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Chapter 02 Management Theory: Essential Background for the Successful Manager

True / False Questions

1. During a manager's meeting, Paula, a district manager, discussed how to handle sensitive employee issues, and indicated correctly that management is really just an art.

True

False

2. Supporters of evidence-based management would say there are many really new ideas.

True

False

3. Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert Sutton believed that evidence-based management is based on the belief that facing the hard facts about what works and having to accept the nonsense that passes for sound advice will help organizations perform better.

True

False

4. Peter Drucker, a famous 19th-century socialist, opposed capitalism and many current business theories.

True

False

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5. Evidence-based management is based on the belief that understanding the sound complete truths of conventional managerial wisdom and accepting much of the nonsense that often passes for sound advice can at times help organizations perform better.

True

False

6. The contemporary perspective of management includes three viewpoints: systems, contingency, and quality management.

True

False

7. The historical perspective of management includes three viewpoints—systems, contingency, and quality management.

True

False

8. Understanding theoretical perspectives of management will help you understand why some practices are still favored, whether for right or wrong reasons.

True

False

9. Studying theoretical perspectives of management can help a manager in many ways, but seldom provides new ideas in new situations.

True

False

10. Ali, a CEO of a large IT organization, understands that many challenges are coming in his industry; therefore, he tells his upper-level management that it's helpful to look at theoretical perspectives of management to help make predictions and develop principles to guide future company strategies and actions.

True

False

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11. Donna, the president of a national restaurant chain, believes that studying theoretical perspectives of management seldom gives clues to the meaning of outside events that could affect her company.

True

False

12. The classical viewpoint of management emphasized ways to manage work more efficiently.

True

False

13. The behavioral viewpoint of management emphasized the importance of encouraging employees to work more efficiently.

True

False

14. The systems viewpoint of management regards the organization as systems of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose.

True

False

15. Scientific management focused on ways to improve worker morale.

True

False

16. By identifying the "therbligs" in a job, such as the supplies of a bricklayer, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were able to eliminate costs while simultaneously reducing supplies wasted.

True

False

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17. When managing her company, Priya, the owner of ABC Manufacturing, utilizes the behavioral viewpoint of management, which emphasizes ways to manage work more efficiently.

True

False

18. Don, a restaurant manager and MBA student, was reflecting on a how he can apply the classical management viewpoint in his store from a recent class, which supposes his employees are rational in their decisions.

True

False

19. Susan, a department manager, believes that since the corporate office eliminated certain benefits to reduce costs, her employees have not been working as hard as in the past. This reduction in effort is known as "soldiering."

True

False

20. Scientific management emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers.

True

False

21. Motion studies broke down each worker's job into basic physical motions and then trained workers to use the methods of their best-performing coworkers.

True

False

22. Joe, a plant manager, was interested in utilizing the differential rate system of scientific management in his factory because it suggested paying workers less to cut costs when production first increased.

True

False

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23. Paul, an MBA student and small-business owner, is interested in implementing the administrative management approach because this method of management focuses on improving employee morale.

True

False

24. According to Fayol, the major functions of management are planning, monitoring, leading, and motivating.

True

False

25. Max Weber felt that bureaucracy is irrational, inefficient, and not ideal for organizations.

True

False

26. In our time, the word bureaucracy has come to have negative associations: impersonality, inflexibility, red tape, and a molasses-like response to problems.

True

False

27. A problem with the classical viewpoint is that it does not consider overall company and global problems and goals.

True

False

28. Carmakers have broken down automobile manufacturing into its basic tasks, such as on an assembly line, because the application of scientific methods and job specialization boosts productivity.

True

False

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29. The behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement.

True

False

30. The behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and increasing diversity.

True

False

31. Ann, an industrial psychologist, has been studying Hugo Munsterberg's beliefs of human behavior in the workplace because she feels his principles could contribute to her industry, namely to determine which people are best suited to specific jobs, to identify the psychological conditions under which employees do their best work, and devise management strategies to influence employees to follow management's interests.

True

False

32. Mary Parker Follett believed that organizations should be under heavy management control, with managers resolving conflicts and controlling the work process.

True

False

33. Don, a production manager, has decided to utilize the Hawthorne effect in his facility because studies have shown that this theory will increase production by giving more independence to employees as they receive less attention.

True

False

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34. The Hawthorne studies succeeded in drawing attention to the importance of "social man" and how managers using good human relations could improve worker productivity.

True

False

35. The human relations movement proposed that better rules and procedures could increase worker productivity.

True

False

36. Abraham Maslow said that all needs are equal in importance and need to be satisfied daily.

True

False

37. Umar, a general manager in a fast-food chain, has employees all under the age of 25, and most of his workers are good employees. However, Umar still believes his workers are irresponsible and lack ambition. Umar is a Theory X manager.

True

False

38. Olde Manufacturing, a parts supplier to the auto industry, has been using the behavioral approach to management for over 100 years. However, since that method of management is too simplistic for practical use, Olde should begin implementing the newer and more sophisticated human relations movement approach to management.

True

False

39. Behavioral science relies on data from past sales to determine forecasts regarding human behavior to develop strategic plans and goals.

True

False

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40. When the Americans entered the war in 1941, they used the British model to form operations research teams to determine how to deploy troops, submarines, and equipment most effectively. These techniques have evolved into quantitative management.

True

False

41. Quantitative management is the sales management theory related to determining if a prospective customer really qualifies for the company's product or service.

True

False

42. Management science focuses on using behavioral techniques to aid in problem solving and decision making.

True

False

43. Operations management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services more effectively.

True

False

44. Through the rational management of resources and distribution of goods and services, scientific management helps ensure that business operations are efficient and effective.

True

False

45. The just-in-time approach, which comes under the term lean management, allows organizations to obtain supplies from vendors only as they are needed in the factory.

True

False

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46. A system is an organization's method of determining if employees succeed.

True

False

47. Outputs are the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organization.

True

False

48. The five parts of a system are inputs, outputs, transformational processes, monitoring, and feedback.

True

False

49. The customers of Best Auto Sales complete an online survey after purchasing an automobile from Best. The information from the customer survey is a form of feedback.

True

False

50. An open system continually interacts with its environment, so it receives feedback from the outside environment.

True

False

51. Right Office Equipment continually talks with customers after they purchase their products, and Right Office managers regularly visit customers to gather feedback on new products, product improvements, and how Right Office can better serve their customers. This is an example of an open system.

True

False

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52. In a fixed-learning system, company employees typically will participate in continuous learning, such as workshops on product improvements, more often than in organizations with an open system.

True

False

53. The contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to— that is, be contingent on—costs and competition.

True

False

54. Many times when working with a new manager, Amy, a successful small-business owner, asks the manager, "What management method do you think will work best in this situation?" In this situation, Amy is utilizing the scientific management approach.

True

False

55. Gary Hamel of the Management Innovation Lab suggests that core beliefs about an organization can be rooted out by repeatedly asking the right questions, such as, "Is this a belief worth challenging?" or "Is this belief universally valid?"

True

False

56. When Mr. Jones, the owner of a local hardware store, asks one of his lawnmower suppliers about the total ability of their product to meet customer needs, he is questioning the quality of that mower.

True

False

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57. Quality is seen as one of the most important ways of adding value to products and services, thereby distinguishing them from those of competitors.

True

False

58. A-Plus Manufacturing has a policy of using statistical sampling to locate errors by testing just some (rather than all) of the items in a particular production run. This strategy of minimizing errors is known as synergy.

True

False

59. Quality assurance focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for "minimal defects."

True

False

60. W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran were pioneers of the quality-management movement.

True

False

61. With TQM, it is vital that organizations listen to and learn from their customers and employees and make continuous improvement a priority.

True

False

62. A local furniture retailer routinely develops and acquires new knowledge, and the employees communicate what they learn to other employees, so the company is able to modify its behavior to reflect what they have learned. This organization is an example of a learning organization.

True

False

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63. The five ingredients of a learning organization are acquiring knowledge, training, studying knowledge, pondering, and monitoring employees.

True

False

64. To develop a learning organization, managers must build a commitment to learning, work to generate ideas with impact, and work to generalize ideas with impact.

True

False

Multiple Choice Questions

65. The beliefs that there are few really new ideas and that true is better than new are two of the foundational principles of ___.

A. scientific management B. the quality-management viewpoint C. evidence-based management D. behavioral management E. MBO

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66. When faced with a business problem, Sally, a young grocery store owner, discusses business problems with Don, the assistant manager and an employee for over 30 years. Sally believes Don "has seen it all" and knows there are few really new ideas; plus the business has done many simple things, such as offering friendly service, to have a competitive edge. This is an example of _____ management.

A. evidence-based B. behavioral C. family-style D. contingency E. bottom-up

67. The historical perspective includes three viewpoints: _______.

A. systems, contingency, quality management B. classical, scientific, quantitative C. classical, operations, scientific D. contemporary, historical, scientific E. classical, behavioral, quantitative

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68. Within his company, Greg has set up a system with inputs, outputs, transformation processes, and feedback. Within his organization he utilizes a management style that varies according to the individual and environmental situation, with a strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production. Greg is utilizing a _______ perspective.

