Young women growing into feminism
Contents Front of Book • Contents Page • Editor’s Letter • Contributors
Feature • Not Dead Yet
Young women from Ball State University prove that feminism is still alive and kicking.
Departments • Heroines
• At Issue
• People We Love
The legacy of Gloria Steinem. Young women take a stand in support of Planned Parenthood of Indiana. Why we love Olivia Wilde.
• In Photos
• Looking Back
Real woman showcase diversity of true beauty. Important events in feminist history.
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girrrl \\\ Editor’s Letter
Senior//Girrrl Editor-in-Chief Magazine Journalism and Women’s Studies Major Hometown: Scottsburg, Indiana If I had a theme song, it would be: “Warning” by Green Day. I believe in living your life spontaneously. Because I’m a feminist, people are surprised to find out: I love Disney movies. Not a big fan of most of the princesses, but I love The Lion King and Mulan! The best part about being a feminist is: I have all kinds of choices about how to live my life, I love feminist literature, and I have space to embrace and love both my body and mind. After Ball State, I plan to: Go to graduate school and earn dual master’s degrees in women’ s studies and social work. I want to work for a women’s shelter.
rowing up, I always kind of knew I was different from other girls. The odd one out, you know? When my friends started talking about shaving their legs, I wondered why we had to. When the other girls started wearing makeup, I thought they looked like clowns (and didn’t wear makeup until I was a senior in high school). When my mom let my brother ride his bike to the store, but not me, I threw a fit and claimed gender inequality. Granted, it wasn’t in those words (it was more like, “It doesn’t matter if I’m a girl, that’s stupid!”), but that’s what it was. Little did I know, I was a feminist in the making. I didn’t have a word for it though – no, I didn’t really know what a feminist was until I took my very first women’s studies class at Ball State University. Women’s Studies 210: Intro to Women’s Studies, with Dr. Carmen Siering. That class blew my mind and changed my entire way of thinking. Carmen made me reevaluate most things I knew (and a lot of things I loved), and while it was uncomfortable, I know now that it was necessary. Sometimes the truth is unpleasant. A lot of people will tell you feminism is dead. But the fact is that women still only make an average of 80 cents to every dollar a man earns. One of every seven women will be raped in her lifetime. Only about three percent of Fortune 500 CEOs are female. And these are just first-world American women’s issues – notice I haven’t touched on the rate of women in poverty around the world, or things such as women’s education, sex trafficking, or the controversial issue of female genital cutting. Feminism is far from dead. There’s still plenty of work to do. This magazine is for the young women who have committed to taking on that work; the young women who refuse to listen when their peers tell them they’re overreacting; the young women who refuse to laugh when women are patronized or oppressed. This is for the women who have taken up where our second-wave sisters left off. I hope the pages and women of this magazine inspire you to make a difference; to stand up for what’s right, whether it be a nation-wide issue or an issue in your corner of the world. I hope they inspire you to make a change. I know they’ve inspired me.
Executive Director Pam Farmen
Creative Director Katelin Carter
Editor-in-Chief/ Chief Designer
If you like it, you need to put a ring on it.
Photographers Jenelle Bickel Grace Yinger
Models Leigha Ingermann Michelle Patrick
Inspiration Kelly Terry Nancy Jackson Young feminists everywhere, especially the women of Feminists for Action Grrrl aims to address feminist issues and interests that are relevant to the lives of young, college-aged women in the Midwest area. Grrrl defines feminism as the fight to ensure equal opportunities and choice for all human beings and furthermore recognizing the unique potential and experiences of all people.
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Spotlight on Women and Girls of Haiti
Sign up. Make a difference. || www.vday.org V-Day: A Global Movement to End Violence Against Women and Girls Worldwide
girrrl \\\ Heroines
At age 77, Gloria Steinem still devotes herself to the cause of feminism.
