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India:
Innovation
in
Rural
Marketing
 


Prof.
Pankaj
Arora


















"Rural
Market:
Currently,
it's
a
black
hole,
there's
not
enough
data;
we
will
try
to
create
a
knowledge
 base,"
‐

Mr

Pradeep
Kashyap


Abstract:

 Rural
 marketing
 is
 equated
 with
 marketing
 by
 MNC
 in
 rural
 India.
 The
 extent
 literature
 on
 rural
 marketing
has
uncritically
used
the
same
theories,
models,
concepts
and
framework
as
have
been
used
 in
the
marketing
discipline.
As
well
as
this
research
also
focuses
on
Information
technology
(IT)
and
it’s
 contribute
in
rural
development.
In
this
Paper
researcher
also
focus
on
innovative
approaches
in
Rural
 Market
for
promotion
and
distribution
of
products


Key
Words:
 Innovation,
IT,
Rural
market


Introduction:
 An
analysis
of
the
content
of
a
number
of
textbooks
written
on
the
subject
(
for
example,
Dogra
and
 Ghuman
2008;
Gopalswamy
1997;
Kashyap
and
Raut
2006;
Krishnamacharyulu
and
Ramakrishnan
2002;
 Rajagopal
1998;
Velayudhan
2002)
reveals
that
the
meaning
of
rural
market
has
changed
over
the
past
 six
decades.
Kashyap
and
Raut
(2006)
have
listed
three
distinct
phase
in
the
evolution
of
rural
marketing
 during
which
the
term
change
it
meaning
and
connotation.

 During
the
first
phase,
pre
1960s,
rural
marketing
was
synonymous
with
agricultural
marketing.
 During
1960s
–
1990s
the
marketing
of
agriculture
input
and
marketing
of
non
farm
rural
product
was
 considered
as
rural
marketing.


 Post
1990s‐

With
rising
income
and
mushrooming
middle
class
across
the
country,
various
companies
 focused
on
tapping
rural
market
potential.
Rural
marketing
now
refer
to
FMCG
and
Consumer
durable
 goods
in
rural
area.

 A
great
number
of
studies
have
shown
that
yet
today
approximately
60%
of
Indian
Population
lives
in
 Rural
Areas.
Today,
Improvement
in
living
condition
and
enlargement
of
Rural
area

is
essential
for
the
 development
of
the
Indian
Economy.
Many
projects
were
undertaken

in
rural
area

and
other’s
which
 are
 in
 pipeline;
 are
 likely
 to
 be
 introduced
 with
 in
 short
 span
 of
 time.
 Rural
 Literacy
 is
 ranked
 at
 the

 main
concern.
Trends
shows
that
rural
markets
are
coming
up
in
big
way
and
growing
multiple
fold
time
 as
 faster
 as
 urban
 markets.
 According
 to
 a
 study
 by
 NCAER
 (National
 Council
 for
 Applied
 Economic
 Research),
the
number
of
middle
and
high‐income
households
in
rural
 India
is
expected
to
grow
from
 130
Million
to
172
Million
by
the
end
of
year
2012
as
compared
to
Urban
India
that
is
nearby
71
Million.

 {
Prof.
Pankaj
Arora,
Lecturer,
DIMAT,
Raipur
(Chhattisgarh)}



Literature
Review:
 The
 focus
 of
 literature,
 mainly
 written
 in
 the
 post
 liberalization
 period,
 is
 on
 highlighting
 potential
 of
 vast
rural
market
and
providing
description
of
a
few
cases
of
commercial
organization
of
rural
areas.
The
 literature
 has
 uncritically
 borrowed
 theories,
 framework
 and
 concept
 from
 the
 mainstream
 marketing
 discipline,
which
has
shifted
the
growth
of
the
subject
as
an
independent
field
of
academic
investigation.
 There
 is
 an
 urgent
 need
 to
 build
 a
 distinctive
 perspective
 and
 a
 sound
 theoretical
 base
 for
 rural
 marketing,
 which
 would
 create
 its
 own
 concepts,
 frameworks,
 theories
 and
 body
 of
 knowledge.
 The
 issue
needs
immediate
attention
of
the
researcher
in
rural
marketing.



Creative
Approach
Toward
rural
Market:
 Creative
people
do
not
always
have
as
specific
idea
in
mind
when
they
begin
to
search
for
an
innovation;
 what
they
do
have
is
method
or
way
of
going
about
that
search.