A. historical B. classical C. qualitative D. contemporary E. behavioral

69. Wanda, a CEO, has been encouraging her managers to study and utilize theoretical perspectives of management because this approach _____.

A. is an effective cost-reduction tool B. emphasizes diversity C. is an effective synergy-building approach D. builds a strong family-type culture E. provides clues to the meaning of your managers' decisions

70. The classical viewpoint of management emphasized ways to ___.

A. manage work more efficiently B. build more synergy C. vary according to the environment D. include MBO E. increase diversity

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71. Mateo, an IT manager, has been studying the work methods of each task to increase the productivity of the employees in his department. Mateo is utilizing ____.

A. synergy B. management science C. behaviorism D. the Hawthorne effect E. scientific management

72. The 17 basic units of motion, identified by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, were named _____.

A. gilbreths B. time frames C. therbligs D. units E. action works

73. Amy is a package delivery service manager. She is interested in implementing the management philosophy pioneered by Frederick W. Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, which scientifically studies work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers, known as ____.

A. human relations management B. scientific management C. quantitative management D. contingency management E. management science

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74. Susan, a movie theater manager, has observed that as workers feel some company policies are not fair, the employees have not been working as hard as in the past. This reduction in effort is known as ____.

A. sliding B. soldiering C. skimming D. entitling E. slipping

75. Sal, a production manager, knows that some of his employees are upset with the new corporate policy, and as a result, are participating in soldiering. To eliminate soldiering Sal can ___.

A. reduce the use of scientific principles in planning work methods B. carefully select workers according to their abilities and give workers training C. reduce training, but increase MBO D. place workers in any task available, focusing on their interests and not their abilities E. increase diversity and MBO

76. A pay structure, in which more efficient workers earn higher wages, as suggested by Frederick W. Taylor, is known as a(n) _____ system.

A. scale B. increasing wage C. differential rate D. wide wage E. merited pay

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77. The father of scientific management is _____.

A. Frank Gilbreth B. Tom Gallagher C. Abraham Maslow D. Peter Drucker E. Frederick Taylor

78. Tom, the manager of floral shop, is interested in implementing the principles of administrative management, which involves ____.

A. doing time-motion studies B. focusing on unprofitable parts of an organization C. increasing synergy D. managing the total organization E. implementing MBO

79. To better meet corporate goals this year, Donna, a CEO, is encouraging her managers to focus on the major functions of management, which include ______.

A. planning, organizing, recruiting, monitoring, delegating B. recruiting, monitoring, delegating, coordinating C. planning, organizing, leading, controlling, arbitrating D. recruiting, planning, organizing, leading E. planning, organizing, leading, controlling

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80. Because there are some positive aspects of bureaucracy, as proposed by Max Weber, Tammy, a restaurant manager, is interested in implementing certain aspects of the bureaucratic approach to management within her restaurant. Like Weber, Tammy feels bureaucracy is a ____.

A. rational, efficient, cost-cutting tool based on principles of behaviorism B. sales-generating tool C. rational, efficient method of increasing diversity D. rational, efficient, ideal organization based on principles of logic E. rational, cost-cutting, efficient organization based on principles of synergy

81. The management approach that emphasized ways to manage work more efficiently is the ___ viewpoint.

A. classical B. quality-management C. systems D. contingency E. MBO

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82. While discussing approaches to boost organization productivity, Rene, the president of an auto manufacturer, was interested in a rational approach that through the application of scientific methods, time and motion studies, and job specialization found it is possible to increase productivity. This is the essence of the ____ viewpoint.

A. contingency B. behavioral C. MBO D. systems E. classical

83. Greg, the IT manager, feels that his employees lack the motivation to consistently meet department goals; therefore, the approach Greg and his supervisors need to take to better understand human actions to motivate their employees toward achievement is the ____ viewpoint.

A. synergy B. attitude C. behavioral D. classical E. scientific

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84. The behavioral viewpoint developed over the following phases: _____.

A. early behaviorism, human relations movement, scientific management B. operations management, human relations movement, MBO phase C. early behaviorism, human relations movement, behavioral science D. early behaviorism, industrial, human relations movement E. early behaviorism, human relations movement, administrative phase

85. Hugo Munsterberg was known as ____.

A. the father of scientific management B. a pioneer of scientific management C. the father of MBO D. the father of industrial psychology E. the originator of sociology

86. Thomas has been studying Hugo Munsterberg's suggestions, and like Munsterberg, Thomas believes that psychologists can contribute to industry by _____.

A. developing strategies to influence employees to follow their interests B. encouraging employees to develop new products C. devising management strategies to influence employees to follow management's interests D. helping organizations increase diversity E. helping companies increase efficiency and productivity

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87. That organizations should be operated as "communities," with managers and subordinates working together in harmony, is one of the proposals of ____.

A. Adam Smith B. Frank Gilbreth C. Hugo Munsterberg D. Mary Parker Follett E. Max Weber

88. Mary Parker Follett anticipated some of today's concepts, such as _____.

A. worker empowerment and scientific management B. self-managed teams and worker empowerment C. quality assurance and transformation processes D. management-lead teams and diversity E. synergy and MBO

89. A large production company has been utilizing the Hawthorne effect in its 12 international factories, and it has seen great success from implementing the Hawthorne principles that propose that ____.

A. giving less attention to employees increases worker productivity B. increasing diversity results in increases in worker productivity C. increasing synergy increases worker productivity D. cutting costs through outsourcing harms employee morale and productivity E. giving more attention to employees increases worker productivity, if they think managers care about them

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90. Abraham Maslow proposed the ____.

A. hierarchy of human needs B. Hawthorne effect C. hierarchy of production D. self-managed teams E. worker empowerment theory

91. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs included ______.

A. physiological, financial, love, esteem, self-actualization B. financial, love, friends, self-actualization C. food and shelter, companionship, ego, self-actualization D. physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization E. physiological, financial, love, empowerment

92. Olivia, the general manager of a bowling center, believes in her workers and that they are responsible and capable employees, so that they can be trusted when given responsibility. Olivia is an example of a(n) ___ manager.

A. Theory Z B. hierarchy C. Theory X D. accountable E. Theory Y

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93. George, who owns a small grocery store, has a reputation in the community as a tough manager. Many customers have heard George yell at his employees because he feels that workers today are lazy, lack ambition, and hate to work. George is a(n) ____ manager.

A. Theory Z B. hierarchy C. Theory X D. accountable E. Theory Y

94. Behavioral science relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be ____.

A. used to provide sales tools B. used in behavioral science research C. helpful when looking at competitive products D. used to provide practical tools for managers E. used to establish MBO goals

95. The field of behavioral science includes _____.

A. psychology, sociology, forensic science, economics B. psychology, forensic science, sociology, anthropology, economics C. psychiatry, technology, environmental science, forensic science D. chemistry, biology, earth science, management E. psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics

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96. The example in the textbook of Paul English of Kayak.com altering an existing open-office seating arrangement by using new employees to change existing seating patterns is an example of ____.

A. the hostility effect B. the office politics approach C. behavioral science research D. synergy research E. a Theory X method

97. Gabriel, the CEO of a large global production company, is excited about the introduction of statistics and computer simulations in the design stage of their products. This is an example of _____.

A. the design approach B. quantitative techniques C. MBO D. scientific management E. behavioral management

98. Management science stresses the use of rational, science-based techniques and mathematical models to improve _____.

A. decision making and goal setting B. synergy C. cost-cutting and planning D. decision making and strategic planning E. sales and customer relationships

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99. The new chief information officer of a national pizza chain is using mathematical tools to aid in product ordering and scheduling decisions; this is an example of _____.

A. statistical management B. scientific management C. behavioral science D. management science E. goal management

100.Operations management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services _____.

A. more economically B. by utilizing motion studies C. with a more diverse workforce D. more effectively E. to more customers

101.A computer manufacturer is seeking to cut costs by designing an inventory system that reduces the number of finished products in stock due to overproduction and to set in place a production schedule that better matches customers' orders. This is an example of ____.

A. operations management B. scientific management C. production management D. inventory oversight E. inventory analysis

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102.The contemporary perspective consists of three viewpoints: ____.

A. quality management, behavioral, customer B. systems, scientific, contingency C. systems, contingency, quality management D. diversity, quantitative, qualitative E. contemporary, non-contemporary, behavioral

103.The systems viewpoint sees organizations as entities made up of interrelated parts known as ____.

A. planning, design, monitoring, production, feedback B. planning, inputs, monitoring, outputs, feedback C. inputs, outputs, transformation processes, feedback D. planning, design, inputs, monitoring, outputs, follow-up feedback E. vision, planning, design, production, monitoring, follow-up feedback

104.The Jones family had a fire that destroyed their home. Various departments of a restoration company, from the initial cleanup crew to the assistance with the Jones family moving back in, worked together to achieve this goal. This is an example of a(n) ____.

A. process B. stepped process C. input-output structure D. structure E. system

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105.A local farmer grows and sells tomatoes and beans to the local grocers. Using the systems viewpoint, The tomatoes, beans and profits that are earned from the sales are known as a(n) _____.

