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Cornell Tech, Manhattan ​hi everyone and welcome to our last and final week eight of theories of personality we are just about there especially considering this will be a rather short in the week so I'm going to go ahead i'm actually posting this video early so that because i know it's going to be a shortened week and you guys are working ahead so i don't have specific feedback for you yet about week seven activities but if anything comes up obviously i'll email you and again i will release the quiz results probably midway through the week and i'll shoot you guys an email limos are out in the meantime I want to go over remind you again I know we did all this last week but remind you what you need to get done in week eight and then I will go a little bit over the content for this week also so in week 8 as I mentioned last week we're covering a lot of miscellaneous topics that came about in the field of psychology after behavior ism after Skinner and bendera and your book also concludes it was just kind of an overall look at okay we've covered all these theories so knowing all this what specifically goes into personality so we'll look at that a few minutes you do have two chapters to read though but a reminder you also have your capstone paper / projects due this week on Friday at the latest as a reminder you will get 10 extra credit points if you turn it in by Tuesday but it needs to be in by Friday for sheriff floor full credit and I will only accept it for two days up until sunday for partial credit because that's the end of the semester so I know normally I do three but in this case it can only accept it for two days late for partial credit and you do need to pass this I think at seventy percent in order to pass the class regardless of what grade you have in the class so again here you're going to choose a literary figure figure somebody from a movie or a book hopefully from a fairly popular movie or book whether to store a quote or current you and then you're going to outline here you're going to introduce your paper you're going to give me background on the person then you're going to basically choose a personality theories that we've talked about in this course you've read about and you're going to talk about what the series and then apply it to the figure you've chosen and discuss do you think that's a good center not so this person do you think it helped us help to explain them how does the Christian stay fit in here so you're really going to go ahead and walk through that and you this should be probably six pages six to eight APA format and you do want to include your six references for which must be peer-reviewed articles you can also include your book but you need six professional references total which means no websites and again as I said last week those could be references for like articles that talk professional articles that talk about you know your figure and like what diagnosis they have or what their personality was or they could just be references that talk more about your theory to help you apply it so you can take those references in any way that is helpful for you in this paper but you need to have at least six you can see the breakdown of the points here and again I would encourage you guys also remember if you click on this you can go in and see the grading rubric so you can see exactly what I'm assigning you points for so feel free you have a lot of information on that look at it you still have questions after all that feel free to let me know and just remember you really want to get it in by Friday at the latest ten points extra credit if by tuesday and then ten percent penalties if it's saturday or sunday ten percent each day so look through all that let me know if you have questions and then also you have a discussion board for this week where you're just basically talking about looking back over the course what theory maybe resonated with you most and wine you'll provide examples and again talk about integration you can talk about the same theory you did in your paper or a different one and then you're going to respond to other students as well so just kind of looking back and reflecting for yourself which really resonated and again that's do you guys friday your response and your response to your peers and then you also have if you like to you can turn in the screenshot or something showing me that you did your class evaluation and i'll give you ten points extra credit if you get that in by thursday as well so those are our assignments for this week loss of info but let me no if you have questions again if I have any specific feedback you need to know before doing the asite assignments I'll shoot on email although I kind of doubt it we should have everything pretty much wrapped up by Friday and because of the holiday grades are actually a little bit delayed in terms of their due date but I'm still hoping to get them in before Christmas because I don't want to spend my whole time grading so I imagine that I will probably get grades in for you right away so let's then look a little bit at the content for this week and then I will leave you guys

to your assignments so chapter 14 covers a bunch of miscellaneous topics i think i'm going to highlight three of them here the first one is Julian Rotter and his theory of locus of control and basically what Rotter talked about that was really influential is an internal versus external locus of control and this is basically do we believe as individuals that we control what happens to us or that life and circumstances and the people around us or God or fate or something else controls what happens to us do we believe we're in control of it or its factors outside of ourselves so this is definitely an important distinction it may not always be black and white maybe sometimes we believe I control part of it and factors God or other things outside of me control part of it but this is definitely an important distinction that he came up with and he did some research and that showed certain things that create an internal locus of control such as supportive praising parents who encouraged independence versus things that may be fostered more of a powerlessness and an external locus of control and you can see that kids who didn't have a male role model had a ton of siblings a depressed mom we're less likely to feel like they could impact their environment and they could control things and in regardless he did talk about in general this is learned in childhood so there's more factors than just these that impact whether we feel empowered to impact our environment or not but a lot of this is learned in childhood and relates to our parental behavior and modeling the ways they interact with us and the circumstances of our lives for sure so that's a little bit on router and the locus of control and again it doesn't always have to be black and white but it can be helpful to think in this regard and then another theorists that comes along his influence influential is Martin Seligman and he talks about the idea of learned helplessness which kind of goes along with rotters idea and this is basically a condition that results from the perception that we have no control of our environment so this would be a very extreme external locus of control and I mean extreme in the sense that there is absolutely no sense of empowerment no sense of having any control a person who has learned helplessness it just feels completely disempowered completely powerless and thinks that external events completely control them so these very extreme he started with research on dogs and I'm trying to remember the specific study and you guys will read about it it was something about like dogs I think more like in a container and like thought they could I think they had like maybe they had cautiousness the doggle and forgive me if I get the details off but it was something like they had dogs in like a cage and i want to say maybe like a clear wall up or something that was see-through and the dogs wouldn't be able to get through like food or something they wanted was on the other side but the dogs couldn't get through they would try and they were try and they would try and they would keep getting stopped because the wall was there and then the interesting thing was then they would take out the wall but they would find that if it had been there long enough the dogs wouldn't