The
commercialization
process
is
itself
 a
 creative
 process.
 From
 discovery
 of
 business
 idea
 to
 product
 development,
 feasibility
 analysis,
 and
 business
planning,
the
application
of
creativity
to
all
of
these
area
is
what
set
successful
entrepreneur
 venture
apart
from
their
competitors.



Domestic
Consumer:
 It
is
widely
acclaimed
that
India
is
one
of
the
largest
consumer
market
in
the
world.
But
the
consumer
in
 India

shows
wide
variation
in
size
and
potential
of
various
consumer
market
segment.

These
difference
 can
 be
 seen
 in
 terms
 of
 geographical
 difference
 ,
 urban
 –
 rural
 consumer
 (
 there
 style
 of
 living
 consumption
pattern
etc.),
age
and
family
life
cycle
,
income
level,
education
level,
linguistic
and
religion
 diversity
,
food
habit
;
festival
etc.

revolution
in
communication
technology
are
forcing
marketer
to
look
 beyond
 time
 tested
 concept
 such
 as
 brand
 loyalty
 and
 mass
 marketing
 .
 
 Marketer
 are
 trying
 to
 determine
 the
 underlying
 need
 and
 motive
 of
 consumer
 as
 well
 as
 various
 factor
 which
 influence
 the
 formation
of
these
need
and
satisfaction
of
these.

Marketer
are
also
trying
to
understand
the
“Learning
 Process”
adopted
by
buyer
and
consumer.

 The
Learning
process
can
also
be
linked
to
other
cognitive
structure
such
as
(values)attitude
and
beliefs.

 Buying
 behavior
 is
 also
 influenced
 by
 other
 psychological
 concept
 such
 as
 personality,
 motivation
 and
 perception.
 knowing
 the
 impact
 of
 these
 concept
 on
 buying
 behavior
 will
 help
 marketer
 in
 the
 generation
of
new
product
ideas
and
adopted

customization
for
core
product;
some
additional
feature
 and
by
offering
of
additional
services,
all
done
with
the
intention
to
add
the
customer
delight.

 
 



Indenffy
 Customer
Need


Through
 Adverfsment
and
 Communicafon


Customer
Want


Proper
 Distribufon
and
 Sales


Induce
Customer
 Trial


Offer
 Individualised
 Product


Customer
 Experience
With
 the
Prodcut



Result
in

 



 
 
 Marketer
in
order
to
adapt
to
new
marketing
paradigm
shift
in
consumer
taste
and
preference
are
going
 for
 fundamental
 shift
 in
 the
 marketing
 research
 technique
 product
 development,
 advertising
 and
 promotional
strategies.

(19)
 Consumer
purchase
decision
are
determined
by
the
level
of
involvement
that
consumer
feel
about
 product
in
question
and
as
to
whether
the
product
purchase
is
determined
predominantly
through
the
 thinking
or
feeling
about
the
process.

High
involvement
products
are
product
where
the
consumer
sees
 a
high
perceived
risk
monetarily
or
otherwise.
Low
involvement
purchases
are
possibly
low
priced
and
 non
risky
product
purchase.
Thinking
process
call
for
rational
functional
analysis
of
methodical
thinking
 process.
Whereas
falling
product
are
bought
based
on
the
basis
of
personality
factor
and
for
sensory
and
 emotional
reason.
Taking
the
Indian
consumer
market
scenario,
product
like
TV
and
automobile,
given
 the
nature
of
their
purchase
would
be
high
involvement,
where
as
cooking
oil
and
baby
food
would
be
 high
on
involvement
but
mayn’t
call
for
a
functional
–
rational
analysis
of
data.
On
the
other
hand,
 soaps,
detergent,
pain
balm,
soft
drink
and
confectionary
are
purely
bought
on
emotional
reason.
(26)
 
 
 
 



Bringing
technology
to
Rural
Market:

 The
 entire
 technology
 commercialization
 process,
 from
 idea
 to
 market.
 Today
 as
 technology
 drives
 innovation
 and
 companies
 seek
 more
 effective
 way
 to
 exploit
 the
 intellectual
 property
 they
 create.
 Technology
 is
 different
 from
 any
 other
 type
 of
 new
 product.
 For
 one
 thing,
 the
 market
 respond
 differently
 to
 technology;
 customer
 are
 slow
 to
 accept
 a
 new
 technology
 with
 which
 they
 are
 not
 familiar.
New
technologies
are
commercialized
in
a
variety
of
ways,
but
the
underlying
commonalities
is
 an
entrepreneurial
approach
that
seek
to
create
new
value.