Gloria Steinem How one woman revolutionized second-wave feminism and made journalism a woman’s world, too. story :: Brandi Terry
orn in 1934, Gloria Steinem is a pioneer in modern feminism. Steinem graduated with honors from Smith College in Northampton, Mass. in 1956. Followng graduation, she went to India for two years, where she was a journalist. Inspired by Gandhian activism, Steinem returned to the United States and embarked on a career as a feminist during the second wave. Steinem’s feminist legacy began in 1963 when she published an exposé entitled “I Was a Playboy Bunny.” As the title suggests, Steinem went undercover as a Playboy Bunny to highlight the conditions that women in the profession endured, such as low pay, catcalling, and harassment from male patrons. The article grabbed attention from men and women alike, both positively and negatively. Following the massive amounts of attention gained from the article, Steinem co-founded New York magazine in 1968 and Ms. Magazine in 1972. She was an editor of Ms. for the next 15 years, and still serves as a consulting editor. She’s also written several books, including Revolution from Within: A Book of Self-Esteem, Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions, Moving Beyond Words and Marilyn: Norma Jean. Steinem has also worked in film, producing documentaries on subjects such as child abuse and the death penalty for networks such as Lifetime and HBO.
Steinem is the co-founder of the Women’s Action Alliance, an organization focusing on nonsexist, multiracial children’s education. She also helped to establish the Women’s Media Center, Voters for Choice, the National Women’s Political Caucus, and Take Our Daughters to Work Day. Her work has not gone unnoticed: Steinem has received numerous awards, including the the Penney-Missouri Journalism Award, an Emmy Citation for excellence in television writing, the Lifetime Achievement in Journalism Award from the Society of Professional Journalists, the Society of Writers Award from the United Nations, and most recently, the University of Missouri School of Journalism Award for Distinguished Service. Steinem is showing no signs of slowing down, currently working on a project with the Sophia Smith Collection at Smith College to document the origins of the U.S. women’s movement. According to her, there’s no time to stop—there’s still plenty to be done. “What used to be, you couldn’t get a job, now you hit a ceiling after a few years. What used to be unequal marriage is now unequal after children are born,” she said in an interview with CBS News. “The barrier has moved, thank goodness. So there’s more room back here that’s liberated. But the barrier is still there to be pushed.”
Nov & Dec ///
girrrl \\\ At Issue
Fighting Back Young women in Indiana speak out against congressional attacks on Planned Parenthood story :: Brandi Terry photos :: Leigha Ingermann
PPIN supporters across the state have staged rallies in support of the healthcare provider.
n the morning of March 8, hundreds of protestors swarmed the lawn of the Indiana Statehouse, brandishing bright pink signs with slogans such as “I stand with Planned Parenthood” and “Don’t take away my birth control.” Men and women, people of all ages and races stood in solidarity to support the biggest reproductive healthcare provider in the state. Betty Cockrum, CEO of Planned Parenthood of Indiana took the podium to encourage protestors to keep fighting. “The speakers were so powerful that you could feel the unity amongst the ralliers,” Leigha Ingermann, sophomore nursing major said of the rally. “It was amazing and it made me
6 \\\ Nov & Dec
feel like I was a part of something a lot bigger than me.” These people were protesting House bill 1205, which proposes ending state funding for any entity that performs abortions, or controls centers or clinics where abortions are performed. Although this bill applies to many agencies, Planned Parenthood of Indiana (PPIN) would be the most impacted. PPIN also brings in revenue from patient fees and donations, but a full 13 percent (roughly $3 million) of its revenue is from government contracts and grants, according to the organization’s 2010 annual report. If House bill 1205 passes, this large chunk of funding will be eliminated, possibly meaning dire consequences
for Planned Parenthood. According to Indiana Rep. Ron Bacon, co-author of the bill, this bill is not intended to shut down PPIN. “Planned Parenthood serves a very good purpose in the state, and can continue that, but abortions should not be part of that purpose,” he says. “The very simple thing to me is to stop doing abortions and they can stay in business.” Much of the controversy surrounding federal funds and abortions comes from the Hyde Amendment. Part of the Department of Labor and Health, Education, and Welfare Appropriation Act of 1976, the Hyde Amendment says that federal dollars are not to be used to fund abortions. The amendment