A. input B. therblig C. transformational process D. result E. output

106.Donna, a chef in a fine restaurant, utilizes top-of-the-line equipment as she prepares meals for customers. Donna and her equipment are a(n) ______ in the restaurant's system.

A. cog B. piece C. output-participant D. output E. input

107.The systems viewpoint regards parts making up the whole system as ____.

A. microsystems B. macrosystems C. subsystems D. management collections E. organizational sets

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108.When a line cook in a restaurant cooks a raw hamburger to become part of the Super Burger Special, this is an example of a ____.

A. transformation process B. conversion process C. metamorphosis D. turning point E. therblig

109.When the sales of a certain brand of diet soda slowed, a national grocery retailer decided to drop the price of that product, which resulted in a large increase in sales of the soda. This sales increase is a type of ____.

A. Big Data B. input C. quality control D. outcry E. feedback

110.Right Motors calls its customers after they purchase an automobile from the dealership. In addition, every year customers are asked to complete a short survey about the car they purchased from Right and the dealer's service. This is an example of a(n) ___ system.

A. open B. closed C. open-door D. environmental E. ongoing

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111.For years ABC Copier, a copier machine supplier, enjoyed strong sales and a huge share of the copier market, far ahead of its competition. However, over the years, ABC seldom asked customers for feedback. So when some of ABC's competition responded to what customers need and started offering copiers with new technology, ABC lost much of its market share. ABC utilizes a(n) ____ system.

A. open B. isolated C. blind D. internal E. closed

112.The American economy consists of a complex combination of organizations and variables, such as countless companies differing in size and what they market, current events, and markets such as housing. All of these independent factors often behave as a single unit based on events and economic news, and respond to the environment and affect the stock market. This is an example of ___.

A. complexity theory B. a closed market system C. a market web D. contingency theory E. behavioral theory

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113.When Cheyanne, the manager, was discussing a difficult competitive problem with the owner, she asked, "What management approach do you think will work best in this situation?" Asking this question to determine a solution is utilizing ____.

A. the devil's advocate method B. scientific management C. the synergy method D. the contingency viewpoint E. the diversity viewpoint

114.When a manager assesses a particular situation and decides what to do according to the individual and environmental situation, the manager is utilizing the ____ viewpoint.

A. behavioral B. systems C. scientific D. flexibility E. contingency

115.Gary Hamel suggests we need to look at management as a process and then make improvements and innovation ____.

A. intuitively B. only if it results in synergy C. ongoing and systematic D. only if it saves money E. occasionally

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116.The management of XYZ Manufacturing is implementing a plan to minimize production mistakes by allowing teams that work in each area of the production facility to develop a plan and then monitor their area to ensure the reduction of errors. This is an example of ____.

A. efficiency monitoring B. quality control C. innovative planning D. the minimal defect approach E. JIT

117.The management of a facility that manufactures parts for car brakes has a policy of testing only some of the items in each production run to locate errors. This is an example of the ______ technique.

A. zero defects B. minimal defects C. JIT D. quality focus E. quality control

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118.After returning home from a trade show, Mr. Jones, the president of a manufacturing company, spoke to his employees in a production meeting about a new approach that should increase their production bonus by improving their performance. To do so, Mr. Jones discussed a goal of "zero defects." This is an example of ____.

A. quality assurance B. constancy of purpose C. redesign D. scientific management E. the total quality movement

119.The belief that quality stemmed from "constancy of purpose," and that managers should stress teamwork, be helpful rather than simply give orders, and make employees feel comfortable about asking questions was proposed by _____.

A. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth B. Henri Fayol C. Max Weber D. Mary Parker Follett E. W. Edwards Deming 120.Joseph Juran defined quality as "fitness for use," which meant that ____.

A. a product or service should be priced competitively B. an organization should produce products that will help customers stay healthy C. companies should focus on products that help the community D. products should be very durable E. a product or service should satisfy a customer's real needs

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121.To gain a competitive edge this year, the upper management of a global IT company has decided to focus on customer service, employee training, and continuous quality improvement. This approach is known as _____.

A. customer focus B. total quality management (TQM) C. evidence-based management D. competitive edging E. constancy of purpose

122.A successful daycare center continuously focuses on actively developing, finding, and then communicating to its employees any new information and approaches related to its business of child care so that workers can modify their behavior to reflect this new knowledge. These types of companies are called _______ organizations.

A. customer-focused B. learning C. research D. evolving E. 360-degree

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123.Dominique, an executive chef in a large hotel, recently attended a training conference sponsored by several top professionals in his field, where he learned numerous ways his restaurant and hotel can better serve customers. Dominique is excited that management asked him to present this information to the hotel staff so the restaurant and hotel can make needed improvements. Dominique's hotel is a(n) _____ organization.

A. focused B. learning C. evolving D. customer-focused E. 360-degree

124.An organization in which the management builds a commitment to learning, works to generate ideas with impact, and works to generalize ideas with impact is creating a(n) ____.

A. focused organization B. learning organization C. evolving atmosphere D. customer-focused organization E. 360-degree training structure

Essay Questions

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125.Explain soldiering. Describe the four principles of science that Frederick Taylor believed managers could use to eliminate soldiering.

126.Explain the five positive bureaucratic features that Max Weber believed contributed to a betterperforming organization.

127.Articulate why the classical viewpoint is important. Give an example.

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128.Explain the three ways Hugo Munsterberg believed psychologists could contribute to industry.

129.Explain one of Mary Parker Follett's ideas on how organizations should become more democratic. Give an example.

130.Describe the Hawthorne effect. Explain the flaws in the studies.

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131.Contrast Theory X and Theory Y. Explain why both theories are important.

132.Describe the four parts of a system.

133.Compare an open and closed system.

2-37 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


134.Explain the contingency viewpoint. Give an example.

135.Summarize total quality management.

136.Define learning organization. Summarize the three parts of a learning organization.

2-38 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Chapter 02 Management Theory: Essential Background for the Successful Manager Answer Key

True / False Questions

1.

During a manager's meeting, Paula, a district manager, discussed how to handle sensitive employee issues, and indicated correctly that management is really just an art.

FALSE Certainly management can be an art. Great managers, like great painters or actors, have the right mix of intuition, judgment, and experience. But management is also a science. That is, rather than being performed in a seat-of-the-pants, make-it-up-as-you-go-along kind of way which can lead to big mistakes, management can be approached deliberately, rationally, and systematically.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Evidence-based management

2-39 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


2.

Supporters of evidence-based management would say there are many really new ideas.

FALSE Evidence-based management is based on three truths, one of which is that there are few really new ideas. Most supposedly new ideas are old, wrong, or both.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Evidence-based management

3.

Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert Sutton believed that evidence-based management is based on the belief that facing the hard facts about what works and having to accept the nonsense that passes for sound advice will help organizations perform better.

FALSE Stanford business scholars Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert Sutton stated that evidence-based management is based on the belief that "facing the hard facts about what works and what doesn't, understanding the dangerous half-truths that constitute so much conventional wisdom about management, and rejecting the total nonsense that too often passes for sound advice will help organizations perform better."

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Evidence-based management

2-40 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


4.

Peter Drucker, a famous 19th-century socialist, opposed capitalism and many current business theories.

FALSE Peter Drucker "was the creator and inventor of modern management," says management guru Tom Peters. In 1954, Drucker published his famous text, The Practice of Management.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Evidence-based management

5.

Evidence-based management is based on the belief that understanding the sound complete truths of conventional managerial wisdom and accepting much of the nonsense that often passes for sound advice can at times help organizations perform better.

FALSE As Stanford business scholars Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert Sutton put it, evidence-based management is based on the belief that "facing the hard facts about what works and what doesn't, understanding the dangerous half-truths that constitute so much conventional wisdom about management, and rejecting the total nonsense that too often passes for sound advice will help organizations perform better."

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Evidence-based management

2-41 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


6.

The contemporary perspective of management includes three viewpoints: systems, contingency, and quality management.

TRUE The contemporary perspective of management includes three viewpoints: systems, contingency, and quality management.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management Styles

7.

The historical perspective of management includes three viewpoints—systems, contingency, and quality management.

FALSE The historical perspective of management includes three viewpoints: classical, behavioral, and quantitative.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management Styles

2-42 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


8.

Understanding theoretical perspectives of management will help you understand why some practices are still favored, whether for right or wrong reasons.

TRUE Studying theoretical perspectives of management can, among other things, help us understand the present. "Sound theories help us interpret the present, to understand what is happening and why," say business professors Christensen and Raynor. Understanding history will help you understand why some practices are still favored, whether for right or wrong reasons.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management

9.

Studying theoretical perspectives of management can help a manager in many ways, but seldom provides new ideas in new situations.

FALSE Studying theoretical perspectives of management can, among other things, provide new ideas that may be useful to you when you come up against new situations.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management

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10.

Ali, a CEO of a large IT organization, understands that many challenges are coming in his industry; therefore, he tells his upper-level management that it's helpful to look at theoretical perspectives of management to help make predictions and develop principles to guide future company strategies and actions.

