint connections and simple interface geometry. The building will have the potential to exchange parts, components and even sub-systems outside of its original production environment (Multifamily Open Building). Incorporating interchangeable aspect of components and subsystems produces an “Open System” building. Over time, a larger market of compatible manufacturers would allow for variety in components, materials, and systems with built-in compatibility to the existing building. This design typology is the future of sustainable design around the globe and advantageously offers a complexity of design solutions, notably cost effective and longlasting architecture malleable to cultural and economic needs. Figure 5.68: Building Component Proposal by ManuBuild


5.1 | “Open Building”Typology

ManuBuild System: There is already a European movement called ManuBuild which is implementing exchange of products and components within an Open System. This new “Open Building” typology is growing and as more buildings begin to implement this design strategy, more manufacturers will begin to supply even more variety of parts and lower costs. Their vision is a new paradigm for building production and procurement which combines highly efficient manufacturing techniques and on-site construction with an open system for products and components that will offer diversity of supply and building component configuration opportunities to the open market (ManuBuild) (Figure 68).

Figure 5.68: Building Component Configurations by ManuBuild

89


90

The goal is to have Open system apartments around the globe that can be standardized to a component’s size, giving ultimate flexibility to residents. It ideally allows users to move their materials, furniture, and housing layout to another ‘Open Building’ design elsewhere and install it within a new structure (Figure x). The ManuBuild objective is: “To develop a ManuBuild System that will be used to produce uplifting, sustainable and cost-effective customer-oriented building through radical integration of industrialization of the design, production and delivery processes as well as a greater integration of involvement of the customer; helping them to determine the shape and function of their development[.]” The “Open Building” movement is growing to a much larger scale and becoming more compatible with many building typologies and materials. This new architectural typology shows enormous potential to solve many issues in our fast growing urban society.

Urbanization & Pollution: The United Nations Population Fund states the worlds population has doubled in just the last 50 years and projects it could reach 15 billion by year 2100 (UN Population). This increasing rate of change brings with it enormous challenges. Meeting the basic needs of so many will mean agriculture, shipping, master planning, infrastructure, housing, and distribution of more food without inflicting too much further damage on our environment. What goes largely unnoticed is that the majority of pollution is caused by buildings, totaling 41% (Figure 69), as 2nd and 3rd world


5.2 | Urbanization & Pollution 91

Figure 5.69: U.S. Energy Consumption by Sector (2011)

Figure 5.70: Polllutants by Country, US Department of Energy, 2006

Figure 5.71: Pollution Sources, US Department of Energy, 2006


5.3 | Long Term Architectural Solutions 93

countries are rapidly growing in population and building cities in under a decade. These cities are growing too quickly for infrastructural, master or civic planning to have time to set the ground work for a properly functioning city. China’s cities are satisfying temporary needs for more housing without looking into the future. They build cheap buildings as quickly as possible that are extremely harmful to the environment and ignore the design issues of creating a living environment that can meet adequate human needs. The result of this chaotic development has resulted in China contributing to 23% of the entire world’s pollution (Figure 70). This is not calculating the production of material waste as these cheap buildings will have to be demolished after a decade or two, resulting in an enormous amount of unrecycled materials (Figure 71).

Long Term Architectural Solutions: A large percentage of residential buildings have failed to incorporate a connection to the urban fabric, thus disrupting the patterns of cities’ culture. We, as architects, must realize static designs lack ability to evolve and adapt to contextual forces. Through the use of “Open Building” design we can provide the potential for constant evolution to social, cultural, and economic changes. Humans cannot predict the future and the necessary architectural demands of fast rate urban growth. We also cannot design repetitive, simplistic housing units that reach ever higher into the sky and expect Figure 5.72: Cramped Quarters by Michael Wolf (2008)

people from various ethnic backgrounds to find the living space adequate. As seen in Figure 72, a


94 Long Term Architectural Solutions | 5.3

Chinese apartment complex offered no basic needs and people were forced to adapt to the buildings fixed design. As a result, people dangerously hung air conditioning units outside their windows while using any free space to dry their clothes (Figure 73). Human life is not so simplistic that it can be contained in a small white box for shelter. Dense urban living requires open space, natural light, and public communal spaces for a healthy social life to generate a strong community. Many residential buildings lack any form of community as everyone is disconnected by small hallways and elevators. Architects are responsible for these social issues and must learn from these mistakes in order to create a better urban ecology for future designs. Cities have become international hubs of people from all over the world. We, as architects, must design for this diversity and allow for flexible design to adapt to people’s living needs. Architecture can no longer consist of fixed forms because they will be obsolete within a decade as they lack the ability to maintain necessary future changes. Cities’ growth is happening faster than architecture can accommodate, so it must, therefore, consider future architectural solutions that can survive the tests of time, adapt to changing needs, and be easily updatable with respect to changing technologies or systems. This thesis investigated the practical potential of solving present day architectural issues. The “Open Building” typology with the incorporation of the Kitof-Parts residential building system gives way to a truly flexible design. This architectural design