Medicaid, the military, the Peace Corps and federal prisons from covering abortions. In 1993, Congress revised the amendment to include exceptions in cases of rape, incest or endangerment of the pregnant women’s life. Shortly thereafter, President Bill Clinton formally extended the Hyde Amendment, saying that states must fund all abortions that are eligible for federal funds. This amendment is very specific and can put providers in a jam. Most clinics and healthcare providers avoid this sticky area by keeping federal and state funds separate from other funds, such as donations. Donations alone are used to fund abortion services; state and federal funds are used for other services. In her letter in the 2010 annual PPIN report, Cockrum made this clear. “The government funding in question is about prevention,” she says. “None of it supports abortion. Not a penny. It pays for basic health care services such as Pap tests that screen for cancer, breast exams, STD testing and treatment and birth control.” For Indiana Rep. Matt Ubelhor, the bill’s primary author, there is little difference between funding agencies providing abortions and directly funding the abortions themselves. “Any time we take care of any part of those abortion provider’s expenses, we are therefore financing abortions,” he told the Indianapolis Star in March. “If we take care of the paper clips, if we take care of the roof on the building, we are providing taxpayer dollars to provide that service.” PPIN provides much more than abortion services. They also provide access to birth control and condoms, gynecological exams, STI testing and treatment, pregnancy tests and safe-sex education. In 2010, only 3.5 percent of all services PPIN provided were abortions. The overwhelming majority were preventative services, such as exams and birth control. Bacon says that even if PPIN were to shut down, which is not the intended outcome,
services. “Planned Parenthood has always proved to be a safe and caring environment and I’m not about to go to a place in which I feel uncomfortable to deal with these sensitive and emotional subjects,” she says. A majority of the people who utilize PPIN are uninsured women. According to the 2010 annual report, 59 percent of PPIN users are at or below the poverty line. Of those people, 79 percent are below the poverty line by 150 percent. According to Cockrum, these people would be left vulnerable if the bill were to pass. “This bill would cut off health care to 22,000 lowincome women and men who depend on it from a provider they trust,” she said. According to Beth Kelsey, assistant professor of nursing at Ball State University, this puts women at great risk for cervical cancer. According to the National Cervical Cancer Coalition, 11,000 American women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year. More than 4,000 of these women eventually die. Screenings are the only way to detect the cancer. Women who rely on Planned Parenthood for these screenings will be put at risk. “Services provided are so important for women and families in Indiana and it’s very worrisome to think what will happen if it passes,” Kelsey says. “It’s limiting women’s ability to control their bodies and reproductive health and get services they need to be healthy.” PPIN is not alone: Planned Parenthood of America is also under federal attack. U.S. Rep. Mike Pence (R-Ind.) is currently pushing for a bill that would eliminate the entire Title X program, which is a federal grant program that provides comprehensive family planning and related preventive health services. This would essentially block all federal funding to Planned Parenthood. Women are not taking this attack lying down. Planned Parenthood is fighting back, traveling the country in a pink bus to hold rallies that encourage women to “Stand With Planned Parenthood.” Supporters of Planned Parenthood are holding protests, writing and calling legislatures, and demanding their voices be heard. Congressional allies of Planned Parenthood are taking a stance also, giving women hope that they’re not alone. “The war against women’s equality has resumed, and we are in combat mode,” said Indiana Sen. Karen Tallian at the Indiana Statehouse rally. “We will not, in a few years, lose what it has taken generations to accomplish. Not on our watch.”
“This bill would cut off health care to 22,000 low-income women and men who depend on it from a provider they trust.” these services can be found elsewhere. “The things that it does provide can be provided by other agencies in the state of Indiana, the same as Planned Parenthood, without any cost to the recipient, so those folks would not be at risk,” he says. “It’s provided through agencies that do not do abortion services.” For Ingermann, other places aren’t as appealing as Planned Parenthood for these
What Planned Parenthood of Indiana Actually Does STD/HIV testing:
of services Breast exams:
of services Pap tests:
of services Pregnancy tests:
of services Abortions:
of services Other services:
Source: PPIN 2010 Annual Report
Nov & Dec ///
girrrl \\\ People We Love
Our Feminist Crushes Sometimes celebrities get it right when it comes to feminism.
1 2 3 4
Amy Poehler \\ actress Poehler has spoken about her support of Planned Parenthood in the past, but she recently took it one step further: for every dollar donated to Planned Parenthood in June, she matched that dollar.
Dane Cook \\ comedian An unlikely choice, but Cook has recently spoken out in his comedy routines against the casual use of the word rape snd it’s potentially damanging impacts on rape survivors.
Ellen Page \\ actress Page has spoken out in support of choice. “I don’t love abortion but I want women to be able to choose and I don’t want white dudes in an office being able to make laws on things like this.”
Mick Foley \\ retired professional wrestler The former pro wrestler has allied himself with the Rape, Assault and Incest National Network (RAINN) and called on men to take responsibility to end sexual assault.