TRUE Studying theoretical perspectives of management provides good theories that can help you make predictions and enable you to develop a set of principles that will guide your actions.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management

11.

Donna, the president of a national restaurant chain, believes that studying theoretical perspectives of management seldom gives clues to the meaning of outside events that could affect her company.

FALSE Studying theoretical perspectives of management gives clues to the meaning of outside events. It may allow you to understand events outside the organization that could affect it or you.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management

2-44 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


12.

The classical viewpoint of management emphasized ways to manage work more efficiently.

TRUE The classical viewpoint of management emphasized finding ways to manage work more efficiently.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management

13.

The behavioral viewpoint of management emphasized the importance of encouraging employees to work more efficiently.

FALSE With the behavioral viewpoint, the emphasis was on the importance of understanding human behavior and motivating and encouraging employees toward achievement.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management

2-45 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


14.

The systems viewpoint of management regards the organization as systems of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose.

TRUE The systems viewpoint regards the organization as systems of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management

15.

Scientific management focused on ways to improve worker morale.

FALSE Scientific management emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

2-46 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


16.

By identifying the "therbligs" in a job, such as the supplies of a bricklayer, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were able to eliminate costs while simultaneously reducing supplies wasted.

FALSE A made-up word you won't find in most dictionaries, therblig was coined by Frank Gilbreth which refers to 1 of 17 basic motions. By identifying the therbligs in a job, Frank and his wife, Lillian, were able to eliminate motions while simultaneously reducing fatigue.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

17.

When managing her company, Priya, the owner of ABC Manufacturing, utilizes the behavioral viewpoint of management, which emphasizes ways to manage work more efficiently.

FALSE The classical viewpoint emphasizes finding ways to manage work more efficiently It has two branches—scientific and administrative.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

2-47 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


18.

Don, a restaurant manager and MBA student, was reflecting on a how he can apply the classical management viewpoint in his store from a recent class, which supposes his employees are rational in their decisions.

TRUE In general, classical management assumes that people are rational.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

19.

Susan, a department manager, believes that since the corporate office eliminated certain benefits to reduce costs, her employees have not been working as hard as in the past. This reduction in effort is known as "soldiering."

TRUE Frederick Taylor called deliberately working at less than full capacity soldiering.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

2-48 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


20.

Scientific management emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers.

TRUE Scientific management emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

21.

Motion studies broke down each worker's job into basic physical motions and then trained workers to use the methods of their best-performing coworkers.

TRUE Frederick Taylor based his scientific management system (part of the classical viewpoint) on motion studies, in which he broke down each worker's job into basic physical motions and then trained workers to use the methods of their best-performing coworkers.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

2-49 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


22.

Joe, a plant manager, was interested in utilizing the differential rate system of scientific management in his factory because it suggested paying workers less to cut costs when production first increased.

FALSE Frederick Taylor suggested employers institute a differential rate system, in which more efficient workers earned higher wages.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

23.

Paul, an MBA student and small-business owner, is interested in implementing the administrative management approach because this method of management focuses on improving employee morale.

FALSE Administrative management is concerned with managing the total organization.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Administrative management

2-50 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


24.

According to Fayol, the major functions of management are planning, monitoring, leading, and motivating.

FALSE According to Fayol, the major functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, as well as coordinating.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Administrative management

25.

Max Weber felt that bureaucracy is irrational, inefficient, and not ideal for organizations.

FALSE To German sociologist Max Weber, a bureaucracy was a rational, efficient, ideal organization based on principles of logic.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Administrative management

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26.

In our time, the word bureaucracy has come to have negative associations: impersonality, inflexibility, red tape, and a molasses-like response to problems.

TRUE In our time, the word bureaucracy has come to have negative associations: impersonality, inflexibility, red tape, a molasses-like response to problems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Administrative management

27.

A problem with the classical viewpoint is that it does not consider overall company and global problems and goals.

FALSE A flaw in the classical viewpoint is that it is mechanistic; it tends to view humans as cogs within a machine, not taking into account the importance of human needs.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

2-52 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


28.

Carmakers have broken down automobile manufacturing into its basic tasks, such as on an assembly line, because the application of scientific methods and job specialization boosts productivity.

TRUE The essence of the classical viewpoint was that work activity was amenable to a rational approach, that through the application of scientific methods, time and motion studies, and job specialization it was possible to boost productivity. Indeed, these concepts are still in use today; carmakers have broken down automobile manufacturing into its basic tasks, such as on an assembly line, because the application of scientific methods and job specialization boosts productivity.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

29.

The behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement.

TRUE The behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint?

2-53 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Topic: Behavioral management

30.

The behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and increasing diversity.

FALSE The behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

31.

Ann, an industrial psychologist, has been studying Hugo Munsterberg's beliefs of human behavior in the workplace because she feels his principles could contribute to her industry, namely to determine which people are best suited to specific jobs, to identify the psychological conditions under which employees do their best work, and devise management strategies to influence employees to follow management's interests.

TRUE Munsterberg suggested that psychologists could contribute to industry in three ways: (1) study jobs and determine which people are best suited to specific jobs, (2) identify the psychological conditions under which employees do their best work, and (3) devise management strategies to influence employees to follow management's interests.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard

2-54 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

32.

Mary Parker Follett believed that organizations should be under heavy management control, with managers resolving conflicts and controlling the work process.

FALSE Mary Parker Follett believed that (1) organizations should be operated as "communities," with managers and subordinates working together in harmony; (2) conflicts should be resolved by having managers and workers talk over differences and find solutions that would satisfy both parties—a process she called integration; and (3) the work process should be under the control of workers with the relevant conflicts resolved by having managers and workers talk over differences and find solutions that satisfy both parties, a process she called integration.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

33.

Don, a production manager, has decided to utilize the Hawthorne effect in his facility because studies have shown that this theory will increase production by giving more independence to employees as they receive less attention.

FALSE The Hawthorne effect theorized that employees worked harder if they received added attention, if they thought that managers cared about their welfare and that supervisors paid special attention to them.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation 2-55 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Hawthorne Studies

34.

The Hawthorne studies succeeded in drawing attention to the importance of "social man" and how managers using good human relations could improve worker productivity.

TRUE The Hawthorne studies succeeded in drawing attention to the importance of "social man" (social beings) and how managers using good human relations could improve worker productivity. This in turn led to the so-called human relations movement in the 1950s and 1960s.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Hawthorne Studies

35.

The human relations movement proposed that better rules and procedures could increase worker productivity.

FALSE The human relations movement proposed that better human relations could increase worker productivity.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? 2-56 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Topic: Human relations movement

36.

Abraham Maslow said that all needs are equal in importance and need to be satisfied daily.

FALSE Abraham Maslow would say some needs must be satisfied before others.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs

37.

Umar, a general manager in a fast-food chain, has employees all under the age of 25, and most of his workers are good employees. However, Umar still believes his workers are irresponsible and lack ambition. Umar is a Theory X manager.

TRUE Theory X represents a pessimistic, negative view of workers. In this view, workers are considered to be irresponsible, to be resistant to change, to lack ambition, to hate work, and to want to be led rather than to lead. Theory Y represents the outlook of human relations proponents, an optimistic, positive view of workers.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Theory X and Y

2-57 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


38.

Olde Manufacturing, a parts supplier to the auto industry, has been using the behavioral approach to management for over 100 years. However, since that method of management is too simplistic for practical use, Olde should begin implementing the newer and more sophisticated human relations movement approach to management.

FALSE The human relations movement was a necessary correction to the sterile approach used within scientific management, but its optimism came to be considered too simplistic for practical use. More recently, the human relations view has been superseded by the behavioral science approach to management.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

39.

Behavioral science relies on data from past sales to determine forecasts regarding human behavior to develop strategic plans and goals.

FALSE Behavioral science relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers. The disciplines of behavioral science include psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

2-58 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


40.

When the Americans entered the war in 1941, they used the British model to form operations research teams to determine how to deploy troops, submarines, and equipment most effectively. These techniques have evolved into quantitative management.

TRUE When the Americans entered the war in 1941, they used a successful statistical British model to form operations research (OR) teams to determine how to deploy troops, submarines, and other military personnel and equipment most effectively. OR techniques have since evolved into quantitative management.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

41.

Quantitative management is the sales management theory related to determining if a prospective customer really qualifies for the company's product or service.

FALSE Quantitative management emphasizes the application to management of quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

2-59 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


42.

Management science focuses on using behavioral techniques to aid in problem solving and decision making.

FALSE Management science stresses the use of rational, science-based techniques and mathematical models to improve decision making and strategic planning.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

43.

Operations management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services more effectively.

TRUE Operations management is concerned with work scheduling, production planning, facilities location and design, and decisions about the optimum levels of inventory a company should maintain.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

2-60 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


44.

Through the rational management of resources and distribution of goods and services, scientific management helps ensure that business operations are efficient and effective.

FALSE Through the rational management of resources and distribution of goods and services, operations management helps ensure that business operations are efficient and effective.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

45.

The just-in-time approach, which comes under the term lean management, allows organizations to obtain supplies from vendors only as they are needed in the factory.