 IT
 involves
 the
 e‐
 processing,
 storage
 and
 exchange
 of
 information,
 where
 anything
 that
 can
 be
 represented
 in
 digital
 form
 is
 included
 in
 the
 term
 ‘information’.
 Thus
 reports,
 amusement,
 personal
 communications,
 learning
 material,
 blank
 and
 filled‐out
 forms,
 announcements,
 schedules,
 and
 so
 on
 are
 all
 information.
 Software
 programs
 that
 process
 data
 (searching,
 tabulating,
 and
 calculating,
 for
 example)
are
also
information
in
this
sense,
representing
a
particular
kind
of
intermediate
good.



 The
entrepreneur
who
introduce
a
new
technology
must,
therefore
devise
a
strategy
that
capture
early
 adopter
 in
 a
 variety
 of
 niches
 in
 order
 to
 develop
 sufficient
 momentum
 to
 push
 the
 technology
 into
 mainstream
market.



Bringing
technology
to
market
embodies
three
major
themes.
 1. The
first
is
value
creation.
For
companies
to
be
successful
in
sustainable
technology
innovation,
 it
 is
 critical
 that
 they
 punctuate
 their
 incremental
 or
 value
 added
 innovations
 with
 radical
 or
 value
creating
innovations.

 2. The
 second
 theme
 is
 speed.
 As
 window
 of
 opportunities
 for
 new
 technologies
 are
 shrinking
 product
 development
 timeliness
 are
 by
 necessity
 shortening,
 creating
 a
 real
 dilemma
 for
 product
 developers‐
 how
 to
 produce
 superior
 high
 technology
 product
 faster,
 yet
 at
 price
 the
 market
will
tolerate.

 3. The
 third
 theme
 is
 entrepreneurship.
 The
 tool
 that
 entrepreneur
 employ
 to
 recognize
 and
 create
 opportunity
 ,
 test
 a
 business
 concept
 in
 market,
 and
 gather
 resources
 to
 execute
 the
 business
concept.
 


I.T.
AND
RURAL
DEVELOPMENT:

 The
 goal
 of
 using
 ICT
 with
 underprivileged
 group
 is
 not
 only
 about
 overcoming
 the
 shortcoming
 ,
 but
 rather
 enforcing
 and
 passing
 
 the
 process
 of
 social
 inclusion
 to
 the
 next
 level,
 which
 is
 required
 for
 change
of
the
environment
and
social
system
that
reproduces
scarcity.
 I.T.
 has
 varied
 applications
 in
 it,
 through
 which
 the
 development
 of
 the
 rural
 area
 can
 be
 possible
 accurately.
Government
had
introduced
a
number
of
programs
through
which
the
people
of
rural
India
 can
 come
 forward
 and
 use
 the
 I.T.
 enabled
 services
 and
 work
 more
 systematically.
 Some
 of
 the
 programs
run
by
the
Government
are:




E‐Mitra:

 This
service
is
launched
by
the
RAJASTHAN
Government
for
the
first
time
for
its
rural
citizens,
so
 that
they
can
deploy
the
I.T.
enabled
benefits
to
its
fullest.
E‐
Mitra
is
State
Government
started
 projects,
which
soon
become
highly
popular
in
the
region.
In
year
2002,
two
projects
came
into
 existence
namely;
Lok
Mitra
and
Jan
Mitra.

 Where
Jan
Mitra
is
an
integrated
electronic
platform
through
which
the
citizens
of
Rajasthan
can
 avail
the
benefit
if
getting
the
desired
information
regarding
any
Governmental
Department
at
 kiosks
which
is
very
near
to
there
doorstep.
These
Initiative
program
of
Rajasthan
government
 have
 not
 only
 helped
 the
 Government
 by
 reducing
 the
 burden
 of
 attending
 every
 call,
 it
 has
 reduced
the
waiting
time
for
the
service
and
has
lead
to
provide
comfort
to
the
citizens
also,
as
 with
the
inception
of
this
service
they
can
easily
get
the
information
required
at
their
doorstep.