go for the food anymore because they would believe that they couldn't get there they had tried and failed so many times that they completely stopped trying now and here the circumstances were different the wall was gone but they didn't even try anymore because they had learned that they were helpless learned through their behavior and their circumstances so I forgive me again if I butcher the details but the study was something like that that just showed how in enough with enough reinforcements you know going back to Skinner's idea we can learn that we are helpless and completely give up such that even if the circumstances change we don't try anymore and and then the research has been replicated in other areas sometimes older adults sometimes depression or other emotional health so we find that this research does extend the humans and certain circumstances as well I don't think I'm going to get it into explanatory style there's so many things to cover but I did want to touch on that obviously if we develop a stance of learned helplessness and childhood and that this can really impact us make us very pessimistic and have a lot of like it can come from negative experiences but it can make us hard to really succeed in the future because we just believe we can't impact or control anything and obviously that's that's not going to really encourage us to try or helpless to have a lot of success even if we did have success we wouldn't take credit for we would think it was you know the environment and we may not even notice we were successful so this is not really a great state to be in for sure so that's learned helplessness at the concept you'll hear about a lot and then the third piece I wanted to highlight from your chapter on these kind of miscellaneous topics is Martin Sullivan and he's had a huge influence on the field as well particularly with this movement called positive psychology and positive psychology is basically researching the good stuff you know up until this point and psychology had spent a lot of time talking about like what makes us neurotic what makes us broken what makes us do stupid things right and so Martin Sullivan said hey let's look at some of the positive stuff too what makes us have faced what makes us love each other what makes us forgive you know these are the kinds of things that would fall under positive psychology and this is a huge movement now in psychology there's tons and tons of research has really taken off but it really started with Martin Feldman and I want to see the 17 ish I don't have a date here I apologize i think around the 70s and and it's focusing on happiness what makes us well what makes this function every now and then we see this sprinkle throughout unum Maslow talked about self-actualization things like that but seligmann really started this this push towards studying the positive stuff he did some experiments and there's

been a ton sense and you can read hold books now on researching what makes us happy and there's a few things mentioned here that you know that our age impacts our happiness our marital status our health and physical activity all kinds of stuff I won't get into the details of it some of them are really complicated anyways like marital status I think actually impacts men's happiness more than women's across the board and so it gets sometimes these research findings get kind of convoluted an excuse me but there are tons and tons of findings found some by seligmann and some by others that talk about what makes us happy what makes us do well things like that so you'll see that and you'll hear a little bit more about that in your chapter so those are the things i wanted to touch on in chapter 14 chapter 15 just kind of gives you an overview of okay we've talked about all these different series so having said this like what really creates personality and what is the evidence show so I want to just I'll let you read all the research stuff in your book but I want to just touch on okay how do we put all this picture together and what we really find and i think i've modeled at the times throughout our course is that personality is multi determined we can't just pick one thing and say oh it's just behaviorism most of the time that's not very exhaustive most of the time we're looking at multiple factors that really make up and work together to create a personality so what are those factors the first one is genetics so we inherit certain dispositions and tendencies from our parents our biological parents maybe we inherit a tendency to be more anxious or more depressed or you know taller you know there's all kinds of it's not part of personality but there's genetic things that come from our parents that influence us for sure then we also have a lot of environmental factors and you have a whole bunch of different examples here you know Adler as you remember talked about our family physician in our birth order influenced our personality Erickson talked about the environment so a whole bunch of different examples but the idea here is the environment were born in our culture our time our birth order the social weird world we live in think there's even more all of this impacts our personality as well so the world around us where we find ourselves within our family and within our culture obviously is also going to shape our personality in addition to that we have learning so basically vistas says you know like bandura we looked at last week we learn things from our environment and sometimes from watching others and that's going to impact our personality so that comes up here parents our parents influence our personality this goes all the way back to Freud but a lot of other people obviously echoed the view that our parents are hugely influential in shaping our personality and there is definitely a lot of research to show that as you'll read in your book and we also have a developmental idea and and there's debate here about at what age is our personality fixed I think as the research shows and you'll read this in your book there there is research now that there are some our early influences are particularly impactful in creating our personality however and we are still malleable to some degree so there's things in our person you know our early years and our early relationships have the biggest impact but with intention and with big experiences we still can change stuff later so there's there's kind of the truth is someplace in the middle here I guess it's not really one or the other and then we also have consciousness and unconsciousness as the last two that kind of impact our personality what are we aware of and not aware of and so those impact as well and you'll see that coming up in your book so all that to say you'll read about the research testing is really interesting I just don't have time to go through it all here but all that to say that obviously and our personality is in the final analysis formed by a lot of different things and we we can pick one or two as we will in the discussion board this week that really stand out to us and fit you know our experience and our way of thinking but the reality is it's hard to completely dismiss or eliminate any of them that they usually all speak to some grain of truth and that's why they've been impactful is because they described something that we experience and so very multi determined a bunch of different factors working on their own and together to really determine who we are and how we interact with ourselves and each other in the world so hopefully that's a good concluding chapter to help you bring some of the stuff together as we've flown through this in eight weeks and even this we could spend another eight weeks and continue to go through more modern theorists and other ideas so hopefully it's given you a flavor and a taste of personality and the different things that impact it and some particularly influential and interesting series and if you have questions about the stuff this week or anything in the course email need otherwise I will really look forward to hearing in the discussion board what kind of resonated with you guys the most and seeing that in your capstone papers as well let me know if you have questions and otherwise I will see you and feedback and whatnot and hopefully in other classes and best of luck as you move forward from here and enjoy a little break after this class is done thanks guys bye School of American Ballet.