TRUE The just-in-time approach, which comes under the term lean management, allows organizations to obtain supplies from vendors only as they are needed in the factory.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

2-61 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


46.

A system is an organization's method of determining if employees succeed.

FALSE A system is a set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

47.

Outputs are the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organization.

TRUE Outputs are the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organization.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

2-62 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


48.

The five parts of a system are inputs, outputs, transformational processes, monitoring, and feedback.

FALSE The four parts of a system are inputs, outputs, transformational processes, and feedback (see Figure 2.4).

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

49.

The customers of Best Auto Sales complete an online survey after purchasing an automobile from Best. The information from the customer survey is a form of feedback.

TRUE Feedback is information about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affects the inputs. Are the customers buying or not buying the product? That information is feedback.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

2-63 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


50.

An open system continually interacts with its environment, so it receives feedback from the outside environment.

TRUE An open system continually interacts with its environment, so it receives feedback from the outside environment. A closed system has little interaction with its environment; that is, it receives very little feedback from the outside.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Open system

51.

Right Office Equipment continually talks with customers after they purchase their products, and Right Office managers regularly visit customers to gather feedback on new products, product improvements, and how Right Office can better serve their customers. This is an example of an open system.

TRUE An open system continually interacts with its environment, getting feedback from the outside. A closed system has little interaction with its environment, getting little feedback from the outside.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Open system

2-64 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


52.

In a fixed-learning system, company employees typically will participate in continuous learning, such as workshops on product improvements, more often than in organizations with an open system.

FALSE The concept of open systems, which stresses feedback from multiple environmental factors, both inside and outside the organization, attempts to ensure a continuous learning process to correct old mistakes and avoid new ones.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Open system

53.

The contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to— that is, be contingent on—costs and competition.

FALSE The contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to, or be contingent on, the individual and the environmental situation.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Contingency theory

2-65 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


54.

Many times when working with a new manager, Amy, a successful small-business owner, asks the manager, "What management method do you think will work best in this situation?" In this situation, Amy is utilizing the scientific management approach.

FALSE The manager following the contingency viewpoint would ask, "What method is the best to use under these particular circumstances?" The contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to—that is, be contingent on—the individual and the environmental situation.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Contingency theory

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55.

Gary Hamel of the Management Innovation Lab suggests that core beliefs about an organization can be rooted out by repeatedly asking the right questions, such as, "Is this a belief worth challenging?" or "Is this belief universally valid?"

TRUE Gary Hamel, co-founder of the Management Innovation Lab, suggests that core beliefs about an organization can be rooted out by repeatedly asking the right questions such as the following: (1) Is this a belief worth challenging? Is it debilitating? Does it get in the way of an important organizational attribute that we'd like to strengthen? (2) Is this belief universally valid? Are there counterexamples? If so, what do we learn from those cases? (3) How does this belief serve the interests of its adherents? Are there people who draw reassurance or comfort from this belief? (4) Have our choices and assumptions conspired to make this belief self-fulfilling? Is this belief true simply because we have made it true—and, if so, can we imagine alternatives?

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Contingency theory

56.

When Mr. Jones, the owner of a local hardware store, asks one of his lawnmower suppliers about the total ability of their product to meet customer needs, he is questioning the quality of that mower.

TRUE

Quality refers to the total ability of a product or service to meet customer needs.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

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Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: Quality-management viewpoint

57.

Quality is seen as one of the most important ways of adding value to products and services, thereby distinguishing them from those of competitors.

TRUE Quality is seen as one of the most important ways of adding value to products and services, thereby distinguishing them from those of competitors.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: Quality-management viewpoint

58.

A-Plus Manufacturing has a policy of using statistical sampling to locate errors by testing just some (rather than all) of the items in a particular production run. This strategy of minimizing errors is known as synergy.

FALSE Quality control is a strategy for minimizing errors by managing each state of production. Statistical sampling can locate errors by testing just some (rather than all) of the items in a particular production run.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? 2-68 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Topic: Quality-management viewpoint

59.

Quality assurance focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for "minimal defects."

FALSE Quality assurance focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for "zero defects."

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: Quality-management viewpoint

60.

W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran were pioneers of the quality-management movement.

TRUE In the years after World War II, the imprint "Made in Japan" on a product almost guaranteed that it was cheap and flimsy. That began to change with the arrival in Japan of two Americans, W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran, pioneers of the quality-management movement.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: TQM Viewpoint

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61.

With TQM, it is vital that organizations listen to and learn from their customers and employees and make continuous improvement a priority.

TRUE Two components of TQM are organizations listen to and learn from their customers and employees and make continuous improvement a priority.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: TQM Viewpoint

62.

A local furniture retailer routinely develops and acquires new knowledge, and the employees communicate what they learn to other employees, so the company is able to modify its behavior to reflect what they have learned. This organization is an example of a learning organization.

TRUE A learning organization is an organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-08 Organizations must learn or perish. How do I build a learning organization? Topic: Learning organization

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63.

The five ingredients of a learning organization are acquiring knowledge, training, studying knowledge, pondering, and monitoring employees.

FALSE A learning organization has three parts: creating and acquiring knowledge, transferring knowledge, and modifying behavior.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-08 Organizations must learn or perish. How do I build a learning organization? Topic: Learning organization

64.

To develop a learning organization, managers must build a commitment to learning, work to generate ideas with impact, and work to generalize ideas with impact.

TRUE As a manager, you need to try to generate ideas with impact, those that add value for customers, employees, and shareholders, by increasing employee competence through training, experimenting with new ideas, and engaging in other leadership activities. Besides generating ideas with impact, you can also generalize them, or reduce the barriers to learning among employees and within your organization.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-08 Organizations must learn or perish. How do I build a learning organization? Topic: Learning organization

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Multiple Choice Questions

65.

The beliefs that there are few really new ideas and that true is better than new are two of the foundational principles of ___.

A. scientific management B. the quality-management viewpoint C. evidence-based management D. behavioral management E. MBO Evidence-based management is based on three truths: there are few really new ideas, true is better than new, and doing well usually dominates.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Evidence-based management

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66.

When faced with a business problem, Sally, a young grocery store owner, discusses business problems with Don, the assistant manager and an employee for over 30 years. Sally believes Don "has seen it all" and knows there are few really new ideas; plus the business has done many simple things, such as offering friendly service, to have a competitive edge. This is an example of _____ management.

A. evidence-based B. behavioral C. family-style D. contingency E. bottom-up Evidence-based management means translating principles based on best evidence into organizational practice, bringing rationality to the decision-making process.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Evidence-based management

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67.

The historical perspective includes three viewpoints: _______.

A. systems, contingency, quality management B. classical, scientific, quantitative C. classical, operations, scientific D. contemporary, historical, scientific E. classical, behavioral, quantitative The historical perspective includes three viewpoints: classical, behavioral, and quantitative.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management Styles

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68.

Within his company, Greg has set up a system with inputs, outputs, transformation processes, and feedback. Within his organization he utilizes a management style that varies according to the individual and environmental situation, with a strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production. Greg is utilizing a _______ perspective.

A. historical B. classical C. qualitative D. contemporary E. behavioral The contemporary perspective includes three viewpoints: systems, contingency, and quality management: the systems viewpoint sees organizations as a system, either open or closed, with inputs, outputs, transformation processes, and feedback. The contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to the individual and environmental situation. The quality-management viewpoint has two traditional approaches:

quality control, the strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production, and quality assurance, which focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for zero defects.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management Styles

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69.

Wanda, a CEO, has been encouraging her managers to study and utilize theoretical perspectives of management because this approach _____.

A. is an effective cost-reduction tool B. emphasizes diversity C. is an effective synergy-building approach D. builds a strong family-type culture E. provides clues to the meaning of your managers' decisions Studying management theory provides understanding of the present, a guide to action, a source of new ideas, clues to the meaning of your managers' decisions, and clues to the meaning of outside events.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-01 What's the payoff in studying different management perspectives, both yesterday's and today's? Topic: Management Styles

70.

The classical viewpoint of management emphasized ways to ___.

A. manage work more efficiently B. build more synergy C. vary according to the environment D. include MBO E. increase diversity The classical viewpoint emphasized finding ways to manage work more efficiently.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking 2-76 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Management Styles

71.

Mateo, an IT manager, has been studying the work methods of each task to increase the productivity of the employees in his department. Mateo is utilizing ____.

A. synergy B. management science C. behaviorism D. the Hawthorne effect E. scientific management Scientific management emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

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72.

The 17 basic units of motion, identified by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, were named _____.

A. gilbreths B. time frames C. therbligs D. units E. action works A made-up word you won't find in most dictionaries, therblig was coined by Frank Gilbreth and is, in fact, Gilbreth spelled backward, with the t and the h reversed. It refers to 1 of 17 basic motions. By identifying the therbligs in a job, Frank and his wife, Lillian, were able to eliminate motions while simultaneously reducing fatigue.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

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73.

Amy is a package delivery service manager. She is interested in implementing the management philosophy pioneered by Frederick W. Taylor and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, which scientifically studies work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers, known as ____.