“I don’t love abortion, but I want women to be able to choose.” - Ellen Page Nov & Dec ///
D A E Yet D Not
Three young women reclaim the “f” word – and teach a university what it really means to be a feminist. story :: Brandi Terry photos :: Jenelle Bickel
t’s a warm Tuesday evening in Muncie, Ind; the sun is shining, students are strolling across campus, and Feminists for Action (FA) is meeting to plan their tasks for the year. Gathered in a classroom in the Burkhart Building at Ball State University, 20 people sit in a circle, chatting over tea. On the agenda for this meeting: protesting Indiana governor Mitch Daniels, planning their upcoming Cookies and Condoms event, and making a documentary exposing crisis pregnancy centers – or “fake clinics,” as many FA members refer to them. These centers pose as abortion clinics, but will not give women any information about abortion. Someone suggests going into one of these clinics with a hidden camera, posing as a pregnant woman to
experience and film the process. They could then make a documentary, she suggests. Another person likes the idea, but wonders aloud what will happen if they get caught. FA president Christine Hurst says that when she tells her mom of her pro-choice protests, her mom worries she’s going to get shot. “They don’t think we’re real people, so I don’t think they’ll bother shooting us,” Erin Tuegel says dryly, prompting laughter. As vice-president of FA, Erin spends a lot of time at protests and events. She focuses on reproductive health, so she’s particularly interested in this kind of pro-choice activism. Her feminism is second nature to her; like breathing. It hasn’t always been this way.
Growing up in New Palestine, Ind., Erin was raised in a conservative Baptist family. Attending church, she was taught that men and women had separate roles; the role of women consisted of submission and inferiority. Women were to obey their husbands and serve to provide children to carry on his name and lineage. When Erin protested against these boundaries, her parents called her a feminist, meaning it as an insult. For Erin, it was an awakening. “It was a defining moment in my decision that I would pursue my education regardless of what my parents or their church said about it,” she says of this time in her youth. “I realized that yes, I do want equality, and I am willing to fight for it.” At Ball State University, Erin has found she’s not alone. Through FA, she’s met other young women who have boldly claimed the feminist label for themselves. One such young woman is Christine Hurst, president of FA. Unlike Erin, Christine says she’s been a feminist as long as she can remember. “I remember my greatgrandmother casually mentioning to me once as a young child that she had voted in every election ‘since women were give the vote’ and I was shocked that, in the grand scheme of things, we’ve only attained this right so very recently,” she says. “As a young person
I was into ‘girl power’ a la the Spice Girls, but as I grew up and read more my understanding of feminism and gender inequities deepened.” With greater understanding, a great desire for change grew in Christine. When she found FA, she found an outlet for this desire.
Feminists Taking Action
Through FA, Erin and Christine have found ways to turn their feminist ideals into direct action. At
their weekly meetings, FA practices consciousness raising, discussing current events through a feminist lens. The group hosts and attends protests, such as a protest in front of Indiana Congress member Mike Pence’s office to show support for state funding of Planned Parenthood of Indiana. FA also holds events on campus to promote women’s issues and reproductive health safety. FA also works to help the Muncie community, holding fundraisers that primarily
(From L to R) Christine, Erin, and Allison serve as feminist leaders at Ball State University.
benefit A Better Way, a battered women’s shelter. This laundry list may sound exhausting, but FA doesn’t stop there. Last year, the group went to the Feminist Leadership Conference in Washington, DC and met other young feminists from across the country. Christine speaks highly of the benefits of this conference. ”I’ve met many activists from all over the country as a result of FA,” she says. “Often I feel really overwhelmed by how much
is wrong with the world and all of the bad things that happen, and it’s hard not to let that feeling turn into something negative. Activism makes me feel like I’m doing everything I can to make changes.” For FA secretary Allison Dreshfield, activism is absolutely crucial to her feminist identity. “I consider myself a student and activist, not a student who does some activism,” she says. “Activism gives me a sense of power and accomplishment. I feel very strongly for women’s rights, and will continue to be an activist for reproductive rights, as well as every other way women are oppressed.”