 Lok
Mitra
 is
an
urban
electronic
 Governance
 Project
 which
 was
 launched
 in
 Jaipur
 city
 in
year
 2002,
 which
 helps
 the
 citizens
 of
 Jaipur
 (now
 other
 cities
 also)
 to
 pay
 their
 bills
 online
 (land,
 Water,
 Bus
 Tickets
 and
 BSNL)
 leading
 the
 citizen
 to
 save
 the
 waiting
 time.
 This
 service
 also
 ensures
people
that
their
money
is
going
directly
to
the
Government
and
provides
a
feeling
of
 security
related
to
their
bills
payment.

 
 
Community
Information
Centers:

 The
program
is
designed
especially
for
providing
the
internet
access
and
I.T.
Enabled
services
to
 the
 citizens
 through
 which
 the
 interface
 between
 the
 Government
 and
 the
 Citizens
 can
 be
 setup.
 These
 centers
 connect
 seven
 northeast
 states
 namely;
 Arunachal
 Pradesh,
 Assam,
 Manipur,
Mehalaya,
Mizoram,
Nagaland
and
Tripura.
The
center
helps
to
gain
the
connectivity
 at
 the
 time
 of
 unsuitable
 environmental
 conditions.
 The
 centers
 are
 commonly
 termed
 as
 CIC
 which
are
generally
situated
at
the
school,
college
or
any
governmental
office.
People
can
come
 for
 the
 Internet
 access,
 and
 for
 accessing
 the
 internet,
 a
 nominal
 amount
 is
 charged
 from
 the
 people
through
which
the
daily
expenses
of
the
centers
are
maintained.

 
 Wi‐fi
Projects:

 One
of
the
wi‐fi
project
under
which
few
villages
(of
UTTAR
PRADESH)
are
connected
to
internet
 is
Digital
Gangetic
Plan
(DGP).
Through
the
use
of
DGP
wireless
network
connectivity
is
created,
 this
 program
 helped
 the
 people
 residing
 in
 villages
 of
 India
 to
 have
 the
 access
 of
 internet
 through
which
the
information
on
various
issues
can
be
collected
ad
used,
at
the
same
time
the
 people
 living
 in
 rural
 India
 can
 be
 updated
 with
 the
 new
 technological
 changes
 and
 the
 innovative
 changes
 taking
 place
 in
 the
 national
 and
 the
 international
 markets.
 For
 instance;
 Bimari
 Jankari
 is
 a
 portal
 through
 which
 the
 information
 regarding
 every
 disease
 and
 health
 related
 issues
 is
 available
 and
 Digital
 Mandi
 is
 available
 as
 one
 of
 the
 portals
 where
 all
 the
 information
 regarding
 the
 agricultural
 commodities
 are
 available.
 This
 portal
 provides
 the
 information
regarding
the
prices
of
the
commodities
and
their
relative
value.

 
 Drishtee:

 Drishtee
is
present
in
5
States
and
is
currently
available
in
six
districts.
It
is
a
private
company,
 which
 was
 previously
 named
 as
 Cyber
 Edge,
 which
 has
 the
 main
 work
 of
 developing
 the



• • • • • • •

modules.
 It
 is
 present
 in
 Bihar,
 Haryana,
 Madya
 Pradesh,
 Punjab
 and
 Rajasthan.
 It
 is
 generally
 suited
in
the
Panchayat
or
in
the
bazaars.
They
prepare
the
module
for
the
poor
section
of
the
 society
 who
 cannot
 understand
 the
 international
 language.
 The
 modules
 are
 designed
 for
 the
 rural
and
semi‐urban
areas
especially.

 
 Gyandoot:

 It
was
established
in
January
in
year
2000.
It
is
an
e‐governance
based
module
designed
for
the
 rural
 citizens.
 The
 project
 was
 initially
 initiated
 by
 the
 Government
 of
 MADHYA
 PRADESH.
 Gyandoot
caters
the
need
of
the
villagers
by
providing
the
information
related
to
the
prevailing
 rates
of
the
agro‐based
commodities
and
the
rate
of
land.
Each
Gyandoot
Info
kiosks
caters
to
 approximately
15
panchayats
and
30
villages.
The
module
is
designed
with
the
aim
to
provide
 cost
effective
and
sustainable
delivery
model
to
the
people.