A. human relations management B. scientific management C. quantitative management D. contingency management E. management science Scientific management emphasized the scientific study of work methods to improve the productivity of individual workers. Two of its chief proponents were Frederick W. Taylor and the team of Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

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74.

Susan, a movie theater manager, has observed that as workers feel some company policies are not fair, the employees have not been working as hard as in the past. This reduction in effort is known as ____.

A. sliding B. soldiering C. skimming D. entitling E. slipping Soldiering is deliberately working at less than full capacity.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

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75.

Sal, a production manager, knows that some of his employees are upset with the new corporate policy, and as a result, are participating in soldiering. To eliminate soldiering Sal can ___.

A. reduce the use of scientific principles in planning work methods B. carefully select workers according to their abilities and give workers training C. reduce training, but increase MBO D. place workers in any task available, focusing on their interests and not their abilities E. increase diversity and MBO Taylor believed that managers could eliminate soldiering by applying four principles of science: (1) evaluate a task by scientifically studying each part of the task (not use old rule-ofthumb methods); (2) carefully select workers with the right abilities for the task; (3) give workers the training and incentives to do the task with the proper work methods; and (4) use scientific principles to plan the work methods and ease the way for workers to do their jobs.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

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76.

A pay structure, in which more efficient workers earn higher wages, as suggested by Frederick W. Taylor, is known as a(n) _____ system.

A. scale B. increasing wage C. differential rate D. wide wage E. merited pay Taylor, the father of scientific management, suggested employers institute a differential rate system, in which more efficient workers earned higher wages.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

77.

The father of scientific management is _____.

A. Frank Gilbreth B. Tom Gallagher C. Abraham Maslow D. Peter Drucker E. Frederick Taylor Frederick Taylor is known as the father of scientific management.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

78.

Tom, the manager of floral shop, is interested in implementing the principles of administrative management, which involves ____.

A. doing time-motion studies B. focusing on unprofitable parts of an organization C. increasing synergy D. managing the total organization E. implementing MBO Administrative management is concerned with managing the total organization. Among the pioneering theorists were Henri Fayol and Max Weber.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Administrative management

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79.

To better meet corporate goals this year, Donna, a CEO, is encouraging her managers to focus on the major functions of management, which include ______.

A. planning, organizing, recruiting, monitoring, delegating B. recruiting, monitoring, delegating, coordinating C. planning, organizing, leading, controlling, arbitrating D. recruiting, planning, organizing, leading E. planning, organizing, leading, controlling Fayol was the first to identify the major functions of management—planning, organizing, leading, and controlling—as well as coordinating.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Administrative management

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80.

Because there are some positive aspects of bureaucracy, as proposed by Max Weber, Tammy, a restaurant manager, is interested in implementing certain aspects of the bureaucratic approach to management within her restaurant. Like Weber, Tammy feels bureaucracy is a ____.

A. rational, efficient, cost-cutting tool based on principles of behaviorism B. sales-generating tool C. rational, efficient method of increasing diversity D. rational, efficient, ideal organization based on principles of logic E. rational, cost-cutting, efficient organization based on principles of synergy Weber felt that a better-performing organization should have five positive bureaucratic features including a clear division of labor, with parts of a complex job being handled by specialists.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Administrative management

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81.

The management approach that emphasized ways to manage work more efficiently is the ___ viewpoint.

A. classical B. quality-management C. systems D. contingency E. MBO The classical management approach emphasized ways to manage work more efficiently.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Management Styles

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82.

While discussing approaches to boost organization productivity, Rene, the president of an auto manufacturer, was interested in a rational approach that through the application of scientific methods, time and motion studies, and job specialization found it is possible to increase productivity. This is the essence of the ____ viewpoint.

A. contingency B. behavioral C. MBO D. systems E. classical The essence of the classical viewpoint is that work activity is amenable to a rational approach, that through the application of scientific methods, time and motion studies, and job specialization it is possible to boost productivity.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Management Styles

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83.

Greg, the IT manager, feels that his employees lack the motivation to consistently meet department goals; therefore, the approach Greg and his supervisors need to take to better understand human actions to motivate their employees toward achievement is the ____ viewpoint.

A. synergy B. attitude C. behavioral D. classical E. scientific The behavioral viewpoint emphasized the importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

2-88 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


84.

The behavioral viewpoint developed over the following phases: _____.

A. early behaviorism, human relations movement, scientific management B. operations management, human relations movement, MBO phase C. early behaviorism, human relations movement, behavioral science D. early behaviorism, industrial, human relations movement E. early behaviorism, human relations movement, administrative phase The behavioral viewpoint developed over three phases: early behaviorism, the human relations movement, and behavioral science.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

85.

Hugo Munsterberg was known as ____.

A. the father of scientific management B. a pioneer of scientific management C. the father of MBO D. the father of industrial psychology E. the originator of sociology Hugo Munsterberg has been called the father of industrial psychology. His ideas led to the field of industrial psychology, the study of human behavior in workplaces, which is still taught in colleges today.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking 2-89 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

86.

Thomas has been studying Hugo Munsterberg's suggestions, and like Munsterberg, Thomas believes that psychologists can contribute to industry by _____.

A. developing strategies to influence employees to follow their interests B. encouraging employees to develop new products C. devising management strategies to influence employees to follow management's interests D. helping organizations increase diversity E. helping companies increase efficiency and productivity Hugo Munsterberg suggested that psychologists could contribute to industry in three ways: (1) study jobs and determine which people are best suited to specific jobs, (2) identify the psychological conditions under which employees do their best work, and (3) devise management strategies to influence employees to follow management's interests.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

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87.

That organizations should be operated as "communities," with managers and subordinates working together in harmony, is one of the proposals of ____.

A. Adam Smith B. Frank Gilbreth C. Hugo Munsterberg D. Mary Parker Follett E. Max Weber One of Mary Parker Follett's important contributions to management theory was that conflicts should be resolved by having managers and workers talk over differences and find solutions that would satisfy both parties, a process she called integration.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

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88.

Mary Parker Follett anticipated some of today's concepts, such as _____.

A. worker empowerment and scientific management B. self-managed teams and worker empowerment C. quality assurance and transformation processes D. management-lead teams and diversity E. synergy and MBO Mary Parker Follett anticipated some of today's concepts of "self-managed teams," "worker empowerment," and "interdepartmental teams"—that is, members of different departments working together on joint projects.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

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89.

A large production company has been utilizing the Hawthorne effect in its 12 international factories, and it has seen great success from implementing the Hawthorne principles that propose that ____.

A. giving less attention to employees increases worker productivity B. increasing diversity results in increases in worker productivity C. increasing synergy increases worker productivity D. cutting costs through outsourcing harms employee morale and productivity E. giving more attention to employees increases worker productivity, if they think managers care about them The Hawthorne studies were faulted for being poorly designed and not having enough empirical data to support the conclusions. Nevertheless, they succeeded in drawing attention to the importance of "social man" (social beings) and how managers using good human relations could improve worker productivity.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Hawthorne Studies

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90.

Abraham Maslow proposed the ____.

A. hierarchy of human needs B. Hawthorne effect C. hierarchy of production D. self-managed teams E. worker empowerment theory In 1943 Maslow proposed his famous hierarchy of human needs: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs

91.

Maslow's hierarchy of human needs included ______.

A. physiological, financial, love, esteem, self-actualization B. financial, love, friends, self-actualization C. food and shelter, companionship, ego, self-actualization D. physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization E. physiological, financial, love, empowerment In 1943 Maslow proposed his famous hierarchy of human needs: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

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Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs

92.

Olivia, the general manager of a bowling center, believes in her workers and that they are responsible and capable employees, so that they can be trusted when given responsibility. Olivia is an example of a(n) ___ manager.

A. Theory Z B. hierarchy C. Theory X D. accountable E. Theory Y Theory Y represents the outlook of human relations proponents, an optimistic, positive view of workers. In this view, workers are considered to be capable of accepting responsibility, selfdirection, and self-control and of being imaginative and creative.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Theory X and Y

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93.

George, who owns a small grocery store, has a reputation in the community as a tough manager. Many customers have heard George yell at his employees because he feels that workers today are lazy, lack ambition, and hate to work. George is a(n) ____ manager.

A. Theory Z B. hierarchy C. Theory X D. accountable E. Theory Y Theory X managers are more likely to micromanage, which leads to employee dissatisfaction because these managers believe employees are inherently lazy.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Theory X and Y

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94.

Behavioral science relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be ____.

A. used to provide sales tools B. used in behavioral science research C. helpful when looking at competitive products D. used to provide practical tools for managers E. used to establish MBO goals Behavioral science relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

95.

The field of behavioral science includes _____.

A. psychology, sociology, forensic science, economics B. psychology, forensic science, sociology, anthropology, economics C. psychiatry, technology, environmental science, forensic science D. chemistry, biology, earth science, management E. psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics The disciplines of behavioral science include psychology, sociology, anthropology, and economics, all of which consider human behavior.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking 2-97 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

96.

The example in the textbook of Paul English of Kayak.com altering an existing open-office seating arrangement by using new employees to change existing seating patterns is an example of ____.