Feminism + Friendship
As important as activism is for the cause, however, the women aren’t always on a soapbox or marching down the street, pickets in hand. Feminism has trickled into their day-to-day lives in much smaller, much quieter ways. “Being a feminist impacts my life, every minute of every day,” Allison says. “I’m basically wearing “feminist” glasses. It’s the only way I see the world.” For Kate Shaffer, one of the newest members of FA, being a feminist has given her a new perspective of “normal” things. “I get pissed off a lot more I think, but I also will notice some things that others take for granted,” she says. “Seeing a commercial telling consumers you are “unmanly” if you don’t drink their beer – implying ‘manliness’ as superior – makes me so mad I could scream.” This common viewpoint among the women is not only convenient for activism; it also creates a unique bond for the members of FA. “I think
I have made some friends through FA,” Kate says. “Knowing that other people care and are as pissed off and passionate as I am makes me feel empowered instead of overwhelmed and helpless.” Erin says that the women in FA understand her on a different level than do some of her other friends. “I have made some amazing friends through FA that I wouldn’t have ordinarily met,” she says. “Allae [Allison] and I have a ridiculous amount of things in common, and it’s awesome that we can just be silly and make inappropriate comments in public together.”
Is Feminism Dead?
The feminist view of the world, while uniting the girls in an inimitable friendship, can rub non-feminists the wrong way. Stereotypes of feminism abound in American culture: feminists don’t shave their legs; they’re constantly angry; they’re all lesbians; they’re loud, radical, and in your face. The women of FA admit to encountering these stereotypes more than a few times. “People are usually colder when I identify as a feminist aloud, as if believing in equality somehow makes me a mean person,” Erin says. “And I really believe that’s because “feminist” is a dirty word in our vernacular. We’ve been taught that feminists are shrill, man-hating harpies and if you meet one she either wants to convert or castrate you, but obviously that’s not true.” Christine says that people often underestimate the continuing importance of feminism. “Some people respond positively or even identify themselves as feminists as well, but others scoff and give some variation of ‘men are more oppressed than women’, ‘feminism is outdated’, ‘feminists hate men’ lines,” she says. These stereotypes and misguided beliefs, while frustrating, are also key reasons why feminism is so important to the women and why they’re so committed to Feminists for Action.
“Young women need to know that feminism wasn’t just the work of their mothers and grandmothers and now the fight is over. Attacks against women’s rights are still going on and the battle isn’t over.” --Christine Hurst
For them, feminism is still alive and kicking, and will be until complete social change is achieved. “The rights we’ve worked to attain and are working to keep are in such jeopardy of being taken away,” Christine says. She points out that feminism is about ending all oppression – homophobia, racism, classism, ableism – not just sexism. Christine’s feminism works for equal rights for all. “Pure gender equality is still not a reality. We are in the midst of a War on Women, and the conservative front in the US wants to send us back to the fifties in terms of reproductive rights,” Erin says. “I don’t think young women today understand that when our mothers were born, abortion was criminalized and states were permitted
to outlaw birth control. The majority of female college students use some form of contraception, so they are automatically invested in the feminist movement, whether they know it or not.”
A Call to Action
This investment in the feminist movement is something that Feminists for Action is encouraging more young women to claim. “Young women need to know that feminism wasn’t just the work of their mothers and grandmothers and now the fight is over,” Christine says. “Attacks against women’s rights are still going on and the battle isn’t over.” For Erin, the prevalence of institutionalized and cultural sexism is enough for young women everywhere
to take action. “Just think of the way we speak: if you wanted to cut to a man’s ego, how would you insult him?” she asks. “You’d call him effeminate, a pussy little bitch. What if you wanted to insult a woman? You’d
“Pure gender equality is not a reality. We are in the midst of a War on Women.” also call her a bitch, or maybe a cunt. Just being female is a negative thing in our society, and until “woman” is no longer an insult, we will never be equal.” Allison’s key value is that of choice. “With feminism, I can be masculine and feminine; I can be independent,” she says. “I can marry, not marry. I can date men; I can date women; I can date no one. I can have children or not have children. I can wear make up or not wear make up. I can shave my legs or not shave them. Feminism is important to me because it allows me to have choice in everything that I do.” For these women, the feminist movement gives them an outlet for change; to make a difference in the world they’re living in. Feminism is more than not having to shave your legs – it’s claiming your right to own your body, your experiences, and your life. Erin calls on young women to take a stand, no matter how “small” it may seem. “Every person in the movement helps, and my tiny role makes me happy to know I’m making a difference.”