95

Figure 5.73: Architecture of Density by Michael Wolf (2008)


96 Long Term Architectural Solutions | 5.3

focuses on giving people the freedom to use this building model as a foundation to create their perfect residence. This passive design focuses on the future and resolves the issues of the present. As the design’s building parts are completely replaceable when maintenance is required, the possibility for this building’s skeleton to support a constantly changing interior is guaranteed. Not only is the design highly flexible and can adapt to these social, economic, and politic forces over time but it is also highly innovative in sustainability. This design takes “green” design one step further by reducing its ecological footprint from material selection, recycled building parts, natural ventilation, natural day lighting, and passive solar design. All of these design solutions reduce the building’s energy load by almost 50% as compared to a normal residential building and exceeds all normal buildings due to the fact that it is fully recyclable and produces no waste. Not only is this a solution for human ecology but a prototype for a truly environmentally friendly design as the full life-cycle of each material has been considered with regards to the salvaging of materials 20-100 years down the road. This thesis shows the practicality of providing long term architectural solutions through intelligent and caring design.


5.4 | Thesis Statement

“... The investigation of the thesis, here put forward that the housing shortage is indeed the result of the silent straggle between man and method. It will mean the condemnation of mass housing. It will mean that the mode of operation which has been followed until now has prevented us from providing the kind and quantity of housing we need.�(Habraken 1975)

Thesis Statement: Adaptable form and rebirth of function gives architecture the ability to adapt over time; both formally and programmatically. The modern world is demanding constant change to meet the needs of changing communities, lifestyles, and aesthetics, making these adaptable practices essential. This thesis provides a strong example of the implementation of architectural adaptive re-use and its benefits over time as a natural process of ecological succession. Adaptive architecture and re-use of its parts deals with directional chance, a gentle and unpredictable temporal shift in the whole basis of a building’s structure and function. Adaptive architecture guarantees diversity, complexity, and continuity of a particular place specific to the changes and needs of its users. This hypothesis has for its ultimate aim to maximize the holistic lifecycle of a building and allow for user adaptability over time and provide a prototype for future architectural solutions.

97


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Baan, Iwan. “Media-TIC / Enric Ruiz Geli.” ArchDaily. ArchDaily, 08 Feb. 2010. Web.

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Boudjabeur, Samir, Dr. ManuBuild Open Building Manufacturing. N.p.: ECTP Versailles

– Palais Des Congres, 2006. PDF.

Caetano-Anolles, Gustavo, Hee Shin Kim, and Jay E. Mittenhal. The Origin

of Modern Metabolic Networks Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis of Protein

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Habraken, N.J. (1976). Variations: The Systematic Design of Supports, Labora

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City. Guidlines for Future Development in San Diego. San Diego: San Diego.gov,

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Kendall, Stephan, Dr. “NEXT 21, Osaka, Japan” NEXT21, Osaka, Japan, Building Fu

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Ulrich Obrist, Kayoko Ota, and James Westcott.

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LIST OF TABLES & ILLUSTRATIONS Chapter 01: Shift to Urbanism Figure 0.1: Architecture of Density by Michael Wolf (2008)

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Figure 1.1: Percentage of World Population: Urban vs. Rural by United Nations (2001)

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Figure 1.2: Building Demolition of Pruitt-Igoe by Missouri Yamasaki (1954)

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Figure 1.3: Masterplan of Pruitt-Igoe by Missouri Yamasaki (1954)

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Figure 1.4: Building types organized with respect to their cellular structure.

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Figure 1.5: Entrance of Energy Resource Center in Downey, California by The Gas Company (1995)

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Figure 1.5.2: Interior of Energy Resource Center in Downey, California by The Gas Company (1995)

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Figure 1.6: Old warehouse with new core for the Energy Resource Center in Downey, California by

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The Gas Company (1995)

Figure 1.7: Hiroshima Japan after the Atomic Bombings by The United States of America (1945)

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Figure 1.8: Stratiform Structure by Kiyonori Kikutake (1972). Above: section, Below: Model

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Figure 1.9: Largest space frame ever built; Big Roof, Tange et al, Expo ‘70 by Kenzo Tange (1970)

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Figure 1.10: Kenzo Tange Resident by Kiyonori Kikutake (1958)

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Figure 1.11: Addative bedroom capsule to Kenzo Tange Residents by Kiyonori Kikutake (1958)

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Figure 1.12: Fast cycling elements “Support” level; slow cycling elements “Infill” level by Kamo

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(2000) Figure 1.13: Building layers according to life cycle change by Brand (1995)