A. the hostility effect B. the office politics approach C. behavioral science research D. synergy research E. a Theory X method Behavioral science relies on scientific research for developing theories about human behavior that can be used to provide practical tools for managers, such as increasing productivity by changing an office seating plan.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

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97.

Gabriel, the CEO of a large global production company, is excited about the introduction of statistics and computer simulations in the design stage of their products. This is an example of _____.

A. the design approach B. quantitative techniques C. MBO D. scientific management E. behavioral management Quantitative management is the application to management of quantitative techniques, such as statistics and computer simulations.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

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98.

Management science stresses the use of rational, science-based techniques and mathematical models to improve _____.

A. decision making and goal setting B. synergy C. cost-cutting and planning D. decision making and strategic planning E. sales and customer relationships Management science stresses the use of rational, science-based techniques and mathematical models to improve decision making and strategic planning.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

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99.

The new chief information officer of a national pizza chain is using mathematical tools to aid in product ordering and scheduling decisions; this is an example of _____.

A. statistical management B. scientific management C. behavioral science D. management science E. goal management Management science focuses on using mathematics to aid in problem solving and decision making, such as aiding in product ordering and scheduling decisions.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

2-101 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


100.

Operations management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services _____.

A. more economically B. by utilizing motion studies C. with a more diverse workforce D. more effectively E. to more customers Operations management focuses on managing the production and delivery of an organization's products or services more effectively. It is a form of quantitative management.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

2-102 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


101.

A computer manufacturer is seeking to cut costs by designing an inventory system that reduces the number of finished products in stock due to overproduction and to set in place a production schedule that better matches customers' orders. This is an example of ____.

A. operations management B. scientific management C. production management D. inventory oversight E. inventory analysis Operations management is concerned with work scheduling, production planning, facilities location and design, and decisions about the optimum inventory a company should maintain.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-04 If the manager's job is to solve problems, how might the two quantitative approaches help? Topic: Quantitative management

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102.

The contemporary perspective consists of three viewpoints: ____.

A. quality management, behavioral, customer B. systems, scientific, contingency C. systems, contingency, quality management D. diversity, quantitative, qualitative E. contemporary, non-contemporary, behavioral The contemporary perspective consists of three viewpoints: systems, contingency, and quality management (see Figure 2.3).

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

103.

The systems viewpoint sees organizations as entities made up of interrelated parts known as ____.

A. planning, design, monitoring, production, feedback B. planning, inputs, monitoring, outputs, feedback C. inputs, outputs, transformation processes, feedback D. planning, design, inputs, monitoring, outputs, follow-up feedback E. vision, planning, design, production, monitoring, follow-up feedback The systems viewpoint regards the organization as a system of interrelated parts. The four parts of a system are inputs, outputs, transformation processes, and feedback.

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Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

104.

The Jones family had a fire that destroyed their home. Various departments of a restoration company, from the initial cleanup crew to the assistance with the Jones family moving back in, worked together to achieve this goal. This is an example of a(n) ____.

A. process B. stepped process C. input-output structure D. structure E. system A system is a set of interrelated parts that operate together to achieve a common purpose, even when it does not work well.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

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105.

A local farmer grows and sells tomatoes and beans to the local grocers. Using the systems viewpoint, The tomatoes, beans and profits that are earned from the sales are known as a(n) _____.

A. input B. therblig C. transformational process D. result E. output Outputs are the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organization. Whatever comes out of the system is an output.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

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106.

Donna, a chef in a fine restaurant, utilizes top-of-the-line equipment as she prepares meals for customers. Donna and her equipment are a(n) ______ in the restaurant's system.

A. cog B. piece C. output-participant D. output E. input Inputs are the people, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce an organization's goods or services. Whatever goes into a system is an input.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

107.

The systems viewpoint regards parts making up the whole system as ____.

A. microsystems B. macrosystems C. subsystems D. management collections E. organizational sets Parts making up the whole system are subsystems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation

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Blooms: Remember Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

108.

When a line cook in a restaurant cooks a raw hamburger to become part of the Super Burger Special, this is an example of a ____.

A. transformation process B. conversion process C. metamorphosis D. turning point E. therblig Transformation processes are the organization's capabilities in management, internal processes, and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs. The main activity of the organization is to transform inputs into outputs.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

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109.

When the sales of a certain brand of diet soda slowed, a national grocery retailer decided to drop the price of that product, which resulted in a large increase in sales of the soda. This sales increase is a type of ____.

A. Big Data B. input C. quality control D. outcry E. feedback Feedback is information about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affects the inputs. Are the customers buying or not buying the product?

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

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110.

Right Motors calls its customers after they purchase an automobile from the dealership. In addition, every year customers are asked to complete a short survey about the car they purchased from Right and the dealer's service. This is an example of a(n) ___ system.

A. open B. closed C. open-door D. environmental E. ongoing An open system continually interacts with its environment.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Open system

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111.

For years ABC Copier, a copier machine supplier, enjoyed strong sales and a huge share of the copier market, far ahead of its competition. However, over the years, ABC seldom asked customers for feedback. So when some of ABC's competition responded to what customers need and started offering copiers with new technology, ABC lost much of its market share. ABC utilizes a(n) ____ system.

A. open B. isolated C. blind D. internal E. closed A closed system has little interaction with its environment; that is, it receives very little feedback from the outside. The classical management viewpoint often considered an organization a closed system. So does the management science perspective, which simplifies organizations for purposes of analysis. However, any organization that ignores feedback from the environment opens itself up to possibly spectacular failures.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Closed system

2-111 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


112.

The American economy consists of a complex combination of organizations and variables, such as countless companies differing in size and what they market, current events, and markets such as housing. All of these independent factors often behave as a single unit based on events and economic news, and respond to the environment and affect the stock market. This is an example of ___.

A. complexity theory B. a closed market system C. a market web D. contingency theory E. behavioral theory The systems viewpoint has led to the development of complexity theory, the study of how order and pattern arise from very complicated, apparently chaotic systems. Complexity theory recognizes that all complex systems are networks of many interdependent parts that interact with each other according to certain simple rules.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

2-112 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


113.

When Cheyanne, the manager, was discussing a difficult competitive problem with the owner, she asked, "What management approach do you think will work best in this situation?" Asking this question to determine a solution is utilizing ____.

A. the devil's advocate method B. scientific management C. the synergy method D. the contingency viewpoint E. the diversity viewpoint The contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to, or be contingent on, the individual and the environmental situation.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Contingency theory

2-113 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


114.

When a manager assesses a particular situation and decides what to do according to the individual and environmental situation, the manager is utilizing the ____ viewpoint.

A. behavioral B. systems C. scientific D. flexibility E. contingency The contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to, or be contingent on, the individual and the environmental situation. Thus, the manager who assesses a particular situation and decides what to do is using a contingency viewpoint.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Contingency theory

2-114 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


115.

Gary Hamel suggests we need to look at management as a process and then make improvements and innovation ____.

A. intuitively B. only if it results in synergy C. ongoing and systematic D. only if it saves money E. occasionally Gary Hamel suggests we need to look at management as a process and then make improvements and innovation ongoing and systematic.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Contingency theory

2-115 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


116.

The management of XYZ Manufacturing is implementing a plan to minimize production mistakes by allowing teams that work in each area of the production facility to develop a plan and then monitor their area to ensure the reduction of errors. This is an example of ____.

A. efficiency monitoring B. quality control C. innovative planning D. the minimal defect approach E. JIT

Quality control is defined as the strategy for minimizing errors by managing each stage of production.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: Quality-management viewpoint

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117.

The management of a facility that manufactures parts for car brakes has a policy of testing only some of the items in each production run to locate errors. This is an example of the ______ technique.

A. zero defects B. minimal defects C. JIT D. quality focus E. quality control Quality control techniques were developed in the 1930s at Bell Telephone Labs by Walter Shewart, who used statistical sampling to locate errors by testing only some (rather than all) of the items in a particular production run.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: Quality-management viewpoint

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118.

After returning home from a trade show, Mr. Jones, the president of a manufacturing company, spoke to his employees in a production meeting about a new approach that should increase their production bonus by improving their performance. To do so, Mr. Jones discussed a goal of "zero defects." This is an example of ____.

A. quality assurance B. constancy of purpose C. redesign D. scientific management E. the total quality movement Developed in the 1960s, quality assurance focuses on the performance of workers, urging employees to strive for zero defects. Quality assurance has been less successful because often employees have no control over the design of the work process.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: Quality-management viewpoint

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119.

The belief that quality stemmed from "constancy of purpose," and that managers should stress teamwork, be helpful rather than simply give orders, and make employees feel comfortable about asking questions was proposed by _____.

A. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth B. Henri Fayol C. Max Weber D. Mary Parker Follett E. W. Edwards Deming Deming believed that quality stemmed from "constancy of purpose," a steady focus on an organization's mission, along with statistical measurement and reduction of variations in production, and that managers should stress teamwork, be helpful rather than simply give orders, and make employees feel comfortable about asking questions.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 1 Easy Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: Quality-management viewpoint

2-119 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


120.

Joseph Juran defined quality as "fitness for use," which meant that ____.