“Just being female is a negative thing in our society, and until ‘woman’ is no longer an insult, we will never be equal.” --Erin Tuegel
Meet FA’s fearless leaders!
Christine Hurst Junior // FA President English Literature major Hometown: Muncie, Indiana
If I had a theme song, it would be: “Bad Reputation” by Joan Jett. I like to listen to it to get myself pumped up to take on antichoicers at protests. Because I’m a feminist, people are surprised to find out: I’m femme, and I love some “traditionally feminine” activities like sewing, knitting, and baking. The best part about being a feminist is: Aside from the obvious benefits of being active for something I think is right, it’s improved myself self-esteem, and we get to drink tea at meetings. After Ball State, I plan to: Either go to graduate school for law or library science.
Fifth-year senior// FA Vice President chemistry, biochemistry, genetics triple major Hometown: New Palestine, Indiana If I had a theme song, it would be: “Carry On Wayward Son” only sang by Pat Benatar because I totally have a crush on her. (Editor’s note: that song doesn’t exist! But Erin likes Kansas’ version too.) Because I’m a feminist, people are surprised to find out: I love cooking. It’s like chemistry, but with less dire consequences if you don’t look for the meniscus. The best part about being a feminist is: Loving, embracing, and not being ashamed or afraid of your sexuality. After Ball State, I plan to: Pursue a Ph.D. in genetics, pending acceptance into a program.
Allison Dreshfield 5th Year Senior // FA Secretary Women and Gender Studies major Hometown: Bainbridge, Indiana If I had a theme song, it would be: “Make Yourself” by Incubus. I’m all about trying to make myself the person I want to be, rather than letting other’s ideas and opinions get in the way. Because I’m a feminist, people are surprised to find out: That I like men! I have male friends, I date men, I sleep with men, etc. The best part about being a feminist is: Knowing that I am a part of a movement to end sexism/sexist oppression. I am part of something bigger than myself. After Ball State, I plan to: Go to graduate school. I’m thinking of working on an M.A. Women and Gender studies or Counseling Psych.
girrrl \\\ In Photos
Real Beauty Proof that beautiful women come in all shapes and sizes. photos :: Grace Yinger story :: Brandi Terry
Michelle Patrick Terre Haute, Ind. For Michelle, true beauty comes from the inside. “When you first meet someone you don’t know what kind of person they are, you don’t know what they have done in their life,” she says. “All you see is their exterior, and so you truly don’t know what kind of beauty that person holds.” That, to her, is what people truly care about. “Who you are as a person and what you do in life is what you will be remembered for, not if you hair looked good or not a certain day,” she says.
“What makes someone beautiful is how they treat other people.” Nov & Dec ///
Leigha Ingermann Richmond, Ind. Leigha believes in the beauty of health. “I am a huge fan of the human body and it’s functions,” she says. “I think natural curves in a woman’s body and muscle are absolutely amazing. If you are physically healthy, that means you’re taking care of yourself and thus are beautiful.” Along with health, self-love is a key component of beauty, she says. “Beauty is all about self confidence and comfort in being yourself exactly the way you are,” she says. “Words and mean statements can hurt, even if no harm is intended. But you have to just ask yourself, ‘Do I feel beautiful to me?’ because that’s really all that matters.”
“Beauty is very subjective. If you feel that you’re beautiful, then who is anyone else to say otherwise?” Nov & Dec ///
girrrl \\\ Looking Back
In HERStory Important events from feminist times past.
Nov 1815: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, co-organizer of the first women’s rights convention in Seneca Falls, N.Y., is born
Nov. 1865: Mary Edward Walker, the first female Army female surgeon, is awarded the Medal of Honor.
Nov. 1922: Rebecca Felton of Georgia is sworn in as the first female U.S. Senator. Dec. 1869: Wyoming, then a territory, passes America’s first women’s suffrage law. Dec. 1941: Capt. Annie Fox receives the first Purple Heart awarded to a woman for her service while under attack at Pearl Harbor. Dec. 1962: Edith Spurlock Sampson is sworn in as the first U.S. black female judge.
“Because man and women are the complement of one another, we need women’s thought in national affairs to make a safe and stable government.” - Elizabeth Cady Stanton Nov & Dec 2011 ///
Feminism: the policy, practice or advocacy of political, economic, and social equality for women.
Are you a feminist? www.feminist.org