 
 TARAhaat:

 It
 was
 developed
 by
 an
 NGO
 (non‐government
 organization);
 with
 the
 vision
 to
 bring
 internet
 facility
 to
 the
 rural
 India.
 It
 is
 a
 franchisee
 based
 business
 model
 that
 attempts
 to
 generate
 revenues
by
focusing
on
the
marketing
services
through
the
module
(especial
focus
on
the
local
 applications).
It
was
initiated
in
the
region
of
PUNJAB
with
the
introduction
of
different
centers
 called
as
Kendra’s
which
are
connected
to
each
other
through
the
dial
up
internet
connection
 facility.
 These
 Kendra’s
 have
 power
 backup
 also;
 in
 case,
 the
 electricity
 supply
 is
 interrupted.
 The
 info
 kiosks
 provide
 online
 and
 offline
 services
 information
 on
 education,
 prevailing
 opportunities
 in
 the
 market
 and
 other
 useful
 information
 for
 the
 villagers.
 TARAkendra’s
 are
 very
popular
in
between
the
local
population
as
it
provides
the
information
in
the
local
language
 and
the
portal
is
designed
in
such
a
pattern
that
semi
literate
population
can
also
understand
it
 without
any
difficulty.
Different
services
that
TARAkendra’s
provide
are:

 TARABazar
(for
product
information)

 TARAdhaba
(for
providing
connectivity)

 TARAdak
(connect
to
relatives
at
distance)

 TARAgyan
(educate
rural
youth
on
various
issues)

 TARAguru
(helps
in
mentoring
and
consultancy)

 TARAvan
(delivery
of
orders
at
remote
areas)

and
many
other
services
are
also
provided.

 
 Rural
e‐seva:

 It
was
initiated
by
ANDRA
PRADESH
Government.
It
was
initially
implemented
in
West
Godavari
 District
 to
 deliver
 e‐governance
 facility.
 The
 centers
 are
 designed
 with
 the
 view
 to
 provide
 better
 governance
 facilities
 to
 the
 people
 of
 the
 Rural
 India.
 The
 popularity
 of
 e‐seva
 can
 be
 estimated
from
the
fact
that
in
the
year
2003,
more
than
400
million
rupees
was
collected
only
 for
 the
 electricity
 payment.
 With
 the
 success
 of
 the
 e‐seva
 in
 electricity
 bills
 payment,
 Government
is
looking
forward
for
introducing
it
in
the
areas
of
collection
of
telephone
bills
and
 local
Governmental
Bills.
E‐seva
is
gaining
popularity
with
passing
days
as
it
helps
the
citizens
to
 avail
the
benefit
of
getting
the
certificates
at
their
doorsteps;
which
is
both
relaxing
and
reliable.

 



Bhoomi:

 The
 Karnataka
 Government
 for
 maintaining
 the
 records
 related
 to
 the
 land
 introduced
 it.
 The
 Department
 of
 Revenue
 in
 Karnataka
 has
 computerized
 20
 million
 records
 of
 land
 ownership
 belonging
to
6.7
million
farmers
of
the
state.
With
the
introduction
of
the
program,
the
farmers
 are
 free
 from
 giving
 the
 bribe
 and
 are
 protected
 from
 the
 harassment.
 Framers
 can
 easily
 get
 the
Records
of
Rights,
Tenancy
and
Crops
(RTC)
by
depositing
a
minimal
fee
of
Rs.
15.

 National
Informatics
Centers
(NIC)
through
which
the
software
online
copies
of
the
land
records
 are
 available
 developed
 the
 software
 of
 Bhoomi.
 By
 giving
 an
 online
 request,
 farmers
 get
 an
 online
enrollment
number
through
which
further
processing
can
be
done.
In
the
software,
the
 connectivity
is
through
the
LAN
through
which
all
the
clients
are
connected
to
the
hubs.