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Figure 1.14: Closed building system: Functional dependency (2012)

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Chapter 02: Urban Sprawl Figure 0.2: San Buenaventura complex outside Mexico City (2013)

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Figure 2.15: Urban sprawl neighborhoods

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Figure 2.16: Mass housing demolition (1985)

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Figure 2.17: Plan for “Plan Voisin” by Le Corbusier (1925)

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Figure 2.17.2: Layout of “Plan Voisin” by Le Corbusier (1925)

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Figure 2.18: Los Angeles highway network (2005)

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Figure 2.19: Urban sprawl neighborhoods in Large Portion of American Development (2008)

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Figure 2.20: Guidlines for future development in San Diego (1967)

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Chapter 03: Adaptable Architecture Figure 3.21: Residential Quadruplex building in Germany by Mies van der Rohe (1927)

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Figure 3.22: Various unit layouts in the Residential Quadruplex building in Germany by Mies van der Rohe (1927)

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Figure 3.23: Floor plans for the Residential Quadruplex building in Germany by Mies van der Rohe(1927)

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Figure 3.24: La MeMe residential building in Belgium by Lucien Kroll (1979)

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Figure 3.25: Facade panelling variation for the La MeMe building by Lucien Kroll (1979)

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Figure 3.26: Interior configuration in La MeMe residential building by Lucien Kroll (1979)

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Figure 3.27: Facade: Wohnanlage Genter Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

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Figure 3.28: Facade: Wohnanlage Genter Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

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Figure 3.29: Dry Joint Connection: Wohnanlage Genter Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

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Figure 3.30: Structural Model: Wohnanlage Genter Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

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Figure 3.31: NEXT 21 by Committee for Osaka Gas Project (1993)

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Figure 3.32: “Kit-of-Parts” building system for NEXT 21 by Committee for Osaka Gas Project (1993)

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Figure 3.33: Modular Prefabricated Structure for the Wohnanlage Center Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

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Figure 3.34: Dry joint structural connection for the Wohnanlage Center Strasse by Otto Steidle & Partners (1972)

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Figure 3.35: Adaptable floor plan layouts for NEXT 21 by Committee for Osaka Gas Project (1993)

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Figure 3.36: Building sketch of Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)

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Figure 3.37: Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)

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Figure 3.38: Modular units lifted into place by crane, Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)

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Figure 3.39: Facade variation, Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)

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Figure 3.40: Floor Plan for Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)

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Figure 3.41: Units variety and scale for Habitat 67 World Expo byMoshe Safdie (1967)

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Chapter 04: Adaptable Building Design Figure 0.3: Thesis Model Axon View by Brandon Smart (2013)

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Figure 4.42: San Diego Google Map

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Figure 4.43: East Village San Diego

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Figure 4.44: Site Analysis: Datascape by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.45: Program Analysis by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.46: Media-TIC Building by Enric Ruiz Geli (2007)

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Figure 4.47: Structure: Media-TIC Building by Enric Ruiz Geli (2007) Figure 4.48: Structure Load: Media-TIC Building by Enric Ruiz Geli (2007)

57 57

Figure 4.49: Thesis Building: Street View by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.50: Parti Building Sketch by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.51: Thesis Form Studies by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.52: Formal Building Studies by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.53: Kit-of-Parts Building System by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.54: Building Plans by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.55: Various Residential Layouts by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.56: Building Section “A”: Retail Space by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.57: Thesis Building Street View Render by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.58: Hierarchy of Building Parts by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.59: Building Section “B”: Light Atrium by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.60: Stage Configurations by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.61: Detailed Building Section by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.62: Thermal Analysis by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.63: City Skyline Render by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.64: Building Elevations by Brandon Smart

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Figure 65: Outward Volume Shift: Light Atrium Diagram by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.66: Residential Floor: Atrium Space Render by Brandon Smart

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Figure 4.67: Building Density Fluctuation by Brandon Smart

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Chapter 05: Thesis Conclusion Figure 0.4: Tokyo Compression by Michael Wolf (2008)

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Figure 5.68: Building Component Proposal by ManuBuild

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Figure 5.68: Building Component Configurations by ManuBuild

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Figure 5.69: U.S. Energy Consumption by Sector (2011)

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Figure 5.70: Polllutants by Country, US Department of Energy, 2006

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Figure 5.71: Pollution Sources, US Department of Energy, 2006

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Figure 5.72: Cramped Quarters by Michael Wolf (2008)

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Figure 5.73: Architecture of Density by Michael Wolf (2008)

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ADAPTABLE FORM & REBIRTH OF FUNCTION

NewSchool of Architecture + Design Masters of Architecture: Graduate Thesis 2013

Brandon J. Smart,



Adaptable Form & Rebirth of Function by Brandon Smart