A. a product or service should be priced competitively B. an organization should produce products that will help customers stay healthy C. companies should focus on products that help the community D. products should be very durable E. a product or service should satisfy a customer's real needs Another pioneer with Deming in Japan's quality revolution was Joseph M. Juran, who defined

quality as "fitness for use." By this he meant that a product or service should satisfy a customer's real needs.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Analyze Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: Quality-management viewpoint

2-120 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


121.

To gain a competitive edge this year, the upper management of a global IT company has decided to focus on customer service, employee training, and continuous quality improvement. This approach is known as _____.

A. customer focus B. total quality management (TQM) C. evidence-based management D. competitive edging E. constancy of purpose Total quality management (TQM) is a comprehensive approach, led by top management and supported throughout the organization, dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: Quality-management viewpoint

2-121 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


122.

A successful daycare center continuously focuses on actively developing, finding, and then communicating to its employees any new information and approaches related to its business of child care so that workers can modify their behavior to reflect this new knowledge. These types of companies are called _______ organizations.

A. customer-focused B. learning C. research D. evolving E. 360-degree A learning organization is an organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-08 Organizations must learn or perish. How do I build a learning organization? Topic: Learning organization

2-122 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


123.

Dominique, an executive chef in a large hotel, recently attended a training conference sponsored by several top professionals in his field, where he learned numerous ways his restaurant and hotel can better serve customers. Dominique is excited that management asked him to present this information to the hotel staff so the restaurant and hotel can make needed improvements. Dominique's hotel is a(n) _____ organization.

A. focused B. learning C. evolving D. customer-focused E. 360-degree A learning organization is an organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge. It can acquire knowledge by devoting significant resources to training. Transferring knowledge can be improved by reducing barriers to information sharing.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-08 Organizations must learn or perish. How do I build a learning organization? Topic: Learning organization

2-123 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


124.

An organization in which the management builds a commitment to learning, works to generate ideas with impact, and works to generalize ideas with impact is creating a(n) ____.

A. focused organization B. learning organization C. evolving atmosphere D. customer-focused organization E. 360-degree training structure To create a learning organization, managers must perform three key functions or roles: (1) build a commitment to learning, (2) work to generate ideas with impact, and (3) work to generalize ideas with impact.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-08 Organizations must learn or perish. How do I build a learning organization? Topic: Learning organization

Essay Questions

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125.

Explain soldiering. Describe the four principles of science that Frederick Taylor believed managers could use to eliminate soldiering.

Soldiering could be called "underachieving," or "loafing," or what Taylor called deliberately working at less than full capacity. Taylor believed that managers could eliminate soldiering by applying four principles of science: (1) evaluate a task by scientifically studying each part of the task (not use old rule-of-thumb methods); (2) carefully select workers with the right abilities for the task; (3) give workers the training and incentives to do the task with the proper work methods; and (4) use scientific principles to plan the work methods and ease the way for workers to do their jobs.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Scientific management

126.

Explain the five positive bureaucratic features that Max Weber believed contributed to a betterperforming organization.

The five positive bureaucratic features that Max Weber believed contributed to a betterperforming organization are (1) a well-defined hierarchy of authority; (2) formal rules and procedures; (3) a clear division of labor, with parts of a complex job being handled by specialists; (4) impersonality, without reference or connection to a particular person; and (5) careers based on merit.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium 2-125 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Administrative management

127.

Articulate why the classical viewpoint is important. Give an example.

The essence of the classical viewpoint was that work activity was amenable to a rational approach, that through the application of scientific methods, time and motion studies, and job specialization it was possible to boost productivity. The textbook gives the example of how these concepts are still in use today, the results visible to you every time you visit McDonald's or Pizza Hut. The classical viewpoint also led to innovations such as management by objectives (MBO) and goal setting.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-02 If the name of the game is to manage work more efficiently, what can the classical viewpoint teach me? Topic: Administrative management Topic: Scientific management

128.

Explain the three ways Hugo Munsterberg believed psychologists could contribute to industry.

Hugo Munsterberg believed psychologists could contribute to industry in three ways: (1) study jobs and determine which people are best suited to specific jobs, (2) identify the psychological conditions under which employees do their best work, and (3) devise management strategies to influence employees to follow management's interests.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium 2-126 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

129.

Explain one of Mary Parker Follett's ideas on how organizations should become more democratic. Give an example.

Mary Parker Follett believed organizations can become more democratic with managers and employees working cooperatively. Some of her most important ideas on how organizations can become more democratic are (1) organizations should be operated as "communities," with managers and subordinates working together in harmony; (2) conflicts should be resolved by having managers and workers talk over differences and find solutions that would satisfy both parties—a process she called integration; and (3) the work process should be under the control of workers with the relevant knowledge, rather than of managers, who should act as facilitators.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Behavioral management

2-127 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


130.

Describe the Hawthorne effect. Explain the flaws in the studies.

The Hawthorne effect proposed that employees worked harder if they received added attention, if they thought that managers cared about their welfare and that supervisors paid special attention to them. However, later investigators found flaws in the studies, such as variations in ventilation and lighting or inadequate follow through, that were overlooked by the original researchers. Critics also point out that it's doubtful that workers improved their productivity merely on the basis of receiving more attention rather than because of a particular instructional method or social innovation.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Hawthorne Studies

2-128 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


131.

Contrast Theory X and Theory Y. Explain why both theories are important.

Theory X represents a pessimistic, negative view of workers. In this view, workers are considered to be irresponsible, to be resistant to change, to lack ambition, to hate work, and to want to be led rather than to lead. Theory Y represents the outlook of human relations proponents—an optimistic, positive view of workers. In this view, workers are considered to be capable of accepting responsibility, self-direction, and self-control and of being imaginative and creative. The principal contribution offered by the two theories is that they help managers understand how their beliefs affect their own behavior. For example, Theory X managers are more likely to micromanage, which leads to employee dissatisfaction because they believe employees are inherently lazy. Managers can be more effective by considering how their behavior is shaped by their expectations about human nature.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-03 To understand how people are motivated to achieve, what can I learn from the behavioral viewpoint? Topic: Theory X and Y

2-129 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


132.

Describe the four parts of a system.

The four parts of a system are (1) inputs—the people, money, information, equipment, and materials required to produce an organization's goods or services; (2) transformation

processes—the organization's capabilities in management, internal processes, and technology that are applied to converting inputs into outputs; (3) outputs—the products, services, profits, losses, employee satisfaction or discontent, and the like that are produced by the organization; and (4) feedback—the information about the reaction of the environment to the outputs that affects the inputs. Are the customers buying or not buying the product?

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

133.

Compare an open and closed system.

An open system continually interacts with its environment. A closed system has little interaction with its environment; that is, it receives very little feedback from the outside. The classical management viewpoint often considered an organization a closed system. So does the management science perspective, which simplifies organizations for purposes of analysis. However, any organization that ignores feedback from the environment opens itself up to possibly spectacular failures.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-05 How can the exceptional manager be helped by the systems viewpoint? Topic: Systems Viewpoint

2-130 Copyright © 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


134.

Explain the contingency viewpoint. Give an example.

The contingency viewpoint emphasizes that a manager's approach should vary according to— that is, be contingent on—the individual and the environmental situation. The Contingency

Viewpoint: What Are the Best Kinds of Benefits? provides a good example of the contingency viewpoint: Money is not the only motivator for employee productivity. Applying the contingency approach, managers have found there are incentives in offering various kinds of fringe benefits.

AACSB: Knowledge Application Blooms: Apply Difficulty: 3 Hard Learning Objective: 02-06 In the end, is there one best way to manage in all situations? Topic: Contingency theory

135.

Summarize total quality management.

Total quality management (TQM) is a comprehensive approach, led by top management and supported throughout the organization, dedicated to continuous quality improvement, training, and customer satisfaction.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-07 Can the quality-management viewpoint offer guidelines for true managerial success? Topic: TQM Viewpoint

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136.

Define learning organization. Summarize the three parts of a learning organization.

A learning organization is an organization that actively creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge within itself and is able to modify its behavior to reflect new knowledge. Parts of a learning organization are: 1. Creating and acquiring knowledge. In learning organizations, managers try to actively infuse their organizations with new ideas and information, which are the prerequisites for learning. They acquire such knowledge by constantly scanning their external environments, by not being afraid to hire new talent and expertise when needed, and by devoting significant resources to training and developing their employees. 2. Transferring knowledge. Managers actively work at transferring knowledge throughout the organization, reducing barriers to sharing information and ideas among employees. Electronic Data Systems (EDS), for instance, practically invented the information-technology services industry, but by 1996 it was slipping behind competitors—missing the onset of the Internet wave, for example. When a new CEO, Dick Brown, took the reins in 1999, he changed the culture from "fix the problem yourself" to sharing information internally. 3. Modifying behavior. Learning organizations are nothing if not results oriented. Thus, managers encourage employees to use the new knowledge obtained to change their behavior to help further the organization's goals.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking Blooms: Understand Difficulty: 2 Medium Learning Objective: 02-08 Organizations must learn or perish. How do I build a learning organization? Topic: Learning organization

2-132 Copyright Š 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

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