 With
the
increasing
popularity
of
the
project,
Government
of
India
has
decided
to
introduce
the
 project
in
other
parts
of
the
country
also,
namely:
Kerala,
West
Bengal,
Sikkim,
Tripura,
Punjab,
 Haryana,
Madya
Pradesh,
Himachal
Pradesh,
Uttaranchal,
Gujrat,
Assam,
Orrisa,
Rajasthan
and
 Pondicherry.

 
 e‐choupal:

 It
is
designed
especially
for
the
farmers
of
India.
Through
e‐choupal,
farmers
who
are
living
in
 the
remote
area
of
the
country
and
cannot
manage
to
have
direct
contact
with
the
consumer
 can
come
forward
to
have
a
direct
contact.
It
provides
an
e‐procurement
system
through
which
 the
 farmers
 can
 access
 the
 latest
 and
 updated
 information
 (local,
 national
 and
 international)
 related
 to
 different
 farming
 practices.
 It
 provides
 real
 time
 information
 and
 customized
 knowledge
 to
 the
 farmers
 through
 which
 the
 farmer
 can
 take
 better
 decisions
 and
 can
 have
 direct
 contact
 with
 the
 customer,
 reducing
 the
 amount
 wasted
 by
 moving
 through
 the
 distribution
channel
of
intermediary.

 E‐choupal
 has
 already
 become
 the
 largest
 initiative
 among
 all
 internet‐based
 interventions
 in
 Rural
 India.
 E‐choupal
 is
 present
 in
 36,000
 villages
 through
 nearly
 6,000
 kiosks
 across
 nine
 states.
ITC
(Indian
Tobacco
Company)
is
planning
to
expand
the
concept
of
e‐choupal
further
in
 15
states
of
India.

 
 Aksh:

 It
is
mostly
active
in
Northern
India,
it
is
a
fiber
optic
cable
company
with
its
core
competence
in
 lay
 down
 and
 maintenance
 if
 cable.
 Aksh
 has
 the
 license
 to
 lay
 down
 the
 cables
 in
 the
 rural
 areas.
It
initially
has
collaborated
with
Drishtee
for
maintenance
of
kiosks,
but
with
the
changing
 times;
 Drishtee
 and
 Aksh
 have
 separated
 in
 different
 service
 offerings.
 While
 Urban
 Area
 has
 witnessed
a
penetration
of
cable
T.V.,
rural
areas
have
left
un‐served.
The
fact
behind
the
low
 level
of
cable
T.V.
proportion
in
rural
as
compared
to
urban
area
is
due
to
the
fact
that
in
rural
 area
there
are
a
limited
number
of
houses
which
can
afford
cable
T.V.
The
bandwidth
delivered
 by
 Aksh
 supports
 a
 large
 variety
 of
 services
 (including
 video
 interactions)
 which
 will
 lead
 to
 increase
 the
 level
 information
 exchange
 in
 between
 the
 people
 living
 in
 several
 areas
 of
 rural
 India.

 
 n‐Logue




N‐Logue
is
activated
in
South
India
and
due
to
its
advantages
is
entering
into
the
northern
areas.
 The
main
impetus
came
from
IIT
‐Chennai.
It
is
a
non‐profit
organization
with
the
responsibility
 of
providing
rural
IT
based
services
(including
hardware
and
software)
through
connectivity
and
 application
 all
 around
 the
 rural
 area.
 It
 is
 functional
 with
 WLL
 Technology
 whose
 construction
 and
 maintenance
 is
 costly
 and
 the
 connectivity
 is
 also
 limited
 to
 a
 certain
 area,
 but
 has
 the
 facility
of
providing
connectivity
with
a
range
of
services
as
it
provides
the
voice
call
facility
and
 overcome
 the
 problem
 of
 dial
 up
 connection
 errors.
 N‐Logue
 is
 further
 supported
 by
 IIT‐ Chennai,
which
prepares
a
variety
of
local
language
software
for
it
in
short
time
for
convenience
 and
comfort.
It
has
also
added
the
facility
of
web‐cam
through
which
the
remote
diagnosis
of
 various
problems
can
be
done.
Tamil
Nadu
Government
has
supported
the
functions
of
n‐Logue
 (especially
 in
 its
 Madurai
 and
 Nellikuppam
 district).
 N‐Logue
 charges
 for
 connectivity
 and
 is
 relatively
popular
in
the
southern
region
due
to
its
easy
connectivity
functioning
and
training
of
 handling
the
applications.
 


Innovation
and
commercialization
process:
 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Invention
and
innovation:
connection
,
discovery,
invention,
application
 Opportunity
Recognition:
idea
+
customer
need
=
Business
Concept
 Protecting
IPR:
Patent,
trademark,
copyright,
trade
secreat
 Product
Development:
Prototyping
technology
feasibility
alpha
testing
 Business
Development
:
 Developing
the
Business:
Business
Plan
 Launching
the
business



 The
 rural
 consumer
 behavior
 exhibits
 certain
 behavior
 unique
 to
 rural
 settings
 and
 this
 makes
 it
 important
for
marketers
to
understand
rural
consumers
through
appropriate
research.
Rural
consumers,
 for
example,
tend
to
lead
a
more
relaxed
lifestyle
compared
to
the
urban
counterparts
and
exhibit
little
 urgency.
Consumers
in
rural
markets
tend
to
have
greater
trust
in
products
and
services
endorsed
by
the
 government
and
its
agencies.
They
tend
to
be
more
brand
loyal,
as
habits
once
formed
are
difficult
to
 change
 and
 they
 tend
 to
 feel
 a
 pride
 in
 getting
 a
 good
 deal
 rather
 than
 paying
 premium
 prices
 for
 products
and
services.
 THE
Rural
Network,
an
alliance
of
leading
rural
marketing
organizations
in
the
country,
is
spearheading
a
 series
of
initiatives
designed
to
put
rural
marketing
issues
squarely
in
the
reckoning
of
corporate
looking
 for
new
markets.
 Rural
communities
tend
to
be
closer
than
urban
societies
and
reference
groups
have
a
greater
 importance.
Relatives
and
people
from
the
same
caste
are
important
reference
groups.
Joint
families
 still
exists
in
villages
although
the
trend
is
towards
the
nuclear
families.
In
rural
areas,
the
consumption
 is
driven
to
a
large
degree
by
the
occupation
and
income
of
the
consumers.
Low
income
levels
and
 inadequacy
of
credit
facilities
also
affect
the
consumption
patterns.
Another
important
factor
that



affects
demand
patterns
in
rural
areas
is
the
instability
of
the
income
of
the
farmers,
which
is
linked
to
 the
seasonality
of
agricultural
production
as
well
as
to
the
unpredictability
of
the
harvest.
Similarly,
the
 landless
labourers
and
daily
wage
earners
get
their
remuneration
on
a
day‐to‐day
basis
and
therefore
 they
purchase
in
smaller
quantities
of
products
at
a
time,
mostly
on
a
daily
basis.
 As
compared
to
the
urban
counterparts,
the
rural
consumers
have
different
interpretations
of
colors,
 symbols,
and
social
activities.
The
cultural
values
and
norms
have
a
strong
influence
in
determining
 buying
and
consumption
behavior
in
the
rural
areas.
There
are
restrictions
on
the
type
of
food
and
the
 type
of
intoxicants
that
can
be
consumed
in
the
villages.
Similarly,
women
occupy
a
more
traditional
 place
in
rural
areas
and
therefore
western
apparel
may
not
be
accepted
in
the
rural
markets.
However,
 the
rural
youth
are
open
to
any
new
ideas,
and
influenced
by
the
urban
consumption
patterns.
As
the
 exposure
to
mass
media
and
information
technology
is
increasing,
rural
consumers
are
being
more
 informed
about
products
and
services
and
their
dependence
on
traditional
reference
groups
is
waning.
 


Conclusion
 The
increase
in
the
services
provided
to
the
rural
people
(in
terms
of
various
services
offered)
will
result
 in
 the
 overall
 betterment
 of
 the
 society
 on
 one
 side
 by
 enriching
 the
 people
 with
 updated
 market
 information
and
providing
latest
technological
developmental
news
and
organizations
on
other
side
by
 creating
more
market
opportunities
for
them
and
adjustment
of
the
market
prices. IT
can
build
up
the
 role
 of
 each
 governance
 pillar
 in
 rural
 development
 and
 scarcity
 reduction.
 
 It
 can
 facilitate
 rapid,
 transparent,
 responsible,
 efficient
 and
 effective
 interaction
 between
 the
 stakeholders.
 This
 not
 only
 promotes
 better
 administration
 and
 better
 business
 environment,
 but
 also
 saves
 time
 and
 money
 in
 transactions
costs
of
government
operations
(IICD
2001)


Prof.
Pankaj
Arora,

 Lecturer,
 
DIMAT,
 Raipur
(Chhattisgarh),

 Email
id:
arora.pankaj07@gmail.com
 Contact
No:
9827910110
 



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R.
Kathleen,
Bringing
new
technology
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1st

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R.
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